WorldWideScience
 
 
1

The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in international periodicals, to which should be added a couple of dozens monographs plus several hundreds Ph.D. theses. This wealth of publication activity clearly reflects that not only has FIA given birth to numerous ingenious methods and novel applications, but quite a few of them have, in fact, allowed to implement procedures which previously were difficult or, actually, impossible to execute by conventional means. Clever examples are exploitation of bio-or chemiluminescence, methods relying on kinetic discrimination schemes, assay of metastable constituents, or the use of on-line separation and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by selected examples, emphasis being placed on the determination of trace-level concentrations of metal ions in complex matrices with detection by ETAAS and ICP-MS.

Hansen, Elo Harald Technical University of Denmark,

2

Modern physical techniques in histochemical structural and chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In modern histochemistry laser, electron, ion and X radiation are applied in various analytical procedures. Non-destructive as well as also destructive physical techniques are listed and explained in their supplementary functions to histochemical approaches

3

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

4

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

5

Modern Chemical Technology, Guidebook for Chemical Technicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is a part of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum that is developed for chemical technicians. It is intended as a handbook that will be used throughout the instruction. Safety is stressed in eight of the ten chapters under the headings: safety in the chemical laboratory, personal protective equipment, fire safety…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

6

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

7

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

8

Complete chemical analysis of produced water by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in produced waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.; Johnston, A.; Boak, L.S.

1996-12-31

9

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

10

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

11

The impact of flow injection on modern chemical analysis: has it fulfilled our expectations? And where are we going?  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting a condensation of the opening lecture of the 12th ICFIA conference, this communication presents a view of the impact that flow injection analysis (FIA) has had on modern analytical chemistry, evaluated both within the academic community and outside it, i.e. in "industry". The ensuing developments of FIA, encompassing sequential injection analysis (SIA) and bead injection lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are described and their individual features discussed. Finally, some recent results of the activities from the author's own research group are briefly mentioned. PMID:18969714

Hansen, Elo Harald

2004-12-15

12

Modern power systems analysis  

CERN Document Server

The capability of effectively analyzing complex systems is fundamental to the operation, management and planning of power systems. This book offers broad coverage of essential power system concepts and features a complete and in-depth account of all the latest developments, including Power Flow Analysis in Market Environment; Power Flow Calculation of AC/DC Interconnected Systems and Power Flow Control and Calculation for Systems Having FACTS Devices and recent results in system stability.

Wang, Xi-Fan; Irving, Malcolm

2010-01-01

13

XXI symposium Modern chemical physics. Tuapse 2009. Summaries of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The materials of the XXI symposium Modern chemical physics, Tuapse 2009 (25 September - 6 October, 2009) are presented. Scientific program includes lectures, presentations and poster sessions on photochemistry and radiation chemistry, elementary processes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The problems of chemical reaction kinetics, quantum chemistry, chemical spectroscopy, macromolecular chemistry are discussed. Topics of chemical physics of surface, nanochemistry, nanophysics and nanotechnology are treated

14

XIII symposium. Modern chemical physics. Theses of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials of the thirteenth symposium on modern chemical physics are presented. They represent different directions of development of this field of knowledge, such as synthesis, structure, properties of metal-polymer compositions, radiation-chemical investigations in nanotechnology, problems of supercritical chemistry, calculations of kinetic parameters of catalytic systems

15

Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

N. Bolf

2011-04-01

16

The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis  

CERN Document Server

This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

Mills, Professor Terence C

2011-01-01

17

XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

18

Real analysis modern techniques and their applications  

CERN Document Server

An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

Folland, Gerald B

1999-01-01

19

Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics and in the physical sciences.

Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

1999-01-01

20

Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

Mudgett, Paul D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse te?hnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse te?hno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

Arhun, Sch.

2013-01-01

22

Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

Malik, Muhammad Yasir

2012-01-01

23

Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

24

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

25

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01

26

Ion beam analysis and modern materials science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

27

Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

28

Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analy...

Santosh Gangurde

2013-01-01

29

Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a. completing the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JPA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

2009-01-01

30

Radiometric chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

31

Evolution and Modern Approaches for Thermal Analysis of Electrical Machines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the authors present an extended survey on the evolution and the modern approaches in the thermal analysis of electrical machines. The improvements and the new techniques proposed in the last decade are analyzed in depth and compared in order to highlight the qualities and defects of each. In particular, thermal analysis based on lumped-parameter thermal network, finite-element analysis, and computational fluid dynamics are considered in this paper. In addition, an overview of t...

Cavagnino, Andrea; Boglietti, Aldo

2009-01-01

32

Control of environmental impact with modern chemical technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Here are assembled representative excerpts from a new text in applied chemistry. They illustrate the well-referenced treatment of industrial processes that are here considered with their related emission control problems and solutions. A brief account of general aspects of the industry is followed by surveys of the significance and technical aspects of air and water pollution chemistry. Consideration is given to emission avoidance or containment, waste treatment, and waste disposal options as they relate to both of these environmental areas. Details of salt recovery and the products of brine electrolysis plus environmental aspects of these operations are treated as examples of some of the processes discussed. Also covered are fertilizer constituent preparation, formulation, and use with consideration of the large-scale effects of each of these activities. Detailed reference is made to the chemical technology and emission control aspects of the pulp and paper industry and refinery operations. Throughout, integral process changes and waste recycling practices are directly related to emission control aspects of each process in a way to be useful to the student and professional alike. These excerpts are extracted from one of the first, single volume accounts to take this unified approach to the subject.

Hocking, Martin B.

1986-03-01

33

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

Petrovi? Slobodan D.

2002-01-01

34

Chemical analysis using chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research focused on the trace analysis of transition metal organometallic and organic compounds, particularly environmentally important species. A gas chromatograph-chemical ionization mass spectrometer-computer system modified for both positive ion and negative ion detection was used for the trace analyses. The trace metal work involved the synthesis of transition metal ?-diketonate complexes and their subsequent characterization by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Also an analytical procedure for the determination of ruthenium in doped automobile exhaust particle emission was developed based on the ligand H(tfa). A similar method was investigated for the analysis of manganese (II) as the combustion product of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT), an anti-knock agent. Other ligand systems such as the ?-ketoamines, dithiocarbamates and oxines were utilized in this study

35

Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach  

CERN Document Server

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

Anderson, Brian D O

2013-01-01

36

Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

Panda, Binayak

2009-01-01

37

Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

Deloach, Richard

2010-01-01

38

Analysis of Territory Planning Regulations Concerning Modernization of Residential Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Territory planning instructions of residential areas (quarters are analyzed in this article. In Lithuania there is no validated united normative database for territory planning, which could regulate renovation of residential quarters. Accordingly, it is an actual problem. Modernization of blocks of flats is widely analyzed and it causes a lot of discussions recently. Modernization could be fulfilled more efficiently in quarters or even residential areas. Consequently, territorial spatial planning of areas (quarters is very important. This article covers analysis of terms of a residential area and a quarter, building intensity and building density, functional zones, regulations of territory management and use, greenery, social infrastructure. Also a quality of life, depreciation of buildings and a priority of renovation of residential areas is examined.Article in Lithuanian

Jurgita Alchimovien?

2011-03-01

39

Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

40

Materials analysis using chemical imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes various applications of chemical analysis using Near-Infrared Raman Imaging Microscopy (NIRIM) and fluorescent optical imaging microscopy. The NIRIM instrument used for these studies combines fiber-bundle image compression (FIC) hardware and multivariate signal processing software to identify and map the distribution of chemical species on a sample surface. Applications include mapping the distribution of elemental sulfur on oxidized pyrite and arsenopyrite surfaces, the...

Jallad, Karim N.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

42

Pervaporation in chemical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike thermal processes such as distillation, pervaporation relies on the relative rates of solute permeation through a membrane and is a combination of evaporation and gas diffusion. The analytical pervaporation systems consist of a membrane module suitable for liquid sample introduction and a vacuum (or a sweeping gas) on the permeate side. It has been used in a wide range of applications including the analysis of various organic and inorganic compounds, and sample concentration. It has been directly interfaced with gas chromatography, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemical detectors, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. A wide range of liquids, slurries, and solids samples has been analyzed using these techniques. This review highlights the basic principles of the pervaporation and the state of its current development as applied to analytical chemistry. PMID:20060529

Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

2010-04-16

43

Chemical analysis of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article gives a survey on the apparatuses and methods used at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre for the analysis of nuclear fuels. The analytical tasks comprise the whole fuel cycle, from the analysis of unirradiated nuclear fuels to irradiated fuels and the chemical characterization of radioactive wastes. The reliability of the analytical findings - especially of the routine procedures - is often studied in international laboratory comparisons. This applies mostly to methods used in the fissile materials safeguard system. (RB/AK)

44

Strontium isotope ratios in modern biogenic and chemical marine precipitates from southern Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium isotope measurements of marine carbonates and precipitates have proved to be a powerful chrono-stratigraphic tool in dating marine sediments. 87Sr and 86Sr ratios obtained from measurements of 13 classes of modern marine organisms and three chemical marine precipitates from southern Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean are reported. The influence of radiogenic fluvial isotopic strontium on biogenic carbonate was examined and found to be minimal. As theory predicts, the strontium isotopic composition of the oceans was found to be independent of depth and water mass. A marine isotopic strontium (MIS) value of 0.709119 was obtained for southern African waters, comparing well with previously published international data. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

45

Comparative analysis of meat characteristics in modern selection of Lithuanian Black-and-Whites and Lithuanian Red cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative analysis of meat characteristics and quality in modern selection of Lithuanian Black-and-Whites and Lithuanian Red bulls was performed in 2004-2005. Bulls were raised at the same feeding and keeping conditions until 500 days of age. Afterwards bulls were measured, slaughtered and main indexes characterizing meat quality (chemical composition, pH, color, water binding capacity, shear force, cooking loss and index of protein) were evaluated. It was established that Lithuanian Black-...

Jukna, C?eslovas; Jukna, Vigilijus; Baltus?nikiene?, Aldona

2006-01-01

46

Modern Nodal Diffusion Methods in Nuclear Reactor Analysis and Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent progress in nodal diffusion methods applied in nuclear reactor analysis and design is reviewed. In contrast with earlier nodal methods, more recent methods are characterized by the systematic derivation of the relationships between the flux inside the node and the currents on its sides. Modern nodal methods share three common features. First, the unknowns are defined in terms of volume-averaged fluxes and surface-averaged partial or net currents. second, the node fluxes and surface currents are related through auxiliary one-dimensional equations obtained by integrating the multidimensional diffusion equation over transverse coordinate directions. Finally, the transverse leakage term that appears in those one-dimensional equations is approximated by a polynomial (typically quadratic) fit over consecutive nodes. Methods differ in the in-node flux approximation and the solution technique applied to solve one-dimensional equations. Most widely used are polynomial and analytic approaches and they are discussed in detail. The quadratic leakage approximation in some instances can lead to significant errors. To solve that problem, higher order methods have been suggested. However, they are stile not included in any production code. Remaining problems are investigated, and some directions for future research and development are suggested. (author)

47

Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional exper...

Jinxia Wang; Xiaoqing Tang; Yali Pang; Wenjie Duan

2014-01-01

48

Analysis of Modern State of Engineering Industry of Ukraine ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article studies the modern state of engineering companies of Ukraine. It proves importance of the engineering industry, state and level of development of which is the main indicator of economic and, first of all, industrial development of the country. It reveals main problems of engineering companies, which arise under modern economic conditions and slow down or even stop their development. The studied material is used for development of recommendations on improvement of the state and sol...

Bozhko Valeriy P.; Kashcheeva Irina A.

2013-01-01

49

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department

50

Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions versus modern observing facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star ? UMa as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in near-infrared at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180 m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g. Fibered and spectrally Resolved Interferometric Equipment New Design) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure V2 ? 10-3, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure rotation and spots. Our study provides necessary details about strategies of spot detections and the requirements for modern and planned interferometric facilities essential for CP star research.

Shulyak, D.; Paladini, C.; Causi, G. Li; Perraut, K.; Kochukhov, O.

2014-09-01

51

Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

2000-04-12

52

Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

HUI WANG

2011-01-01

53

A Social-Psychological Analysis of Modernization in the Philippines  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes a number of related studies of the social aspects of modernization in the Philippines. From these studies we have selected four important social processes which influence the course of change, and we have attempted to interpret these processes with reference to social-psychological laboratory studies. (Author/JM)

Guthrie, George M.

1977-01-01

54

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

55

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes developments in polarography and voltammetry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches. 266 references, 10 figures, 8 tables.

Lee, A.F.

1983-07-20

56

Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

HUI WANG

2011-06-01

57

Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional experience identity, missing of traditional folk arts, mess of the application of festival symbols, and popularity of western festivals culture are important representations of the anomie situation of Chinese traditional festivals in modern society, and also the crucial reason for it failed to overcome the difficulties. Globalization and the rapid development of information technology, the advancement of industrialization and urbanization have changed the social structure and people's lifestyles, rhythm, and also interpersonal relationships to a considerable extent, thus social environment for the survival of the traditional festivals related to agricultural society increasingly becomes narrow, and its impact and charm naturally bleak. Therefore, it is imperative to re-understanding and reconstructing traditional festivals, with new representations to restore the cultural connotations of traditional festivals, making it back into ordinary people's lives.

Jinxia Wang

2014-04-01

58

A modern design for ? ? ? active handling facilities for chemical research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study for a modern ??? active handling facility for chemical research and development work is described. The design is intended to achieve the working and environmental conditions that are expected to be acceptable in the nuclear industry at least for the next twenty years. Radiation exposure to operators is reduced to minimum practical limits. Hands-on maintenance and man-entry are avoided for routine operations. The design is flexible to allow modifications and improvements of technique and concept to be incorporated as they become available. Finally decommissioning can be achieved with reversion to a contamination and radiation free site. The primary installation in the design is a suite of five in-line ??? active shielded cells, each capable of handling 1000 MeV Ci ? activity with accompanying high levels of ? and or ? activity. Each cell is fitted with a stainless steel containment box which is remotely removable. Adjacent to the cell line, there is a box handling bay to which boxes are interfaced, serviced and decontaminated. These operations are entirely remote. The box, when decontaminated, is returned through a commissioning area to the cell line for further service. Comprehensive facilities are provided to support the cell line. These include flask and equipment storage, fissile material accounting and interrogation systems, waste handling and transfer systems for the onward transmission of waste for processing and packaging centrally. The ing and packaging centrally. The problems of manipulation, transfers, contamination control and shielding have been considered and are discussed in the context of the overall design. (author)

59

Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

Lynn Hunt

2014-12-01

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vanga bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation used for various diseases. An attempt was made to analyze it chemically which includes XRF, XRD, EDAX and ICP-MS techniques. Vanga Bhasma drug contained mainly tin as tin oxide. The content of tin was found to be 80 percent. XRF analysis revealed that the bhasma contained 17 elements at different levels of concentration. XRD studies exhibited that the major phase composition is cassiterite tin oxide in tetragonal structure. The crystallite size of the compound calculated from Scherrer’s formula was 52.94 nm. ICP-MS studies revealed the presence of calcium, arsenic, iron, silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and chloride. A combination of XRF, XRD, EDAX-SEM and ICP-MS was very useful in concluding that vanga bhasma is in cassiterite form of tetragonal structure. It is possible that the practical clinical application of the drug may be due to the different trace level elemental spectra besides tin. Data generated in the present study can be considered for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards for Vanga bhasma.

A.Saraswathy

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

62

Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by ? 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between coral calcification and annual SST, precipitation and insolation (p-values > 0.05).To analyze the variety of coral calcification rate with time variants and future prospect, generalized state space model with local linear trend model was applied by statistic software of R (dlm packages). All unknown variances and unobserved components were estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) using forwards filtering, backward samplings (FFBS). Iteration was 11000 times and burn in first 1000 times. The coral calcification did not have common constant increasing or decreasing trends between three study areas. We will discuss more detail about temperate coral skeletal growth and GCA.

Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

2011-12-01

63

Analysis of individual environmental particles using modern methods of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors' laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution

64

Analysis of Individual Environmental Particles Using Modern Methods of Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors’ laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution.

Laskin, Alexander; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.

2006-02-01

65

Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

2013-09-01

66

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

67

Using Multimedia for Teaching Analysis in History of Modern Architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a case for the development and support of a computer-based interactive multimedia program for teaching analysis in community college architecture design programs. Analysis in architecture design is an extremely important strategy for the teaching of higher-order thinking skills, which senior schools of architecture look for in…

Perryman, Garry

68

Note on modern path analysis in application to crop science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note, we discuss path analysis and its applications to crop science investigations – almost all of these applications are based on the methodology that Sewall Wright developed in the 1920s, although the path analysis method has been intensively developed during the last three decades. Via this paper, we point out that new methodology of estimation and testing in path analysis is fairly advanced and is applied in many biological disciplines and that it should also be extended to crop science.

Marcin Kozak

2006-06-01

69

Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition  

CERN Document Server

We extend our work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,nu e+)2H, 14N(p,gamma)15O and triple-alpha reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (t_H), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. For the stellar tracks, an increase from Z = 0...

Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

2013-01-01

70

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

Centeno, Jose? A.; Rogers, Duane A.; Voet, Gijsbert B.; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

2014-01-01

71

A guide to modern statistical analysis of immunological data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of subjects that can be recruited in immunological studies and the number of immunological parameters that can be measured has increased rapidly over the past decade and is likely to continue to expand. Large and complex immunological datasets can now be used to investigate complex scientific questions, but to make the most of the potential in such data and to get the right answers sophisticated statistical approaches are necessary. Such approaches are used in many other scientific disciplines, but immunological studies on the whole still use simple statistical techniques for data analysis. Results The paper provides an overview of the range of statistical methods that can be used to answer different immunological study questions. We discuss specific aspects of immunological studies and give examples of typical scientific questions related to immunological data. We review classical bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and more advanced methods aimed to explore causal relationships (path analysis/structural equation modelling and illustrate their application to immunological data. We show the main features of each method, the type of study question they can answer, the type of data they can be applied to, the assumptions required for each method and the software that can be used. Conclusion This paper will help the immunologist to choose the correct statistical approach for a particular research question.

Yazdanbakhsh Maria

2007-10-01

72

Chemical reactor analysis program (TCHREACT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of many chemical compounds produces potentially dangerous exothermic reactions. The FORTRAN IV program described herein employs analytical techniques for the calculation of the batch temperature in a chemical reactor as a function of time. The program includes provisions for calculating (a) total batch and mass volume, (b) coolant and batch average thermodynamic properties, (c) heat transfer coefficients for the batch, wall, coolant, and the overall {open_quotes}U{close_quotes} value, and (d) reaction rates for zero through 3rd order reactions. The program is to be used for determining operating criteria (coolant flow rate, reactant feed rate, agitator speed, etc.) for maintaining batch temperatures at a safe level for processes with high exothermic heats of reaction or mixing.

Honea, F.I.; Birch, T.R.

1971-03-01

73

A review of modern challenges in fire debris analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The continually-evolving field of fire debris analysis presents challenges to examiners on a regular basis. This article combines an overview of the scientific literature with novel samples that illustrate the current issues faced by fire debris examiners. Unusual liquids that contradict current classification schemes are discussed, as are complex matrices with noteworthy interferences. The matrix effects range from inherent interferences to the degradation of ignitable liquids. Finally, non-routine analyses are discussed, including the analysis of vegetable and lubricating oils and novel ignition methods. Through open discussion of complex samples and individual experiences, the problems in fire debris analysis can be overcome, resulting in the production of accurate and authoritative information. PMID:25193144

Baerncopf, Jamie; Hutches, Katherine

2014-11-01

74

Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

75

Technical Analysis of a Ptolemaic Child Sarcophagus and the Identification of Ancient and Modern Reuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this project are the technical analysis of a Ptolemaic child coffin lid, development of a conservation strategy, and realization of priority stabilization interventions. Early in the process of evaluation and analysis irregularities in the appearance and structure of the coffin suggested re-use of components. This thesis proposes that there are incidences of ancient and modern reuse of structural elements in this coffin lid, and substantiates this assertion through the results of a technical analysis. Non-destructive and destructive methods of analysis were used including UV induced visible fluorescence, Infrared and Visible-induced luminescence (VIL) imaging. Particle samples were investigated microscopically, and using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD or X-ray Diffraction, FTIR or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technologies were used for elemental and molecular analysis. Egyptology scholars, conservators, and materials scientists were consulted. The text establishes the historical context, and the use and meaning of the artifact. The object is described, the pigment analysis is presented, and prior interventions to the object are elaborated. The collective results of the technical analysis, observation and consultation are interpreted to substantiate the assertion of modern and ancient reuse. Technical analysis supports the observation that face of the deceased is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic period and that is was created in an early dynastic period and reused on this coffin in antiquity. The components of the foot-block are identified as ancient but not associated with this coffin, and 20th century adhesives and hardware are evidence that it is a modern addition. Social and economic demands in antiquity, and also in the post-excavation period of the late 19th and 20th centuries, have motivated alterations to objects of cultural and economic importance. This thesis provides substantial evidence of ancient and modern reuse and contributes information about ancient materials and methods of manufacture and distinctions between modern and ancient materials.

Mallinckrodt, Catherine Scott

76

Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emphasis is placed on the exploitation of the unique FIA-gradient techniques.

Hansen, Elo Harald

1996-01-01

77

In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including humanism and positive psychology. However, these approaches have failed to provide explanations of the behavior–environment relations involved in val...

Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, Joanne; Lundgren, Tobias

2009-01-01

78

Chemical analysis of meat products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat, particularly muscle tissue, is basically a 3-component system of protein, moisture, and fat. Although this seems a simple analytical system in which to monitor product composition for regulatory compliance, the simplicity quickly erodes when meat is formulated into the broad variety of products commercially available today. Alternative protein sources, as well as preservatives, binders, extenders, emulsifiers, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, add to the analytes of concern and highlight the need for analytical methods suitable to support inspection and labeling requirements to ensure product compliance. Some key issues are noted which involve protein quality analysis, rapid compositional analysis, isolated soy protein analysis, and minced fish in meat products. PMID:3558282

Ellis, R L

1987-01-01

79

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

80

Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Co-occurrence network analysis of modern Chinese poems  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 606 co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words are constructed from rhymes, free verses, and prose poems. It is found that 98.5 % of networks have scale-free properties, while 19.8 % of networks do not have small-world features, especially the clustering coefficients in 5.6 % of networks are zero. In addition, 61.4 % of networks have significant hierarchical structures, and 98 % of networks are disassortative. For the above observed phenomena, analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

Liang, Wei; Wang, Yanli; Shi, Yuming; Chen, Guanrong

2015-02-01

82

Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

Nguyen Quang Liem

2011-12-01

83

Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research  

Science.gov (United States)

While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

Piotrowski, Chris

2013-01-01

84

Fuzzy risk analysis of a modern ?-ray industrial irradiator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuzzy fault tree analyses were used to investigate accident scenarios that involve radiological exposure to operators working in industrial ?-ray irradiation facilities. The HEART method, a first generation human reliability analysis method, was used to evaluate the probability of adverse human error in these analyses. This technique was modified on the basis of fuzzy set theory to more directly take into account the uncertainties in the error-promoting factors on which the methodology is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy radiological exposure risk, expressed in terms of potential annual death, was evaluated. The calculated fuzzy risks for the examined plant were determined to be well below the reference risk suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:22004931

Castiglia, F; Giardina, M

2011-06-01

85

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

86

The Diminutive in Modern Standard Arabic: An Optimality Theoretical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The diminutive in Arabic has not received the attention it deserves in the literature. Most of the work done on Arabic morphology has viewed the derivation of Arabic diminutive as a simple process which maps root consonants, according to certain principles, onto well-defined positions of a diminutive pattern. In this paper, I will demonstrate that there is no need to refer to roots in the process of diminutive formation in Arabic. I will also show that under such a view a unified and comprehensive treatment of the diminutive is possible within the framework of Optimality Theory, as developed in Prince and Smolensky (1993. Following Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999, the analysis I argue for allows for a correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the bases from which they are derived. However, my analysis goes beyond that presented in Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999 in that it assumes a similar correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the input.

Key words: Optimality theory; Diminutive; Root; Base; Constraint

Résumé Le diminutif d’Arabe n’a pas reçu l’attention qu’elle mérite dans la littérature. La plupart du travail effectué sur la morphologie arabe a vu la dérivation de l’arabe comme diminutif d’un processus simple qui associe consonnes radicales, selon certains principes, sur des positions bien définies d’un modèle diminutif. Dans cet article, je vais le démontrer qu’il n’y a pas besoin de se référer aux racines dans le processus de formation diminutif en arabe. Je vais aussi montrer que, sous ce point de vue d'un traitement unifi é et complet du diminutif est possible dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité, telle que développée dans Prince et Smolensky (1993. Après Benua (1997 et Ussishkin (1999, l’analyse que je plaider en faveur d’une relation permet de correspondance entre les formes minuscules et des bases à partir desquelles elles sont dérivées. Cependant, mon analyse va au-delà qui sont présentées dans Benua (1997 et Ussishkin (1999 en ce qu’il suppose une relation de correspondance similaire entre les formes minuscules et l’entrée.

Mots clés: Théorie de l’optimalité; Diminutif; Racine; Base; Contrainte

Abujoudeh Maisoun Ismail

2012-04-01

87

Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

1498-15-01

88

Chemical genetic and chemogenomic analysis in yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemogenomics is the systematic genome-wide study of the cellular response to small molecule agents. Modern high-throughput genetic techniques allow massively parallel examination of the genetic effects of such biologically active small molecules (BASM). Here we present methodology for the identification and characterization of potentially bioactive compounds using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. First, we present a method for screening libraries of compounds for growth inhibition in solid or liquid phase, followed by techniques for potency determination using a half-log dose response. Then the Deletion Mutant Array (DMA), a genome-wide library of single gene deletion strains, is used to probe the chemical genetic interactions of individual BASMs on genetic networks-a process that can be achieved with a solid phase pinning assay or a pooled liquid assay utilizing barcode microarray techniques. Finally, we offer some considerations for optimizing these protocols. PMID:25213245

Coorey, Namal V C; Sampson, Liam D P; Barber, Jacqueline M; Bellows, David S

2014-01-01

89

Chemical analysis of high purity graphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

90

Spreadsheet analysis of chemical hydrographs  

Science.gov (United States)

Students download a comma-delimited data set that is a time series of stream discharge measurements and the concentration of a trace element in the stream. Given the concentration of this element in the precipitation and in the groundwater, the students analyze the data using spreadsheet software to separate the hydrograph into baseflow and quickflow components. Students produce a graph of their results. To do the analysis, students must derive an appropriate equation based on other equations presented in the text (Eqs. 1.2 and 1.3).

91

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

92

Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

93

Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

1991-01-01

94

Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

95

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

Jin-Ao Duan

2012-09-01

96

Droplet microfluidics in (bio)chemical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Droplet microfluidics may soon change the paradigm of performing chemical analyses and related instrumentation. It can improve not only the analysis scale, possibility for sensitivity improvement, and reduced consumption of chemical and biological reagents, but also the speed of performing a variety of unit operations. At present, microfluidic platforms can reproducibly generate monodisperse droplet populations at kHz or higher rates with droplet sizes suitable for high-throughput experiments, single-cell detection or even single molecule analysis. In addition to being used as microreactors with volume in the micro- to femtoliter range, droplet based systems have also been used to directly synthesize particles and encapsulate biological entities for biomedicine and biotechnology applications. This minireview summarizes various droplet microfluidics operations and applications for (bio)chemical assays described in the literature during the past few years. PMID:25295973

Basova, Evgenia Yu; Foret, Frantisek

2014-12-01

97

Probabilistic risk assessment of a modern architecture building: analysis of the original building and retrofitting proposals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The seismic vulnerability of an existing building representative of modern architecture style is presented herein. To improve its seismic response, a retrofitting solution consisting of an x-bracing system associated to a shear-link dissipater was analysed. The effectiveness of the retrofit was measured by carrying out a seismic fragility analysis, considering a numerical model accounting for the nonlinear behaviour under earthquakes of both RC elements and infill masonry walls. I...

Rodrigues, H.; Roma?o, X.; Varum, H.; Are?de, A.; Costa, A.; Delgado, R.

2008-01-01

98

The origin of modern metabolic networks inferred from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metabolism represents a complex collection of enzymatic reactions and transport processes that convert metabolites into molecules capable of supporting cellular life. Here we explore the origins and evolution of modern metabolism. Using phylogenomic information linked to the structure of metabolic enzymes, we sort out recruitment processes and discover that most enzymatic activities were associated with the nine most ancient and widely distributed protein fold architectures. An analysis of ne...

Caetano-anolle?s, Gustavo; Kim, Hee Shin; Mittenthal, Jay E.

2007-01-01

99

Probabilistic risk analysis in chemical engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In risk analysis in the chemical industry, recognising potential risks is considered more important than assessing their quantitative extent. Even in assessing risks, emphasis is not on the probability involved but on the possible extent. Qualitative assessment has proved valuable here. Probabilistic methods are used in individual cases where the wide implications make it essential to be able to assess the reliability of safety precautions. In this case, assessment therefore centres on the reliability of technical systems and not on the extent of a chemical risk. 7 figs

100

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the ICPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document discusses the chemical analysis quality assurance program at the ICPP which involves records management, analytical methods quality control, analysis procedures and training and qualification. Since 1979, the major portion of the quality assurance program has been implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the system are storage, retrieval, and search capabilities over all general request and sample analysis information, automatic method selection for all process streams, automation of all method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at all analysis levels, with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of all process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre- established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of all analysis data plus all statistical testing to the Production Department

 
 
 
 
101

Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities  

CERN Document Server

By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

2014-01-01

102

Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

Pabarcius, Raimondas; Tonkunas, Aurimas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Installation Safety Lab.

2010-08-15

103

The origin of modern metabolic networks inferred from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolism represents a complex collection of enzymatic reactions and transport processes that convert metabolites into molecules capable of supporting cellular life. Here we explore the origins and evolution of modern metabolism. Using phylogenomic information linked to the structure of metabolic enzymes, we sort out recruitment processes and discover that most enzymatic activities were associated with the nine most ancient and widely distributed protein fold architectures. An analysis of newly discovered functions showed enzymatic diversification occurred early, during the onset of the modern protein world. Most importantly, phylogenetic reconstruction exercises and other evidence suggest strongly that metabolism originated in enzymes with the P-loop hydrolase fold in nucleotide metabolism, probably in pathways linked to the purine metabolic subnetwork. Consequently, the first enzymatic takeover of an ancient biochemistry or prebiotic chemistry was related to the synthesis of nucleotides for the RNA world. PMID:17517598

Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Kim, Hee Shin; Mittenthal, Jay E

2007-05-29

104

Spectro-chemical analysis of lead telluride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of spectro-chemical analysis of lead telluride, permitting to determine 15 impurities with low boundaries of the contents determined n(10-5-10-8)% in mass is developed. The method suggests preliminary concentration of the impurities by the combination of two methods: lead separation in the form of precipitate Pb(NO3)2 in concentrated HNO3 and separation of the main mass of Te in the form of precipitate TeO2

105

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The support activities of chemical analysis division for the year of 1984 are described. A sum of 2445 samples requested from the facilities and laboratories were analyzed with the methods modified and adopted in the laboratory from 1977 to 1983. A study on the separation and determination of the trace amounts of rare earth elements in nuclear materials was carried out, and various experimental conditions were established. (Author)

106

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

2013-09-01

107

Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

2005-01-01

108

Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is hyposaline (8.5-10 g l-1 ) and alkaline (pH 8.9-9.1 and alkalinity of 37 meq l-1 ) with sodium and chloride being the dominant ions but also with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These conditions are favorable for active carbonate deposition that results in the formation of distinctive stromatolite structures in the littoral region of the lake. These structures generate extended submerged carbonaceous platforms down to a depth of 15 m that slope steeply to the bottom of the lake where soft sediments prevail (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998). The lake is populated by 18 species of cyanobacteria (Tavera and Komárek, 1996) which are the primary producers in the food web a of the lake fixing not only carbon (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998) but also nitrogen (Falcón eto al, 2002). The stromatolite samples were freeze-dried and then were finely grounded with an agate mor-tar mill for analyses. The mineral composition of the sample is essentially hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 , 4 H2 O)) with traces of quartz (SiO2 ) as determined by X-rays diffraction. This is also consistent with differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry of the sample. Analysis of the sample by TV-mass spectrometry (MS) using the Phoenix Lander Protocol (Navarro-González et al., 2009) indicates that the major volatile released is carbon dioxide a from 350 C to 1000° C with broad peaks centered at 400° C and 600° C. Organics are also re-° leased from 380° C to 750° C as monitored by a characteristic organic fragment with m/z=41 and that is attributed to the allyl cation: [CH2 CHCH2 ]+ . Analysis of the sample by TV-gas chromatography (GC)-MS using the Viking Lander Protocol but at 750° C (Navarro-González a et al., 2009) demonstrates that a complex suite of organics are released such as 1,3-butadiene, furan, propanal, 2-propenenitrile, 1,3 cyclopentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, propanenitrile, methylfuran, butanal, benzene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, 1-H-pyrrole, pyridine, methylbenzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-n

Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

109

Comparative analysis of modern empirical spectrophotometric atlases with multicolor photometric catalogues  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of the comparative analysis of the most known semi-empirical and empirical spectral atlases that was carried out using the data from the WBVR photometric catalogue. The results show that standard error of synthesized stellar magnitudes calculated with SEDs from best spectral atlases reaches 0.02 mag. It has been also found out that some of modern spectral atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. The agreement for the 5000-10000 A spectral range is rather satisfactory, while there are problems for wavelengths shorter than 4400 A.

Kilpio, E Yu; Mironov, A V

2012-01-01

110

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Tomas Grigalis

2012-04-01

111

Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Sólheimajökull, southern Iceland  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Sólheimajökull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Sólheimajökull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jökulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

2015-02-01

112

Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

113

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

114

Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis  

CERN Document Server

In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

2015-01-01

115

Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to prioritize such measurements in the face of limited sample availability, or how to render samples safe for handling in the analytical laboratory,) instrumental analysis of biological agents for purposes of sample matching alone is unlikely to present fundamental problems that require extensive research and development investments. The second way that the data generated by instrumental analysis can be useful to an investigation is through inferences that can be drawn regarding the processes used to grow and ''weaponize'' the agent. In contrast to the case of sample matching, there are significant R&D challenges associated with developing a robust capability that will reliably permit such inferential uses of instrumental data. Elaborating these challenges occupies the major portion of this paper.

Velsko, S P

2005-02-15

116

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-11-15

117

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

Reddy, B. Sudhakara, E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.i [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

2009-11-15

118

[Analysis of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper described the rationality of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine on basis of application, statistics and comparison analysis of three forms of drugs of traditional Chinese herbal pieces prepared for decoction, prepared decoction pieces in small packing and granules; and illustrated different opinions correlative to the three forms of drugs; put forward the counter-measures and proposals for the problems facing the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction; the paper stated clearly that the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction should not be replaced, instead, the viewpoint and the reasons on its application must be holding on; and the trend of development and expectations of the Chinese herbal pieces for decoction were predicted as well. PMID:24199583

He, Xiu-Min; Chen, Chao; Ma, Bing-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Xia

2013-07-01

119

PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

Cartmell, Matthew P.

2012-08-01

120

Assessment of modern spectral analysis methods to improve wavenumber resolution of F-K spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement in wavenumber spectra obtained by using high resolution spectral estimators is examined. Three modern spectral estimators were tested, namely the Autoregressive/Maximum Entropy (AR/ME) method, the Extended Prony method, and an eigenstructure method. They were combined with the conventional Fourier method by first transforming each trace with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A high resolution spectral estimator was applied to the resulting complex spatial sequence for each frequency. The collection of wavenumber spectra thus computed comprises a hybrid f-k spectrum with high wavenumber resolution and less spectral ringing. Synthetic and real data records containing 25 traces were analyzed by using the hybrid f-k method. The results show an FFT-AR/ME f-k spectrum has noticeably better wavenumber resolution and more spectral dynamic range than conventional spectra when the number of channels is small. The observed improvement suggests the hybrid technique is potentially valuable in seismic data analysis

 
 
 
 
121

Amalgamation of traditional and modern cooling techniques in a passive solar house: a design analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, different roof and wall designs/treatments are proposed, incorporating modern and ancient features together, for passive cooling. On the basis of their thermal analysis (by solving energy balances of different components of roof and walls, etc.), the variation of living room temperature in different cases has been computed numerically for Jodhpur (India). The climatic conditions of Jodhpur are characterized as hot and dry. It is inferred that (a) evaporative cooling with an air cavity in the roof is the best option to reduce the incoming heat flux through the roof if water is easily available and (b) a thin layer of cow dung slurry inside the wall cavity reduces the incoming heat flux through the walls. It is better than solid walls and air cavity walls. (author)

Kumar, S.; Tiwari, G.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies); Bhagat, N.C. (Bihar Univ., Muzaffarpur (India). Dept. of Physics)

1994-08-01

122

Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

2012-01-01

123

Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Hoe-Chee, C; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

2014-08-01

124

A Descriptive Analysis of the Chemical Bond Approach, the Chemical Education Material Study, and a Representative Traditional Chemistry Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared three one-year courses in high school chemistry. One of these, entitled Modern Chemistry, represents the "traditional" precollegiate chemistry course. The others are the Chemical Bond Approach (CBA) and the Chemical Education Material Study (CHEM Study). These are the two major revisions in high school chemistry which emerged…

Crilly, Alice Roth

125

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

Alexander Hexemer

2015-01-01

126

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2015-01-01

127

NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

Schubert, Siegfried

2008-01-01

128

Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

2009-01-01

129

Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical pro...

Jurado Elices, Anna; Va?zquez Sun?e?, Enric; Carrera Rami?rez, Jesu?s; Tubau Fernandez, Isabel; Pujades Garnes, Estanislao

2015-01-01

130

Modern voxel based data and geometry analysis software tools for industrial CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer Tomography has become a well recognized tool in industrial quality control. Modern computer tomography systems ranging from micro-CT to huge multi MeV systems allow us to generate more and more detailed views of the inner of nearly any object. With the scan resolution becoming smaller and smaller, and at the same time image matrices becoming larger and larger, we are able to localize smallest defects even in large scale objects. At the same time even with the same data set we are able to measure the outer and inner geometry of an object with a measurement point density never known before from classical tactile or optical techniques. However, scanning objects in high resolution generates huge amounts of data, easily exceeding two GByte per scan. These huge amounts of data have caused a major drawback of a wider acceptance of CT technology in industrial use. Either no software tools have been available at all or available software process chains haven't been able to process these amounts of data in reasonable time. This presentation will introduce a new generation of 3D visualization and analysis software tools for industrial CT users. Interactive visualization of huge data sets with several Gbyte in size has become possible on a standard PC. Automatic wall thickness analysis and internal defect/porosity analysis can be done within minutes. In addition this presentation will also demonstrate the latest generation of software tools for highly accurate 3D geometrtware tools for highly accurate 3D geometry analysis based on voxel data. (author)

131

3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the gl...

Baran, I.; Hattel, J. H.; Tutum, Cem C.

2013-01-01

132

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were...

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2007-01-01

133

DYNAMICS OF THE IMPERIOUS RELATIONS IN MODERN SOCIETY: A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????: ??????????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is devoted to the study of dynamics of development of power mechanisms in the modern world. Globalization and modern means of communication changed the power structure and its methods. Power is hidden under the imaginary freedom. Totalitarian trends are hidden under the freedom of choice. However, new types of relations are developing, beyond the boundaries of hierarchical relationships

Vasiljeva A. S.

2013-01-01

134

Analysis on the Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Modern Physical Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the artificial intelligence and modern technology of physical education have researched and discussed which in order to provide the ideal theoretical basis for the modern technology of physical construction and development. As we all know, artificial intelligence belongs to a strong frontier disciplines which is developing but also one of the main direction of the computer and its related technologies interdisciplinary research, influencing the entire teaching progress. Artificial intelligence has many advantages in the application of teaching technology. At first, this study expounds the concept and category of artificial intelligence and then in-depth discuss and analyze the artificial intelligence application in the modern physical education technology vision and potential development, at the same time, it described the artificial intelligence encountered in modern sports educational technology applications problems and put forward the main strategy of artificial intelligence in the modern sports educational technology applications.

Yipai Jiang

2014-01-01

135

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parare : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

136

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide ?-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of ?-radiation;· low dose rate ?10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence ofater parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature of 350-400C up to 85% of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective applied for purification of polluted water

137

Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

138

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-05-01

139

C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

140

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

 
 
 
 
141

Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allows chemists to rationalize novel approaches to chemical research (e.g. combinatorial chemistry and possibly exploit the vast area of 'surprise discoveries'.

Claus Jacob

2001-03-01

142

Analysis on the Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Modern Physical Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the artificial intelligence and modern technology of physical education have researched and discussed which in order to provide the ideal theoretical basis for the modern technology of physical construction and development. As we all know, artificial intelligence belongs to a strong frontier disciplines which is developing but also one of the main direction of the computer and its related technologies interdisciplinary research, influencing the entire teaching progress. Artific...

Yipai Jiang

2014-01-01

143

The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

2011-11-01

144

Theory, Image Simulation, and Data Analysis of Chemical Release Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The final phase of Grant NAG6-1 involved analysis of physics of chemical releases in the upper atmosphere and analysis of data obtained on previous NASA sponsored chemical release rocket experiments. Several lines of investigation of past chemical release experiments and computer simulations have been proceeding in parallel. This report summarizes the work performed and the resulting publications. The following topics are addressed: analysis of the 1987 Greenland rocket experiments; calculation of emission rates for barium, strontium, and calcium; the CRIT 1 and 2 experiments (Collisional Ionization Cross Section experiments); image calibration using background stars; rapid ray motions in ionospheric plasma clouds; and the NOONCUSP rocket experiments.

Wescott, Eugene M.

1994-01-01

145

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

146

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

Zlati?anin Biljana V.

2002-01-01

147

Why different countries manage death differently: a comparative analysis of modern urban societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected. PMID:22404392

Walter, Tony

2012-03-01

148

Microstructures for Chemical Analysis : Design, Fabrication and Characterisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interest for miniaturisation in chemical and biological analysis has increased in recent years. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterisation of tools for microanalysis have been studied. The focus is set on polymer microchips for applications in chemical analysis. The work consists of three parts: design and fabrication of paraffin microactuators, design and fabrication of polymer microchips as interfaces in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and characteris...

Svedberg, Malin

2005-01-01

149

[Progress on chemical pattern recognition in traditional Chinese medicines by multidimensional information of metabolic fingerprinting analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

As a comprehensive, quantifiable identification method based on the chemical composition information of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine has become an internationally recognized effective way to control the quality of natural medicine. Chemical pattern recognition in traditional Chinese medicines is an important breakthrough for the infiltration between fuzzy and pharmaceutical sciences, has been used in the field of quality assessment and control for traditional Chinese medicine. It has solved the problem of comprehensive analysis with multi-dimensional information, and gradually been accepted by more researchers to in-depth study in the further. With the development of modern chemical analysis and computer techniques, there are more technologies were applied to the establishment of fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine, more chemometric methods have been applied to the data processing of TCM fingerprint, and more quality identification and assessment for TCM to be achieved. And the technology has matured and achieved a lot. In this paper, we make a review for the chemical pattern recognition in traditional Chinese medicines since it be invented, provide a reference for the further research. PMID:22779354

Liu, Jiang; Chen, Xingfu; Zou, Yuanfeng

2012-04-01

150

Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Besòs River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Besòs is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Besòs: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point. PMID:25280248

Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

2015-01-01

151

The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

Szlechter, Diego

2007-11-01

152

Analysis of chemical processes by nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main principles are presented of processing experimental data on the dynamic characteristics of flow systems operated in steady state conditions. The data were obtained by tracer techniques using suitable radionuclides. The application is discussed of the perturbation and response method to the study of behaviour of apparatus in chemical industry, and the experimental determination is shown of the residence time distribution, ie., normalized system response to a pulse perturbation function. Methods are also shown of calculating the production process pulse response. Examples are given of measurements on industrial facilities of oxosynthesis in the petrochemical process, on melting of zinc and lead agglomerate in the metallurgical process, on a granulation loop of NPK fertilizer production, and on equipment for filtering titanium white. (B.S.)

153

Chemical and instrumental analysis of ferrites.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than thirty years since the manufacture of the first commercial ferrites, research and development efforts continue to produce ferrites with enhanced performance and new applications. Analytical chemistry has maintained a substantial role in the ferrite industry in the characterization of both raw materials and products, and the analytical literature of ferrites has grown accordingly. The continuing importance of ferrites to the electronic device industry requires further development of analytical methods suitable for characterization of ferrites so that their chemical composition may be related to performance and to the manufacturing processes used. As modem analytical techniques have been developed, their application to the characterization of ferrites and the detection of heterogeneity in these materials is increasing. PMID:18963365

McCrory-Joy, C; Joy, D C

1983-05-01

154

Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500?Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

2014-01-01

155

Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

2012-06-01

156

Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

157

Electro-Thermal interaction in modern power devices: modeling, simulation and experimental analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electro-thermal interaction in power devices is thoroughly analyzed. An accurate compact model has been developed for simulating electrical behavior of IGBT, one of the most important modern power device. This model, in conjunction with a three-dimensional thermal simulator, has been employed in an electro-thermal simulator for multi-cellular power devices. This simulator is suitable for short-circuit and dynamic avalanche applications. After the verification of to...

Riccio, Michele

2010-01-01

158

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political) risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses s...

Gusak Andrey S.; Kabanov Anatoliy I.

2013-01-01

159

The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history...

Vladimir Sapon

2009-01-01

160

Analysis of modernization of tire recycling machine for improvement of environmental sustainability and feasibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main idea of this thesis is twofold: first of all to develop utilization processes for used tires and, second, to study and explain the serious ecological problems in the tire recycling and waste utilization sector in Russia. This thesis was commissioned by a recycling firm called Istra Ecologia Company. The thesis presents improvements in a tire recycling machine owned by this company. The owner of the plant has developed a modernized version of the system, and seems to have solved som...

Samarskiy, Boris

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Chemical probes for analysis of carbonylated proteins: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protein carbonylation is a major form of protein oxidation and is widely used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Carbonyl groups do not have distinguishing UV or visible, spectrophotometric absorbance/fluorescence characteristics and thus their detection and quantification can only be achieved using specific chemical probes. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of several chemical probes that have been and are still being used for protein carbonyl analysis. These probes...

Yan, Liang-jun; Forster, Michael J.

2011-01-01

162

Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next-generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server.

Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca

2014-01-01

163

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-12-10

164

Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25315338

Wi?niewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-10-15

165

Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

166

Chemical analysis of rare earth elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

167

Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

168

Arrays in biological and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research laboratorium, hospital clinic or at the local doctor, there are high expectations for arrays screening predispositions and following therapy, monitoring the amount of bacteria in food stuff, measuring the small signs from cardiac arrest before it happens, analysing the toxin level in a water sample (preferentially on-line) or deciphering the identity of an infecting bug. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

2002-01-01

169

Chemical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud particles  

Science.gov (United States)

A balloon-borne gondola carrying a particle analysis system, a backscatter sonde, and pressure and temperature sensors was launched from Kiruna, Sweden, on 25 January 1998. Measurements within polar stratospheric cloud layers inside the Arctic polar vortex show a close correlation between large backscatter ratios and enhanced particle-related water and nitric acid signals at low temperatures. Periodic structures in the data indicate the presence of lee waves. The H2O/HNO3 molar ratios are consistently found to be above 10 at atmospheric temperatures between 189 and 192 kelvin. Such high ratios indicate ternary solution particles of H2O, HNO3, and H2SO4 rather than the presence of solid hydrates. PMID:9974386

Schreiner; Voigt; Kohlmann; Arnold; Mauersberger; Larsen

1999-02-12

170

How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

2014-08-01

171

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

172

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-11-15

173

Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

2010-01-01

174

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-06-24

175

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-03-07

176

Investigation of meteorite chemical composition by activation analysis with microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons from a microtron for determining the chemical composition of stone and iron meteorites was investigated. Nearly 20 elements have been determined mostly by instrumental photon activation analysis, but instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis has been also applied for determining several elements in the samples. The optimal irradiation regimes and both cooling and measuring times were established. Sensitivity and accuracy of the analysis are presented. During analysis of the samples different types of interference reactions were taken into account. The experimental data were in satisfactory agreement with the results reported in literature

177

Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic powerSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

178

Analysis of Budget Management at a Chemical Enterprise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the use of the methodology of application of the gap-analysis and regression analysis for finding out reasons of non-performance of the planned measures and assessment of priority of zones of management of the production programme of the enterprise. The article justifies application of the gap-analysis and regression analysis of budgeting of the production programme at a chemical enterprise. It establishes the reasons of non-performance of planned measures and assessment of priority of zones of management and recommends re-orientation of management of production processes of a chemical enterprise on the basis of the process-oriented budgeting. A direction of further studies is justification of the model of effective realisation of the strategy of enterprise development on the basis of the process-oriented budgeting.

Gudz Petro V.

2013-12-01

179

Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

1997-05-01

180

LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE  

Science.gov (United States)

LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis which provides the relationships between the predictions of a kinetics model and the input parameters of the problem. LSENS provides for efficient and accurate chemical kinetics computations and includes sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal conditions. LSENS replaces the previous NASA general chemical kinetics codes GCKP and GCKP84. LSENS is designed for flexibility, convenience and computational efficiency. A variety of chemical reaction models can be considered. The models include static system, steady one-dimensional inviscid flow, reaction behind an incident shock wave including boundary layer correction, and the perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, computations of equilibrium properties can be performed for the following assigned states, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static problems LSENS computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rates coefficient parameters of each chemical reaction. To integrate the ODEs describing chemical kinetics problems, LSENS uses the packaged code LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, because it has been shown to be the most efficient and accurate code for solving such problems. The sensitivity analysis computations use the decoupled direct method, as implemented by Dunker and modified by Radhakrishnan. This method has shown greater efficiency and stability with equal or better accuracy than other methods of sensitivity analysis. LSENS is written in FORTRAN 77 with the exception of the NAMELIST extensions used for input. While this makes the code fairly machine independent, execution times on IBM PC compatibles would be unacceptable to most users. LSENS has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS and a DEC VAX running VMS. With minor modifications, it should also be easily implemented on other platforms with FORTRAN compilers which support NAMELIST input. LSENS required 4Mb of RAM under Sun

Bittker, D. A.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

182

Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We u [...] sed a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

TL, Campbell; PJ, Lewis; JK, Williams.

2011-02-01

183

Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

184

Theoretical analysis on chemical substitution effects of Bi-2201 superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical doping or substitution is most critical processes for superconductivity of cuprates. The superconductivity of Bi2Sr2CuO6+? Bi(2201) is controlled by a partial substitution of Sr ions by Lanthanide or Bi ions. Theoretical analysis for the experimental results is presented by a quantum chemical calculation of model clusters. The suppression of superconductivity by Bi substitution occurred by the absence or the destabilization of the spin polarized anti-ferromagnetic ground state by the increase of Sr orbital contribution to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)

185

MODERN MARKETING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drawing and attracting the consumer attention is one of the biggest issues of modern marketing . This is the reason why they are looking for innovative forms of marketing. Papers presents the solutions and take special attention on metaphors in marketing.

Z?ukowska, Joanna; Pindelski, Miko?aj

2010-01-01

186

Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

187

Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

188

Localizing Theory of Communicative Action for an Analysis of the Development and Modernity Process in Iran --- ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical-empirical attempt in which we will try to examine the development status of Iran based on the modified postulates of Habermas’s theory of communicative action. We will also examine the compatibility of this theoretical framework to Iran’s social conditions. The primary findings of this attempt include: first and at the theoretical level, a change in the relationship between on one hand, the dichotomous concepts of rationality and lack of it and, on the other hand, their attribution to the dichotomy of tradition and modern. The second finding relates to the proposition that; a change in life-world in a situation in which tradition is still dominant is possible. The Iranian experience indicates that the belief systems have acted as an indigenous base for the development of communicative action in Iran. These findings indicate that Habermas’s theory of communicative action is capable of being treated as a development theory that can be localized and be used to explain the development process.--- ??? ????? ?? ???? ????-?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ???. ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???.

Seyedeh Zahra Ojagh - ???? ???? ????

2006-06-01

189

The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages  

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Full Text Available On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history political manipulate - The Principles of the building catalogue coalition and The Regional policy aspects and global world.
Key words: benchmark; manipulate; criterion; politics

Résumé: À la frontière de différentes époques, les vieilles théories politiques ont montré leur insolvabilité. Le monde est tombé dans la crise politique, liée aux repères politiques et civils globaux. Cette thèse a analysé la situation politique actuelle, tout en évaluant la théorie politique, concernée par la question de la modernisation et de la mondialisation. La thèse est divisée en cinq parties: les libéraux au nouveau démarrage, les institutions intellectuelles- les mythes et la réalité des modèles politiques, l'histoire politique de manipulation, les principes de la coalition et les aspects de la politique régionale et du monde global.
Mots-Clés: benchmark; manipulation; critères; politiques

Vladimir Sapon

2009-12-01

190

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

191

Chemical characterisation of nuclear aerosols by surface analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical species stabilised within a condensing-vapour system will determine the aerosol nucleation processes and the likely reactions and growth mechanisms of the resulting gasborne debris. Relevant chemical data are required to define the stability of these species and their reactivity so that the consequences of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant can be calculated with confidence. A number of large-scale tests have been undertaken with non-radioactive simulants to assess the resulting physicochemical phenomena, and assist in the development of computer-based codes to predict the form and magnitude of the emissions from a reactor accident on a rigorous mechanistic basis. Experiments have been conducted at Marviken in Sweden to determine the transport properties of multicomponent vapour-aerosol systems through a simplified representation of the primary circuit of a light water reactor. Aerosol samples were collected and analysed by a range of techniques to determine their elemental composition and chemical constituents, and variations in these parameters were measured as a function of particle size and depth. Analysis techniques included scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). These studies revealed a number of important chemical effects, and demonstrated the advantagcal effects, and demonstrated the advantages of a complementary combination of surface analysis techniques to provide unique information on the composition and nature of a complex multicomponent aerosol. (author)

192

Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

Aptekar Saveliy S.

2013-03-01

193

Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.

2002-02-01

194

Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

195

MODERN STRATEGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This recent publication by Colin Gray is perhaps the most modern source of information for understanding the realm of strategy, the current as well as the future strategic environment and its complexities. The publication represents three decades of intellectual property of one of the world's leading theorists on strategic theory _ a phenomenon understood by very few decision makers, but in demand of their close and daily attention whilst grappling with its complexities in a demanding world. It is a publication in the words of the author •.... [b]ut this work is neither a strategic history of the 20th century nor a history of strategy in the twentieth century – rather Modern Strategy is principally about characteristically modern expressions of the ageless phenomena of strategy' The publication thus represents an effort to clarify and give enduring substance to the field of strategy as it increasingly becomes engulfed in rising layers of complexity.

Francois Vreÿ

2012-02-01

196

Development of modern analysis techniques for characterization and testing of coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some developments in methods and techniques for the analysis of deposited materials. These concern X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. (author)

197

THE ROLE AND THE LIMITS OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN MODERN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of Romania’s priorities for the fulfillment of the objectives generated by its accession to theEuropean Union is to improve its business environment. As part of this objective we have presentedthe essential role of the economic and financial analysis that provides the necessary information fordecision-making process. For the purpose of making an objective analysis, at the end of the paper wehave also presented some of the limits of this resourceful and available instrument.

Ema MASCA

2005-01-01

198

Osteometric analysis for sexing of modern sternum - an autopsy study from South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732

Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

2014-11-01

199

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF â??NERIUM OLEANDERâ? LEAVES  

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Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

Lakhmili Siham

2014-01-01

200

Modern developments in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based environmental analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) continues to play an important role in the identification and quantification of organic contaminants in environmental samples. GC-MS is one of the most attractive and powerful techniques for routine analysis of some ubiquitous organic pollutants due to its good sensitivity and high selectivity and versatility. This paper presents an overview of recent developments and applications of the GC-MS technique in relation to the analysis in environmental samples of known persistent pollutants and some emerging contaminants. The use of different mass analysers such as linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion-trap, double-focusing sectors and time-of-flight analysers is examined. The advantages and limitations of GC-MS methods for selected applications in the field of environmental analysis are discussed. Recent developments in field-portable GC-MS are also examined. PMID:12877169

Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

2003-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

CERN Document Server

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

2003-01-01

202

Biofuels a clean alternative? Modern analysis methods reveal details of he combustion chemistry; Biokraftstoffe als saubere Alternative? Moderne Analysemethoden verraten Details der Verbrennungschemie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the energy policy turnaround from fossil to renewable energy sources, the conversion of biomass to biofuels as an option for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions is discussed. The contribution under consideration reports on possible emissions of pollutants from the combustion of prototypical biofuels. For this, chemical reaction pathways in flames were studied with in-situ molecular beam mass spectrometry. Models for the prediction of pollutants from industrial processes are based on those results.

Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie I

2012-06-15

203

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.

2007-01-01

204

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM). Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members. PMID:24464236

Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

2014-01-01

205

Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis  

CERN Document Server

This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

Hughes, Ifan G

2010-01-01

206

THE MODERN TOOLKIT IN THE RESEARCH OF MACROECONOMIC DYNAMICS. 3 - THE PHASE ANALYSIS ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????. 3 – ??????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the third article from the series of the works dedi-cated to the tool methods of the research of macroeco-nomic dynamics the phase space, the phase analysis in it and their macroeconomic appendices are described. Phase pictures alongside with a parameter contain its first derivative (tendency, which in the best degree characterizes aspirations of a macroeconomic process. In a phase space, periodic economic processes (sea-sonal prevalence and cyclicity become rather cyclic or “circular” designs, which facilitate the recognition of economic archetypes. The phase analysis has appeared new, more universal, simple, but at the same time thin, intellectual, mathematically exacted tool at the re-search of macroeconomic conjuncture. It has enabled the possibility to analyze, to represent, to visualize and to predict the development of cycles in macroeco-nomic analytically, numerically and in a graphical way

Botascheva F. B.

2012-11-01

207

Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later reference. The presentation concentrates on the main principles and the characteristics of the solutions. The theory also serves as a basis for the formulation of numerical models and for intelligent interpretation of their results.

Krenk, Steen

2001-01-01

208

Safety analysis of modern heritage masonry buildings : box-buildings in Recife, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Box-buildings are structural masonry buildings named as such because of their shape. There are around 5,000 of them in Recife, Brazil. This paper presents a safety analysis of one box-building that suffered collapse on December 2007. The research aims at quantifying the safety of this type of existing buildings and at better understanding their structural behavior to try to identify the reasons for the collapse. A finite element model was prepared and a set of nonlinear numeric...

Carvalho, Jenner; Ortega, Javier; Louren O, Paulo B.; Ramos, Lu S. F.; Roman, Humberto R.

2014-01-01

209

The Multiple Modernities of Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity’ but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

Thomassen, BjØrn

210

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values), as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE), dendrite arm spacing (DAS) and length eutectic (Le) and also distribution by size (histogram) and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5...

Zlati?anin Biljana V.; Radonji? Branislav M.; Jordovi? Branka M.

2002-01-01

211

Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

212

Theoretical analysis of a pulsed HCl chemical laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computer analysis of a pulsed HCl chemical laser was performed to study the output performance of the laser. The constant gain model was used for the calculation. The ignition of reaction is made by the delta-function action of H and Cl atoms of some concentration. As for the reaction processes controlling a HCl chemical laser, pumping reaction, vibration-translation energy transfer, vibration-vibration energy transfer, and dissociation-recombination reaction were considered in this analysis. As the results of analysis, big output power can be obtained when the dissociation of H2 is caused at the beginning. On the other hand, output power is hardly obtained when the initial dissociation of cl2 is caused. The output power of 200 kW/cc and 0.1 J/cc is expected for the HCl laser of initial H2 dissociation. The ratio of the output of a HCl laser to that of a HF laser is about 1/10. (Kato, T.)

213

An Empirical Analysis on the Development of Modern Service Industry and Its Countermeasures in Qingdao during Post-WTO Transitional Period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the end of Post-WTO Transitional Period, Qingdao’s modern services present a picture of unprecedented prosperity. But during the process of development, many sharp problems emerged and it needs to handle seriously. By an empirical analysis on influ...

Wenxue Zhang; Peng Liu

2010-01-01

214

Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

215

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

216

Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

Marius BREBENEL

2014-04-01

217

Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

218

Moderne angst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapporten tager afsæt i det moderne menneskes angst med en socialpsykologisk indgangsvinkel. Med udgangspunkt i sociologerne David Riesman, Ulrich Beck, Zygmunt Bauman og Anthony Giddens, som alle behandler socialpsykologiske problemstillinger, vil der forsøges at finde svar på om samfundsmæssige processer, såsom individualiseringen og globaliseringen, har haft indflydelse på angstens udvikling. Spørgsmålet er da om disse processer har gjort angsten mere diffus, da livet i moderni...

Nøhr, Anna Louise; Meinertz, Sarah; Viberg Pedersen, Anne; Jeppesen, Henriette; Mandsberg, Helena; Silva, Anna Victorine; Campbell, Malene; Larsson, Stine Lea

2010-01-01

219

Analysis of modern threats to information security occurring while the network interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification of information security threats from networking was based on the general scheme of networking, networks location, network infra-structure components relative to potential offenders. Furthermore, three classes of vulnerable parts of the system (software, hardware, man-made were identified for convenience. The structuring method of objectives and functions was used for the analysis. According to it, the set of vulnerable sections and security threats is represented as a system of six levels, where the upper components – goals, and the bottom ones- functions, except for the level of the life cycle. The result is a system, where each vulnerable part can be compared with the list of threats to information security.

Babenko German Valerievich

2010-08-01

220

Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

 
 
 
 
221

Thermodynamic analysis of chemical-looping hydrogen generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers of CLH is developed. ? The second law efficiencies of different metal-based CLC and CLH were determined. ? The lower equilibrium temperature of Ni makes it a better candidate for CLH. ? The conversion rate of Ni and Co is more than 80 percentages. - Abstract: Recently, interest in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has grown because it is a technique that could allow cost-effective carbon capture and storage. Recently, the chemical-looping process was also proposed for the production of hydrogen. Chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH) generation, which is a derivation of CLC, is a water-splitting process that involves the reduction–oxidation of a metal oxide. CLC and CLH can reduce the irreversibility and the extent of heat rejection, thereby improving the cycle efficiency. The current paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of CLH to illustrate its potential for improved efficiency. A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers based on their thermodynamic properties is developed, and several candidate materials are reviewed. From a thermodynamic perspective, metals such as Ni and Fe are more suitable for CLH, whereas metals such as Ca and Cd can provide higher efficiency for CLC. Finally, comments on the practical implementations of CLH in power plants are presented

222

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range.

Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel E-mail: israel@techunix.technion.ac.il

2003-05-01

223

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range

224

Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

2008-01-01

225

A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that almost all elements in the periodic table are found in petroleum products, varying from percent levels for C-H-S to parts per million and parts per billion levels for transition metals. The presence of elements in crude oil is ascribed to its marine animal and vegetative origin. Compared with two other fossil fuels coal and oil shale petroleum is a lesser source of environmental pollution. Extensive data on crude oils composition are available. Determination of S, N, V, Ni, and Fe form an integral part of crude assay analysis of oils carried out by all oil companies. Generally it is agreed that V, Ni, and Fe occur as metallo-porphyrins; Hg, Sb, and As as organometallic compounds; Mo and Ge as carboxylic acid salts; and silica and NaCl as colloidal minerals. The significance of metals either naturally present in crude and gasoline or purposely added to petroleum products is described. Trace metals in used lubricating oils indicate the wear performance of an engine, and can be used as a preventive maintenance check. A number of sample preparation schemes are necessary depending on the analytical technique to be used. This can vary from procedures as simple as dilution for XRF of AAS, to more involved procedures such as oxygen bomb combustion for ion chromatography, or wet ashing for AAS or ICPAES. Frequently, robots are used to speed sample dilution for XRF or ICPAES

226

Attempt of analysis of the functional state of modern students of technical higher educational establishment.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The functional state of students of higher educational establishment - general and special medical separation on employments on physical education is considered. 31 student of general separation and 56 students of the special medical separation took part in an experiment (age 17-20 years. Such indexes of the cardiovascular system, as coefficient of economized of circulation of blood, vegetative index of Kerdo, minute volume of blood, are investigational. It is set that adaptation of vagetonic to the dosed physical loading is more high, than at symbatotonic. On the absolute values of violation of economized of circulation of blood at vagetonic less than, than in symbatotonic. On the analysis of coefficient of economized of circulation of blood about 87% students of medical separation and 67% general separation have violation of economized of circulation of blood of the cardiovascular system. The formula of index of adaptation is offered in relation to the physical loading. It is set that among the students of task medical force of violation of economized of circulation of blood among vagetonic have 100% tested persons, among symbatotonic are 86% persons (from them 2% youths and 98% girls. Among normatonic are 85% students.

Kopa V.M.

2012-08-01

227

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

Bartlomiej Zylinski

2011-01-01

228

Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

229

Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

2010-12-01

230

Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group they were 48,451.00 and 46,029.00 RUB/QALY, respectively. The NMB for the control group amounted to 10,790,910.00 and 10,815,840.00 RUB without and with discounting, respectively, while for the study group the values were 11,904,500.00 and 11,927,390.00 RUB.ConclusionsThe results of clinical and economic analysis show that treatment of the metabolic syndrome, including pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance, should be prioritized over mere medical advisory and lifestyle modifications.

Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

2014-04-01

231

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

232

Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O?NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H?H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

233

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancip...

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

234

Detection of Enterprises’ Modernization Directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study of decision-making steps in determining the focus of the modernization of enterprise development products and services. A general scheme to determine the basic directions in the future potential of modernization development with the option of using morphological analysis and Pareto optimization.

Alexander S. Varyukhin

2011-11-01

235

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

Xiaoxia Ding

2012-07-01

236

Modern Cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the unive The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and velocity biases, dark-matter halos of galaxies, etc. In short, the book has substantial content of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models as well as from the basics to development. I would recommend this book to those who are working on and interested in this subject. (book review; Ian D. Lawry ISBN: 0-7503-0604-1)

237

Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

238

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE ON NON-USE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN IN NIGERIA: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF 1990 AND 2008 NDHS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary The role of religion in contraceptive use is an issue of significant debate. This study employed the 1990 and 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine differences and similarities in the influence of religious affiliation on non-use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria over the last two decades. The results suggest that a significant increase has occurred in the level of awareness of modern contraceptives in Nigeria over the last two decades, but that non-use remains very high. Religion could not independently predict non-use of modern contraceptives in 1990. Women of Islam and Traditional religions were more likely to have never used or not to be using modern contraceptives compared with Catholics and Protestants in 2008 (pmodern contraception in Nigeria. Education and employment are critical in this regard and adherents of Islam and Traditional religions require special attention. PMID:25167334

Wusu, Onipede

2014-08-28

239

Phase transitions modern applications  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

Gitterman, Moshe

2014-01-01

240

Spectroscopic analysis of cinnamic acid using quantum chemical calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra for cinnamic acid have been recorded for the vibrational and spectroscopic analysis. The observed fundamental frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The computed frequencies and optimized parameters have been calculated by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods and the corresponding results are tabulated. On the basis of the comparison between computed and experimental results assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes are examined. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The alternation of the vibration pattern of the pedestal molecule related to the substitutions was analyzed. The 13C and 1H NMR spectra have been recorded and the chemical shifts have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Mulliken charges, UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of have been calculated and reported. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was constructed.

Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Spectroscopic analysis of cinnamic acid using quantum chemical calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR spectra for cinnamic acid have been recorded for the vibrational and spectroscopic analysis. The observed fundamental frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The computed frequencies and optimized parameters have been calculated by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods and the corresponding results are tabulated. On the basis of the comparison between computed and experimental results assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes are examined. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The alternation of the vibration pattern of the pedestal molecule related to the substitutions was analyzed. The (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra have been recorded and the chemical shifts have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Mulliken charges, UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of have been calculated and reported. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was constructed. PMID:25315873

Vinod, K S; Periandy, S; Govindarajan, M

2015-02-01

242

Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

1996-12-31

243

[Quality assurance of the chemical analysis measurements of foods].  

Science.gov (United States)

This document outlined the quality assurance of measurements in the chemical analysis practiced in the food testing in Japan. The quality required for a measurement is the confidence, but necessary degree of confidence is dependent on the intended use of the measurement. The recognition of the purpose of measurement is important in quality assurance of measurements. Once the required quality is decided, the quality of the measurement is assured by various quality assurance means. The international documents about quality assurance of measurement are introduced in this document, as well as the domestic notifications enforced in Japan. Means such as the validation of analytical method and the internal quality control are explained. The concept of the measurement uncertainty is also introduced. PMID:23243984

Matsuda, Rieko

2012-01-01

244

Directly amplified redox sensor for on-chip chemical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, many groups have studied redox sensors for chemical analysis. A redox sensor has certain powerful advantages, such as its ability to detect multiple ions inside the sensing area, and its ability to measure concentrations of materials by using voltage and current signals. However, the output current signal of a redox sensor decreases when either concentration or sensing area decreases. Therefore, we propose the use of an amplified redox sensor (ARS) for measuring small current signals. The proposed sensor consists of a working electrode combined with a bipolar transistor. In this study, we fabricated an ARS sensor and performed low-concentration measurements using current signal amplification with an integrated bipolar transistor. The sensor chip successfully detected a potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) concentration of as low as 10 µM using cyclic voltammetry.

Takahashi, Sou; Futagawa, Masato; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

2014-03-01

245

Modern electrodynamics  

CERN Document Server

An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

Zangwill, Andrew

2013-01-01

246

Modern Baking  

Science.gov (United States)

Baking is an art, a science, and a field that many people (especially young students) wish to learn more about. Visitors to this site can learn about the hands-on details of baking, along with gaining insights into business trends within the baking world. Modern Baking contains classified ads for those bakers looking to pick up some new equipment (or a new job), and a section of up-to-date industry news as well. The content is divided into eight sections: Formulas & Techniques, Cake Decorating, Supermarket Baking, Retail Baking, Specialty Wholesale Baking, Foodservice Baking, Bread & Pastry, and Bakery Management. Visitors would do well to try the formula in the Formulas & Techniques section for chestnut and cognac brioche, as it brings together two flavors that are truly divine.

2006-11-16

247

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

248

Análisis del algoritmo red con la teoría de control moderna / Analysis of the red algorithm with modern control theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estabilidad del sistema formado por el algoritmo de detección temprana aleatoria (RED) en conjunto con el protocolo de control de transmisión (TCP) en función de los parámetros del sistema utilizando la teoría de control moderna. Se deduce la ecuación lin [...] ealizada del sistema mediante la cual se hace un estudio de la estabilidad en función de la posición de los polos de la matriz del sistema linealizado. Se observa que a medida que crece la cantidad N de conexiones TCP, disminuye la estabilidad. Mediante simulaciones, se comprobaron los resultados obtenidos del análisis teórico. Los experimentos incluyeron diferentes condiciones de operación del sistema con varios valores de máxima probabilidad de marcado de los paquetes, observándose que para valores grandes de probabilidad, la estabilidad relativa también disminuye Abstract in english This paper presents a study of the stability of the system of the RED (Random Early Detection) algorithm in conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) based on the parameters of the system using modern control theory. We deduce the linearized equation of the system through which a study of [...] stability depending on the position of the poles of the linearized system matrix is made. It was noted that as the number (N) of TCP connections grows, stability reduces. Through simulations, the expected results were verified by theoretical analysis. The experiments include different system operating conditions with various values of highest probability of marking packets, noting that for high probability values, the relative stability also decreases

Claudio, Parra.

2010-03-01

249

Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

Andrei, Terian.

2014-06-01

250

Analysis Of Samples From Tank 6F Chemical Cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic aci added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

251

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2010-02-02

252

Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine method for detection of early events in lipid oxidation in milk to predict shelf-life

Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D

2006-01-01

253

Structural analysis of photosystem I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking  

Science.gov (United States)

Thylakoid membranes, obtained from leaves of 14 d soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) plants, were treated with the chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to investigate the structural organization of photosystem I. Polypeptides were resolved using lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were identified by western blot analysis using a library of polyclonal antibodies specific for photosystem I subunits. An electrophoretic examination of crosslinked thylakoids revealed numerous crosslinked products, using either glutaraldehyde or EDC. However, only a few of these could be identified by western blot analysis using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several glutaraldehyde dependent crosslinked species were identified. A single band was identified minimally composed of PsaC and PsaD, documenting the close interaction between these two subunits. The most interesting aspect of these studies was a crosslinked species composed of the PsaB subunit observed following EDC treatment of thylakoids. This is either an internally crosslinked species, which will provide structural information concerning the topology of the complex PsaB protein, a linkage with a polypeptide for which we do not yet have an immunological probe, or a masking of epitopes by the EDC linkage at critical locations in the peptide which is linked to PsaB.

Armbrust, T. S.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

254

Theoretical aspects by means of discourse analysis of juvenile subculture furry and its sublanguage in conditions of modern mass-media universum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines current theoretical and cultural discourse-analysis issue concerned with discourse studies and intercultural communication of modern mass-media universum, and cultural values in spiritual human space. Special attention is given to the significance of experimental verification in the authentic field volume for the dynamics of optimization and accuracy linguistic and extralinguistic data. Also examined are innovations in theory and forms of representation that are responses to such spiritual contexts and influences.

Alina Arnaytova

2014-04-01

255

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

256

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented analysis and Recursive Design methods as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method. (author)

257

A Contribution To The Development And Analysis Of A Combined Current-Voltage Instrument Transformer By Using Modern CAD Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle aim and task of the thesis is the analysis and development of 20 kV combined current-voltage instrument transformer (CCVIT) by using modern CAD techniques. CCVIT is a complex electromagnetic system comprising of four windings and two magnetic cores in one insulation housing for simultaneous transformation of high voltages and currents to measurable signal values by standard instruments. The analytical design methods can be applied on simple electromagnetic configurations, which is not the case with the CCVIT. There is mutual electromagnetic influence between the voltage measurement core (VMC) and the current measurement core (CMC). After the analytical CCVIT design had been done, exact determination of its metrological characteristics has been accomplished by using the numerical finite element method implemented in the FEM-3D program package. The FEM-3D calculation is made in 19 cross-sectional layers of the z-axis of the CCVIT three-dimensional domain. By FEM-3D application the three-dimensional CCVIT magnetic field distribution is derived. This is the basis for calculation of the initial metrological characteristics of the CCVIT (VMC is accuracy class 3 and CMC is accuracy class 1). By using the stochastic optimization technique based on genetic algorithm the CCVIT optimal design is achieved. The objective function is the minimum of the metrological parameters (VIM voltage error and CMC current error). There are I I independent input variables during te I I independent input variables during the optimization process by which the optimal project is derived. The optimal project is adapted for realization of a prototype and the optimized project is derived. Full comparative analysis of the metrological and the electromagnetic characteristics of the three projects is accomplished. By application of the program package MATLAB/SIMULINK the CCVIT transient phenomena is analyzed for different regimes in the three design projects. In the Instrument Transformer Factory of EMO A. D.-Ohrid a CCVIT prototype has been realized and it has been tested experimentally in a laboratory, tbrough which the CAD results have been verified. The prototype VIM is accuracy class 1 and the CMC is accuracy class 0,5 (one accuracy class higher than the accuracy class of the initial project).(Author)

258

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

2001-07-01

259

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

Hanwell Marcus D

2012-08-01

260

American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility  

Science.gov (United States)

The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

daSilva, Arlindo

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Savremene metode analize ulja u tehni?kim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analiza ulja na osnovu pravilno definisanog programa predstavlja veoma efikasan metod monitoringa stanja tehni?kih sistema koji obezbe?uje rane upozoravaju?e znake potencijalnih problema, koji vode ka otkazu i zastoju tehni?kih sistema. Ova analiza je veoma efikasan alat programa za monitoring stanja tehni?kih sistema. Mnogobrojni ure?aji i testovi za analizu ulja omogu?avaju kvalitetan monitoring i dijagnosticiranje problema koji nastaju u procesu podmazivanja. Koriš?enjem programa za analizu motornih ulja: skra?uje se neplanirano vreme otkaza vozila, poboljšava pouzdanost vozila, produžava radni vek motora, optimizira interval zamene ulja i smanjuju troškovi održavanja vozila. / Different technical systems require an appropriate lubricant to be used at an appropriate place, at appropriate time and in appropriate quantity. Determination of technical systems condition has a very important role in the development of theory and practice of friction, wear and lubrication. Lubricant is, as a contact element of tribomechanical systems, a carrier of information about the state of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. The analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, thus represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Introduction It is not always simple to determine a type of lubricant, frequency of lubrication and the quantity of lubricant to be used. The optimal recommendation would be to follow specifications of technical system manufacturers, experience, lab research or professional recommendation of lubricant suppliers. Rational lubricant consumption can be obtained by timely oil replacement, which then enables a maximum possible period of use as well as high-quality lubrication. Since the primary role of lubricants is to reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result of wear processes, solid particles from the environment, water and products of fuel combustion. D

Sreten R. Peri?

2010-01-01

262

Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.

1976-01-01

263

Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs. Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsi

Livezey, Bradley C; Zusi, Richard L

2007-01-01

264

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

2012-01-01

265

Chemical analysis of archaeological copper and brass from northeastern Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is now possible, with some reliability, to separate native from European copper using chemical analysis, archaeological copper has been sorted into geological (North American) or smelted (European) groups and thereby help address issues relating to the cultural impact of earliest aboriginal - European contact in northeastern Ontario. Twenty six metal samples from 11 archaeological sites, dating from the 17th to 19th centuries, were analyzed by INAA. The results were compared with reference data for native copper and European trade copper and indicate that of the 17 copper samples in the suite, an archaeologically-unexpected high number of 12 were made of native copper. The majority of these samples derived from the post-contact early 17th century Providence Bay Odawa village. The remaining samples were made of brass and zinc. Two of the brass samples, from Point Louise, have remarkably similar chemistries and probably came from the same object, or at least from the same batch of brass. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

266

Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China and 1.58% (Thailand. Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained ?-pinene 3.59, ?-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, ?-pinene 0.74, ?-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains ?-pinene 0.305, ?-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, ?-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, ?-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%.

Misbah Sultan

2005-01-01

267

Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

2015-02-01

268

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 ?m and 1000 ?m were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

2003-01-01

269

Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

270

Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of pooled calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of levels of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are compared to predictions of the Horwitz formula. It is suggested that this method is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate that the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analytical sciences because they direct researcher's attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than towards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professional laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of analytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method validation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at laboratories.

Andersen, Jens; Alfaloje, Haedar S.H.

2012-01-01

271

Studies on Chemical Analysis of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L. Wilczek  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine commercially grown varieties of mung bean were subjected to chemical analysis to determine total protein contents, amino acids, lipids, ash, crude fiber, moisture and calories. All varieties differed significantly in their total protein contents (22.88 - 24.65%; total amino acids (20.98 - 25.61% and lipids (1.53 - 2.63% whereas the differences in the ash contents (3.20 - 3.87%, crude fiber (4.30 - 4.80%, moisture (10.13 - 10.77% and total calories (341 - 371 were non-significant. Higher values were recorded for amino acids such as Lysine (1.54 - 1.97%, aspartic acid (2.73 - 3.48% and glutamic acid (4.29 - 5.24% whereas the sulpher containing amino acids were limiting. The new varieties compared favourably with the native cultivar in their nutritional status. Variety NIAB Mung - 92 was found to be superior among all the varieties studied for seed protein and sulpher containing amino acids contents.

B.Saleem

1998-01-01

272

Microcomputer controlled chemical and radiochemical separations and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated radiochemical flow analysis (ARFA) system was developed which integrates chemical and radiochemical techniques into one system through the use of a microcomputer. The operator, through the microcomputer, controls valves and pumps to transfer sample and reagent solutions to counting loops, ion exchange columns and holdup reservoirs. A Ge(Li) detector monitors the radioactivity of samples delivered to counting loops or of species retained on ion exchange resins. Trace metals present in tap and river water samples were concentrated on Chelex-100 ion exchange resin, stripped with acid, activated and counted. Zn, Cu, Mn, Br and K were determined at ng/mL concentrations and Dy, Eu, and U were determiend at sub ng/mL concentrations. Species in reactor coolant water at the OSU TRIGA reactor were concentrated and counted directly on an ion exchange column. Test solutions of Mn2+, Eu3+, In3+, Dy3+ tracers and humic acid were passed through a Chelex-100 resin. The retention behavior of the metal tracers was used to follow the kinetics of the metal complexation

273

Molecular analysis and chemical evaluation of ephedra plants in Mongolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ephedrae herba has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese (Kampo) medicine from ancient times, with the primary resource being in China. In the present study, a field survey as well as molecular and chemical assessments were conducted on Ephedra plants in Mongolia to clarify whether they could be an alternative resource of the Ephedrae herba used in Japanese Kampo medicine. Ephedra sinica, E. equisetina, E. przewalskii, E. regeliana, E. monosperma and an unknown taxon (ESP) collected in Mongolia were divided into 9 genotypes on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and trnK gene. E. sinica, E. equisetina, and E. monosperma presented completely identical sequences to the corresponding species from China. The sequences of trnK gene and 18S rRNA gene provide a useful index for identification and taxonomic classification of Mongolian Ephedra plants. Quantitative analysis of 5 ephedrine alkaloids revealed that almost all Mongolian Ephedra plants contained high amounts of total ephedrine alkaloids (TAs, 1.86-4.90%) and a high percentage of pseudoephedrine in TAs differed obviously from the Chinese. E. sinica and E. equisetina found in eastern and central Mongolia, showing total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine higher than 1.43%, were potential new resources of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade Ephedrae herba. PMID:19571392

Kitani, Yuki; Zhu, Shu; Omote, Takayuki; Tanaka, Ken; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Mikage, Masayuki; Komatsu, Katsuko

2009-07-01

274

Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980). The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issue...

Blagojevi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

275

Characterization and analysis on chemical and mechanical interactions during chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of copper  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is one of the most important processes in semiconductor processing. Each layer on the wafer needs to be planarized before the next layer is deposited. This planarization is often accomplished using CMP. Better understanding of the mechanical properties of consumables and the roles of chemical reactions during polishing is required for the development of future CMP innovations. ^ The mechanical properties of the CMP pad are very important to the polish...

Kim, Bum Soo

2008-01-01

276

Analysis and design of plasma chemical reactions based on quantum chemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elementary processes in plasma chemical reactions were studied on the basis of an ab initio molecular orbital method. A pressure dependence of the film structure prepared by plasma CVD of vinylsilane was consistent with an excitation energy dependence of gas phase reactions of vinylsilane predicted by molecular orbital calculations. Anomalous electronic structures at the lowest excited triplet state of SiH3F and SiH2FCH=CH2 were predicted by a quantum chemical study. (orig.)

277

Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, fo...

Livezey, Bradley C.; Zusi, Richard L.

2007-01-01

278

An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

2012-05-01

279

Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

Justas Braži?nas

2011-04-01

280

Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

Alina PROFIROIU

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Activation Analysis of Biological Tissue without Chemical Separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activation analysis studies of blood and tumour tissue samples have been made using both neutrons and 25-MeV bremsstrahlung for activation and a large Ge(Li) detector for gamma measurements. The combination of the high resolution of the detector and the two methods of activation allow the measurement of over 20 different elements without the necessity for making any chemical separations. Immediately after activation with thermal neutrons the principal element seen with a gamma detector is Na. The Ge(Li) detector allows measurement of K, Cu, and Mn photopeaks which are visible through the 24Na spectrum. After a decay time of about 10 to 12 days, the Na and other short-lived isotopes will have disappeared, leaving Sn, Hg, Cr, Cd, Au, Sb, Br, Ag, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co. The amounts of each of these elements can be determined directly from the photopeaks measured with the Ge(Li) detector. There are a number of elements that are either not made radioactive by thermal neutrons or have short shalf-lives and cannot be measured through the large 24Na background. In an attempt to detect these elements, and to prevent the production of 24Na, 25-MeV bremsstrahlung from an electron linear accelerator was used for producing the activity. Immediately after irradiation, the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the sample can be measured by determining the decay rate of the positron annihilation gammas. After about two hours, all the 11C will have decours, all the 11C will have decayed out and other elements such as I, Mg, and Ba can be measured. Typical gamma spectra of biological samples are shown and sensitivities for measuring the different elements are discussed. (author)

282

XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1?m. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

2013-12-01

283

Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. PMID:25459608

Shoba, D; Periandy, S; Govindarajan, M; Gayathri, P

2015-02-01

284

Comprehensive analysis of chemical bonding in boron clusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comprehensive analysis of chemical bonding in pure boron clusters. It is now established in joint experimental and theoretical studies that pure boron clusters are planar or quasi-planar at least up to twenty atoms. Their planarity or quasi-planarity was usually discussed in terms of pi-delocalization or pi-aromaticity. In the current article, we demonstrated that one cannot ignore sigma-electrons and that the presence of two-center two-electron (2c--2e) peripheral B--B bonds together with the globally delocalized sigma-electrons must be taken into consideration when the shape of pure boron cluster is discussed. The global aromaticity (or global antiaromaticity) can be assigned on the basis of the 4n+2 (or 4n) electron counting rule for either pi- or sigma-electrons in the planar structures. We showed that pure boron clusters could have double (sigma- and pi-) aromaticity (B3-, B4, B5+, B6(2+), B7+, B7-, B8, B(8)2-, B9-, B10, B11+, B12, and B13+), double (sigma- and pi-) antiaromaticity (B6(2-), B15), or conflicting aromaticity (B5-,sigma-antiaromatic and pi-aromatic and B14, sigma-aromatic and pi-antiaromatic). Appropriate geometric fit is also an essential factor, which determines the shape of the most stable structures. In all the boron clusters considered here, the peripheral atoms form planar cycles. Peripheral 2c--2e B--B bonds are built up from s to p hybrid atomic orbitals and this enforces the planarity of the cycle. If the given number of central atoms (1, 2, 3, or 4) can perfectly fit the central cavity then the overall structure is planar. Otherwise, central atoms come out of the plane of the cycle and the overall structure is quasi-planar. PMID:17111395

Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Boldyrev, Alexander I

2007-01-15

285

Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, 32P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reanting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using 85Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of activity changes from records of changes of a digital counter and a timer which were continuously and photographically recorded, in spite of the fact that the residence time was only several seconds. The diffusion constant was then obtained from the concentration-time curve. (author)

286

Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01

287

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

288

Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

2013-01-01

289

A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

Gupta, J. P.

1989-01-01

290

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100? and 1000?C) w...

Pedro Jose Sánchez-Soto; Antonio Ruíz-Conde; Eduardo Garzón Garzón

2012-01-01

291

Modern notion about the structure of active centers on oxide catalyst surfaces and some problems of quantum-chemical description of reactions with their participation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of spectroscopic investigations of the active center nature and of the reaction mechanism of heterogeneous acidic and heterogeneous coordination catalysis on oxide catalysts are discussed. Importance of quantum-chemical calculations for interpretation and compreheusion of spectral data is underlined. Some prlblems are formulated for using of quantum chemistry while investigating active centres and the mechanism of considered types of te heterogeneos-catalytc reactions, among them reactions with participation of low-coordinated ions of molybdenum and vanadium

292

Modern Ferrite Technology  

CERN Document Server

Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

Goldman, Alex

2006-01-01

293

The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Scien...

Grandjean Philippe; Eriksen Mette L; Ellegaard Ole; Wallin Johan A

2011-01-01

294

Chemical physics of decomposition of energetic materials. Problems and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The review is concerned with analysis of the results obtained in the kinetic and mechanistic studies on decomposition of energetic materials (explosives, powders and solid propellants). It is shown that the state-of-the art in this field is inadequate to the potential of modern chemical kinetics and chemical physics. Unsolved problems are outlined and ways of their solution are proposed.

Smirnov, Lev P [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2004-11-30

295

Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

J. L. Jimenez

2009-12-01

296

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

297

Chemical shift and coupling constant analysis of dibenzyloxy disulfides  

Science.gov (United States)

Dialkoxy disulfides have found applications in the realm of organic synthesis as an S2 or alkoxy donor, under thermal and photolytic decompositions conditions, respectively. Spectrally, dibenzyloxy disulfides possess an ABq in the 1H NMR, which can shift by over 1.1 ppm depending on the substituents present on the aromatic ring, as well as the solvent employed. The effect of the said substituents and solvent were analyzed and compared to the center of the ABq, geminal coupling, and the differences in chemical shifts of the individual doublets. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations demonstrated the intramolecular H-bonding arrangement, found within the dibenzyloxy disulfides.

Stoutenburg, Eric G.; Gryn'ova, Ganna; Coote, Michelle L.; Priefer, Ronny

2015-02-01

298

Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

2008-01-01

299

Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the quality of different brands of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC available in Bangladesh. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, insoluble residue (IR, free lime and loss on ignition (LOI were determined in accordance with British Standard (BS Specifications. All the results are presented to provide both quantitative and qualitative notion of several locally produced ordinary Compositions of most of this constituents as determined experimentally were within the range of the standard values. The possible reasons for variation in chemical compositions and their consequences have been discussed.

MS Ali

2008-12-01

300

Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

Blagojevi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

302

Network technology for depot modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

Hostick, C.J.

1990-12-01

303

Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

Noy, A

2006-01-02

304

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

305

Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

306

Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

307

Measurement uncertainty for QC/QA applied to the chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expression of uncertainty applied to the chemical analysis is highly recommended with increasing demands upon the systematic Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) with ISO 17025. For the quantification of quality source, 7 major common sources of uncertainty, normally contributing to the quality of the chemical analysis, were selected form QA/QC literatures of chemical analysis. They were classified into repeatability, drift, uncertainty in standards, linearity of calibration, homogeneity, stability of sample, and matrix effect. And the quantification of the sources by means of measurement uncertainty was proposed as a prerequisite steps for QA/QC. Examples applied to the quantification procedures of modeling, combination and expression of standard uncertainty for the 7 major common sources were presented as a reference guide for QA/QC in chemical analysis

308

Problem Based Learning (PBL): Analysis of Continuous Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors with a Process Control Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is focused on a project that integrates the curriculum such as thermodynamic, chemical reactorengineering, linear algebra, differential equations and computer programming. The purpose is thatstudents implement the most knowledge and tools to analyse the stirred tank chemical reactor as a simpledynamic system. When the students finished this practice they should have learned about analysis ofdynamic system through bifurcation analysis, hysteresis phenomena, find equilibrium points, s...

Regalado-Méndez Alejandro; Cid-Rodríguez Ma. del Rosario P.; Báez-González Juan G.

2010-01-01

309

Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein. The more important ones are discussed and, where relevant, compared with the ...

Beek, T. A.; Montoro, P.

2009-01-01

310

O direito moderno sob a ótica dos clássicos da sociologia: análises e questionamentos / Le droit moderne dans la perspective des classiques de la sociologie: analyses et questionnements / Modern law under the lens of the classics of sociology: analysis and questions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pretende-se, neste artigo, fazer uma análise acerca do direito moderno a partir das três abordagens clássicas da sociologia - da perspetiva weberiana, durkhemiana e marxiana sobre o campo do direito. Procurar-se-á especificar as diferentes interpretações sociológicas, discutindo-as a partir das rela [...] ções sociais e políticas estabelecidas entre a sociedade civil, o Estado e as ideologias políticas que concretizam a atual configuração do direito. Assim, como se trata de visões fundadoras, interessa-nos tanto o que elas propuseram quanto o que elas não puderam responder, reclamando continuidades da sociologia jurídica contemporânea, com atenção especial para o caso brasileiro. Portanto, pretende-se demonstrar a abertura paradigmática que a sociologia do direito possui desde sua formação e como o direito, como temática sociológica, está presente desde a fundação da disciplina. Abstract in english In this article, we intend to undertake an analysis of modern law, working from three classical, sociological approaches (the Weberian, Durkheimian, and Marxian perspectives) to the field of law. We will seek to specify the different sociological interpretations, discussing them departing from the p [...] olitical and social relations established between civil society, the State and the political ideologies that solidify the current configuration of the law. In this manner, and given that one deals with foundational visions, they interest us as much for what they propose as for what they cannot respond to, claiming a continuity with contemporary, juridical sociology, with a special attention given to the Brazilian case. As such, we intend to demonstrate the paradigmatic place that the sociology of law has possessed since its formation and how the law, as a sociological theme, is present at the foundation of the discipline.

Amílcar Cardoso Vilaça de, Freitas; Elizardo Scarpati, Costa.

2013-12-01

311

Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA sugar-phosphate backbone has a substantial influence on the DNA structural dynamics. Structural biology and bioinformatics studies revealed that the DNA backbone in experimental structures samples a wide range of distinct conformational substates, known as rotameric DNA backbone conformational families. Their correct description is essential for methods used to model nucleic acids and is known to be the Achilles heel of force field computations. In this study we report the benchmark database of MP2 calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set of atomic orbitals with aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets, MP2(T,Q), augmented by ?CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ corrections. The calculations are performed in the gas phase as well as using a COSMO solvent model. This study includes a complete set of 18 established and biochemically most important families of DNA backbone conformations and several other salient conformations that we identified in experimental structures. We utilize an electronically sufficiently complete DNA sugar-phosphate-sugar (SPS) backbone model system truncated to prevent undesired intramolecular interactions. The calculations are then compared with other QM methods. The BLYP and TPSS functionals supplemented with Grimme's D3(BJ) dispersion term provide the best tradeoff between computational demands and accuracy and can be recommended for preliminary conformational searches as well as calculations on large model systems. Among the tested methods, the best agreement with the benchmark database has been obtained for the double-hybrid DSD-BLYP functional in combination with a quadruple-? basis set, which is, however, computationally very demanding. The new hybrid density functionals PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 yield outstanding results and even slightly outperform the computationally more demanding PWPB95 double-hybrid functional. B3LYP-D3 is somewhat less accurate compared to the other hybrids. Extrapolated MP2(D,T) calculations are not as accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data. PMID:23575975

Mládek, Arnošt; Krepl, Miroslav; Svozil, Daniel; Cech, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel; Zgarbová, Marie; Jure?ka, Petr; Sponer, Ji?í

2013-05-21

312

CFD ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN HUMAN NOSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to simulate the chemical transport of ammonia vapor with density ? = 0.6894 kg/m3 and coefficient of viscosity ? = 1.015e-05 kg/m-s inside the healthy Indian nose by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique and to analyze the olfactory sensitivity. The computed tomographic images of a healthy adultwith normal nasal structure and function was used to built a physically realistic model with the help of Mimics software. Navier-Stokes and continuity equations were solved numerically for steady and unsteady state conditions by finite volume method to determine laminar flow patterns. CFD simulation was performed using Gambit and Fluent software to visualize implications for olfaction. The graphs indicate that only part of the inspired chemical passes through the olfactory airway. The total olfactory uptake for the odorant increased as inlet velocity increased.

K.B. NAIDU

2013-04-01

313

Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put into effect, the final hurdle for industry adoption can only be made with the achievement of a financial return on investment. This study analyses the costs and benefits for implementing microwave systems and presents results for economic parameters used in cost calculations. The calculations method is outlined using a corrugated board case study. Furthermore in the age of green awakening microwave processing is argued to help improve process efficiency by using green electric supply hence reducing CO2 emissions.

A.M. Hasna

2011-01-01

314

Chemical diagnosis of DLC by ESR spectral analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with four precursor gases such as methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene in gas phase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that dangling-bond sites (DBSs) observed in all films were characterized by an isotropic broad single line. The DLC film with unsaturated precursor gases had the higher film growth rate and the higher DBS accumulative rate. Although the DBS in DLC films were quite stable at room temperature under anaerobic conditions, the DBS decayed rapidly to level off toward a limiting value when exposed to air. The stability and reactivity of the DBS in DLC film were assumed to depend on chemical structure of organic gas used as precursor. The detailed-ESR study on DBS of the DLC films could be one of the powerful tools for diagnosing the micro-structural properties and the quality of films.

315

The detection of irradiated food using chemical methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main stumbling blocks which has hindered the development of a detection method which is specific for irradiation is that the chemical changes which occur are in many cases very similar to those which arise as a result of other processes such as heating or autoxidation. Also, the actual amounts of radiolytic products formed are small at the doses which are likely to be used in practical food irradiation. For these reasons, it is important that a number of different tests are developed so that more than one test may be available to confirm whether or not a food has been irradiated. There are a number of chemical methods which merit further research and show promise for the detection of irradiated food. Of those which are currently under examination, the methods based on the radiolytic products formed from lipids show most promise and merit intensive investigation. 12 refs

316

Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin...

Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

2012-01-01

317

Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached...

Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, A. N. T.; Gosselink, R. J. A.; Westin, M.

2010-01-01

318

New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. I. Chemical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chitosan (CS), the deacetylated form of chitin, the second most abundant, natural polysaccharide, is attractive for applications in the biomedical field because of its biocompatibility and resorption rates, which are higher than chitin. Crosslinking improves chemical and mechanical stability of CS. Here, we report the successful utilization of a new set of crosslinkers for electrospun CS. Genipin, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have not been previ...

Austero, Marjorie S.; Donius, Amalie E.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Schauer, Caroline L.

2012-01-01

319

Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares the quality of different brands of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) available in Bangladesh. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, insoluble residue (IR), free lime and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined in accordance with British Standard (BS) Specifications. All the results are presented to provide both quantitative and qualitative notion of several locally produced...

Ms, Ali; Ia, Khan; Mi, Hossain

2008-01-01

320

Fluid dynamic analysis and modelling of industrial chemical equipment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research is aimed at contributing to the identification of reliable fully predictive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for the numerical simulation of equipment typically adopted in the chemical and process industries. The apparatuses selected for the investigation, specifically membrane modules, stirred vessels and fluidized beds, were characterized by a different and often complex fluid dynamic behaviour and in some cases the momentum transfer phenomena were coupled with mass t...

Coroneo, Mirella

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic rel...

Murtagh, Fionn

2008-01-01

322

A thermodynamic analysis of alternative approaches to chemical looping combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, we review and clarify some of the points made by previous authors regarding chemical looping combustion (CLC). While much of the recent interest in chemical looping combustion has been associated with carbon sequestration, our primary interest here is its potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of converting fuel chemical energy into useful work. We expand on several points about the details of CLC that we feel have not previously been sufficiently explored, and suggest alternative (and possibly more practical) approaches that exploit some of the same thermodynamic concepts. We illustrate our key points with {First} and {Second} Law analyses of ideal conceptual processes, which in addition to {CLC} also include isothermal, non-equilibrium, preheated combustion and combustion with thermochemical recuperation. Our results suggest that a significant portion of the potential efficiency benefit of CLC might be achieved without the need to handle and transport large quantities of solid oxygen storage material. Exploitation of this fact may lead to higher efficiency approaches for power generation from hydrocarbon fuels combustion.

Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL

2011-01-01

323

Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.  

Science.gov (United States)

LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites. PMID:15045345

Stochniol, G; Broel, S; Naoumidis, A; Nickel, H

1996-06-01

324

Heat and Chemical Exergy Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, derived from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat and electricity generation, can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated by substituting fossil fuels with a clean energy source, e.g. solar energy. However, solar radiation reaching the earth is diluted, intermittent, and, unequally distributed. These disadvantages can be overcome by converting solar energy into chemical energy carriers, i.e. solar fuels, such as solar hydrogen and solar methanol, which can be long-termed stored and long-ranged transported. Since the energy conversion efficiency of thermochemical processes is limited by the Carnot efficiency, the use of concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat provides a thermodynamically efficient path for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. In this study, water-gas shift reaction in parabolic trough collector is evaluated with regarding the heat exergy and chemical exergy analyses and the results are given as tables and graphs.

Öztürk, M.; Üçgül, I.; Özek, N.

2007-04-01

325

Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

RAYMOND E. MARCH

2000-06-01

326

Using space syntax analysis in detecting privacy: a comparative study of traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract The aim of this paper is, firstly, to examine the parameters which have a role in achieving privacy in using the interior domestic spaces and to what extent it influences on the way of distribution of these spaces; secondly, to investigate the relationship between house layout morphology and the privacy of inhabitants.  In this paper, space syntax theory is used to examine the spatial morphology of both types (traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, in order to detect the level of privacy in their configurations, through an analytical comparative approach. After a sample of house layouts has been analyzed morphologically, it has been researched as to whether the house layout pattern affects the level of privacy and to what degree. The results shows that the traditional house layouts offer better design solutions in terms of privacy because it carries a higher value of (RRA with a higher tendency towards asymmetry structure comparing with modern house layouts. It is believed that the data that is collected will be valuable in the design process of the future house layouts at least in the city of Erbil.

FARIS ALI MUSTAFA

2010-07-01

327

Quantitation of airborne chemical contamination of chemically amplified resists using radiochemical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Many chemically amplified resists based on acid catalysis exhibit extreme sensitivity to trace quantities of airborne organic contaminants. This sensitivity is manifested as a rapid degradation in lithographic properties upon standing in clean room air. In this work we have studied the absorption of one such airborne contaminant, N-methylpyrollidone (NMP), by thin polymer films. NMP labeled with radioactive 14C was introduced at a concentration of 10 ppb into a stream of purified air, and the film of interest was immersed in that airstream for a predetermined time under controlled conditions. This method provides an ideal means for determining rates of NMP uptake, correlating resist lithographic performance with absorbed NMP content, and for examining the effects of film thickness and composition on rates of absorption.

Hinsberg, William D.; MacDonald, Scott A.; Clecak, Nicholas J.; Snyder, Clinton D.

1992-06-01

328

Modernism / Andrus Kallastu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

2003-01-01

329

Different Models Used to Interpret Chemical Changes: Analysis of a Curriculum and Its Impact on French Students' Reasoning  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an analysis of the new French curriculum on chemical changes describing the underlying models and highlighting their relations to the empirical level. The authors of the curriculum introduced a distinction between the chemical change of a chemical system and the chemical reactions that account for it. We specify the different roles of…

Kermen, Isabelle; Meheut, Martine

2009-01-01

330

Physico-chemical analysis of some Pakistani crude oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical characteristics such as API gravity. Specific gravity, Pour point, Calorific value, Kinematic viscosity, Flash point, Reid vapour pressure, Copper corrosion. Condradson carbon, Water and sediments, Total sulphur, salt contents, Distillation range, I.B.P., F.B.P., total recovery, residue and metallic contents of some Pakistani crude oils collected from different oil fields of the Punjab and Sindh provinces has been employed to estimate the amounts of metallic elements, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Ni, Si, Na and K and V. Results have been compared with other international crude oils to assess the quality of Pakistani oils. (author)

331

Fused tricyclic phosphiranes - analysis of phosphorus chemical shieldings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1,2-Addition of transient W(CO)5-complexed phosphinidenes exo to hexamethyl Dewar benzene affords the novel 3-phosphatricyclo[3.2.0.02,4]hept-6-ene complexes. The fused tricyclic phosphiranes are obtained as both the Z and the thermally less stable E isomers, the 31P NMR chemical shifts of which differ by about 60 ppm. A computational investigation shows that the phosphorus pyramidalization and the presence of the double bond are responsible for this effect. The semiquantitative results cont...

Couzijn, E. P. A.; Ehlers, A. W.; Slootweg, J. C.; Schakel, M.; Krill, S.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A. L.; Lammertsma, K.

2008-01-01

332

Analysis of the method of division of spatial channels with successive interference cancellation in modern MIMO-OFDM cellular systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the problem of parallel data transmission via several spatial channels in modern high-throughput cellular systems employing the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and antenna arrays at both ends of the communication system. Parallel data transmission in such MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems is achieved by using the beamforming schemes in the transmitter and the special methods of the spatial-channel division in the receiver. Interference immunity of the scheme of the spatial-channel division by the maximum-likelihood criterion using the method of successive interference cancellation is analyzed. Probability of implementation of the stage of successive interference cancellation for the case of two spatial channels and various combinations of the coding schemes and modulations is obtained. We analyze the efficiency of a cellular communication system using horizontal coding and successive interference cancellation. Practical recommendations on choosing modulation and the code speed for each spatial channel, which ensure maximum interference immunity of a receiver with successive interference cancellation, are made.

Davydov, A. V.; Mal'Tsev, A. A.

2011-10-01

333

Minimizing Errors in Numerical Analysis of Chemical Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates minimizing errors in computational methods commonly used in chemistry. Provides a series of examples illustrating the propagation of errors, finite difference methods, and nonlinear regression analysis. Includes illustrations to explain these concepts. (MVL)

Rusling, James F.

1988-01-01

334

Variance-based sensitivity analysis for stochastic chemical kinetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensitivity analysis is a process of computing sensitivity indices, which are certain measures of importance of parameters in influencing the outputs of mathematical models. Sensitivity indices computed in variance-based sensitivity analysis yield quantitative answers to questions like how much on average the variance of model output, measuring its uncertainty, decreases, if exact values of certain unknown parameters are determined, e. g. in an experiment. We propose new sch...

Badowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

335

[Application of cluster analysis to chemical taxonomy of medicinal material maidong].  

Science.gov (United States)

The cluster analysis shows that the phytochemical constituents in genera Ophiopogon and Liriope are obviously different from each other and even different species of the same genus are not quite similar. Being consistent with the result of the traditional morphological classification, the cluster analysis may provide a chemical evidence for the phytochemical taxonomy and identification of medicinal material Maidong. PMID:8003209

Liu, X M; Sun, H X; Zeng, X W

1993-10-01

336

Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture.

Beeren, Sophie R.; Meier, Sebastian

2015-01-01

337

Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture.

Beeren, Sophie R.; Meier, Sebastian

2015-01-01

338

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for high spatial resolution chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to identify the spatial resolution limitations and assess the minimal detectable mass restrictions in laser-ablation based chemical analysis. The atomic emission of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) dopants in transparent dielectric Mica matrices was studied, to find that both these elements could be detected from 450 nm diameter ablation craters, full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Under optimal conditions, mass as low as 220 ag was measured, demonstrating the feasibility of using laser-ablation based chemical analysis to achieve high spatial resolution elemental analysis in real-time and at atmospheric pressure conditions.

339

Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. Ihat this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This feature is available for PC Windows users and provides simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) features. The productivity gains for both new, and experienced users from this userfriendly interface will be enormous, and the increased user productivity will pay back the developmental costs. RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 has been moderized and restructured in order to enhance the code portability, maintenance capability, readability, and flexibility. User convenience for PC Windows users has been realized by the on-line graphical processing through Windows programming. It should be noted that the code strcuture was fully domesticated, and future improvements could be easily carried out with the restructured version of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2

340

Chemical effects in materials studies using Auger analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core-valence-valence Auger spectra (AES) afford a unique local view of valence electron structure. The direct involvement in the Auger process of both core and valence states means that the transition matrix element will have a large value only for that portion of the valence electron density which covers the same spatial extent as the core wave function. Thus, the information content of AES is local to the atomic site containing the initial core hole. Our approach in understanding the local information content of AES has been mainly experimental through the intercomparison of model systems, both molecular and solid. The use of molecules in this regard is particularly useful since the vast array of molecular species of known geometric and electronic structures allows one to both vary these properties in a systematic fashion to observe trends and to choose a molecule to probe a specific chemical question

 
 
 
 
341

Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of solid oxide cells (SOCs) is highly dependent on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). Therefore, detailed TPB characterization is crucial for their further development. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare a similar to 50 nm thick transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical composition of nanoscale impurity phases at the TPBs has been obtained with a few nanometers lateral resolution. (c) 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.

2008-01-01

342

Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

2012-11-01

343

Modern Russia: modernization vs shadow economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modernization of Russian is one of the most popular and actual topics of recent domestic investigations. A lot of measures are taken for the perfection and stimulating the efficiency of the macroeconomic system (production – distribution – exchange – consumption, different programs of the devel-opment of all spheres of social, political and economical life up to 2020 are approved. However, meas-ures of the state support and encouragement of modernization frequently do not give a proper effect. Sometimes it happens due to the enormous size of the Russian shadow economy. This article is devoted to the question of the influence of shadow processes on the realization of the state policy in the sphere of modernization of the Russian economy. Moreover, the author focuses on the investiga-tion of modernization on each stage of the reproduction process inside the shadow sector. The main question of the paper is: does shadow economy affect the improvement of the economic sphere?

Morozova Daria Vasilievna

2011-12-01

344

THE NON-LINEAR METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN MODERN DESIGNING (BY THE EXAMPLE OF GEOTECHNICS FACILITIES AND BRIDGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement. Non-linear solutions are widely used within the framework of solution of the problems of development of the areas which were earlier unsuitable for construction (wetlands, slope areas; bases consisting of weak overwet soils.Results and conclusions. Design models and examples of practical implementa-tion of two groups of non-linear analysis in design of construction objects are considered. These are spatial deformation analysis of reinforced concrete decks of road bridges and elastoplastic numerical analysis of the bases, soil structures and structures interacting with soil structures.

N. N. Melnichuk

2010-10-01

345

Structural and chemical analysis of materials with high spatial resolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the correlation between microstructures and properties of materials require the characterization of the material on many different length scales. Often the properties depend primarily on the atomistics of defects, such as dislocations and interfaces. The different techniques of transmission electron microscopy allow the characterization of the structure and of the chemical composition of materials with high spatial resolution to the atomic level: high resolution transmission electron microscopy allows the determination of the position of the columns of atoms (ions) with high accuracy. The accuracy which can be achieved in these measurements depends not only on the instrumentation but also on the quality of the transmitted specimen and on the scattering power of the atoms (ions) present in the analyzed column. The chemical composition can be revealed from investigations by analytical microscopy which includes energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, mainly quantitatively applied for heavy elements, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Furthermore, the energy-loss near-edge structure of EELS data results in information on the local band structure of unoccupied states of the excited atoms and, therefore, on bonding. A quantitative evaluation of convergent beam electron diffraction results in information on the electron charge density distribution of the bulk (defect-free) material. The different techniques are described and applied to different problemdescribed and applied to different problems in materials science. lt will be shown that nearly atomic resolution can be achieved in high resolution electron microscopy and in analytical electron microscopy. Recent developments in electron microscopy instrumentation will result in atomic resolution in the foreseeable future. (author)

346

THE NON-LINEAR METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN MODERN DESIGNING (BY THE EXAMPLE OF GEOTECHNICS FACILITIES AND BRIDGES)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement. Non-linear solutions are widely used within the framework of solution of the problems of development of the areas which were earlier unsuitable for construction (wetlands, slope areas; bases consisting of weak overwet soils).Results and conclusions. Design models and examples of practical implementa-tion of two groups of non-linear analysis in design of construction objects are considered. These are spatial deformation analysis of reinforced concrete decks of road bridges a...

Melnichuk, N. N.; Agarkov, A. V.; Shapiro, D. M.; Chan Tkhi Tkhui Van

2010-01-01

347

Beck, Asia and second modernity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

Calhoun, Craig

2010-09-01

348

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WET SCRUBBERS UTILIZING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the key elements required to develop a sampling and analysis program for a wet scrubber using ion chromatography as the main analytical technique. The first part of the report describes a sampling program for two different types of wet scrubbers: the venturi/...

349

COMPARATIVE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS L. USING VERMICOMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical fertilizers have lost the faith on agriculture throughout the globe today; oppositely the organic amendments are gradually becoming more reliable components in the field of agriculture. The objective of the present work was to investigate the relative growth analysis of China aster (Callistephus chinensis L.) applying the vermi compost and chemical fertilizer (10:26:26) and to observe the growth efficiency of both the amendments. The present investigation also aimed t...

Dulal Chandra Das

2013-01-01

350

Double-core-hole spectroscopy for chemical analysis with an intense X-ray femtosecond laser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theory predicts that double-core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy can provide a new powerful means of differentiating between similar chemical systems with a sensitivity not hitherto possible. Although DCH ionization on a single site in molecules was recently measured with double- and single-photon absorption, double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites, allowing unambiguous chemical analysis, have remained elusive. Here we report that direct observation of double-core holes with si...

Berrah, Nora; Fang, Li; Murphy, Brendan; Osipov, Timur; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Kukk, Edwin; Feifel, Raimund; Meulen, Peter; Salen, Peter; Schmidt, Henning T.; Thomas, Richard D.; Larsson, Mats; Richter, Robert; Prince, Kevin C.; Bozek, John D.

2011-01-01

351

Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

Weber, P; Holt, J

2008-07-28

352

GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

2007-11-01

353

Analysis of chemical reactivity of burnup molten salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactivity of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 and (TRU)Cl3-NaCl (TRU: transuranium elements) molten salts with burnup has been thermodynamically analyzed with a free-energy minimization method. The results on the fluoride salts reproduced the operational experience of an experimental molten salt reactor (MSRE), particularly the distribution of fission products in the primary system and the corrosion of Hastelloy N. A possibility of U-Pd alloy segregation, which has been neglected, was newly identified. The results on the TRU chloride system indicate possibilities of (1) accumulation of PdTe which acts as a chemical potential source to cause the structural alloy corrosion, (2) segregation of Np-Pu-Pd alloys, (3) difficulty in valence control unlike that in the fluoride salts and (4) condensation of ZrCl4 vapor in the off-gas system. It was shown that the understanding of alloy systems Ni-Cr-Fe-Te, Pd-Ag-Te, U(Np)-Zr-Te etc. is important in feasibility studies of nuclear systems based on the molten salts. (author)

354

Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior.

Bosco, Filippo; Bache, M.

2012-01-01

355

Neural network based analysis for chemical sensor arrays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective individual sensors. We use a prototype sensor array which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of the sensor data, the selectivity of the sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) the sensors are not highly selective.

Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

1995-04-01

356

Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Finite element method (FEM was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

R. Staniek

2012-01-01

357

Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

358

Chemical analysis via heavy ion induced x-ray emission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristic x-ray and background radiation production trends for high energy heavy ion bombardment on a wide range of targets (14 -10 g in a total sample assayed of approximately 10-4 g. These data were obtained with a 7.06 MeV/amu O4+ beam of 40 nA and 1000 sec bombarding time (6.3 x 1013 particles). With heavier ion beams (e.g., 1 MeV/amu Kr7+), experimental detection limits of 0.8 to 10 ppM were obtained for the elements Mn to Se in biological specimens with a beam exposure of 70 nA for 1000 sec (6.3 x 1013 particles). The quantitative analysis capabilities of high energy heavy ion induced x-ray emission (HEHIX) were tested on a series of bovine liver samples. The values obtained are in good agreement with data from other methn good agreement with data from other methods. HEHIX provides a unique set of characteristics in terms of the sample size assayed (10-4 to 10-5 g), its measurement sensitivity (10-10 to 10-12 g) and its capability for simultaneous multielement analysis, i.e., determinations of groups of elements (K x-ray emitters) within 20 < Z < 45. Based on these findings, HEHIX can truly be considered as a trace analysis technique that is applicable to microsamples

359

Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

Helrich, Carl S

2009-01-01

360

Atomic and Molecular Structure in Chemical Education: A Critical Analysis from Various Perspectives of Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development during the past few decades of chemical education (and in general of science education) as a research discipline, the place of structural theories and concepts has undergone strong criticism. The main reason for this criticism is the difficulty students encounter in dealing with these concepts. An explanation of this difficulty occurs if one examines the relevant concepts from different perspectives of science education, some of which many researchers consider as conflicting theories. The perspectives employed in this paper are (i) the Piagetian developmental perspective, (ii) the Ausbelian theory of meaningful learning, (iii) the information processing theory, and (iv) the alternative conceptions movement. The implications for teaching and curriculums are discussed with respect to the following: (a) Atoms and molecules as structural units of matter; (b) classification of substances according to their electrical character; (c) teaching introductory chemistry in three cycles: macro, representational and submicro; (d) the historical method of teaching; and (e) the modern quantum mechanical structural theories.

Tsaparlis, Georgios

1997-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experimen ts with several analytical technologies comprisi ng of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. Th e scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depen ds on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of poo led calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of leve ls of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are com pared to predictions of the Horwitz formu la. It is suggested that this m ethod is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate t hat the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analyticalsciences because they direct researcher’s attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than tow ards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professiona l laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of ana lytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method val idation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at labora tories.

Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

2013-01-01

362

Inorganic chemical analysis of environmental materials—A lecture series  

Science.gov (United States)

At the request of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, the authors prepared and presented a lecture series to the students of a graduate level advanced instrumental analysis class. The slides and text presented in this report are a compilation and condensation of this series of lectures. The purpose of this report is to present the slides and notes and to emphasize the thought processes that should be used by a scientist submitting samples for analyses in order to procure analytical data to answer a research question. First and foremost, the analytical data generated can be no better than the samples submitted. The questions to be answered must first be well defined and the appropriate samples collected from the population that will answer the question. The proper methods of analysis, including proper sample preparation and digestion techniques, must then be applied. Care must be taken to achieve the required limits of detection of the critical analytes to yield detectable analyte concentration (above "action" levels) for the majority of the study's samples and to address what portion of those analytes answer the research question-total or partial concentrations. To guarantee a robust analytical result that answers the research question(s), a well-defined quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan must be employed. This QA/QC plan must include the collection and analysis of field and laboratory blanks, sample duplicates, and matrix-matched standard reference materials (SRMs). The proper SRMs may include in-house materials and/or a selection of widely available commercial materials. A discussion of the preparation and applicability of in-house reference materials is also presented. Only when all these analytical issues are sufficiently addressed can the research questions be answered with known certainty.

Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

2011-01-01

363

Chemical etching of CdSb single crystals: thermodynamic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamic calculations are performed and a diagram is built which described redox processes proceeding in CdSb-H2O system. On the basis of analysis of the diagram a conclusion is made about distinctions in processes of CdSb pickling in acid and alkaline media. A pickling agent is designed for chemicomechanical polishing of CdSb substrates which contains modified SiO2, hydrogen peroxide, glycerin, monoethanolamine and sodium hydroxide providing reproducible production of a high-quality surface

364

?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

365

Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

366

John Rawls and the theory of modernization. A retrospective analysis John Rawls y la teoría de la modernización. Una retrospectiva analítica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of differenc...

Bula Jorge Iván

1994-01-01

367

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

368

Estimation of ultra-shallow implants using SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation methods for ultra-shallow implants (boron and arsenic) were investigated. SIMS analysis enables accurate junction depth estimation for ultra-shallow junctions, when concentration and depth calibration methods using bulk-doped samples and multi-delta-structure samples are used together. Even with this advanced SIMS measurement, accurate implant doses cannot be estimated for ultra-shallow implants. NRA and chemical analyses have been developed for accurate measurements of boron and arsenic doses, respectively. Using three analytical methods (SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis), junction depths and implant doses can be estimated accurately and precisely

369

Estimation of ultra-shallow implants using SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimation methods for ultra-shallow implants (boron and arsenic) were investigated. SIMS analysis enables accurate junction depth estimation for ultra-shallow junctions, when concentration and depth calibration methods using bulk-doped samples and multi-delta-structure samples are used together. Even with this advanced SIMS measurement, accurate implant doses cannot be estimated for ultra-shallow implants. NRA and chemical analyses have been developed for accurate measurements of boron and arsenic doses, respectively. Using three analytical methods (SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis), junction depths and implant doses can be estimated accurately and precisely.

Tomita, M.; Suzuki, M.; Tachibe, T.; Kozuka, S.; Murakoshi, A

2003-01-15

370

Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation  

CERN Document Server

Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M

2000-01-01

371

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

2000-08-01

372

Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-14

373

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater  

Science.gov (United States)

...Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial...Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes...Memorandum from B. Potter, U.S. Environmental...William A., McCarty, Harry B., and Riddick, Lynn...USEPA Method 1613 for the Analysis of Tetra-through...

2010-07-01

374

Diamond Chemical Vapor Deposition: Thermodynamic Analysis and Growth Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical vapor deposition of carbon films is analyzed using the thermodynamic quasiequilibrium (QE) model and a phase diagram for the carbon-hydrogen system is obtained. When the enhanced etching of graphite by hydrogen is included in the model, a region appears in the phase diagram where diamond is predicted to be the only stable phase of carbon, in agreement with the experimental results of Matsumoto et al. (J. Mater. Sci. 17, 3106 (1982)). The QE model can also explain the experimentally observed effects on the CVD of diamond resulting from variations in the available growth parameters (substrate temperature, reactant ratio, etc.). When the QE thermodynamic model is extended to reactions between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen the stability region of solid carbon in the C-H -O phase diagram is predicted to shrink considerably due to the formation of CO. In particular, it is predicted that no carbon can be deposited from gas mixtures whose C/O ratio equals unity. In a series of experiments the interactions of tungsten and rhenium filaments with gas mixtures typical of the diamond growth environment have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the filaments themselves can act as high temperature substrates for the deposition of graphitic carbon and that the filaments then lose their ability to dissociate the reactant gases. The filament resistance, spectral emissivity, power consumption, and partial pressures of stable gases in the reaction chamber have been found to depend critically both on the filament temperature and on the reactant ratio. Specifically, both W and Re filaments show sharp jumps in power consumption at essentially the same temperature, signaling strong increases in filament activity and, hence, production of atomic hydrogen. This behavior can be related to the removal of nonreactive carbon from the filament surface via etching by atomic hydrogen. Upon the addition of small amounts of oxygen to C-H mixtures these transitions from deposition to etching of graphitic carbon from the filament surface are shifted to lower temperatures. The results of these experimental studies are consistent with the predictions of the QE thermodynamic model for both the C-H and C-H-O systems and the implications of these observations for filament-assisted diamond CVD are discussed. Samples deposited from various gas mixtures under different growth conditions have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the QE model.

Sommer, Marianne

375

Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (? 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ? 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

376

The Financial Analysis of a Modern Scheme for Managing Waste Proposed for the Urban Community Arie?, Cluj County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a scheme for managingwaste, proposed for the urban community of Arie?,Cluj County, in which we are going to show themain activities that should be accomplished withthe support of the local public administration.Based on the analysis of the waste flows, thedemographic trends and the waste generatingtrends, we propose a scheme for managingwaste that has a major investment component,an administrative re-organizing component andan educational one. We suggest a scheme whichincludes advanced techniques and methods fortreating waste. Moreover, we demonstrated thatthe efficiency of the scheme cannot be conceivedoutside a circuit for valorizing and recycling theuseful materials contained in the waste.

Lucia Monica SCOR?AR

2009-10-01

377

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

378

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed

379

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

380

????????? ? ?????????????? = modernism and rationality / ??????? ??????????  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ajakirja "Project Baltia" korraldatud näitus "Leningradi modernism. Tagasivaade 21. sajandist" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 8. juulist 15. augustini 2010. Esitletakse Leningradis 1960-1980. aastatel ehitatud hooneid, kuraator Vladimir Frolov

??????????, ???????

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Analysis of chemical abundances in planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars. II. Chemical abundances and the abundance discrepancy factor  

CERN Document Server

(Abridged) We present the abundance analysis of 12 PNe ionized by [WC] type stars and wels obtained from high-resolution spectrophotometric data. Our main aims are to determine the chemical composition of the PNe and to study the behaviour of the abundance discrepancy problem (ADF) in this type of planetary nebulae. The detection of a large number of optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisional excited lines (CELs) from different ions were presented in Garcia-Rojas et al. (2012). Most of the ORLs are reported for the first time in these PNe. Ionic abundances were derived from the available CELs and ORLs, using previously determined physical conditions. Based on both sets of ionic abundances, we derived total chemical abundances in the nebulae using suitable ICFs (when available). In spite of the [WC] nature of the central stars, moderate ADF(O^++), in the range from 1.2 to 4, were found for all the objects. We have found that, when the quality of the spectra is high enough, the ORLs O^++/H^+ abundance r...

Garc\\'\\ia-Rojas, J; Morisset, C; Delgado-Inglada, G; Mesa-Delgado, A; Ruiz, M T

2013-01-01

382

Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases : a comparative analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way chemical data are stored in the databases plays a major role in the recovery process but differences in coverage, sometimes major, are still found. No single database records all publications about a substance. Inspection of individual titles is necessary when performing a complete count of references. Special care is taken in order to make data from the different databases comparable using the same journals and time periods (2000-2009). A number of nomenclature as well as problems related to the chemical structure and function, often inherent in quantitative or qualitative bibliographic studies of chemicals, are discussed. The practical implications for registration of chemicals in different databases are demonstrated.

Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

2013-01-01

383

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

384

Xlink-Identifier: An Automated Data Analysis Platform for Confident Identifications of Chemically Cross-linked Peptides using Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry provides a powerful method for identifying protein-protein interactions and probing the structure of protein complexes. Cross-linking is the process of covalently joining two proteins using cross-linking reagents. After proteolytic cleavage, the cross-linked peptides can be identified using tandem mass spectrometry. A number of strategies have been reported that take advantage of the high sensitivity and high resolution of modern mass spectrometers. Approaches typically include synthesis of novel cross-linking compounds and/or isotopic labelling of the cross-linkering reagent and/or protein to aid both identification and quantitation. However, these approaches have various limitations. These limitations can be overcome with a label-free approach and application of associated data analysis algorithms described in this work.

Du, Xiuxia; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Manes, Nathan P.; Wu, Si; Mayer, M. Uljana; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

2011-03-04

385

Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

Tidjani Amza

2010-07-01

386

Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problem...

Bolf, N.

2011-01-01

387

Consequences of Modern Energy Use: A Remote Sensing analysis of the gulf oil spill using ArcGIS software.  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory activity takes place in a computer lab that is equipped with ArcGIS (we are currently using ArcGIS 9.3). Students will go to NASA's oil spill gallery website and download the full size image of the Deepwater Horizon oil slick from July 14th, 2010 taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite at 1:55 p.m. Central Daylight Time. Their task is to to analyze the satellite imagery as an RGB composite and to experiment with reclassification techniques to subdivide the continuous raster dataset into user-defined numbers of ranges that will help visualize the oil spill. The activity introduces students to GIS software, remote sensing analysis, and sets up questions on spatial patterns and consequences of energy use.

Beeton, Jared

388

Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

2006-10-01

389

Bullets fragments identification by comparison of their chemical composition obtained using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bullets found in crime scenes are usually compared by examination of the rifling impressions produced in the barrel of the questioned firearm. When, however, a bullet is fragmented or highly deformed, the comparison of rifling micro striations cannot be performed, and the only way two compare two or more bullets is by a match of their chemical analysis. In spite of the limits of the chemical analysis methods, due to the frequent compositional lead variability of ammunition boxes, the technique still keeps its full value, both as trial element, and as an aid in the investigations. A case is reported in the present paper, in which some crushed and deformed bullets, recovered from a murder victim body, have been analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The analysis allowed the assignation of the bullets to one of the ammunitions lots owned by one of the murder suspect. PMID:20591591

Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

2011-03-20

390

Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas studied during the period of the contract included determinations of cross sections for nuclear reactions, determination of neutron capture cross sections of radionuclides, application of special activation techniques, and x-ray counting, elucidation of synergic solvent extraction mechanisms and development of new solvent extraction techniques, and the development of a PIXE analytical facility. The thermal neutron capture cross section of 22Na was determined, and cross sections and energy levels were determined for 20Ne(n,?)17O, 20Ne(n,P)20F, and 40Ar(n,?)37S. Inelastic scattering with 2 to 3 MeV neutrons followed by counting of the metastable states permits analysis of the following elements: In, Sr, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Bromine can be detected in the presence of a 500-fold excess of Na and/or K by thermal neutron activation and x-ray counting, and as little as 0.3 x 10-9 g of Hg can be detected by this technique. Mediun energy neutrons (10 to 160 MeV) have been used to determine Tl, Pb, and Bi by (n,Xn) and (n,PXn) reactions. The reaction 19F(P,?)76O has been used to determine as little as 50 ?mol of Freon -14. Mechanisms for synergic solvent extractions have been elucidated and a new technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction has been developed in which the neutral complex is rapidly extracted propylene carbonate by raising and lowering the temperature of the system. An external-beam PIXE system has been developed for trace element analyses of a variety of sample types. Various sample preparation techniques have been applied to a diverse range of samples including marine sediment, coral, coal, and blood

391

Evaluation of C60 secondary ion mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis and imaging of fingerprints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using C60(+) cluster primary ion bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60(+) SIMS) for the analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is evaluated. It was found that C60(+) SIMS could be used to detect and image the spatial localization of a number of sebaceous and eccrine components in fingerprints. These analyses were also found to not be hindered by the use of common latent print powder development techniques. Finally, the ability to monitor the depth distribution of fingerprint constituents was found to be possible - a capability which has not been shown using other chemical imaging techniques. This paper illustrates a number of strengths and potential weaknesses of C60(+) SIMS as an additional or complimentary technique for the chemical analysis of fingerprints. PMID:23890648

Sisco, Edward; Demoranville, Leonard T; Gillen, Greg

2013-09-10

392

Research on chemical binding-state analysis method by heavy ion microbeam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-resolution Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectrum device for local analysis was set up for trial purposes, and the main body of the spectrum device was completed. The energy resolution of 2 eV was obtained for Mg KX-ray though it was a result by non-focusing beam. As a result, it has been understood that this device has the enough resolution for the chemical binding state analysis. (H. Katsuta)

393

Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

Pakkanen, T.A.

1995-12-31

394

Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

395

Meta-analysis of toxicity and teratogenicity of 133 chemicals from zebrafish developmental toxicity studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Zebrafish developmental toxicity testing is an emerging field, which faces considerable challenges regarding data meta-analysis and the establishment of standardized test protocols. Here, we present an initial correlation study on toxicity of 133 chemicals based on data in the li...

396

A Chemical Instrumentation Game for Teaching Critical Thinking and Information Literacy in Instrumental Analysis Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

A simulation game is used to teach students in instrumental analysis courses to find the latest developments in the field, use the journal literature, and apply critical thinking to determine the relative importance of the work they find. They also learn about the business of chemical instruments and to make oral presentations. The competitive…

Henderson, David E.

2010-01-01

397

Analysis of a model for a chemical process involving a phase change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a fairly simple model for use in numerical analysis and identifying the regions where multiple stationary states or oscillations occur in reactions involving phase transitions. This model enables one to examine the major characteristics of stationary and nonstationary states in chemical reactors.

Akramov, T.A.; Kirillov, V.A.

1985-07-01

398

Analytical possibilities of modern voltammetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of modern state of voltammetric method of analysis dedicated to 60-th anniversary of polarography creation is presented. It is emphasized that voltammetric methods potentially have very low boundaries of determined concentrations. The charge current is the main disturbance of the method. Three groups of ways to decrease the effect of the disturbance are discussed: ways to increase faraday current, ways to decrease the charge current, and ways to measure separately the faraday and capacity currents. Modern state of voltammetric instrument making (electrodes used in the method) as well as the main application regions of voltammetric methods (kinetics of corrosion processes, analysis of reacting agents, non-ferrous metals and alloys, semiconductor materials, environmental objects) are considered

399

Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

1995-12-31

400

Adult learning in modernity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional investment. This should inform educational environments and teacher professionalism.

Rasmussen, Palle

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Chemical data visualization and analysis with incremental generative topographic mapping: big data challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is devoted to the analysis and visualization in 2-dimensional space of large data sets of millions of compounds using the incremental version of generative topographic mapping (iGTM). The iGTM algorithm implemented in the in-house ISIDA-GTM program was applied to a database of more than 2 million compounds combining data sets of 36 chemicals suppliers and the NCI collection, encoded either by MOE descriptors or by MACCS keys. Taking advantage of the probabilistic nature of GTM, several approaches to data analysis were proposed. The chemical space coverage was evaluated using the normalized Shannon entropy. Different views of the data (property landscapes) were obtained by mapping various physical and chemical properties (molecular weight, aqueous solubility, LogP, etc.) onto the iGTM map. The superposition of these views helped to identify the regions in the chemical space populated by compounds with desirable physicochemical profiles and the suppliers providing them. The data sets similarity in the latent space was assessed by applying several metrics (Euclidean distance, Tanimoto and Bhattacharyya coefficients) to data probability distributions based on cumulated responsibility vectors. As a complementary approach, data sets were compared by considering them as individual objects on a meta-GTM map, built on cumulated responsibility vectors or property landscapes produced with iGTM. We believe that the iGTM methodology described in this article represents a fast and reliable way to analyze and visualize large chemical databases. PMID:25423612

Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

2015-01-26

402

Modern youth and the state of the Kalmyk language (accorditg to the results of the sociological analysis the 2000s  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language of kalmyk people, small ethnic group speaking one of the Mongolic Language buddhists living in the south of the Russian Federation,in the lower reaches of Volga, is under the threat of disappearance. The main reasons for the loss of its communicative functions are: 13-year-oldStalin’s deportation of the Kalmyk people (from 1943 till 1956, its geographical dispersion throughout the Siberian territory, elimination of thenational classes after return home, the reduction or lack of motivation among the population in the study of the Kalmyk language.At the beginning of the 1990s processes of the ethno cultural revival began in the Republic, whose important direction was to raise the status of theKalmyk language, its consolidation, along with Russian as a state language of the Republic of Kalmykia. This language policy gradually eliminatesthe effects of long-term use of deformation in the Kalmyk language, but it cannot overcome the effect of assimilation. Therefore realization of asociolinguistic research whose primary purpose is to determine the real picture of the language competence of potential carriers of the Kalmyklanguage is necessary. Moreover, based on the analysis of the research the recommendations are developed that legislative, executive authoritiesof the republic require making effective decisions regarding the implementation of the language policy in the Republic. The article describes theresults of massive polls, conducted in 2004, 2008, 2010, 2013 by Kalmyk Institute for Humanities Research, which allow us to consider what is theyoung people’s attitude towards problems of ethnic culture and preservation of the Kalmyk language. Poll results show that language competenceof young Kalmyks has slightly increased. Students and post-graduate young people want to learn the language on their own, looking for new methods,ways for effective learning. This indicates that the system of reforming of the titular language has been built properly.The Republic has used various means since the beginning of 2010s to save the Kalmyk language, including the use of computer technologies andtheir application to native language lessons.Electronic textbooks, electronic versions of dictionaries, phrase, grammar, use of recordings of live speech have already been established. Consequently,young people, as a group, the most approximate to the information technology, successfully use in the process of mastering the Kalmyklanguage the most advanced technical means.To achieve these goals and the positive results of the activities implemented in the field of language, it is necessary to combine and coordinatethe efforts of all social institutions - family, preschool, school, extracurricular and other educational institutions (university, college, etc., laborcollectives.

Lyudmila Namruyeva

2014-04-01

403

Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected

404

Scientific substantiation for the analysis of medical and social aspects of a healthy lifestyle as a basis of the effectiveness of rehabilitation in the modern conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficiency of performed rehabilitation events in many respects depends on a state of health of the person which, in turn, directly depends on his/her medico-social activity. Aims: analysis of medico-social aspects of a healthy lifestyle of medical workers and patients of the center of recovery medicine and rehabilitation. Material and Methods. According to specially developed anonymous questionnaires there had been the research of the personnel (410 questionnaires and patients (300 questionnaires of the Center of recovery medicine and rehabilitation of Federal State Budgetary Institution Medical and Rehabilitation Center of Ministry of Health of Russia (TsVMR. Results. It is shown that the majority of participants regardless of professional functions and responsibilities understand an important role of healthy food and try to observe the correct diet, however, medical workers take this component of a healthy lifestyle more seriously. Thus the most part of citizens not having a direct bearing on health system are reluctant to care abot questions of healthy food, this emphasizes insufficiency of sanitary and hygienic education. Conclusion. Results of research can be used for development of scientific bases of increase of the efficiency of rehabilitation and recovery treatment in modern conditions.

Shapovalenko T.V.

2013-12-01

405

Chromium analysis at a ferrochrome smelter, a chemical plant and a refractory brick plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques were developed to sample and analyze the Cr content of particulate samples with emphasis on determining the concentration of the carcinogen Cr+6. Cr+6 is extracted to alkaline solution and analyzed colorimetrically. Residual particles are extracted with acid solution to remove soluble Cr+3, which is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. This methodology was tested on samples from three diverse types of sources: a ferrochrome smelter, a chemical plant, and a refractory brick plant. Identical quadruplicate samples were collected to determine accuracy and precision of the collection and analysis procedures, and extraction of Cr+6 and Cr+3. A statistical analysis revealed that the precision of Cr+6 analysis is comparable to that of the particulate mass determination. The stability of Cr+6 in particulate form and in solution was determined. Size resolved particulate samples were collected to determine the particle size versus the Cr+6 content. At the ferrochrome smelter and the chemical plant the majority of the Cr+6 was contained in the respirable particles. The accuracy and completeness of the chemical methods employed were verified by neutron activation analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray analysis

406

Molecular conformational stability and Spectroscopic analysis of Parared with experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of Parared was carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The observed vibrational data were compared with the wavenumbers derived theoretically from the optimized geometry of the compound from the DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and enthalpy have been calculated for the molecule. HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Important non-linear properties such as electric dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability of Parared have been computed using B3LYP quantum chemical calculations. Finally, the Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges of the title compound has been calculated.

Srinivasaraghavan, R.; Thamaraikannan, S.; Seshadri, S.; Gnanasambandan, T.

2015-02-01

407

Molecular conformational stability and Spectroscopic analysis of Parared with experimental techniques and quantum chemical calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of Parared was carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The observed vibrational data were compared with the wavenumbers derived theoretically from the optimized geometry of the compound from the DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and enthalpy have been calculated for the molecule. HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Important non-linear properties such as electric dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability of Parared have been computed using B3LYP quantum chemical calculations. Finally, the Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges of the title compound has been calculated. PMID:25305611

Srinivasaraghavan, R; Thamaraikannan, S; Seshadri, S; Gnanasambandan, T

2015-02-25

408

[Analysis and identification of chemical constituents in Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This research analyzed the chemical constituents of Siwu decoction by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS(E). Base on the data of mass and related-literatures, 43 peaks were profiled and 25 compounds, which contain 8 monoterpene glycosides from Paeonia lactiflora and 13 phthalides from Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix angelica sinensis mainly, were identified in both positive and negative mode respectively. Meanwhile, chemical constituents of water extract and 60% ethanol extract of Siwu decoction were compared by the principal constituent analysis with MarkerLynx software, which provides the basis for the active ingredients of Siwu decoction. PMID:24494558

Wang, Zhen-Fang; Zhao, Yang; Pang, Xu; Yu, He-Shui; Kang, Li-Ping; Gao, Yue; Ma, Bai-Ping

2013-11-01

409

Instrumental gamma-activation analysis of products of the current chemical source production using the microtrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrumental gamma-activation analysis of products of the current chemical source production was carried out on microtrons (Esub(?sub(max))=13.6 MeV) of the Saratov State University and Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research. An anode and cathode masses in the form of finely divided powder were investigated. Ni, Ba, Co were determined in cathode mass and Cd, Ni were determined in anode mass. Time of analysis was not higher than 45 min. An optimum conditions are calculated for the active mass gamma-activation analysis

410

Chemical Analysis of Primitive Objects Using a Slitless Ultraviolet Meteor Spectrometer (CAPO-SUMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Measure the elemental composition in both random meteors and in the bolides forming specific meteor streams (these are traceable to specific small bodies in the solar system). These will yield the average chemical composition and degree of chemical variability in a statistically significant number of planetesimals. CAPO-SUMS is functionally equivalent to a series of multiple, small-body sample analysis missions, but provides much more analytical capability than is possible on any orbital or flyby mission due to the vaporization, ionization and ultraviolet emission from the ablating bolide as it enters the atmosphere. CAPO-SUMS will provide a chemical context from which the detailed analytical studies provided by a cometary or asteroidal lander mission can be interpreted.

Nuth, J. A.; Wdowiak, T.; Lowrance, J.; Carruthers, G.; Jenniskens, P.; Gerakines, P.

2003-01-01

411

LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide  

Science.gov (United States)

A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

1993-01-01

412

Soil Classification based on their Chemical Composition using Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA, was used to group of 54 soil samples collected from different agricultural locations in the western part of Thailand. Soil chemical compositions were measured by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX. The basic result indicated decreased amount of O, Si, Al, Fe, C, K, Mg, Ca, Ti and Na. The first three principal components were used and accounted for 44.0%, 19.5% and 15.0% of total variation of the data, respectively. Score plots of first three principal components were used to map with soil textures classified as clay, clay loam and medium loam. The results showed some relationships between chemical contents and soil textures. PCA was shown to be a useful tool for soil texture classification based on their chemical compositions.

Kamolchanok Panishkan

2010-01-01

413

Low Cost Long Distance Detector for Explosives and Chemical Analysis by IEC Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A radiation source for detecting specific chemicals at several meter distances even behind walls, car doors or other barriers is the application of Million electron Volts (MeV neutrons from nuclear fusion reactions at such low intensities to avoid any danger for human bodies. The chemical analysis consists in the neutron activation of nuclei emitting then gamma radiation of lines very specific for the excited nuclei. The neutron generation by the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC had been developed to a level where very low cost neutron generators in mass production may be developed with a power supply from a normal AC plug-in or a battery. For specific chemicals e.g. the ratio of nitrogen against other elements used in all explosives, the selection of few specific gamma lines for the detectors may be of sufficiently low cost in the case of mass production.

George H. Miley

2005-01-01

414

Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, incl...

Sikora, Martin; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Moreno-estrada, Andres; Henn, Brenna M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Sa?nchez-quinto, Federico; Zara, Ilenia; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Angius, Andrea; Jones, Chris; Mendoza-revilla, Javier; Nekhrizov, Georgi

2014-01-01

415

Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

416

Chemical ecotoxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

417

The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine longterm trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a ‘Matthew’ principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm

2011-01-01