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Sample records for modern chemical analysis

  1. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in...... preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by...

  2. Study of the chemical and physicochemical behaviour of chromium VI in systems relevant to the PUREX process by applying modern analysis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromate flow path in the PUREX process while passing the first high-activity extraction column is described. The observable chemical and physico-chemical phenomena are investigated using modern methods of analysis. The investigations are to help optimize the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. They are also expected to help solve problems in the industrial application of this process. (orig.)

  3. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  4. Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic method of dietary analysis has been extended by using both the organic and inorganic phases of bone with equally good results. Using the reported technique with the inorganic phase, which is more stable in fossil material, dietary analysis of bone over 10,000 years old has been found possible. (U.K.)

  5. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  6. High-temperature resistant materials and structural ceramics for use in high-temperature reactor and fusion reactor plants - requirements for modern physico-chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief description of primary energy requirements and the available resources, the application of advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) for nuclear process heat and the technological aspects of Tokamak fusion reactors are reported. In both areas, the development of materials, in general, and materials characterization using modern physico-chemical methods, in particular, are crucial. The investigations for the HTR are concentrated on the optimization and on the verification of the long time behaviour of the materials. In contrast, the fusion reactor materials work is concerned with fundamental development stages and with plasma-wall interactions. The emphasis is placed on the characterization of materials and on the investigation of reaction mechanisms, for which modern analytical techniques are required. In addition to the development and specific optimization of modern physico-chemical analysis techniques, the application potential for the methods is outlined and the available results are discussed. (Author)

  7. Modern Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

  8. The impact of flow injection on modern chemical analysis: has it fulfilled our expectations? And where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-12-15

    Presenting a condensation of the opening lecture of the 12th ICFIA conference, this communication presents a view of the impact that flow injection analysis (FIA) has had on modern analytical chemistry, evaluated both within the academic community and outside it, i.e. in "industry". The ensuing developments of FIA, encompassing sequential injection analysis (SIA) and bead injection lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are described and their individual features discussed. Finally, some recent results of the activities from the author's own research group are briefly mentioned. PMID:18969714

  9. Modern surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of surface analysis at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited comprise SIMS, SAM, ESCA and SEM-EDX. Their application has included studies of glass-ceramic waste forms, of fuel oil combustion residues, and of chlorocarbon residues on stainless steel

  10. Modern power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xi-Fan; Irving, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The capability of effectively analyzing complex systems is fundamental to the operation, management and planning of power systems. This book offers broad coverage of essential power system concepts and features a complete and in-depth account of all the latest developments, including Power Flow Analysis in Market Environment; Power Flow Calculation of AC/DC Interconnected Systems and Power Flow Control and Calculation for Systems Having FACTS Devices and recent results in system stability.

  11. Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  12. XXI symposium Modern chemical physics. Tuapse 2009. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials of the XXI symposium Modern chemical physics, Tuapse 2009 (25 September - 6 October, 2009) are presented. Scientific program includes lectures, presentations and poster sessions on photochemistry and radiation chemistry, elementary processes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The problems of chemical reaction kinetics, quantum chemistry, chemical spectroscopy, macromolecular chemistry are discussed. Topics of chemical physics of surface, nanochemistry, nanophysics and nanotechnology are treated

  13. XIII symposium. Modern chemical physics. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the thirteenth symposium on modern chemical physics are presented. They represent different directions of development of this field of knowledge, such as synthesis, structure, properties of metal-polymer compositions, radiation-chemical investigations in nanotechnology, problems of supercritical chemistry, calculations of kinetic parameters of catalytic systems

  14. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

  15. Modern methodologies and tools for human hazard assessment of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    This scientific report provides a review of modern methodologies and tools to depict toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes and their application for the human hazard assessment of chemicals. The application of these methods is illustrated with examples drawn from the literature and international efforts in the field. First, the concepts of mode of action/adverse outcome pathway are discussed together with their associated terminology and recent international developments dealing with huma...

  16. The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Professor Terence C

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

  17. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics and in the...

  18. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  19. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  20. Probabilistic analysis of modernization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on benefit-cost analysis for hydropower operations, a standard procedure for reaching planning decisions. Cost overruns and benefit shortfalls are also common occurrences. One reason for the difficulty of predicting future benefits and costs is that they usually cannot be represented with sufficient reliability by accurate values, because of the many uncertainties that enter the analysis through assumptions on inputs and system parameters. Therefore, ranges of variables need to be analyzed instead of single values. As a consequence, the decision criteria, such as net benefit and benefit-cost ratio, also vary over some range. A probabilistic approach will be demonstrated as a tool for assessing the reliability of the results

  1. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

  2. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  3. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  4. Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

  5. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens; Lundin, Magnus; Pind, Niels; Selin Lindgren, Eva; Wahnström, Tomas

    sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of...... twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and...... bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air....

  6. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  7. Chemical analysis experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

  8. Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Gangurde

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analy...

  9. Radiometric chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

  10. Banking and Modern Payments System Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB, regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black- hat hackers and conclude that they could be automated dramatically. To demonstrate the feasibility of our predictions and prove that many two-factor authentication schemes can be bypassed, we have analyzed banking and modern payments system security. In this research we will review different payment protocols and security methods that are being used to run banking systems. We will survey some of the popular systems that are being used today, with a deeper focus on the Chips, cards, NFC, authentication etc. In addition, we will also discuss the weaknesses in the systems that can compromise the customer's trust.

  11. Quantitative chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhan, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative Chemical Analysis is an excellent text for a classical undergraduate course in quantitative analysis. The greatest strengths of the text are the superb organization and the programmed approach toward the presentation of the material. It is directed at an audience with a minimal background in chemistry (i.e., one year of freshman-level chemistry) and provides introductory material (i.e., basic organic chemistry, stoichiometry, and solution equilibria) in the first chapter for those who need it. The book covers the basic principles of the quantitative treatment of data, including the concepts of accuracy, precision, and basic statistical methods. As in any classical text on this subject, the text is biased toward methods involving solution equilibria. Consequently, the bulk of the discussion centers on gravimetric analysis, pH, complexation, and oxidation-reduction titrations. The principles of electroanalytical measurements are explained clearly, and several chapters on potentiometric and amperometric methods are adequately detailed. Supplementary information concerning the basics of the other instrumental techniques is provided in the last 10 chapters.

  12. Modern ideas on the chemical structure of sapropelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuturina, V.V.; Shishkov, V.F.; Myakina, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the Irkutsk coal basin are concentrated the most diverse combustible minerals, among which particular interest is presented by the sapropelites. They all lie in the immediate neighborhood of industrial underground and open-cast workings of hard coals (Cheremkhovo deposit) and, particularly, of brown coals (Aze and Mugun deposits). Furthermore, reserves of combustible shales are known (for example, the Alyuskii shales of the Aze brown coal deposit). In this paper, ideas on the structure of the sapropelites of the Irkutsk basin derived from the results of an investigation by the methods of thermal and oxidative degradation, and also halogenation and hydrolysis, are considered. The chemical and structural uniformity of the sapropelites makes them unique from the point of view of conversion into low-molecular-weight products (production of dicarboxylic acids, anticorrosion coatings, flotation reagents, plasticizers, asphalt road concrete and coal-alkali reagent used in well-drilling technique. 20 refs.

  13. Current trends of the development of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Matakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamics of the development of all stages of chemical analysis during last 15 years. The ways of the quality improvement of chemical analysis and its considerable advancement into the field of trace concentrations of substances are shown. Features of development of analytical methods, modern techniques for concentration and separation of substances, as well as chemomerrical processing of results are analyzed. Huge importance of computerization and automation of the analysis is shown.

  14. Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

  15. Application of modern time series analysis to high stability oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, B. F.; Mattison, W. M.; Vessot, R. F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of modern time series analysis useful for investigating the characteristics of high-stability oscillators and identifying systematic perturbations are discussed with reference to an experiment in which the frequencies of superconducting cavity-stabilized oscillators and hydrogen masers were compared. The techniques examined include transformation to stationarity, autocorrelation and cross-correlation, superresolution, and transfer function determination.

  16. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Regulasi Pasar Modern di Kabuoaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudiyanto Hudiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RIA or Regulatory Impact Analysis is an analysis tool that is used to develop the quality of rules or policy that is made by the Government. This article is analyzing the use of RIA that is currently being run by Bantul Government in managing he moern market that is threatening the very existence of local economy that is currently the backbone of bantul's people economical activities. Th analysis, it's found out that the most threatened business by modern market is grocery stores, but the Bupati Rules limits the definition of local economy to traditional markets, which means that this Bupati Rules isn't consistent in protecting local economy. The modern market has an oligopoly structure. This kinds of structure make benefit the consumer, but on the other side, it also impose the transaction fee to the supplier. Bupati Rules that only manages the existence of modern markets become inefficient in removing the negative impact of the modern market itself. In the structure of market with that strong network, policy that only obstruct would be ineffective, because once the permission is granted, the network will spread by any means necessary. The protection to local economy bargaining position to the consumer and seller.

  17. Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sirenko, Yuriy K

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

  18. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  19. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  20. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs

  2. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  3. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  4. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  5. Complex analysis a modern first course in function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    A thorough introduction to the theory of complex functions emphasizing the beauty, power, and counterintuitive nature of the subject Written with a reader-friendly approach, Complex Analysis: A Modern First Course in Function Theory features a self-contained, concise development of the fundamental principles of complex analysis. After laying groundwork on complex numbers and the calculus and geometric mapping properties of functions of a complex variable, the author uses power series as a unifying theme to define and study the many rich and occasionally surprising properties of analytic fun

  6. Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

  7. Modern Phytochemical Analysis: Evaluation in Plant Tissues and Processed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in chromatography separation media, solvent delivery mechanisms, microprocessor driven hardware, computer software, and chemical detectors have combined to usher in a new era of phytochemical analysis. Technological advances have given rise to bench-top gas and liquid chromatography system...

  8. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  9. Materials of 2nd Poznan analytical meeting: Modern methods of sample preparation and trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern methods for sample preparation and treatment before analysis have been presented. The neutron activation analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis and other methods have been used for trace element analysis in samples of different origin. The new technical solutions and modern equipment for trace amount analysis have been also performed. During the conference 20 lectures have been presented

  10. Chemical Analysis of Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Laura M.; Kottegoda, Sumith; Phillips, K. Scott; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-07-01

    Chemical analysis of single cells requires methods for quickly and quantitatively detecting a diverse array of analytes from extremely small volumes (femtoliters to nanoliters) with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Microelectrophoretic separations, using both traditional capillary electrophoresis and emerging microfluidic methods, are well suited for handling the unique size of single cells and limited numbers of intracellular molecules. Numerous analytes, ranging from small molecules such as amino acids and neurotransmitters to large proteins and subcellular organelles, have been quantified in single cells using microelectrophoretic separation techniques. Microseparation techniques, coupled to varying detection schemes including absorbance and fluorescence detection, electrochemical detection, and mass spectrometry, have allowed researchers to examine a number of processes inside single cells. This review also touches on a promising direction in single cell cytometry: the development of microfluidics for integrated cellular manipulation, chemical processing, and separation of cellular contents.

  11. John rawls and the theory of modernization. a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bula, Jorge Iván

    2010-01-01

    This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of differenc...

  12. Higher education system in modern Germany: social-philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    NEZHYVA OLGA

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author investigates higher education system in modern Germany and shows major factors which had weighty value with assistance to development of democratic education and ways of its perfection. The author analyzes features of modern higher education in Germany and explains solving problems of higher education system in Ukraine.

  13. Quantitative chemical analysis by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers several important advantages as a technique for quantitative chemical analysis, including the ease with which multicomponent mixtures can be analyzed, the nondestructive nature of NMR, and the direct proportionality of the integrated resonance intensity (I) and concentration (C) of nuclei giving the resonance: I = kC. With proper attention to experimental conditions, the proportionality constant is the same for all resonances in a spectrum. Thus NMR differs substantially from chromatographic methods and from together spectroscopic methods, which require a predetermined response factor for each compound being determined. Relative concentrations can be obtained directly from relative resonance intensities while absolute concentrations can be obtained by adding a known concentration of another compound as an internal intensity standard

  14. Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxia Wang; Xiaoqing Tang; Yali Pang; Wenjie Duan

    2014-01-01

    Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional exper...

  15. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  16. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in ?13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This remineralization corresponds to a minimum pH of around 6.8 and a decrease in the saturation state of the water with respect to aragonite and calcite from -0.2 to -0.4 and -0.05 to -0.2, respectively. Similar, but more muted changes occur in Mermaid Pond, a blue hole on Rum Cay with a larger diameter and greater depth than Ink Well Blue Hole. Water from both blue holes is more undersaturated at high tide than at low tide because the flood tide forces water from the blue hole into the matrix porosity. While stored in the aquifer, the water dissolves aquifer minerals, lessening its undersaturation. This reacted water then flows back to the blue hole during the ebb tide. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the matrix porosity and conduits control the locations of water exchange that drives dissolution reactions within these aquifers and thus the distribution of secondary porosity, elevated permeability and water resources.

  17. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  18. Analysis of Modern State of Engineering Industry of Ukraine ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhko Valeriy P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the modern state of engineering companies of Ukraine. It proves importance of the engineering industry, state and level of development of which is the main indicator of economic and, first of all, industrial development of the country. It reveals main problems of engineering companies, which arise under modern economic conditions and slow down or even stop their development. The studied material is used for development of recommendations on improvement of the state and solution of main problems of the engineering industry of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?, ?????? ?????, ????????????? ???????? ??????. ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????????? ?? ????????. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????.

  19. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Saraswathy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanga bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation used for various diseases. An attempt was made to analyze it chemically which includes XRF, XRD, EDAX and ICP-MS techniques. Vanga Bhasma drug contained mainly tin as tin oxide. The content of tin was found to be 80 percent. XRF analysis revealed that the bhasma contained 17 elements at different levels of concentration. XRD studies exhibited that the major phase composition is cassiterite tin oxide in tetragonal structure. The crystallite size of the compound calculated from Scherrers formula was 52.94 nm. ICP-MS studies revealed the presence of calcium, arsenic, iron, silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and chloride. A combination of XRF, XRD, EDAX-SEM and ICP-MS was very useful in concluding that vanga bhasma is in cassiterite form of tetragonal structure. It is possible that the practical clinical application of the drug may be due to the different trace level elemental spectra besides tin. Data generated in the present study can be considered for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards for Vanga bhasma.

  20. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI WANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  1. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    OpenAIRE

    HUI WANG

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  2. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the

  3. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  4. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  5. Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

  6. An analysis of modern systems for automation of boiler houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. B.

    2010-06-01

    The situation currently existing in the market of systems for automatic control of boiler houses is analyzed. The objectives and problems of automation are stated. The characteristics of cabinets for automatic control of type DE steam boilers are compared for compliance with the modern requirements for safety and efficiency. The need and effectiveness of using supervisory control and data acquisition systems is shown, especially for supervisory control of a network of territorially distributed facilities.

  7. Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ???????

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

  8. Analysis on modern measuring methods of curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao-Wei; Liang, Xi-Chang; Zou, Chang-Ping

    1993-09-01

    There are lots of curved surfaces in machine manufacturing. For example. blades ot' water turbine, shells of rnotoreyle shells of airplane, mould, etc. Now, there isn't satisfactorical solution about the problem how to ne asure these curved surface. Modern nasuring methods of curved surfaces include the method of three-coordinate machine, the rithod of photograrnmetry, the method of raster projection, the method of rasuring by intersection of eleetronie-theodolites, the irthod of laser interferometry, the method laser diffractometry, the method of laser triangulation, etc. Now, let's introduce then respectively.

  9. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE POSITIVE MEDIAEDUCATION PRACTICE IN MODERN FAMILY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN THROUGH THE NETWORK MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreyva Irina Valerievna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of media education practices in the modern family of preschool children through the network media. The article describes the base of re-search, tasks, process of research, the results and conclusions.

  11. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  12. Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

    2013-09-01

    Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

  13. Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in the field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B., and translated to farsi language in two volumes. The first volume consist of ten chapters as follow: Radiation Interaction with matter, Radiation Detectors, Radiation Sources. The fourth chapter is about Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Reactions. Radiation Protection is discussed at fifth chapter; Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis is presented at six chapter. Neutron Activation by radiochemistry procedures and Prompt Activation are discussed at seven and eight chapters. Chemical Analysis Radiation Scattering Analysis and radiation Absorption Analysis of Neutron are presented in the 9th chapter and the 10th chapter isdevoted to Charged Particle Activation Analysis

  14. Chemical analysis by atomic adsorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explains about chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. The general principals studies the spectral emission, the theoretical base of quantitative chemical dosage and the principle of dosage method. This study explains about the instrumentation and the samples preparation methods, like acid digestion, fusion and parcial extrations. (C.G.)

  15. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  16. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of modern medicine although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  17. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  18. Utilization of chemical derivatives in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derivative activation analysis (DAA) is a method to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear activation analysis for the more elusive elements. It may also allow a degree of chemical speciation for the element of interest. DAA uses a preirradiation chemical reaction on the sample to initiate the formation of, or an exchange with, a chemical complex which contains a surrogate element, M. As a result, the amount of the element or the chemical species to be determined, X, is now represented by measurement of the amount of the surrogate element, M, that is made part of, or released by the complex species. The surrogate element is selected for its superior properties for nuclear activation analysis and the absence of interference reaction in its final determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) after some preconcentration or separation chemistry. Published DAA studies have been limited to neutron activation analysis. DAA can offer the analyst some important advantages. It can determine elements, functional groups, or chemical species which cannot be determined directly by INAA, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA), prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), or charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) procedures. When compared with conventional RNAA, there are fewer precautions with respect to handling of intensely radioactive samples, since the chemistry is done before the irradiation. The preirradiation chemistry may also eliminate many interferences that might occur in INAA and, through use of an appropriate surrogate element, can place the analytical gamma-ray line in an interference-free region of the gamma-ray spectrum

  19. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  20. Evolutionary and Institutional Economic Analysis of the Scarcity Concept in Modern Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Tchipev

    2006-01-01

    This is an attempt to rationalise a fundamental category of modern neoclassical economics from a critical point of view using the tools of the modern institutional and evolutionary economic analysis. The scarcity concept of economic goods has been critically analysed in an evolutionary and biological context, as well as in general social and specific market context. A possible answer regarding its specific presence in the neoclassical economics has been suggested, as well as with regard to th...

  1. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  2. Note on modern path analysis in application to crop science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we discuss path analysis and its applications to crop science investigations – almost all of these applications are based on the methodology that Sewall Wright developed in the 1920s, although the path analysis method has been intensively developed during the last three decades. Via this paper, we point out that new methodology of estimation and testing in path analysis is fairly advanced and is applied in many biological disciplines and that it should also be extended to crop science.

  3. Sentiment Analysis For Modern Standard Arabic And Colloquial

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    The rise of social media such as blogs and social networks has fueled interest in sentiment analysis. With the proliferation of reviews, ratings, recommendations and other forms of online expression, online opinion has turned into a kind of virtual currency for businesses looking to market their products, identify new opportunities and manage their reputations, therefore many are now looking to the field of sentiment analysis. In this paper, we present a feature-based sentence level approach ...

  4. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  5. Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. COVRIG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

  6. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  7. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  8. In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, JoAnne; Lundgren, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including humanism and positive psychology. However, these approaches have failed to provide explanations of the behavior–environment relations involved in valui...

  9. Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents happened in which the crew was not able to save the aircraft, although post-flight analysis showed that it was possible with alternative, perhaps unconventional, control strategies. These aircraft accid...

  10. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  11. Chemical analysis of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium is an important nuclear fuel material. It is also a starting material for the fabrication of uranium based alloys. Various methodologies are employed for the production of uranium metal. It is essential to maintain the quality of the uranium metal produced. The metal should meet stringent specifications laid down by the user. This necessitates the analysis of uranium metal for both major and minor constituents. Uranium content is determined by titrimetry either by employing visual or bi-amperometric end point detection. Weight method is adapted for dispensing the titrant to achieve better accuracy and precision. In visual titrimetric method the sample is dissolved in phosphoric acid and uranium is titrated with ammonium vanadate solution employing sodium diphenylamine as indicator. In bi-amperometry, the sample after dissolution in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids is titrated with standard potassium dichromate solution to amperometric end point. For the determination of weight percentage of 235U, ? spectrometry is employed. The method involves dissolution of known amount of sample in nitric acid and monitoring the peak area at 185.7 keV gamma. The weight percentage of 235U is computed from the calibration plot obtained between the peak areas vs 235U weight percentages employing series of standards. Carbon is determined by combustion of the sample in flowing oxygen atmosphere and monitoring the carbon dioxide released employing an IR detector. Nitrogen and oxygen are determined by inert gas fusion technique. In this method, the sample is fused in a graphite crucible in presence of nickel flux at 3000 deg C followed by purification of released CO, N2 and H2 and detection of oxygen as CO and nitrogen as N2 by I R or TCD. Boron is determined by selective separation of boron employing EHD in chloroform, colour development with curcumin in acetic acid and absorbance measurement by spectrophotometry at 550nm. Boron content is read from the calibration plot between the amount of boron vs. absorbance

  12. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  13. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  14. Structure analysis of polymer crystals modernized with quantum beam usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant progresses in the X-ray crystal structure analysis technique is the utilization of a synchrotron high-energy X-ray source which can give us a tremendously large number of reflections, making it possible to find out even the hydrogen atomic positions with high accuracy. The wide-angle neutron diffraction method is also important for the extraction of hydrogen atomic positions as demonstrated in the case study of full-deuterated polyethylene. The so-called X-N (X-ray-neutron) method has been also applied, which successfully clarified the bonded electron density distribution along a polydiacetylene skeletal chain. Detailed crystal structure analysis was performed also to observe the mechanical deformation mechanism of a polymer crystal viewed on the atomic level. Time-dependent rapid X-ray diffraction measurement has made it possible to trace the structural change in a photo-induced solid-state polymerization process. An organized combination of X-ray diffraction methods with others such as infrared spectroscopy has shown to be important for the study of structural evolution processes of polymer crystals. (author)

  15. Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

  16. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  17. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, José A.; Duane A. Rogers; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Florabel G. Mullick; Gail D. Chapman; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Dean J. Wagner; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  19. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  20. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  1. Toward a Modern Secondary Information System for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the information processing system employed by Chemical Abstracts Service which utilizes computers to organize material from the data base, convert it to the appropriate type face and format, and photocompose it in a form suitable for conversion to offset printing plates. (GS)

  2. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  3. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The Lagrangian specificity of the required measurements is assured by the fact that a transducer enclosed within a solid material is necessarily linked in motion to the particles of the material which surround it. This Lagrangian instrumentation is described in the second chapter. The authors are concerned with the techniques considered today to be the most effective. These are, for stress : piezoresistive gauges (50 Ω and low impedance) and piezoelectric techniques (PVF2 gauges, quartz transducers) ; and for particle velocity : electromagnetic gauges, VISAR and IDL Doppler laser interferometers. In each case both the physical principles as well as techniques of use are set out in detail. For the most part, the authors use their own experience to describe the calibration of these instrumentation systems and to compare their characteristics : measurement range, response time, accuracy, useful recording time, detection area... These characteristics should be taken into account by the physicist when he has to choose the instrumentation systems best adapted to the Lagrangian analysis he intends to apply to any given material. The discussion at the end of chapter 2 should guide his choice both for plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. The third chapter examines to what extent the accuracy of Lagrangian analysis is affected by the accuracies of the numerical analysis methods and experimental techniques. By means of a discussion of different cases of analysis, the authors want to make the reader aware of the different kinds of sources of errors that may be encountered. This work brings up to date the state of studies on Lagrangian analysis methods based on a wide review of bibliographical sources together with the contribution made to research in this field by the four authors themselves in the course of the last ten years. Le formage des métaux par explosif, la consolidation dynamique des poudres, la balistique terminale, l'abattage des roches par explosif, sont autant d'applications, dans les domaines civil et militaire, qui exigent d'approfondir les connaissances que l'on a des comportements des matériaux chargés par des ondes de contrainte de forte intensité. C'est dans ce domaine que les méthodes d'analyse lagrangienne, sujets de cet ouvrage, seront un outil d'investigation intéressant pour le mécanicien du solide. L'analyse lagrangienne a été développée autour des années 1970 par Fowles et Williams. L'idée de base repose sur l'intégration des équations de la mécanique en utilisant l'histoire des contraintes ou des vitesses matérielles obtenues au moyen de capteurs minces sur le trajet d'une onde de contrainte. Sont ainsi obtenues toutes les grandeurs cinématiques et mécaniques contenues dans les équations de conservation. Dans le premier chapitre, les auteurs introduisent les outils mathématiques destinés à analyser les mouvements monodimensionnels plan et sphérique. Pour le premier de ces mouvements, sont décrites les méthodes mathématiques d'analyse propres aux trois régimes de propagation d'onde rencontrés: l'onde instationnaire non amortie, l'onde simple et l'onde instationnaire amortie. Par ailleurs, pour chacun de ces régimes sont traités les cas où l'on dispose initialement des profils des contraintes ou des vitesses matérielles. Les auteurs insistent sur le fait que l'une ou l'autre des deux collections de données (contraintes et vitesses matérielles) sont suffisantes pour intégrer les équations de conservation dans le cas du mouvement plan, alors que les deux collections de données sont indispensables dans le cas de mouvement sphérique. Cependant, malgré cette difficulté supplémentaire, l'analyse lagrangienne du mouvement sphérique reste particulièrement intéressante pour le mécanicien puisqu'elle permet d'accéder au comportement du matériau pour des processus de déformation différents de celui imposé par le mouvement plan. Les méthodes exposées dans le premier chapitre reposent sur la mesure lagrangienne de la vitesse matérielle et de la contrainte, en fonction du temps dans le matériau comprimé par une onde longitudinale plane ou sphérique. La spécificité lagrangienne des mesures requises est assurec par le fait qu'un capteur inclus dans un matériau solide est lié dans le mouvement aux particules du matériau qui l'entourent. Cette métrologie lagrangienne est décrite dans le deuxième chapitre. Les auteurs se sont intéressés aux techniques considérées aujourd'hui comme les plus performantes ; elles se rapportent d'une part à la vitesse matérielle: jauges électromagnétiques, interféromètres Doppler laser de types VISAR et IDL ; d'autre part à la contrainte : jauges piézorésistives (50 Ω et basse impédance) et techniques piézoélectriques (jauges PVF2-capteurs à quartz). Dans chacun des cas les principes de fonctionnement ainsi que les techniques de mise en œuvre sont détaillés. Les auteurs utilisent largement leurs propres résultats pour décrire l'étalonnage de ces moyens métrologiques et comparer leurs performances : étendue de mesure, temps de réponse, précision, durée maximale d'utilisation, surface visée... Ce sont ces performances que devra prendre en compte le mécanicien lorsqu'il devra choisir parmi les différents moyens métrologiques la technique la mieux adaptée à l'analyse lagrangienne qu'il se proposera d'effectuer dans un matériau donné. Les arguments développés à la fin du chapitre 2 devraient lui permettre de guider son choix aussi bien dans le cas du mouvement monodimensionnel plan que dans le cas du mouvement monodimensionnel sphérique. Dans le troisième chapitre la précision de l'analyse lagrangienne est examinée sous l'aspect de l'influence des précisions des méthodes d'analyse numérique d'une part et des techniques expérimentales d'autre part. A partir du traitement de différents cas concrets d'analyse, les auteurs cherchent à sensibiliser le lecteur aux différentes sources d'erreurs rencontrées. Cet ouvrage constitue un état de l'art sur les méthodes d'analyse lagrangienne à partir d'une large étude bibliographique et de la contribution apportée dans ce domaine par les quatre auteurs depuis une dizaine d'années.

  4. Technical Analysis of a Ptolemaic Child Sarcophagus and the Identification of Ancient and Modern Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Catherine Scott

    The goals of this project are the technical analysis of a Ptolemaic child coffin lid, development of a conservation strategy, and realization of priority stabilization interventions. Early in the process of evaluation and analysis irregularities in the appearance and structure of the coffin suggested re-use of components. This thesis proposes that there are incidences of ancient and modern reuse of structural elements in this coffin lid, and substantiates this assertion through the results of a technical analysis. Non-destructive and destructive methods of analysis were used including UV induced visible fluorescence, Infrared and Visible-induced luminescence (VIL) imaging. Particle samples were investigated microscopically, and using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD or X-ray Diffraction, FTIR or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technologies were used for elemental and molecular analysis. Egyptology scholars, conservators, and materials scientists were consulted. The text establishes the historical context, and the use and meaning of the artifact. The object is described, the pigment analysis is presented, and prior interventions to the object are elaborated. The collective results of the technical analysis, observation and consultation are interpreted to substantiate the assertion of modern and ancient reuse. Technical analysis supports the observation that face of the deceased is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic period and that is was created in an early dynastic period and reused on this coffin in antiquity. The components of the foot-block are identified as ancient but not associated with this coffin, and 20th century adhesives and hardware are evidence that it is a modern addition. Social and economic demands in antiquity, and also in the post-excavation period of the late 19th and 20th centuries, have motivated alterations to objects of cultural and economic importance. This thesis provides substantial evidence of ancient and modern reuse and contributes information about ancient materials and methods of manufacture and distinctions between modern and ancient materials.

  5. The Diminutive in Modern Standard Arabic: An Optimality Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abujoudeh Maisoun Ismail

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The diminutive in Arabic has not received the attention it deserves in the literature. Most of the work done on Arabic morphology has viewed the derivation of Arabic diminutive as a simple process which maps root consonants, according to certain principles, onto well-defined positions of a diminutive pattern. In this paper, I will demonstrate that there is no need to refer to roots in the process of diminutive formation in Arabic. I will also show that under such a view a unified and comprehensive treatment of the diminutive is possible within the framework of Optimality Theory, as developed in Prince and Smolensky (1993. Following Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999, the analysis I argue for allows for a correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the bases from which they are derived. However, my analysis goes beyond that presented in Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999 in that it assumes a similar correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the input.

    Key words: Optimality theory; Diminutive; Root; Base; Constraint

    Résumé Le diminutif d’Arabe n’a pas reçu l’attention qu’elle mérite dans la littérature. La plupart du travail effectué sur la morphologie arabe a vu la dérivation de l’arabe comme diminutif d’un processus simple qui associe consonnes radicales, selon certains principes, sur des positions bien définies d’un modèle diminutif. Dans cet article, je vais le démontrer qu’il n’y a pas besoin de se référer aux racines dans le processus de formation diminutif en arabe. Je vais aussi montrer que, sous ce point de vue d'un traitement unifi é et complet du diminutif est possible dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité, telle que développée dans Prince et Smolensky (1993. Après Benua (1997 et Ussishkin (1999, l’analyse que je plaider en faveur d’une relation permet de correspondance entre les formes minuscules et des bases à partir desquelles elles sont dérivées. Cependant, mon analyse va au-delà qui sont présentées dans Benua (1997 et Ussishkin (1999 en ce qu’il suppose une relation de correspondance similaire entre les formes minuscules et l’entrée.

    Mots clés: Théorie de l’optimalité; Diminutif; Racine; Base; Contrainte

  6. Entropy generation reduction through chemical pinch analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pinch analysis (PA) concept emerged, late '80s, as one of the methods to address the energy management in the new era of sustainable development. It was derived from combined first and second law analysis, as a technique ensuring a better thermal integration, aiming the minimization of entropy production or, equivalently, exergy destruction by heat exchanger networks (HEN). Although its ascendance from the second law analysis is questionable, the PA reveals as a widespread tool, nowadays, helping in energy savings mostly through a more rational use of utilities. Unfortunately, as principal downside, one should be aware that the global minimum entropy production is seldom attained, since the PA does not tackle the whole plant letting aside the chemical reactors or separation trains. The chemical reactor network (CRN) is responsible for large amounts of entropy generation (exergy losses), mainly due to the combined composition and temperature change. The chemical pinch analysis (CPA) concept focuses on, simultaneously, the entropy generation reduction of both CRN and HEN, while keeping the state and working parameters of the plant in the range of industrial interest. The fundamental idea of CPA is to include the CRN (through the chemical reaction heat developed in reactors) into the HEN and to submit this extended system to the PA. This is accomplished by replacing the chemical reactor with a virtual heat exchanger system producing the same amount of entropy. For an endothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the (stepwise infinitesimal) supply heat δq flows from a source (an external/internal heater) to the stream undergoing the chemical transformation through the reactor, which in turn releases the heat of reaction ΔHR to a virtual cold stream flowing through a virtual cooler. For an exothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the replacement is likewise, but the heat flows oppositely. Thus, in the practice of designing or retrofitting a flowsheet, in order to minimize the entropy production, the chemical reactor should be viewed as a group of two or three virtual heaters/coolers destroying the same amount of exergy. As a result of PA, new operating conditions could be revealed for some or all of the chemical reactors, ensuring a further reduction of the global entropy production of the plant. In this paper, the simple case of the methanol synthesis heat integrated reactor will be analyzed, proving the benefits of the CPA

  7. Physico-chemical standardization of Habbe Shifa: A polyherbal Unani formulation with modern techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asira Tarannum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habbe Shifa (HS is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation, which is used in the treatment of Humma (fever, Iya (fatigue, Tashannuje rewi (pulmonary spasm and Zeequn Nafas (asthma and opium deaddiction. Aim: The physico-chemical standards of HS were established in the present study. Materials and Methods: HS was prepared with ingredients of particle size 150 μm (100 mesh sieve, 5% w/w Gum Acacia mucilage was used as binder, dried at a temperature 90°C for 120 min and finally evaluated for different physico-chemical parameters to develop standards for HS. Results and Conclusion: Physico-chemical standards of HS were observed as characteristic brown colour, spherical shape, hard in texture, odourless and bitter in taste; average weight 242.95 ± 1.53 mg; diameter 7.33 ± 0.16 mm; hardness 3.5 ± 0.00 kg/cm; friability 0.02 ± 0.003%; pH value in 1% and 10% aqueous solution 6.22 ± 0.06 and 5.39 ± 0.008 respectively; percentage loss of weight on drying at 105°C 6.63 ± 0.12%; total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash 5.33 ± 0.16, 0.95 ± 0.05 and 1 ± 0.00% respectively and total alkaloid 0.65 ± 0.01% and R f values in the thin layer chromatography in ethanolic extract in hexane: Acetone (7.6:2.4 solvent system were 0.25, 0.78 and in hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6 solvent system were 0.58, 0.89. The results obtained for the various physico-chemical tests of lab sample of HS may be taken as standard parameter for future reference and help in setting up regulatory limit to assure the quality of Unani medicine.

  8. Failure analysis on a chemical waste pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A failure analysis of a chemical waste pipe illustrates how nuclear technology can spin off metallurgical consultant services. The pipe, made of zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, UNS 60705), had cracked in several places, all at butt welds. A combination of fractography and metallography indicated delayed hydride cracking

  9. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  10. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with other galaxies. Studying the stars composing a galaxy can in principle, inform us about its past. Some stars can be as old as the galaxy itself, some can be much younger and we can use this informa...

  11. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy, and its main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand its evolution. Galaxies are not static objects, they move, form stars and can interact with other galaxies. Studying the stars composing a galaxy can in principle, inform us about its past. Some stars can be as old as the galaxy itself, some can be much younger and we ...

  12. Syntactic-Semantic Analysis of Modern Chinese with Left-Associative Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiuxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, Left-Associative Grammar is applied and tailored for the syntactic-semantic analysis of modern Chinese. The analysis follows the principle of time-linearity and description. Left-Associative Grammar is one of the two bases of Database Semantics. The DBS graphs of semantic relations, which can be automatically generated from the LAG derivation result, provide a more explicit view of the content of a sentence. The part of speech signature, as a more abstract presentation, ...

  13. Failure Analysis of a Modern High Performance Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

    OpenAIRE

    Bingbin Guo; Weizheng Zhang; Xiaosong Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis on a modern high performance diesel engine cylinder head made of gray cast iron. Cracks appeared intensively at the intersection of two exhaust passages in the cylinder head. The metallurgical examination was conducted in the crack origin zone and other zones. Meanwhile, the load state of the failure part of the cylinder head was determined through the Finite Element Analysis. The results showed that both the point of the maximum temperature and the poin...

  14. Electrochemical recovery of damaged bonding area during failure analysis of the modern integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, D. N.; Kelm, E. A.; Milovanov, R. A.; Molodtsova, G.

    2014-12-01

    During failure analysis of modern integrated circuits it might be necessary to carry out investigations, including both analysis of the die topology and the input of electrical signals on its contact pads. However, during access to the die the contact pads might be damaged due to different factors. In present work several types of damaged contact pads and experimental investigations on its reconstructions by electrochemical deposition of silver and copper are discussed.

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  16. Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

    2014-01-01

    By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

  17. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  18. Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

  19. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support activities of chemical analysis division for the year of 1984 are described. A sum of 2445 samples requested from the facilities and laboratories were analyzed with the methods modified and adopted in the laboratory from 1977 to 1983. A study on the separation and determination of the trace amounts of rare earth elements in nuclear materials was carried out, and various experimental conditions were established. (Author)

  20. The collection of precipitation for chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, James N.; Gene E. Likens

    2011-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of publications on the collection and chemical analysis of precipitation. While the first paper presented the results from an intercalibration of 10 different designs of precipitation collectors (Galloway and Likens, 1976), this paper presents results of experiments on the collection efficiency of collectors, preservation of samples, monthly variation of wet and dry deposition, sample storage, length of sampling period, choice of collector location and sources of...

  1. Modern marine sediments as a natural analog to the chemically stressed environment of a landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, M.J.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical reactions that occur in landfills are analogous to those reactions that occur in marine sediments. Lateral zonation of C, N, S, O, H, Fe and Mn species in landfills is similar to the vertical zonation of these species in marine sediments and results from the following reaction sequence: (1) oxidation of C, N and S species in the presence of dissolved free oxygen to HCO3-, NO3- and SO2-4; (2) after consumption of molecular oxygen, then NO3- is reduced, and Fe and Mn are solubilized; (3) SO2-4 is reduced to sulfide; and (4) organic compounds become the source of oxygen, and CH4 and NH4+ are formed as fermentation products. In a landfill in Delaware the oxidation potential increases downgradient and the redox zones in the reducing plume are characterized by: CH4, NH4+, Fe2+. Mn2+, HCO3- and NO3-. Lack of SO2-4 at that landfill eliminates the sulfide zone. Although it has not been observed at landfills, mineral alteration should result in precipitation of pyrite and/or siderite downgradient. Controls on the pH of leachate are the relative rates of production of HCO3-, NH4+ and CH4. Production of methane by fermentation at landfills results in 13C isotope fractionation and the accumulation of isotopically heavy ??CO2 (+10 to +18??? PDB). Isotope measurements may be useful to determine the extent of CO2 reduction in landfills and extent of dilution downgradient. The boundaries of reaction zones in stressed aquifers are determined by head distribution and flow velocity. Thus, if the groundwater flow is rapid relative to reaction rates, redox zones will develop downgradient. Where groundwater flow velocities are low the zones will overlap to the extent that they may be indeterminate. ?? 1979.

  2. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is hyposaline (8.5-10 g l-1 ) and alkaline (pH 8.9-9.1 and alkalinity of 37 meq l-1 ) with sodium and chloride being the dominant ions but also with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These conditions are favorable for active carbonate deposition that results in the formation of distinctive stromatolite structures in the littoral region of the lake. These structures generate extended submerged carbonaceous platforms down to a depth of 15 m that slope steeply to the bottom of the lake where soft sediments prevail (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998). The lake is populated by 18 species of cyanobacteria (Tavera and Komárek, 1996) which are the primary producers in the food web a of the lake fixing not only carbon (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998) but also nitrogen (Falcón eto al, 2002). The stromatolite samples were freeze-dried and then were finely grounded with an agate mor-tar mill for analyses. The mineral composition of the sample is essentially hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 , 4 H2 O)) with traces of quartz (SiO2 ) as determined by X-rays diffraction. This is also consistent with differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry of the sample. Analysis of the sample by TV-mass spectrometry (MS) using the Phoenix Lander Protocol (Navarro-González et al., 2009) indicates that the major volatile released is carbon dioxide a from 350 C to 1000° C with broad peaks centered at 400° C and 600° C. Organics are also re-° leased from 380° C to 750° C as monitored by a characteristic organic fragment with m/z=41 and that is attributed to the allyl cation: [CH2 CHCH2 ]+ . Analysis of the sample by TV-gas chromatography (GC)-MS using the Viking Lander Protocol but at 750° C (Navarro-González a et al., 2009) demonstrates that a complex suite of organics are released such as 1,3-butadiene, furan, propanal, 2-propenenitrile, 1,3 cyclopentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, propanenitrile, methylfuran, butanal, benzene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, 1-H-pyrrole, pyridine, methylbenzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-neamine, 2,4-hexadienal, phenol, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, benzonitrile, cyclopropyliden-emethylbenzene, 2,3-dihydro-1-H-indene, 1-methylethenylbenzene, 3-methylphenol, and 1-propenyl-benzene. The carbon isotopic composition of the organic fraction of the stromatolites is deter-mined by a δ 13 C=-24.28 whereas the inorganic fraction, hydromagnesite, is determined by a δ 13 C=5.86. Our data shows two interesting chemical signatures that can used to detect extant life in Martian carbonates: (1) organics are not oxidized by mineral matrix during TV-MS and TV-GC-MS analysis; and (2) distinctive carbon isotopic fractionation occurs in the or-ganic and inorganic fraction of stromatolites. Future work should center on studying fossilized stromatolites to determine if these chemical signatures are lost with time. References: Ehlmann, B.L., Mustard, J.F., Murchie, S.L. Poulet, F., Bishop, J.L., Brown, A.J., Calvin, W.M., Clark, R.N., Des Marais, D.J., Milliken, R.E., Roach, L.H., Roush, T.L., Swayze, G.A., and Wray, J.J.: 2008, Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars. Science 322, 1828-1832. Escobar-Briones, E., Alcocer, J., Cienfuegos, E., and Morales P.: 1998, Carbon stable isotopes ratios of pelagic and litoral communities in Alchichica crater-lake, Mexico, Internat J Salt Lake Res 7, 345-355. Falcón, L.I., Escobar-Briones, E., and Romero, D.: 2002, Nitrogen fixation patterns displayed by cyanobacterial consortia in Alchichica crater-lake, Mexico, Hydrobiol 467, 71-78. Navarro-González, R., Navarro, K.F., de la Rosa, J., Molina, P., Iñiguez, E., Miranda, L.D., a n Morales, P., Cienfuegos, E., Coll, P., Raulin, F., Amils, R. and McKay, C.P.: 2006. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 16089-16094. Navarro-González, R., Iñiguez, E., de la Rosa, J. and McKay, C.P.: 2009, Characterization of a n organics, microorganisms, desert soils and Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization coupled to mass spectrometry and their implications for the search of organics on Mars by Phoenix and future space missions. Astrobiology 9, 703-715, doi: 10.1089/ast.2008.0284. Schopf, J.W., Oehler, D.Z. Horodyski, R.J. and Kvenvolden K.A.:1971, Biogenicity and signif-icance of the oldest known stromatolites. J Paleontol 45, 477-485. Tavera, R., and Komárek J.: 1996, Cyanoprokaryotes in the volcanic lake of alchichica, Puebla a State, Mexico, Algological Studies 83, 511-538.

  3. Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  4. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Hexemer; Peter Müller-Buschbaum

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- o...

  5. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shibi; G. Shalu; K. Jagannathan

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%), tin (8.5%) and mercury (3.1%). FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the...

  7. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  8. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  9. Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabarcius, Raimondas; Tonkunas, Aurimas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Installation Safety Lab.

    2010-08-15

    During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

  10. Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

  12. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  13. Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Y S; Kobayashi, C; De Silva, G M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2011-01-01

    [Shortened] In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of alpha-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the over-abundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. [...] Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly alpha-e...

  14. Requirements for X-ray structure analysis with modern synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction methods, including macromolecular crystallography, small-angle scattering from partly or noncrystalline systems, fiber and surface diffraction, are in the forefront of interest of a broad synchrotron user community from biomedical and technological fields. The main impact comes from the unsurpassed X-ray flux and brilliance of modern third-generation sources, facilitating on the one hand, a dramatic enhancement in sample throughput, and on the other hand, the transformation of X-ray diffraction analysis from a static to a cinematographic technique. In the present article some of the requirements for further development are being discussed

  15. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Analysis of the Influence of Burst-Mode Laser Ablation by Modern Quality Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelmann, Claus; Urbina, Juan Pablo Caldern

    The development of lasers in terms of pulse length and ablation quality has made wider the perspective of material processing. Ablation using picosecond lasers offers an almost "cold material removal", which causes minimal heat affected zones and enables sublimation without melt formation. Moreover, burst-mode intensifies these effects by the partition of pulses into groups of micro-pulses. Therefore, removal rate and surface quality are improved with an appropriate combination of burst-mode and other relevant process parameters. Nevertheless, parameter identification can be costly and time demanding. Thus, analysis of parameter impact offered by modern quality tools represents a convenient approach to accelerate ablation process improvements.

  17. Comparative analysis of modern empirical spectrophotometric atlases with multicolor photometric catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpio, E Yu; Mironov, A V

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the comparative analysis of the most known semi-empirical and empirical spectral atlases that was carried out using the data from the WBVR photometric catalogue. The results show that standard error of synthesized stellar magnitudes calculated with SEDs from best spectral atlases reaches 0.02 mag. It has been also found out that some of modern spectral atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. The agreement for the 5000-10000 A spectral range is rather satisfactory, while there are problems for wavelengths shorter than 4400 A.

  18. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    Washington : SPIE, 2012, 84360C-1-84360C-10. ISBN 978-0-8194-9128-2. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8436). [Optics, Photonics , and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications II. Brussels (BE), 17.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical image * retinal image * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.pdf

  19. Literature and Critical Theory: dystopia as an analysis tool of radical modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomir Cardoso Hilário

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to argue that the literary genre known as dystopia is configured, from the perspective of critical theory of society, as an analysis tool of radical modernity. Therefore, there is a brief description of what would such a literary genre, as well as elect three dystopian works to bring proof that argument. Such works are: 1984, Orwell, Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury, and Brave New World, Huxley. Highlighting some of these characteristics, it is possible to shed light on the distinctive features of our contemporary.

  20. Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

  1. Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Slheimajkull, southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

    2015-02-01

    Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Slheimajkull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Slheimajkull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jkulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

  2. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. PMID:24449141

  3. Study of Modern Human Evolution via Comparative Analysis with the Neanderthal Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musaddeque; Liang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans ...

  4. Modern sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

  5. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to prioritize such measurements in the face of limited sample availability, or how to render samples safe for handling in the analytical laboratory,) instrumental analysis of biological agents for purposes of sample matching alone is unlikely to present fundamental problems that require extensive research and development investments. The second way that the data generated by instrumental analysis can be useful to an investigation is through inferences that can be drawn regarding the processes used to grow and ''weaponize'' the agent. In contrast to the case of sample matching, there are significant R&D challenges associated with developing a robust capability that will reliably permit such inferential uses of instrumental data. Elaborating these challenges occupies the major portion of this paper.

  6. Whence and Whither? Potential and Power of Modern Isotopic Analysis for Tracing in Ecosystem Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous advancements and improvements of modern analytical instruments allow for the determination of the isotopic composition of stable isotopes of a steadily increasing number of elements. These developments also lead to improved measurement precision and make the determination of small isotope variations possible. This results in the possibility of using isotopic and elemental fingerprints as intrinsic markers to study, trace and model environmental processes and transport pathways. Today, isotopic analysis is widely recognized as highly potential key tool in diverse research disciplines, such as ecochemistry, geochemistry, hydrology or biology. The different isotopic systems allow e.g. for the investigation of elemental cycles in nature, the determination of migration in terrestrial and aquatic systems, the tracing of anthropogenic contaminants or the assessment of mass fluxes in ecosystems. In this talk, an overview about the possibilities and the potential of modern isotopic analysis in environmental sciences is given, with a particular focus on strontium as key tool to study transport processes in biological systems. (author)

  7. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ?t) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, ?- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the ?- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  8. From Modernity to Post-Modernity: Conflicting Voices in Literary Discourse A Corpus Analysis of You and One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Alcina Maria Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibilities of a corpus analysis applied to literary study and interpretation. It is thus its goal to present some findings related to the disambiguation of some pronominal references, i.e. you and one, as they occur in speech and thought presentation in prose fiction, across periods in the 20th century. The texts selected are two of Virginia Woolf's novels (early and late modernist period and one by Hugo Hamilton (in the postmodern era. The analysis benefits from a multi-layered interpretive framework drawing on discourse analysis, corpus-based approaches and literary study, particularly in that it unpacks ways in which writers make use of linguistic structures. These involve readers in a dialogic interpretation of the text's polyphony and heteroglossia, either conveying the generic pronoun reference or the protagonist's inner voice.

  9. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

  10. Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  11. Bioaerosol analysis with Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Emge, Darren K; Fountain, Augustus W; Bottiger, Jerold R; Emmons, Erik D; Snyder, A Peter

    2009-08-15

    Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy is evaluated as a technology for waterborne pathogen and bioaerosol detection. Raman imaging produces a three-dimensional data cube consisting of a Raman spectrum at every pixel in a microscope field of view. Binary and ternary mixtures including combinations of polystyrene beads, gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. atrophaeus spores, and B. cereus vegetative cells were investigated by Raman imaging for differentiation and characterization purposes. Bacillus spore aerosol sizes were varied to provide visual proof for corroboration of spectral assignments. Conventional applications of Raman imaging consist of differentiating relatively broad areas of a sample in a microscope field of view. The spectral angle mapping data analysis algorithm was used to compare a library spectrum with experimental spectra from pixels in the microscope field of view. This direct one-to-one matching is straightforward, does not require a training set, is independent of absolute spectral intensity, and only requires univariate statistics. Raman imaging is expanded in its capabilities to differentiate and distinguish between discrete 1-6 microm size bacterial species in single particles, clusters of mixed species, and bioaerosols with interference background particles. PMID:19601631

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy storages and heat pump units represent an important part of high efficient renewable energy systems. By using thermally driven, reversible chemical reactions a combination of thermal energy storage and heat pump can be realized. The influences of thermophysical properties of the involved components on the efficiency of a heat pump cycle is analysed and the relevance of the thermodynamic driving force is worked out. In general, the behaviour of energetic and exergetic efficiency is contrary. In a real cycle, higher enthalpies of reaction decrease the energetic efficiency but increase the exergetic efficiency. Higher enthalpies of reaction allow for lower offsets from equilibrium state for a default thermodynamic driving force of the reaction. - Highlights: • A comprehensive efficiency analysis of gas-solid heat pumps is proposed. • Link between thermodynamic driving force and equilibrium drop is shown. • Calculation of the equilibrium drop based on thermochemical properties. • Reaction equilibria of the decomposition reaction of salt hydrates. • Contrary behavior of energetic and exergetic efficiency

  13. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  14. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  15. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moderne Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen wesentlich (bis zu einem Faktor 100) geringere gas- und partikelfoermige Emissionen aufweisen als aeltere Technologien. Weiters emittieren automatisch beschickte Systeme signifikant geringere gas- und partikelfoermige Emissionen als haendisch beschickte Systeme. Die Feinstaubemissionen von modernen und automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen bestehen zum Grossteil aus Alkalimetallverbindungen, waehrend organische Kohlenstoffverbindungen und Russ die Zusammensetzung der Feinstaeube aus alten und nicht geregelten Systemen dominieren. Es stehen nun erstmals umfangreiche Daten zu gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen ueber fuer die jeweilige Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung typische, realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zur Verfuegung, die deutliche Korrelationen zwischen Ausbrandqualitaet, Partikelemission und chemischer Zusammensetzung der Partikel zeigen. (orig.)

  16. PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2012-08-01

    This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

  17. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

  18. Modern voxel based data and geometry analysis software tools for industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer Tomography has become a well recognized tool in industrial quality control. Modern computer tomography systems ranging from micro-CT to huge multi MeV systems allow us to generate more and more detailed views of the inner of nearly any object. With the scan resolution becoming smaller and smaller, and at the same time image matrices becoming larger and larger, we are able to localize smallest defects even in large scale objects. At the same time even with the same data set we are able to measure the outer and inner geometry of an object with a measurement point density never known before from classical tactile or optical techniques. However, scanning objects in high resolution generates huge amounts of data, easily exceeding two GByte per scan. These huge amounts of data have caused a major drawback of a wider acceptance of CT technology in industrial use. Either no software tools have been available at all or available software process chains haven't been able to process these amounts of data in reasonable time. This presentation will introduce a new generation of 3D visualization and analysis software tools for industrial CT users. Interactive visualization of huge data sets with several Gbyte in size has become possible on a standard PC. Automatic wall thickness analysis and internal defect/porosity analysis can be done within minutes. In addition this presentation will also demonstrate the latest generation of software tools for highly accurate 3D geometry analysis based on voxel data. (author)

  19. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. PMID:26191955

  20. Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Jacob

    2001-01-01

    Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic) rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allo...

  1. COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

  2. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (∼1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O∼0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (∼0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O∼0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim. The linkage between lake and river water composition, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical distribution patterns to sedimentary environment and to growth structures developing as secretion and maturation proceed during tooth formation.

  3. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (∼1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O∼0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (∼0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granites and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O∼0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed, the observed element distribution can only be explained by equilibration of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. It appears the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim. The linkage between lake and river water compositions, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical distribution patterns to sedimentary environment and to growth structures developing as secretion and maturation proceed during tooth formation.

  4. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

    Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (∼1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O∼0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (∼0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O∼0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

    Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim.

    The linkage between lake and river water composition, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical distribution patterns to sedimentary environment and to growth structures developing as secretion and maturation proceed during tooth formation.

  5. Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, th...

  6. Analysis and Modeling of Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Vapor Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hribsek, Marija; Tosic, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of chemical SAW sensors can be approached to in three ways: (1) exact analysis by solving the wave equation, (2) published formulas which connect frequency shifts and chemical compounds quantities, and (3) approximate analysis by means of equivalent electro-mechanical circuits. The exact analysis of SAW sensors using surface wave theory is very complex even in the case of a free surface of a single layer piezoelectric substrate. The published formulas which connect frequency shifts a...

  7. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  8. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

  9. NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

  10. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  11. Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Jacob

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allows chemists to rationalize novel approaches to chemical research (e.g. combinatorial chemistry and possibly exploit the vast area of 'surprise discoveries'.

  12. Analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with modern nuclear data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ERANOS libraries are produced based on four modern nuclear data sets. • The MOZART MZA/MZB benchmarks are analyzed with these li- braries. • Results are generally acceptable in an academic context, but for highly accurate applications data adjustment is required. • Some discrepancies between the calculations and the benchmark results remain and cannot be readily explained. • Successful generation of ECCO libraries and covariance data for ERA- NOS. - Abstract: For fast reactor design and analysis, our laboratory uses, amongst others, the ERANOS code system. Unfortunately, the publicly available version of ERANOS does not have the most recent nuclear data. Therefore, it was decided to implement an integrated processing system to generate cross sections libraries for the ECCO cell code, as well as covariance data. Cross sections are generated from the original ENDF files. For our purposes, it is important to ascertain that the ECCO cross section libraries are of adequate quality to allow design and analysis of advanced fast reactors in an academic context. In this paper, we present an analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with nuclear data from JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1. Results are that reactivity is generally well predicted, with an uncertainty of about 1% due to covariances of the nuclear data. Reaction rate ratios are satisfactorily calculated, as well as the flux spectrum and reaction rate traverses. Some problems remain: the magnitude of the void effect is not satisfactorily calculated, and reaction rate traverses are not always satisfactorily calculated. On the whole, the ECCO libraries are sufficient for design and analysis tasks in an academic context. For high-precision calculations, such as required for licensing tasks and detailed design calculations, data adjustment is still necessary as the “native” covariance data in the ENDF files is not accurate enough

  13. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed

  14. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.A., E-mail: kjordan@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Springfels, D., E-mail: dspringfels@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Schubring, D., E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, PO Box 118300, Gainesville, FL 32611-8300 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed.

  15. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CUVACAK KUTORI MATTIRAI

    OpenAIRE

    A.Saraswathy; Rani, M. Girija

    1998-01-01

    Cuvacak kutori (mattiral) is an important herbal medicine prescribed for bronchial asthma in siddha system of medicine. In order to evolve pharmacopoeial standards, the medicine was prepared in laboratory scale and chemically analysed. Analytical data along with the tlc pattern can be used for fixing standards.

  16. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

  17. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide γ-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of γ-radiation;· low dose rate ∼10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature of 350-400C up to 85% of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective applied for purification of polluted water

  18. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

  19. Modern methods of analysis for the post-investigation of sodium-corroded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following methods are used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the surface zones of Na-exposed materials: The concentration course of various alloy elements in the diffusion zones starting at a depth of about 0.3 μm is spectroanalytically determined using a luminous discharge lamp. To investigate the composition of the above μm layers, Anger electron spectroscopy profile analysis is used and to determine the metal and non-metal compounds present in this surface zone, secondary ion mass spectrometry is applied. These methods are briefly described and the results given. (GSC)

  20. Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said GHARBY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as extra virgin according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

  1. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  2. Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Vzquez-Su, Enric; Carrera, Jess; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Bess River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Bess is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Bess: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point. PMID:25280248

  3. Calling Integration into Question: A Discourse Analysis of English and "Humash" Classes at a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Devra

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on discourse analysis and critical literacy, this study calls into question prevailing assumptions about integration by examining talk in English and "Humash" classrooms as windows into the two worlds of a Modern Orthodox high school. The study found that the two subjects presented very different models of teaching and learning. "Humash"…

  4. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed David L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years. One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

  5. The history of gait analysis before the advent of modern computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Aristotle (384-322 BCE) can be attributed with the earliest recorded comments regarding the manner in which humans walk. It was not until the renaissance that further progress was made through the experiments and theorising of Giovanni Borelli (1608-1679). Although several scientists wrote about walking through the enlightenment period it was the brothers Willhelm (1804-1891) and Eduard (1806-1871) Weber, working in Leipzig who made the next major contribution based on very simple measurements. Both Jules Etienne Marey (1830-1904), working in France, and Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), working in America, made significant advances in measurement technology. These were developed further by Otto Fischer (1861-1917) in collaboration with Willhelm Braune (1831-1892). The major developments in the early twentieth century were in the development of force plates and the understanding of kinetics. The team headed by Verne Inman (1905-1980) and Howard Eberhart (1906-1993) made major advances in America shortly after the Second War. David Sutherland (1923-2006) and Jacquelin Perry pioneered clinical applications in America and Jurg Baumann (1926-2000) in Europe. It was not until the advent of modern computers that clinical gait analysis became widely available. PMID:17306979

  6. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Robustly Redesigned Modern Aero-Engine Fan

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Pranay; Shahpar, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents results from a recent computational study aimed at de-sensitizing fan stage aerodynamics---in a modern, high bypass ratio aero-engine---to the effects of rear-seal leakage flows. These flows are the result of seal erosion between a rotor and stator disk in an engine, and deterioration over the life of an engine. The density-matching technique for optimization under uncertainty was applied to this problem. This involved RANS and adjoint flow solves of a full fan stage carried out at two different leakage conditions. Here a detailed analysis of the fan stage aerodynamics is carried out to determine why exactly the new design is more insensitive to the effects of leakage flows. Specifically, it is shown that this insensitivity is attributed to three main factors: a slight rearward shift in loading, and thus a reduction in incidence; a reduction in the cross-passage pressure gradient; and a re-acceleration of the flow towards the trailing edge, which prevented any corner separation.

  7. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  8. C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

  9. CFD Sensitivity Analysis of a Modern Civil Transport Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Allison, Dennis O.; Biedron, Robert T.; Buning, Pieter G.; Gainer, Thomas G.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Mysko, Stephen J.; Witkowski, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity analysis is conducted for a modern civil transport at several conditions ranging from mostly attached flow to flow with substantial separation. Two different Navier-Stokes computer codes and four different turbulence models are utilized, and results are compared both to wind tunnel data at flight Reynolds number and flight data. In-depth CFD sensitivities to grid, code, spatial differencing method, aeroelastic shape, and turbulence model are described for conditions near buffet onset (a condition at which significant separation exists). In summary, given a grid of sufficient density for a given aeroelastic wing shape, the combined approximate error band in CFD at conditions near buffet onset due to code, spatial differencing method, and turbulence model is: 6% in lift, 7% in drag, and 16% in moment. The biggest two contributers to this uncertainty are turbulence model and code. Computed results agree well with wind tunnel surface pressure measurements both for an overspeed 'cruise' case as well as a case with small trailing edge separation. At and beyond buffet onset, computed results agree well over the inner half of the wing, but shock location is predicted too far aft at some of the outboard stations. Lift, drag, and moment curves are predicted in good agreement with experimental results from the wind tunnel.

  10. Survey of chemical and destructive analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional methods of determining the concentration and isotopic composition of nuclear materials in the nuclear fuel cycle are reviewed. Problems of representative sampling and measurement uncertainties as they apply to conventional analytical problems are discussed. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) describe current chemical and mass-spectrometric methods typically used to characterize nuclear materials; (2) describe basic techniques for obtaining samples representative of bulk liquid, powder, or solid materials; and (3) identify principal sources of error for the above methods. 101 references

  11. Chemical Diversity, Origin, and Analysis of Phycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    that are toxic to fish, the so-called ichthyotoxins. Despite numerous reports of algal blooms causing massive fish kills worldwide, only a few types of compounds, such as the karlotoxins, have been proven to be true ichthyotoxins. This review will highlight marine microalgae as the source of some of...... the most complex natural compounds known to mankind, with chemical structures that show no resemblance to what has been characterized from plants, fungi, or bacteria. In addition, it will summarize algal species known to be related to fish-killing blooms, but from which ichthyotoxins are yet to be...

  12. Chemical Diversity, Origin, and Analysis of Phycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-03-25

    Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites. On the other hand, much less is known about the chemical nature of compounds that are toxic to fish, the so-called ichthyotoxins. Despite numerous reports of algal blooms causing massive fish kills worldwide, only a few types of compounds, such as the karlotoxins, have been proven to be true ichthyotoxins. This review will highlight marine microalgae as the source of some of the most complex natural compounds known to mankind, with chemical structures that show no resemblance to what has been characterized from plants, fungi, or bacteria. In addition, it will summarize algal species known to be related to fish-killing blooms, but from which ichthyotoxins are yet to be characterized. PMID:26901085

  13. The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

  14. Analysis on the Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Modern Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Yipai Jiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the artificial intelligence and modern technology of physical education have researched and discussed which in order to provide the ideal theoretical basis for the modern technology of physical construction and development. As we all know, artificial intelligence belongs to a strong frontier disciplines which is developing but also one of the main direction of the computer and its related technologies interdisciplinary research, influencing the entire teaching progress. Artific...

  15. Microstructures for Chemical Analysis : Design, Fabrication and Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Svedberg, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The interest for miniaturisation in chemical and biological analysis has increased in recent years. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterisation of tools for microanalysis have been studied. The focus is set on polymer microchips for applications in chemical analysis. The work consists of three parts: design and fabrication of paraffin microactuators, design and fabrication of polymer microchips as interfaces in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and characteris...

  16. Analysis of chemical processes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main principles are presented of processing experimental data on the dynamic characteristics of flow systems operated in steady state conditions. The data were obtained by tracer techniques using suitable radionuclides. The application is discussed of the perturbation and response method to the study of behaviour of apparatus in chemical industry, and the experimental determination is shown of the residence time distribution, ie., normalized system response to a pulse perturbation function. Methods are also shown of calculating the production process pulse response. Examples are given of measurements on industrial facilities of oxosynthesis in the petrochemical process, on melting of zinc and lead agglomerate in the metallurgical process, on a granulation loop of NPK fertilizer production, and on equipment for filtering titanium white. (B.S.)

  17. Gamma resonance and chemical analysis of tin industry slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of Moessbauer spectroscopy, phase analysis of tin compounds in products of metallurgical treatment has been conducted. The analysis is based on quantitative relation between the intensity of Moessbauer line and tin content in this or that valence state. Moessbauer spectra of the slags were measured at 295 K using MS-10K spectrometer with Ca119mSnO3 source. It is shown, that the method of chemical phase analysis of tin slags, based on sample treatment by copper chloride tartaric acid solution can not be used for analysis of chemical and phase state of tin in products of metallurgical treatment

  18. LOOKING OUT CLASICAL TURKISH POEM ACCORDING TO MODERN ANALYSIS METHODS / DİVAN ŞİİRİ'NE MODERN METİN ÇÖZÜMLEME YÖNTEMLERİNDEN BAKMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dursun Ali TÖKEL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature has a characteristic of following the changes of investigations and technology. The great literal changes ın 19th century, effected deeply literature studies. After Saussure, the view of the Occident on language and literature changed. This view changed not only structuralism but also linguistic studies, perceiving and utilizing the linguistic existence. In modern terms, all scientific toughts as modernism, structuralism, post-modernism, seemeiology, semantics bring up new points of view to literary texts. The last quarter of 20th century has been the term of understanding Classical Ottoman Poems not only with the view of traditional commentary methods but also modern analysis methods. This paper gives the panorama of all these analysis, methods of Classical Ottoman Poems.

  19. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heercules, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

  20. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  1. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

  2. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

  3. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six...

  4. Application of modern instrumental methods to the trace analysis in refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art of trace analysis in refractory metals is outlined. It is necessary to distinguish between homogeneously distributed trace contaminants and such of a heterogeneous, particulate kind. The effects of these two categories of trace contaminants upon the final products, i.e. the sintered refractory metals molybdenum, tungsten, niobium and tantalum, are quite different. A scheme of such effects is given. Defects caused by heterogeneous trace contaminants are routinely inspected by scanning electron microscopy in connection with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry which is demonstrated by several examples. Grain boundary contamination originating from homogeneous trace impurities are frequently investigated by Auger-electron spectrometry. Recent results are summarized and some examples are given. Secondary ion mass spectrometry yielded first evidence concerning the nature of chemical bonding of trace contaminants and dope elements within refractory metals. Also ion microprobe mass analysis is a unique method for extreme topochemical micro- and trace analysis. First results of investigations on tungsten are presented. (author)

  5. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  6. Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (∼75 μL of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  8. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  9. Why different countries manage death differently: a comparative analysis of modern urban societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    2012-03-01

    The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected. PMID:22404392

  10. Chemical analysis for mapping of soot reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of diesel particulate filter regeneration more knowledge about diesel soot and its reactivity is required. This thesis compares soot created during accelerated filter loading by lowered rail pressure, with soot from normal filter loading. Soot properties and their correlations to oxidation reactivity are also examined through thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, BET nitrogen sorption, and FTIR spect...

  11. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Modern Lamnid Shark Centra: Determination of the Life History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs-Hochstein, J.

    2005-12-01

    Lamnid sharks (great whites and their relatives) are of great interest not only to the scientific community but the public as well. Scientists have spent a great deal of time trying to study and understand the life history of great whites and their relatives. Since great whites do not survive well in captivity tagging and recapture studies and captured sharks from fishermen have been the main source of study. Currently there is no way the accurately age Lamnid sharks. However, sharks deposit light and dark bands on their vertebral centra throughout their lives. It is known in most sharks that darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (e.g., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (e.g., summer). The problem is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that a band pair (one light and one dark band) reflects a single year. Once, the periodicity of a band pair is determined then ages can be estimated and growth rates can be calculated. Oxygen and carbon isotopes along the growth axis of ten lamnid shark vertebral centra (including great whites, shortfin makos, and longfin makos) where used to determine the periodicity of the band pairs and indications of changes in eating habits. Bomb carbon dating was determined on two of the specimens to calibrate the cyclicity of the oxygen isotopes. Dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in seawater increase with water depth and towards the pelagic area. One exception is cerium. Cerium can be oxidized to a highly insoluble form separating it from other REE and being preferentially scavenged by suspended matter and therefore cerium decreases with water depth. Bulk samples where analyzed for rare earth elements (REE) from each of the ten centra to determine if the seawater signal was recorded in the centra and if any variations in depth and geographic distribution of individual sharks could be determined. Tracking the REE along the growth axis of the centra may allow for general migration patterns/ depth changes due to seasons or size to be determined. Utilizing the chemistry of the vertebral centra will allow for a better understanding of the life history of these ten sharks. Using the rare earth elemental compositions, δ13C, Δ14C, and δ18O the possibility exists to looking at timing of when these sharks migrate, change their eating habits, change depth, and determination of growth rates.

  13. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

  14. The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlechter, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

  15. Chemical probes for analysis of carbonylated proteins: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Liang-Jun; Forster, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a major form of protein oxidation and is widely used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Carbonyl groups do not have distinguishing UV or visible, spectrophotometric absorbance/fluorescence characteristics and thus their detection and quantification can only be achieved using specific chemical probes. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of several chemical probes that have been and are still being used for protein carbonyl analysis. These probes...

  16. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Yigzaw Binega

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...

  17. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl- on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl- and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  18. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  19. Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

  20. A new chemical analysis system using a photocathode RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yasushi; Yang Jinfeng; Hirose, Masafumi; Sakai, Fumio; Tsunemi, Akira; Yorozu, Masafumi; Okada, Yasuhiro; Endo, Akira; Wang Xijie; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2000-11-21

    A compact chemical analysis (pulse radiolysis) apparatus using a BNL-type s-band photocathode RF gun (GUN-IV) is now under development at Sumitomo Heavy Industries (SHI). Using the apparatus, fast chemical reactions induced by 3.5 ps pulse of electron beam can be analyzed by means of time-resolved photo-absorption spectroscopy with 10 ps laser pulses in the wavelength range of 210-2000 nm. The high-precision control of RF phase makes 10 ps of time-resolution possible for the analysis.

  1. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  2. Chemical speciation by sequential injection analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J F; Stefan, R I

    2004-12-15

    The simplicity of the sequential injection (SIA) manifold and its low need for maintenance makes it an ideal tool in speciation. As miniaturization and reduction of reagent consumption are also ultimate goals in chemical sensing, it is useful to review the use of combined injection and programmed flow as a central issue in designing SIA systems with chemical sensors and structurally simplified chemical analysers. This overview gives an insight into the current state, analytical scope and performance characteristics of sequential injection systems as analytical tools for speciation. The suitability of SIA for speciation analysis is illustrated by the methods used in the conduits of sequential injection systems for the chemical conversion of different chemical forms into detectable chemical species. Configurations of the basic sequential injection speciation analysis systems were designed around a multi-syringe-time-based-injection system with one detector, direct and indirect speciation of different forms using a single detector including diode array detection and direct speciation of different forms using multiple detection. Examples showing the use of SIA for the simultaneous determination or speciation of metal ions, inorganic anions and organic compounds are given with some recent results from our research groups. PMID:18969718

  3. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    -generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX...... allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server....

  4. Kosovel in moderna poezija: an analysis of imagery: analiza podobja: Kosovel and modern poetry:

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlič, Darja

    2005-01-01

    Besides analysing the images that Kosovel used most frequently, the paper also discovers their structural, grammatical and compositional characteristics.The main conclusions can be summarised in four points: 1. Kosovel used so-called modern figures of speech only in a limited number of poems. There are some rather bold metaphors in s, some cases of absolute metaphor and individual cases of analogies or images of identification, but this is not enough to link Kosovel to futurism or surrealism....

  5. The geoglyphs of Nasca : 3-D recording and analysis with modern digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Grn, Armin; Lambers, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    A serious archaeological investigation of the famous geoglyphs of Nasca (Peru) has for a long time been obstructed by the lack of an adequate recording of the ground drawings. In this article we describe photogrammetric mapping procedures employed to record two important geoglyph concentrations at Palpa, to the north of Nasca. The use of digital photogrammetry and other modern tools for measurement and modeling allowed for the first time the complete, highly accurate, and three-dimensional re...

  6. Neandertal demise: an archaeological analysis of the modern human superiority complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

    2014-01-01

    Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record. PMID:24789039

  7. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  8. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  9. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  10. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

  11. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive...... understanding of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  12. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Hjlund

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  13. Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

  14. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis which provides the relationships between the predictions of a kinetics model and the input parameters of the problem. LSENS provides for efficient and accurate chemical kinetics computations and includes sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal conditions. LSENS replaces the previous NASA general chemical kinetics codes GCKP and GCKP84. LSENS is designed for flexibility, convenience and computational efficiency. A variety of chemical reaction models can be considered. The models include static system, steady one-dimensional inviscid flow, reaction behind an incident shock wave including boundary layer correction, and the perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, computations of equilibrium properties can be performed for the following assigned states, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static problems LSENS computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rates coefficient parameters of each chemical reaction. To integrate the ODEs describing chemical kinetics problems, LSENS uses the packaged code LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, because it has been shown to be the most efficient and accurate code for solving such problems. The sensitivity analysis computations use the decoupled direct method, as implemented by Dunker and modified by Radhakrishnan. This method has shown greater efficiency and stability with equal or better accuracy than other methods of sensitivity analysis. LSENS is written in FORTRAN 77 with the exception of the NAMELIST extensions used for input. While this makes the code fairly machine independent, execution times on IBM PC compatibles would be unacceptable to most users. LSENS has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS and a DEC VAX running VMS. With minor modifications, it should also be easily implemented on other platforms with FORTRAN compilers which support NAMELIST input. LSENS required 4Mb of RAM under Sun

  15. Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

  16. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include plan...

  17. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  18. Analysis of effectiveness of the use of track-and-field start in modern swimming.

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko M.I.; Kovaliov A.O.; Kovaliova Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modern approach to improvement of track-and-field start by famous swimmers is discussed. In an experiment the students of sporting improvement took part in age 16-20. Data used in this investigation include videotapes of the Ukranian, European, World championships and the Deaflympic games, as well as time sheets on the training lessons of swimming. The results of the investigation demonstrate that in order to improve of track-and-field start it is necessary to draw swimmers attention on a...

  19. How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

  20. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  1. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  2. The assessment of acid-base analysis: comparison of the "traditional" and the "modern" approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Jasna; Nešovic-Ostojić, Jelena; Milovanović, Aleksandar; Brkić, Predrag; Ille, Mihailo; Čemerikić, Dušan

    2015-02-01

    Three distinct approaches are currently used in assessing acid-base disorders: the traditional - physiological or bicarbonate-centered approach, the base-excess approach, and the "modern" physicochemical approach proposed by Peter Stewart, which uses the strong ion difference (particularly the sodium chloride difference) and the concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (particularly albumin) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) as independent variables in the assessment of acid-base status. The traditional approach developed from the pioneering work of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the base-excess are still most widely used in clinical practice, even though there are a number of problems identified with this approach. The approach works well clinically and is recommended for use whenever serum total protein, albumin and phosphate concentrations are normal. Although Stewart's approach has been largely ignored by physiologists, it is increasingly used by anesthesiologists and intensive care specialists, and is recommended for use whenever serum's total protein, albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal, as in critically ill patients. Although different in their concepts, the traditional and modern approaches can be seen as complementary, giving in principle, the same information about the acid-base status. PMID:25669331

  3. Chemical Cytometry: Fluorescence-Based Single-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniella; Dickerson, Jane A.; Whitmore, Colin D.; Turner, Emily H.; Palcic, Monica M.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2008-07-01

    Cytometry deals with the analysis of the composition of single cells. Flow and image cytometry employ antibody-based stains to characterize a handful of components in single cells. Chemical cytometry, in contrast, employs a suite of powerful analytical tools to characterize a large number of components. Tools have been developed to characterize nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites in single cells. Whereas nucleic acid analysis employs powerful polymerase chain reaction-based amplification techniques, protein and metabolite analysis tends to employ capillary electrophoresis separation and ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. It is now possible to detect yoctomole amounts of many analytes in single cells.

  4. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  6. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply. PMID:24505853

  7. Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

  8. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

  9. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

  10. Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling

    OpenAIRE

    EGIDI, Giovanni; de Rooij, Nicolas F

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

  11. Exergy method of thermal and chemical plant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotas, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Second Law analysis is briefly reviewed and exergy and exergy related concepts are defined and discussed. The concept of irreversibility is then introduced and its calculation from either an exergy balance or the Guoy-Stodola relation is explained. The techniques and tools used in Exergy Method including thermoeconomics are then outlined. Applications of the Exergy Method to cryogenic engineering, distillation processes, chemical processes and process synthesis are described.

  12. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  13. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic

  14. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Bagnulo, S; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J; Kochukhov, O; Wade, G

    2009-01-01

    Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the "normal" A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. We wish to stablish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and pi Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled ...

  15. Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

  16. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Desenvolvimento de Processos; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Gerencia de Descomissionamento

    2011-07-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  17. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  18. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and with the correct methodology provide unamibiguous detection of such life forms.

  19. Emergent Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  20. Role of neutron activation analysis in metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis. Pt.1: Qualification of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of NAA in the metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis is to be discussed in a series of three papers, beginning from this one. They are: 1) the qualification of relative NAA as a primary method of measurement: 2) the unique function of parametric NAA as a 'back-up' method of relative NAA; and 3) the role of NAA in the characterization of a new generation CRMs suitable for quality control of microanalysis. The first of the series, the principle, the uncertainties and the traceability of NAA are analyzed. The qualification of NAA at the state of the art level as a primary ratio method is thus justified. An example is given to further verify the position of NAA as a primary ratio method. Advantages and drawbacks, as well as current status and future perspectives, of NAA as a primary method are discussed. Definitions of relevant terms and international norms are attached as appendices for the convenience of the reader

  1. The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sapon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history political manipulate - The Principles of the building catalogue coalition and The Regional policy aspects and global world.
    Key words: benchmark; manipulate; criterion; politics

    Rsum: la frontire de diffrentes poques, les vieilles thories politiques ont montr leur insolvabilit. Le monde est tomb dans la crise politique, lie aux repres politiques et civils globaux. Cette thse a analys la situation politique actuelle, tout en valuant la thorie politique, concerne par la question de la modernisation et de la mondialisation. La thse est divise en cinq parties: les libraux au nouveau dmarrage, les institutions intellectuelles- les mythes et la ralit des modles politiques, l'histoire politique de manipulation, les principes de la coalition et les aspects de la politique rgionale et du monde global.
    Mots-Cls: benchmark; manipulation; critres; politiques

  2. Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

  3. Agents of Empire: Spatial Network Analysis in Comparative Studies During Early Modern Age

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Tovar, Ernesto; Pérez Asensio, Esther; Del Bosque González, Isabel; Crespo Solana, Ana; Maestre Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the application of Social Network Analysis Software to Spatial Analysis of the First Global Era. We study what these technologies offer in terms of understanding and visualizing the relationships between merchants and ships. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the DynCoopNet project, jointly developed by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the University of Idaho and other institutions. Gathered over several years, this data reveals interesting re...

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL UNDERPINNING OF PERSONALIZED APPROACHES IN MODERN MEDICINE: SYNDROME ANALYSIS OF MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSED PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Yury; Pervichko, Elena; Martynov, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school) for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school...

  5. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curve...

  6. Chemical analysis of Panax quinquefolius (North American ginseng): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Brinckmann, Josef A; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Linfang

    2015-12-24

    Panax quinquefolius (PQ) is one of the best-selling natural health products due to its proposed beneficial anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-stress, anti-fatigue, and anxiolytic effects. In recent years, the quality of PQ has received considerable attention. Sensitive and accurate methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical constituents are necessary for the comprehensive quality control to ensure the safety and efficacy of PQ. This article reviews recent progress in the chemical analysis of PQ and its preparations. Numerous analytical techniques, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), high-speed centrifugal partition chromatography (HSCPC), high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and immunoassay, are described. Among these techniques, HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is the most promising method for quality control. The challenges encountered in the chemical analysis of PQ are also briefly discussed, and the remaining questions regarding the quality control of PQ that require further investigation are highlighted. PMID:26643719

  7. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  8. Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

  9. Stable isotope (13C, 15N and 34S) analysis of the hair of modern humans and their domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Roland; Pflieger, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Relationships between dietary status and recent migration were examined by delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S analysis of hair samples from 43 modern humans living in a rural community in SW England. The isotopic content of 38 'local' hair samples was compared with that of five recently arrived individuals (from Canada, Chile, Germany and the USA). Hair samples from domestic animals (i.e. mainly cats, dogs, cows and horses) were analysed to examine the difference in delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S values between herbivores and carnivores. Generally, modern human hair data from the triple stable isotope (delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S) provided enough information to confirm the dietary status and origin of the individual subjects. The dietary intake was generally reflected in the animal hair delta(15)N and delta(13)C values, i.e. highest in the carnivores (cats). However, a non-local origin of food sources given to domesticated omnivores (i.e. dogs) was suggested by their hair delta(34)S values. PMID:12442295

  10. Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

    2007-02-26

    To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

  11. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  12. Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

  13. Development of modern analysis techniques for characterization and testing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some developments in methods and techniques for the analysis of deposited materials. These concern X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. (author)

  14. The Internet Moderating Impact among Stakeholders in Modern Organizations: A Conceptual Analysis of Service Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ayub Khan; Khalid S. Soliman

    2009-01-01

    The Internet has a significant impact on service organizations their way they are managed. This article examines the role of Internet in moderating the relative importance of various stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, distributors, stockholders, managers, and employees in service management environment. A detailed analysis to the stakeholders involved based on previous studies and carrying it over to the Internet age. The analysis highlights the changing role of each stakeholder in an...

  15. Materials of 2nd Poznan analytical meeting: Modern methods of sample preparation and trace elements analysis; Materialy 2. Poznanskiego Kowersatorium Analitycznego: Nowoczesne metody przygotowania probek i oznaczania sladowych zawartosci pierwiastkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The modern methods for sample preparation and treatment before analysis have been presented. The neutron activation analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis and other methods have been used for trace element analysis in samples of different origin. The new technical solutions and modern equipment for trace amount analysis have been also performed. During the conference 20 lectures have been presented.

  16. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Frøst, M B; Østdal, H; Hermansen, John Erik; Kröger-Ohlsen, M; Skibsted, L H

    2006-01-01

    products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and...... lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary...... oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine...

  17. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  18. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  19. Modische Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer opulenten Arbeit untersucht Julia Bertschik die Mode als modernes Phänomen oder besser: als Phänomen der Moderne. Für sie ist Mode nicht nur ein vestimentäres Zeichensystem, sondern eine Spiegelung sozialer und politischer Umschwünge. Somit fungiert Kleidung gleichzeitig als individueller Ausdruck des eigenen Geschmacks und als gesellschaftlicher Code. Die Kleidermode „als Indikator kulturellen Wandels“ wird von Bertschik im Hinblick auf vier Epochen untersucht: Goethezeit, Jahrhundertwende, Weimarer Republik und Nationalsozialismus.

  20. Is English the key to access the wonders of the modern world? A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in the world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns (Canagarajah, 1999, 2005; Pennycook, 1994a, 1998a, 2000; Phillipson, 1992, 2000 but also of the compliance of the governments associated with the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 1986. Colombia is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government is implementing a National Bilingualism Project (pnb where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of English over all other languages spoken in the country. This article is a critical discourse analysis of the handbook that sets the standards for competences in English. The analysis of data follows Fairclough¿s textual analysis and shows that the authors of the handbook perpetuate mainstream concepts about the symbolic power of English as the one and only necessary tool for academic and economic success.

  1. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  2. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  3. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  5. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  6. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  8. Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel E-mail: israel@techunix.technion.ac.il

    2003-05-01

    A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range.

  9. Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range

  10. Determination of Myoglobin Stability by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Classic and Modern Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Andrew F.; Crawford, Mary A.; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Few laboratory procedures describe the use of circular dichroism (CD) at the undergraduate level. To increase the number of laboratory exercises using CD, a thermal denaturation study of myoglobin using CD is described to assess protein stability. Values obtained from a more classic linear data analysis approach are consistent with data analyzed…

  11. A Philosophical Analysis1 On The Relationship Between The Problems Of The Modern Era And Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail Söylemez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today there are many problems waiting for the support of education to be solved. Some of them arise from social uncertainty, economic deficiency, the worldviews of policy makers who lead societies, differences in faith and some from the societies’ having an eye on other nations’ surface and underground resources. When we consider today’s problems, we notice that the source and main cause of poverty, unemployment, prejudice, environmental pollution, loss of respect for humans, individual/state interests and falling away from the essence of being human, is the wrong or poor education (Söylemez, 2010. Is it limited to mentioned problems? The answer is simply no. When we examine the underlying reasons of such problems, we come to understand that educated people always play key roles. The reason for that must be the fact that educational institutions do not sufficiently nurture needed human capital who are hardworking, sophisticated and honest. The desired and ideal person is the one who has a good court conscience, virtuous, self-conscious, knowing the reason of his existence, respecting the universal values; open to learning and always self-improving. If that is not the case so far, the reason behind it should be sought in educational philosophies and curriculum programs applied at schools. I do believe that what conveys the aim and dynamism in a country is the need for individuals who improves and develops the country without harming the social structure, discovering and knowing himself and productive. I also believe that nobody has words to claim the opposite. Some academicians presented their papers generally on raising perfect individuals in terms of professional fields; such as a good medical doctor, a good engineer, a good chemist and a good nurse. I believe that it would better if they also stress the importance of a “good person” who respects human beings and human values besides having a good content knowledge. Considering the critical age, it is too late for changing the earlier acquired character and personality structure of a young person who is about to attend a university. The chances of changing the self, character, and personality, let us say re-shaping and re-moulding him becomes significantly reduced. What is left to higher education institutions is limited to offering such youths merely the professional knowledge, skills and techniques. I suppose my fellow academicians in that congress avoided the topic I stress here for the same reason. The problems I am trying to draw attention here, is the underlying reason of serious problems for individuals, societies and the globe in general. Modern educational philosophies, institutions, and some educators either overlook or avoid these issues, or they simply remain helpless. This paper is limited to insensitivity of education in response to certain problems of individuals, societies and the world facing as caused by the above mentioned issues.

  12. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  13. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

  14. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM). Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members. PMID:24464236

  15. Avardunud modernism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojtěch

    Tallin : Eesti Kunstimuuseum Kumu, 2012 - (Pählapuu, L.), s. 84-105 ISBN 978-9949-485-11-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : "diverse" modernity * machinism * trajectories of relationships * Paris * Berlin * Penza * Riga * center * periphery Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Ifan G

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

  17. AN ANALYSIS ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGE AND INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN MODERN

    OpenAIRE

    Fuat OKTAY

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the organizational image and innovative organizational citizenship behavior and how these variables vary with of socio-demographic factors. The research uses both the relational and descriptive methods. Scores of both organizational image and innovative organi- zational citizenship behavior are obtained from a 937 survey with 5-point Likert scale. Regression analysis results showed that the organizational image is a statistically significant determ...

  18. A modern hydride generation- cryotrapping system for arsenic speciation analysis at sub-ppb level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, J. M.; Svoboda, Milan; Stýblo, M.; Dědina, Jiří

    Münster, 2011. FTM 14. [International Symposium on Metallomics /3./. 15.06.2011-18.06.2011, Münster] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * ICP MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.metallomics2011.org/event/Metallomics2011/Scientific_program.html

  19. Difference and equality: A critical theorist analysis of post-modern philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Wettlaufer, Matthew Francis

    2007-01-01

    The following paper is a critical theorist analysis of post-structuralist philosophy. It examines the omission of an economic critique in post-structuralism and describes this omission as the result of a particular flaw in Nietzsche's epistemological work, an error which has persisted all the way down through deconstruction, post-colonialism, and cultural studies. The paper seeks to reintroduce an economic critique of capitalism back into the social critique of post-structuralism, with the pr...

  20. Immigration in prime time spanish television. Pathways towards inferring modern racism from content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Igartua, Juan-Jos; Barrios, Isabel; Ortega, Felix; Camarero, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the image of immigration in television fiction based on both Cultivation Theory and previous studies about the representation of ethnic and immigrant minorities in television fiction (Greenberg, Mastro & Brand, 2002). Empirical probe has contrasted that the media exercise a meaningful effect in perceiving one's social world. On the field of television and through Cultivation Theory, George Gerbner and his collaborators have laid the foundations for a line o...

  1. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  2. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  3. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry for chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangbiao; Hsieh, Yunsheng

    2008-05-01

    Chromatography with a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase was suggested more than four decades ago (Klesper, E., Corwin, A. H., Turner, D. A., J. Org. Chem. 1962, 27, 700-701). Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is basically a hybrid of GC and LC that eases the resolution of a mixture of compounds not conveniently resolved by either GC or LC. The mobile phases for SFC have low viscosities and high diffusion coefficients compared to those for HPLC and allow for high efficiency separations. SFC uses supercritical fluid as the mobile phase, polar organic solvents as the modifiers in conjunction with acidic/basic compounds as additives to run the chromatographic process like in HPLC. In many applications, SFC-based methods are advantageous over HPLC-based methods as a separation tool in terms of efficiency and economical impact perspectives. Today, the availability of commercial hardware and API interfaces with a mass spectrometer makes SFC even more widely applicable for chemical analysis in many research fields. This review summarizes a variety of novel SFC-MS methods for chemical analysis that have been reported in the peer-reviewed publications. PMID:18366029

  5. Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O ? NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H ? H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

  6. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of lignin in isolated flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Himmelsbach, D S; Akin, D E; Evans, J D

    2003-04-23

    The chemistry of pure flax fibers, free of contaminating nonfiber components, has not been determined. Fibers from the center sections of the stem of seed and fiber flax (Linum usitatissium L.), which had been retted after soaking in water and removal of the epidermis by hand, underwent chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Wet chemical analysis showed only trace indications of aromatics and no long chain fatty acids or alcohols in fibers. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) showed only trace amounts of aromatic constituents that could be attributed to the presence of lignin. Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) and Raman spectroscopy of these fibers showed no aromatic compounds present. This study suggests that earlier work reporting the presence of lignin ranging from 1 to 4% may be the result of residual shive or epidermis/cuticle material remaining after the retting process which may be responsible for the favorable properties desired by the composites industry. PMID:12696938

  7. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  8. Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O?NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H?H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

  9. Genetic Geostatistical Framework for Spatial Analysis of Fine-Scale Genetic Heterogeneity in Modern Populations: Results from the KORA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lacava, A N; Walier, M; Holler, D; Steffens, M; Gieger, C; Furlanello, C; Lamina, C; Wichmann, H E; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to investigate fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity in modern humans from a geographic perspective, a genetic geostatistical approach framed within a geographic information system is presented. A sample collected for prospective studies in a small area of southern Germany was analyzed. None indication of genetic heterogeneity was detected in previous analysis. Socio-demographic and genotypic data of German citizens were analyzed (212 SNPs; n = 728). Genetic heterogeneity was evaluated with observed heterozygosity (H O ). Best-fitting spatial autoregressive models were identified, using socio-demographic variables as covariates. Spatial analysis included surface interpolation and geostatistics of observed and predicted patterns. Prediction accuracy was quantified. Spatial autocorrelation was detected for both socio-demographic and genetic variables. Augsburg City and eastern suburban areas showed higher H O values. The selected model gave best predictions in suburban areas. Fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity were observed. In accordance to literature, more urbanized areas showed higher levels of admixture. This approach showed efficacy for detecting and analyzing subtle patterns of genetic heterogeneity within small areas. It is scalable in number of loci, even up to whole-genome analysis. It may be suggested that this approach may be applicable to investigate the underlying genetic history that is, at least partially, embedded in geographic data. PMID:26258132

  10. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  11. Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

    2003-01-01

    Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

  12. Idioms-Proverbs Lexicon for Modern Standard Arabic and Colloquial Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    Although, the fair amount of works in sentiment analysis (SA) and opinion mining (OM) systems in the last decade and with respect to the performance of these systems, but it still not desired performance, especially for morphologically-Rich Language (MRL) such as Arabic, due to the complexities and challenges exist in the nature of the languages itself. One of these challenges is the detection of idioms or proverbs phrases within the writer text or comment. An idiom or proverb is a form of sp...

  13. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. KaplanMeier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33?223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4?years in never-married and 14?years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  14. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  15. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

  16. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  17. Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

  18. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

  19. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  20. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  1. Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

  2. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that almost all elements in the periodic table are found in petroleum products, varying from percent levels for C-H-S to parts per million and parts per billion levels for transition metals. The presence of elements in crude oil is ascribed to its marine animal and vegetative origin. Compared with two other fossil fuels coal and oil shale petroleum is a lesser source of environmental pollution. Extensive data on crude oils composition are available. Determination of S, N, V, Ni, and Fe form an integral part of crude assay analysis of oils carried out by all oil companies. Generally it is agreed that V, Ni, and Fe occur as metallo-porphyrins; Hg, Sb, and As as organometallic compounds; Mo and Ge as carboxylic acid salts; and silica and NaCl as colloidal minerals. The significance of metals either naturally present in crude and gasoline or purposely added to petroleum products is described. Trace metals in used lubricating oils indicate the wear performance of an engine, and can be used as a preventive maintenance check. A number of sample preparation schemes are necessary depending on the analytical technique to be used. This can vary from procedures as simple as dilution for XRF of AAS, to more involved procedures such as oxygen bomb combustion for ion chromatography, or wet ashing for AAS or ICPAES. Frequently, robots are used to speed sample dilution for XRF or ICPAES

  3. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  4. Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group they were 48,451.00 and 46,029.00 RUB/QALY, respectively. The NMB for the control group amounted to 10,790,910.00 and 10,815,840.00 RUB without and with discounting, respectively, while for the study group the values were 11,904,500.00 and 11,927,390.00 RUB.ConclusionsThe results of clinical and economic analysis show that treatment of the metabolic syndrome, including pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance, should be prioritized over mere medical advisory and lifestyle modifications.

  5. An Analysis of Yusuf (AS's Counter-Cyclical Principle and its Implementation in the Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study examines the present-day implementation of the counter-cyclical principle suggested by Yusuf (AS around four thousand years ago, in response to the King of Egypt's dream, to overcome the famine of seven years through saving grain during seven years of abundance. In general, the counter-cyclical principle encourages saving during times of plenty and spending during times of scarcity, activities which today help to stabilise the business-cycle.Method - Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. This paper reviews the commodity-based currency systems proposed before, during and after the Second World War by several prominent economists (particularly Keynes, 1938; Graham, 1940; Hayek, 1943; Grondona, 1950 and Lietaer, 2001 all of which basically incorporated the counter-cyclical principle of Prophet Yusuf (AS. The primary purpose of these commodity-based currency systems is to stabilise the real value of money in order to improve macroeconomic stability. Additionally, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility.Results - The Grondona system would partially stabilise the real value of each country's national currency in terms of a range of durable, essential, basic imported commodities, thereby also partially stabilising the prices of the selected commodities in terms of the national currency of each country implementing the system.Conclusion - The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility as compared to other commodity-based currency systems is more practical. Its primary advantage in comparison to other proposals of commodity reserve currency is that it could be implemented in parallel with the existing monetary system. Accordingly, it could be taken as a preliminary step towards a monetary system based on real money such as gold dinar.Keywords : Counter-cyclical principle; Grondona system; Commodity-based currency system (s.

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis. A valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic experimental approach to the demonstration of viability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in chemical metrology is provided. The practical approach was derived from a complete survey of uncertainty components that affect the INAA measurement process. These uncertainty components were classified by their magnitude and origin and subsequently minimized by appropriate steps in the INAA process. The process was tested with the INAA determination of Cr in SRM 1152A stainless steel; the Cr value is certified at 17.76% with an estimated uncertainty of 0.04% (0.23% relative). The INAA results from this procedure are in agreement with these specifications. Similar procedures have been applied to INAA multi-element determinations in a high temperature alloy. Agreement with available consensus values was demonstrated in the alloy. The guidelines on the determination of uncertainty were fully met, providing through INAA a valuable independent non-destructive tool in chemical measurements of metrological value such as required in the CCQM key comparisons. (author)

  7. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  8. Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvaišienė G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

  9. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  10. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  11. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  12. Social complexity, modernity and suicide: an assessment of Durkheim's suicide from the perspective of a non-linear analysis of complex social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Can we share even today the same vision of modernity which Durkheim left us by its suicide analysis? or can society 'surprise us'? The answer to these questions can be inspired by several studies which found that beginning the second half of the twentieth century suicides in western countries more industrialized and modernized do not increase in a constant, linear way as modernization and social fragmentation process increases, as well as Durkheim's theory seems to lead us to predict. Despite continued modernizing process, they found stabilizing or falling overall suicide rate trends. Therefore, a gradual process of adaptation to the stress of modernization associated to low social integration levels seems to be activated in modern society. Assuming this perspective, the paper highlights as this tendency may be understood in the light of the new concept of social systems as complex adaptive systems, systems which are able to adapt to environmental perturbations and generate as a whole surprising, emergent effects due to nonlinear interactions among their components. So, in the frame of Nonlinear Dynamical System Modeling, we formalize the logic of suicide decision-making process responsible for changes at aggregate level in suicide growth rates by a nonlinear differential equation structured in a logistic way, and in so doing we attempt to capture the mechanism underlying the change process in suicide growth rate and to test the hypothesis that system's dynamics exhibits a restrained increase process as expression of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties in modern society. In particular, a Nonlinear Logistic Map is applied to suicide data in a modern society such as the Italian one from 1875 to 2010. The analytic results, seeming to confirm the idea of the activation of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties, constitutes an opportunity for a more general reflection on the current configuration of modern society, by relating the Durkheimian Theory with the Halbwachs' Theory and most current visions of modernity such as the Baumanian one. Complexity completes the interpretative framework by rooting the generating mechanism of adaptation process in the precondition of a new General Theory of Systems making the non linearity property of social system's interactions and surprise the functioning and evolution rule of social systems. PMID:27065077

  13. Zircon fission-track analysis on modern sands shed from the Alps: notes on separation procedures and state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Limoncelli, M; Malusà, MG; Garzanti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Detrital zircon fission-track analysis on modern sands is a valuable approach to constrain the pattern of erosional exhumation in orogenic source areas (e.g. Bernet et al., 2004). In order to constrain the short-term and long-term erosion pattern in the Alps-Apennines orogenic couple, we have collected samples of modern sands in selected sites of the Po River Delta, as well as along the Po River main trunk and in most of its tributaries. Zircon concentrates were separated according to a sp...

  14. Chemical analysis of Argonne premium coal samples. Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Contents: The Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples: An Introduction; Rehydration of Desiccated Argonne Premium Coal Samples; Determination of 62 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Ash Samples by Automated Semiquantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of 18 Elements in 5 Whole Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Quantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of Major and Trace Elements in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (Ash and Whole Coal) by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; Determination of 29 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis; Determination of Selected Elements in Coal Ash from Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 25 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 33 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; Determination of Mercury and Selenium in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Cold-Vapor and Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Determinaton of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Using a Gas Chromatographic Analyzer with a Thermal Conductivity Detector; and Compilation of Multitechnique Determinations of 51 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples.

  15. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  16. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

  17. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  18. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwell Marcus D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

  19. Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

  20. Social Capital, In spite of or due to modernization?:-An analysis of a two-dimensional concept

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson,Skol Nils David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Contemporary Social Capital research generally concludes that modernization per se is detrimental to Social Capital, and that we are getting less trusting and more alienated ass societies modernize. However, in this thesis I argue that a general decline in Social Capital is not a global trend but rather due to a bias of communitarian social capital research, emphasizing ‘Particularized trust’, in local community. ‘Particularized trust’ is trust between people who know each other, b...

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stres...

  2. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  3. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  4. Petroleomics: the next grand challenge for chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2004-01-01

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has recently revealed that petroleum crude oil contains heteroatom-containing (N,O,S) organic components having more than 20,000 distinct elemental compositions (C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s)). It is therefore now possible to contemplate the ultimate characterization of all of the chemical constituents of petroleum, along with their interactions and reactivity, a concept we denote as "petroleomics". Such knowledge has already proved capable of distinguishing petroleum and its distillates according to their geochemical origin and maturity, distillation cut, extraction method, catalytic processing, etc. The key features that have opened up this new field have been (a) ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass analysis, specifically, the capability to resolve species differing in elemental composition by C(3) vs SH(4) (i.e., 0.0034 Da); (b) higher magnetic field to cover the whole mass range at once; (c) dynamic range extension by external mass filtering; and (d) plots of Kendrick mass defect vs nominal Kendrick mass as a means for sorting different compound "classes" (i.e., numbers of N, O, and S atoms), "types" (rings plus double bonds), and alkylation ((-CH(2))(n)) distributions, thereby extending to >900 Da the upper limit for unique assignment of elemental composition based on accurate mass measurement. The same methods are also being applied successfully to analysis of humic and fulvic acids, coals, and other complex natural mixtures, often without prior or on-line chromatographic separation. PMID:14730994

  5. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials

  6. Studies on Chemical Analysis of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Saleem

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine commercially grown varieties of mung bean were subjected to chemical analysis to determine total protein contents, amino acids, lipids, ash, crude fiber, moisture and calories. All varieties differed significantly in their total protein contents (22.88 - 24.65%; total amino acids (20.98 - 25.61% and lipids (1.53 - 2.63% whereas the differences in the ash contents (3.20 - 3.87%, crude fiber (4.30 - 4.80%, moisture (10.13 - 10.77% and total calories (341 - 371 were non-significant. Higher values were recorded for amino acids such as Lysine (1.54 - 1.97%, aspartic acid (2.73 - 3.48% and glutamic acid (4.29 - 5.24% whereas the sulpher containing amino acids were limiting. The new varieties compared favourably with the native cultivar in their nutritional status. Variety NIAB Mung - 92 was found to be superior among all the varieties studied for seed protein and sulpher containing amino acids contents.

  7. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

  8. Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Sultan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China and 1.58% (Thailand. Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained α-pinene 3.59, α-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, β-pinene 0.74, γ-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains α-pinene 0.305, α-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, γ-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, α-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%.

  9. Molecular analysis and chemical evaluation of ephedra plants in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Yuki; Zhu, Shu; Omote, Takayuki; Tanaka, Ken; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Mikage, Masayuki; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2009-07-01

    Ephedrae herba has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese (Kampo) medicine from ancient times, with the primary resource being in China. In the present study, a field survey as well as molecular and chemical assessments were conducted on Ephedra plants in Mongolia to clarify whether they could be an alternative resource of the Ephedrae herba used in Japanese Kampo medicine. Ephedra sinica, E. equisetina, E. przewalskii, E. regeliana, E. monosperma and an unknown taxon (ESP) collected in Mongolia were divided into 9 genotypes on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and trnK gene. E. sinica, E. equisetina, and E. monosperma presented completely identical sequences to the corresponding species from China. The sequences of trnK gene and 18S rRNA gene provide a useful index for identification and taxonomic classification of Mongolian Ephedra plants. Quantitative analysis of 5 ephedrine alkaloids revealed that almost all Mongolian Ephedra plants contained high amounts of total ephedrine alkaloids (TAs, 1.86-4.90%) and a high percentage of pseudoephedrine in TAs differed obviously from the Chinese. E. sinica and E. equisetina found in eastern and central Mongolia, showing total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine higher than 1.43%, were potential new resources of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade Ephedrae herba. PMID:19571392

  10. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  11. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  12. ESTIMATION OF THE MODERN DOSES OF AN ARTIFICIAL EXPOSURE FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED ON THE COAST OF YENISEI IN A ZONE OF SUPERVISION OF FSUE «MINING AND CHEMICAL ESTABLISHMENT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Grigorev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective consists in an estimation of modern exposure doses for the inhabitants of six settlements located on the coasts of the river Yenisei, including the doses caused by artificial radioactive contamination, connected with activity of FSUE «Mining and Chemical Establishment». Results of the work testify that the exposure doses for population caused by an artificial component, do not exceed the established hygienic limits, and the exposure doses for the population of the specified settlements as a whole do not exceed total exposure doses for the inhabitants of Krasnoyarsk region.

  13. Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma anlise conceitual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrei, Terian.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crtica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literria. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma srie de deficincias em tais esforos, dentre as quais a viso redutora do modernismo, que limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como tcnica literria), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideolgica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito no-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraar qualquer efeito secundrio, ou pelo contrrio, de um anti-modernismo genrico, independente do nvel ou direo na qual se ope ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo prope uma nova classificao da modernidade literria romena, que inclui, alm do modernismo, uma direo anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

  14. Methods of modern mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Michael

    1980-01-01

    This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pschl, U.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide with coated and uncoated spark-discharge soot aerosol particles was found to proceed via competitive adsorption of O3 and NO2, and the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene on soot particles was faster with O3 and NO2 than only with O3. Additional experiments and the development of a formal mechanistic description of the investigated processes are currently under way.

  16. Chemical Attribution of Fentanyl Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Orthogonal Mass Spectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brian P; DeHope, Alan J; Mew, Daniel A; Spackman, Paul E; Williams, Audrey M

    2016-04-19

    Attribution of the origin of an illicit drug relies on identification of compounds indicative of its clandestine production and is a key component of many modern forensic investigations. The results of these studies can yield detailed information on method of manufacture, starting material source, and final product, all critical forensic evidence. In the present work, chemical attribution signatures (CAS) associated with the synthesis of the analgesic fentanyl, N-(1-phenylethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropanamide, were investigated. Six synthesis methods, all previously published fentanyl synthetic routes or hybrid versions thereof, were studied in an effort to identify and classify route-specific signatures. A total of 160 distinct compounds and inorganic species were identified using gas and liquid chromatographies combined with mass spectrometric methods (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-time of-flight (LC-MS/MS-TOF)) in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The complexity of the resultant data matrix urged the use of multivariate statistical analysis. Using partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), 87 route-specific CAS were classified and a statistical model capable of predicting the method of fentanyl synthesis was validated and tested against CAS profiles from crude fentanyl products deposited and later extracted from two operationally relevant surfaces: stainless steel and vinyl tile. This work provides the most detailed fentanyl CAS investigation to date by using orthogonal mass spectral data to identify CAS of forensic significance for illicit drug detection, profiling, and attribution. PMID:27010913

  17. Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure for the characterization of the dissimilar metal welds and the analysis of results by using 3D APT in order to get a clear understanding of structure and chemistry in the fundamental scale of weld interfaces

  18. A Contribution To The Development And Analysis Of A Combined Current-Voltage Instrument Transformer By Using Modern CAD Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle aim and task of the thesis is the analysis and development of 20 kV combined current-voltage instrument transformer (CCVIT) by using modern CAD techniques. CCVIT is a complex electromagnetic system comprising of four windings and two magnetic cores in one insulation housing for simultaneous transformation of high voltages and currents to measurable signal values by standard instruments. The analytical design methods can be applied on simple electromagnetic configurations, which is not the case with the CCVIT. There is mutual electromagnetic influence between the voltage measurement core (VMC) and the current measurement core (CMC). After the analytical CCVIT design had been done, exact determination of its metrological characteristics has been accomplished by using the numerical finite element method implemented in the FEM-3D program package. The FEM-3D calculation is made in 19 cross-sectional layers of the z-axis of the CCVIT three-dimensional domain. By FEM-3D application the three-dimensional CCVIT magnetic field distribution is derived. This is the basis for calculation of the initial metrological characteristics of the CCVIT (VMC is accuracy class 3 and CMC is accuracy class 1). By using the stochastic optimization technique based on genetic algorithm the CCVIT optimal design is achieved. The objective function is the minimum of the metrological parameters (VIM voltage error and CMC current error). There are I I independent input variables during the optimization process by which the optimal project is derived. The optimal project is adapted for realization of a prototype and the optimized project is derived. Full comparative analysis of the metrological and the electromagnetic characteristics of the three projects is accomplished. By application of the program package MATLAB/SIMULINK the CCVIT transient phenomena is analyzed for different regimes in the three design projects. In the Instrument Transformer Factory of EMO A. D.-Ohrid a CCVIT prototype has been realized and it has been tested experimentally in a laboratory, tbrough which the CAD results have been verified. The prototype VIM is accuracy class 1 and the CMC is accuracy class 0,5 (one accuracy class higher than the accuracy class of the initial project).(Author)

  19. Environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion in Bangladesh: an analysis of farmers' perceptions and their determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    2003-06-01

    Farmers' perception of the environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology diffusion and factors determining such awareness were examined using survey data from 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. Results reveal that farmers are well aware of the adverse environmental impacts of modern agricultural technology, although their awareness remains confined within visible impacts such as soil fertility, fish catches, and health effects. Their perception of intangible impacts such as, toxicity in water and soils is weak. Level and duration of modern agricultural technology adoption directly influence awareness of its adverse effects. Education and extension contacts also play an important role in raising awareness. Awareness is higher among farmers in developed regions, fertile locations and those with access to off-farm income sources. Promotion of education and strengthening extension services will boost farmers' environmental awareness. Infrastructure development and measures to replenish depleting soil fertility will also play a positive role in raising awareness. PMID:12781758

  20. THE MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: FROM INTEREST GROUPS TO CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votchenko, E.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government - public-private partnerships (PPP in the system of public discourse. The article discusses the various modern theoretical approaches to the study of the social aspects of interaction between business and government in modern political science. The author considers the concept and models of foreign public-private partnerships, social investments and corporate citizenship. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm of PPP – practice of corporate citizenship. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense - as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

  1. The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  2. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  3. XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

    2013-12-01

    In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1μm. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

  4. Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

  5. Savremene metode analize ulja u tehničkim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza ulja na osnovu pravilno definisanog programa predstavlja veoma efikasan metod monitoringa stanja tehničkih sistema koji obezbeđuje rane upozoravajuće znake potencijalnih problema, koji vode ka otkazu i zastoju tehničkih sistema. Ova analiza je veoma efikasan alat programa za monitoring stanja tehničkih sistema. Mnogobrojni uređaji i testovi za analizu ulja omogućavaju kvalitetan monitoring i dijagnosticiranje problema koji nastaju u procesu podmazivanja. Korišćenjem programa za analizu motornih ulja: skraćuje se neplanirano vreme otkaza vozila, poboljšava pouzdanost vozila, produžava radni vek motora, optimizira interval zamene ulja i smanjuju troškovi održavanja vozila. / Different technical systems require an appropriate lubricant to be used at an appropriate place, at appropriate time and in appropriate quantity. Determination of technical systems condition has a very important role in the development of theory and practice of friction, wear and lubrication. Lubricant is, as a contact element of tribomechanical systems, a carrier of information about the state of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. The analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, thus represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Introduction It is not always simple to determine a type of lubricant, frequency of lubrication and the quantity of lubricant to be used. The optimal recommendation would be to follow specifications of technical system manufacturers, experience, lab research or professional recommendation of lubricant suppliers. Rational lubricant consumption can be obtained by timely oil replacement, which then enables a maximum possible period of use as well as high-quality lubrication. Since the primary role of lubricants is to reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result of wear processes, solid particles from the environment, water and products of fuel combustion. During the operation the following changes occur: contamination of oil by the products of its own degradation, by products of incomplete combustion of fuel and by contaminants of various origin. The main objectives of the analysis and monitoring of oil exploitation in vehicles The main objectives of the analysis and monitoring of oil exploitation in vehicles are: - analysis of system element wear processes, - analysis of lubricant contamination processes, - monitoring changes in the properties of lubricants in order to optimize the life of system functionality control (penetration of contaminants, temperature and pressure, filter efficiency, etc. and - determining the extent of damage and causes of failure. The analysis of the contents of different metals in lubricants is very important. Metal particles are abrasive, and act as catalysts in oil oxidation. In motor oils, they can originate from additives, wear processes, fuel, air and cooling liquid. Metals from additives may be Zn, Ca, Ba, or Mg and they indicate additive deterioration. Metals originating from wear are: Fe, Pb, Cu, Cr, Al, Mn, Ag, Sn, and they point to increased wear in these systems. The elements originating from cooling liquids are Na and B, and their increased content indicates the penetration of cooling liquid in the lubricant. The increased content of Si or Ca, which originate from the air, points to a malfunction of the air filter. Condition monitoring through oil analysis tests There are many different types of oil analysis tests that are used to evaluate lubricants. The tests must cover three areas: technical system condition, contamination condition, and lubricant condition. From the technical system condition aspect, attention should be paid to the presence of any metal particles in oil and the tendencies in their change. The second focus would be the lubricant condition, especially viscosity change, increase in oxidation, and signs of additive depletion. The third focus would be impurities, where the emphasis should be placed on particle number, water content and metal impurities. Theoretically, oil analyses are divided into three classes. In reality, all three condition-monitoring classes are interrelated and must be considered as a whole. For example, an increase in viscosity could be an indication that a lubricant is oxidizing. But oxidation could be an incorrect conclusion, if there is no indication of an increasing oxidation tendency obtained either by the acid number (AN values analysis or the Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR analysis. Lubricant monitoring enables its refreshing or replacement before serious technical system damage occurs. If damage is noticed in the course of operation, and is caused by impurities or lubricant problems, the technical system condition can be monitored and the system may be shut down immediately to minimize damage. There are the two types of alarms, i.e. warning signs used in oil analysis: absolute and statistical alarms. An effective oil analysis relies on the combination of both types. The warning limit is the absolute alarm. The statistical tendency takes into account variability based on oil sampling and its contamination and represents the standard deviation. The deviation from the normal variability indicates serious problems, which is the first signal for taking action and dealing with the problem. As the deviation tendency approaches the warning limit, oil replacement, oil purification or a system inspection is required. Metal particles content and viscosity or some other parameters can be tested. The normal variability range takes into account minor variations caused by analytical accuracy, sample homogeneity, etc. Statistical alarms, which provide the earliest possible warning without false alarms, are difficult to achieve. The factors such as oil adding or changing, filter changes and a sampling technique can distort the results. The following tests are most frequently used in technical system condition monitoring: - Spectrometric Analysis, - Analytical Ferrography, - Rotrode Filter Spectroscopy (RFS, - Infrared Analysis (FT-IR, - Viscosity, - Total acid number (TAN, - Total Base Number (TBN - Water and Particle Count.

  6. Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, 32P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using 85Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of activity changes from records of changes of a digital counter and a timer which were continuously and photographically recorded, in spite of the fact that the residence time was only several seconds. The diffusion constant was then obtained from the concentration-time curve. (author)

  7. Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper. ((orig.))

  8. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

  9. Modern electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bockris, John O'M

    2007-01-01

    about the First Edition: `A superbly written teaching book which should become indispensable to every student of electrochemistry.' Journal of the American Chemical Society `A truly extraordinary achievement ... An enormous body of electrochemical knowledge and a wealth of stunningly penetrating detail.' Journal of the Electrochemical Society `A must.' Nature about the second edition: `These original, stimulating and informative volumes offer an unusual approach and inter alia provide an excellent entrée to the field for the non-specialist.' Emeritus Professor D

  10. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

  11. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  12. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

  13. Calling and volunteering in modern society:How Webers analysis of the Protestant ethic may help understand volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Olav Helge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how the concept of "calling" may help shed light on volunteering as a modern, social phenomenon as "calling" is laid out in the Max Weber's essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism an with a side view to philosophical notions of the "good life".

  14. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  15. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  16. Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Hasna

    2011-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put i...

  17. Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by...

  18. Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of electric fields for evaluation and control of chemical systems. An electric field can result in the flow of charge across an interface between a metal and a solution, by means of chemical reactions. This interplay between electricity and chemistry, i.e. electrochemistry, is a field of crucial importance both within research and industry. Applications based on electrochemical principles encompass such diverse areas as batteries and fuel cells, pH electrodes, a...

  19. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

  20. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the gl...

  1. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  2. Ancient hunters, modern butchers

    OpenAIRE

    Voormolen, Boudewijn

    2008-01-01

    The PhD thesis Ancient Hunters, Modern Butchers presents a first detailed study of bone material found together with spectacularly preserved wooden spears at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Schöningen 13II-4, in Germany. Analysis of a large sample of bone remains from this site revealed data being very relevant to the hunting versus scavenging debate in Palaeolithic archaeology. Excellent conservation of the bone material facilitated a thorough documentation of butchery traces and the reconstr...

  3. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  4. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network AnalyzerA Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Frhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J.; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/. PMID:26807911

  5. Modern Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the AdS/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles. (book review)

  6. Comparative chemical analysis of dew and rain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekouch, Imad; Mileta, Marina; Muselli, Marc; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Irne; ojat, Vinja; Kabbachi, Belkacem; Beysens, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Dew and rain water were collected and analyzed during 3 years (2004-2006) in Zadar, Croatia. The goal was to characterize the chemical properties of dew water versus rain water (and the atmosphere in which they form) and to determine the extent to which they can be used as potable water. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO 3-, Cl -, SO 42-, NO 3-), and major cations (NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for both dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195 S cm - 1 (dew) and EC = 178 S cm - 1 (rain). The ratio (SO 42- + NO 3-)/(Ca 2+ + Mg 2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably because the NO 2-, HCOO - and CH 3COO - ions were not measured), with Ca +, Na + and Mg 2+ as the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na + as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable contribution of non-marine origin for components Ca +, K +, SO 42- and NO 3-, except Cl -. In contrast, in rain water, the values of the non sea-salt fraction (NSSF) indicate that only Ca + and NO 3- are not influenced by sea proximity. The study of the neutralization factor, NF, reveals the descending order of the cations in dew and rain water, NF Ca+ > NF Mg+ > NF K+ > NF NH4+. The dew and rain water are in conformity with the World Health Organization directives for potability, except for Mg 2+.

  7. Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

  8. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  9. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-03-01

    For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba/Sr ranging from 0.1 to 3. This ratio varies on spatial and temporal scales and traces provenance signals as well as the fractionation of the elements in the hydrological cycle. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. The provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from about 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that with time, Ba mobility decreased relative to that of Sr. This can arise if preferential adsorption of Ba to clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide is related to increasing aridification. Additionally, weathering solutions and lake water can become increasingly alkaline and barite becomes stable. In this case, Ba will be preferentially deposited on the watershed of Lake Albert and rivers with low Ba/Sr will feed the habitats of the Hippopotamids.

  10. Using space syntax analysis in detecting privacy: a comparative study of traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    FARIS ALI MUSTAFA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is, firstly, to examine the parameters which have a role in achieving privacy in using the interior domestic spaces and to what extent it influences on the way of distribution of these spaces; secondly, to investigate the relationship between house layout morphology and the privacy of inhabitants. In this paper, space syntax theory is used to examine the spatial morphology of both types (traditional and modern) house layouts in Erbil city, in order to detect...

  11. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant I Jhala; Khushboo N Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfa...

  12. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  13. Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Bražiūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

  14. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  15. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis and its implementation in deep tissue with a catheter setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhou-xian; Lin, Jian-die D.; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the relative concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. This study validated the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing liver conditions during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also tested.

  16. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  17. Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of ex...

  18. Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical...

  19. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  20. Koopmans' Analysis of Chemical Hardness with Spectral-Like Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable observational effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the frozen spin-orbitals approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates. PMID:23970834

  1. Powerful chemical technique. [CSIR uses new x-ray diffractometer for structural chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The CSIR's National Chemical Research Laboratory (NCRL) is now using one of the most powerful techniques available to determine the structure of molecules. It has recently acquired a Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer. This powerful method provides the only means of determining the structure of certain compounds. NCRL scientists often carry out structure determinations to find out the relative or absolute stereochemistry of molecules. This is important when correlating physiological activity and structure, information which is necessary for synthesizing medicines with specific characteristics.

  2. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas; Catalina Bosch Ojeda

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical me...

  3. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth - Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frdric; Carr, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Or Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  4. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth : Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401

  5. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mityagin A. Yu.; Altukhov A. А.; Mityagina A. B.

    2009-01-01

    The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement ...

  7. Chemical diagnosis of DLC by ESR spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with four precursor gases such as methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene in gas phase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that dangling-bond sites (DBSs) observed in all films were characterized by an isotropic broad single line. The DLC film with unsaturated precursor gases had the higher film growth rate and the higher DBS accumulative rate. Although the DBS in DLC films were quite stable at room temperature under anaerobic conditions, the DBS decayed rapidly to level off toward a limiting value when exposed to air. The stability and reactivity of the DBS in DLC film were assumed to depend on chemical structure of organic gas used as precursor. The detailed-ESR study on DBS of the DLC films could be one of the powerful tools for diagnosing the micro-structural properties and the quality of films.

  8. Chemical transformations during the collapse of protostars. Qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chemical reactions taking place during the protostar collapse on variations of concentrations of elements that contribute into volume energy losses has been studied. The variation of molecular hydrogen content both in a gaseous medium and in a medium containing dust particles, the relation between ionized and the neutral carbon, the adsorption of heavy elements by dust particles and the growth of the dust particle radius are considered. The paper discusses the effect of the processes on the protostar cooling rate

  9. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    OpenAIRE

    V.Chandra sekhar; Dr.V. Pandurangadu

    2015-01-01

    A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the...

  10. High resolution Physio-chemical Tissue Analysis: Towards Non-invasive In Vivo Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Lin, Jian-Die; Deng, Cheri X.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Xueding

    2016-02-01

    Conventional gold standard histopathologic diagnosis requires information of both high resolution structural and chemical changes in tissue. Providing optical information at ultrasonic resolution, photoacoustic (PA) technique could provide highly sensitive and highly accurate tissue characterization noninvasively in the authentic in vivo environment, offering a replacement for histopathology. A two-dimensional (2D) physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) combining micrometer to centimeter morphology and chemical composition simultaneously can be generated for each biological sample with PA measurements at multiple optical wavelengths. This spectrogram presents a unique 2D “physio-chemical signature” for any specific type of tissue. Comprehensive analysis of PCS, termed PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), can lead to very rich diagnostic information, including the contents of all relevant molecular and chemical components along with their corresponding histological microfeatures, comparable to those accessible by conventional histology. PAPCA could contribute to the diagnosis of many diseases involving diffusive patterns such as fatty liver.

  11. Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochniol, G; Broel, S; Naoumidis, A; Nickel, H

    1996-06-01

    LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites. PMID:15045345

  12. Tattoo inks: legislation, pigments, metals and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Legal limits for chemical substances require that they are linked to clearly defined analytical methods. Present limits for certain chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks do not mention analytical methods for the detection of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or forbidden colourants. There is, therefore, no established method for the determination of the quantities of these chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks. Failing to provide an appropriate method may lead to unqualified and questionable results which often cause legal disputes that are ultimately resolved by a judge with regard to the method that should have been applied. Analytical methods are tuned to exactly what is to be found and what causes the health problems. They are extremely specific. Irrespective of which is the correct method for detecting metals in tattoo inks, the focus should be on the actual amounts of ink in the skin. CTL® has conducted experiments to determine these amounts and these experiments are crucial for toxicological evaluations and for setting legal limits. When setting legal limits, it is essential to also incorporate factors such as daily consumption, total uptake and frequency of use. A tattoo lasts for several decades; therefore, the limits that have been established for heavy metals used in drinking water or soap are not relevant. Drinking water is consumed on a daily basis and soap is used several times per week, while tattooing only occurs once. PMID:25833637

  13. Performance analysis of Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The increase of temperature of endothermic reaction reduces performance of heat pump. ► The better the performance is, the larger the number of trays. ► COP focuses on the quantity of recovered heat. ► Exergy efficiency focuses on the quantity and quality of recovered heat. - Abstract: The performance of an Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen (IAH) chemical heat pump system is investigated in terms of enthalpy efficiency (COP) and exergy efficiency, in which the exothermic and endothermic reactions take place in the gas phase. The increase of reflux ratio, temperature of endothermic reaction and temperature of exothermic reaction reduces the performance of the heat pump when the other operating parameters remain unchanged. However, the performance of the IAH chemical heat pump improves with the increase of the ratio of molar quantity of hydrogen to that of acetone in the entry of exothermic reactor and the number of heat transfer units of regenerator. Generally, a better performance of the chemical heat pump corresponds to a larger number of trays in the distillation column. The performance of the system can be improved significantly after multi-parameter optimization design. The coefficient of performance (COP) pays more attention to the heat released from the exothermic reactor, while the exergy efficiency takes into consideration of both heat released from the exothermic reactor and temperature of exothermic reaction.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu‟ bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu‟ feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  15. Penal modernism: an American tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Whitman’s analysis of penal modernism. While I am in agreement with the central claim that penal modernism has been ignored and caricatured, I argue here that Whitman’s account of the penal modernist theory of judging must be understood in the context of a wider reframing of the social functions of the criminal law in penal modernism. This is explored by considering the unusual connection that the novel An American Tragedy (1925) has to the history of American criminal la...

  16. The Matthew Effect in Environmental Science Publication: A Bibliometric Analysis of Chemical Substances in Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean Philippe; Eriksen Mette L; Ellegaard Ole; Wallin Johan A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title se...

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory

  18. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 24) in Melbourne, Australia. The prize was awarded to Aurélien Moy of the University of Montpellier (France) for his poster entitled: "Standardless quantification of heavy metals by electron probe microanalysis". This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 9 of the invited plenary lectures and of 12 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees.

  19. Modern post-operative radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer may improve local control and survival: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We hypothesized that modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) could decrease local recurrence (LR) and improve overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: To investigate the effect of modern PORT on LR and OS, we identified published phase III trials for PORT and stratified them according to use or non-use of linear accelerators. Non-individual patient data were used to model the potential benefit of modern PORT in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC treated with induction chemotherapy and resection. Results: Of the PORT phase III studies, eleven trials (2387 patients) were included for OS analysis and eight (1677 patients) for LR. PORT decreased LR, whether given with cobalt, cobalt and linear accelerators, or with linear accelerators only. An increase in OS was only seen when PORT was given with linear accelerators, along with the most significant effect on LR (relative risk for LR and OS 0.31 (p = 0.01) and 0.76 (p = 0.02) for PORT vs. controls, respectively). Four trials (357 patients) were suitable to assess LR rates in stage III NSCLC treated with surgery, in most cases after induction chemotherapy. LR as first relapse was 30% (105/357) after 5 years. In the modeling part, PORT with linear accelerators was estimated to reduce LR rates to 10% as first relapse and to increase the absolute 5-year OS by 13%. Conclusions: This modeling study generates the hypothesis that modern PORT may increase both LR and OS in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC even in patients being treated with induction chemotherapy and surgery

  20. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  1. Technology in an Alternative Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    This essay tries to defend a general embracing-controlling-stance on modern technology on the basis of the analysis of technology and a synthesized theory about the relationship between technology and culture. The task is carried out in the framework of an alternative modernity theory, in a cross-cultural context. China and specific technologies are used to illustrate the central ideas as case studies.

  2. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  3. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, Fernando F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Summer, Michael E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, Samuel D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  4. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  5. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C; King, H; Markanya, A; Mottram, R; Roberts, P; Salvito, D

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  7. [Analysis of main chemical composition in hydrogenated rosin from Zhuzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W G; Chen, X P; Wang, L L; Deng, S; Zhou, Y H; An, X N

    2001-01-01

    The acid fraction, the main part of the hydrogenated rosin produced by Zhuzhou Forest Chemicals Plant of China, was separated from neutral fraction by modified DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and analyzed with GC-MS-DS technique by using DB-5 capillary column. Six dihydroabietic-type resin acids, four dihydropimaric/isopimaric-type resin acids and four tetrahydroabietic-type resin acids were identified. The hydrogenated rosin is composed mainly of 8-abietenoic acid, 18-abietanoic acid, 13-abietenoic acid, 8 alpha, 13 beta-abietanoic acid, 13 beta-8-abietenoic acid and 8-isopimarenoic acid etc. PMID:12541853

  8. Physico-chemical analysis of some Pakistani crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as API gravity. Specific gravity, Pour point, Calorific value, Kinematic viscosity, Flash point, Reid vapour pressure, Copper corrosion. Condradson carbon, Water and sediments, Total sulphur, salt contents, Distillation range, I.B.P., F.B.P., total recovery, residue and metallic contents of some Pakistani crude oils collected from different oil fields of the Punjab and Sindh provinces has been employed to estimate the amounts of metallic elements, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Ni, Si, Na and K and V. Results have been compared with other international crude oils to assess the quality of Pakistani oils. (author)

  9. Development of automated imaging and analysis for zebrafish chemical screens.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Andreas; Codore, Hiba; Day, Billy W.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Tsang, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of image-based high-content screening (HCS) methodology to identify small molecules that can modulate the FGF/RAS/MAPK pathway in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish embryo is an ideal system for in vivo high-content chemical screens. The 1-day old embryo is approximately 1mm in diameter and can be easily arrayed into 96-well plates, a standard format for high throughput screening. During the first day of development, embryos are transparent with most of the major ...

  10. Impact of modern evolution of Paphos town to its ancient necropoleis: a multi-temporal GIS and earth observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, V.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Hellenistic and Roman ancient cemeteries are spread all over the territory of the island of Cyprus, consisting one of the major archaeological data sites. Ancient necropoleis due to their tombs "manufacturing" nature, being almost exclusively underground and hewn out of the natural rock, are preserved in a great majority respect to their equivalent domestic and other kinds of architectural remains which are primarily constructed above the ground. Having that in mind, it's understood that their thorough excavation and study could add significantly to recent archaeological research. Unfortunately, being usually neglected and mainly due to lack of economic resources, no planned excavation of tombs is usually undertaken. On the contrary, most of the tombs are to be found accidentally during infrastructural works or other modern development activities, such as roads, sewage systems and others. This reality of course deprives the archaeologists of a scrupulous study since damages are to be done to the tombs in combination to the tight time schedules that usually pushing towards the fast completion of an archaeological project, not permitting the necessary time for fully understanding in context. In this direction, remote sensing techniques are nowadays an extremely useful tool in the hands of archaeologists, for overlapping the above described modern reality. In the present paper will be briefly addressed the use of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the funerary archaeolandscape of Hellenistic and Roman Cyprus in an effort of sustainable planning, leading to its better preservation.

  11. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  12. A study of quantitative chemical state analysis on cerium surface by using auger electron spectroscopy and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reaction with oxygen during oxygen exposure to Cerium metal surface under ultra high vacuum condition and depth profiling on formed Cerium oxide layer were investigated in term of chemical state analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by factor analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on Ce NON Auger spectra suggested that three physically meaningful components existed from the analyzed data in both cases. After the PCA, three spectra were extracted from the data and these showed significant peak shape changes in each spectrum which were corresponding to different chemical states. In addition, the profiles constructed by factor analysis showed the chemical state changes on the Cerium metal surface during oxidation or chemical depth distributions in the oxide layer. (author)

  13. XPS analysis of combustion aerosols for chemical composition, surface chemistry, and carbon chemical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Bryg, Vicky M; Hays, Michael D

    2011-03-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols can vary in elemental content, surface chemistry, and carbon nano-structure. Each of these properties is related to the details of soot formation. Fuel source, combustion process (affecting formation and growth conditions), and postcombustion exhaust where oxidation occurs all contribute to the physical structure and surface chemistry of soot. Traditionally such physical and chemical parameters have been measured separately by various techniques. Presented here is the unified measurement of these characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present study, XPS is applied to combustion soot collected from a diesel engine (running biodiesel and pump-grade fuels); jet engine; and institutional, plant, and residential oil-fired boilers. Elemental composition is mapped by a survey scan over a broad energy range. Surface chemistry and carbon nanostructure are quantified by deconvolution of high-resolution scans over the C1s region. This combination of parameters forms a distinct matrix of identifiers for the soots from these sources. PMID:21322576

  14. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND E. MARCH

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

  15. Seasonality and season of birth of modern and late Neolithic sheep from South-Eastern France using tooth enamel ?18O analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Blaise, Emilie; Balasse, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic analysis of tooth enamel was used to investigate seasonality and season of birth in sheep. Analyses were performed on the teeth of eight modern sheep bred at the Carmejane farm in south-eastern France and born in different periods of the year. This reference data set confirms that oxygen isotopic records in the second and third molars can be used to differentiate between sheep born in late winter and those born in early autumn. The results show that inter-individual var...

  16. Water and aqueous environments: on-line chemical analysis, problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General approaches to the automation of chemical analysis and to the design of systems for on-line monitoring of aqueous environments are considered. The advantages of flow analysis techniques in the development of these systems are substantiated. Merits and demerits of the existing versions of flow analysis, namely flow-injection and sequential injection analysis, as well as continuous flow analysis and combined versions of these two methods, are discussed.

  17. THE INTERACTIVE DECISION COMMITTEE FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chaeryon; Zhu, Hao; Wright, Fred A; Zou, Fei; Kosorok, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Interactive Decision Committee method for classification when high-dimensional feature variables are grouped into feature categories. The proposed method uses the interactive relationships among feature categories to build base classifiers which are combined using decision committees. A two-stage or a single-stage 5-fold cross-validation technique is utilized to decide the total number of base classifiers to be combined. The proposed procedure is useful for classifying biochemicals on the basis of toxicity activity, where the feature space consists of chemical descriptors and the responses are binary indicators of toxicity activity. Each descriptor belongs to at least one descriptor category. The support vector machine, the random forests, and the tree-based AdaBoost algorithms are utilized as classifier inducers. Forward selection is used to select the best combinations of the base classifiers given the number of base classifiers. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms a single large, unaggregated classifier in the presence of interactive feature category information. We applied the proposed method to two toxicity data sets associated with chemical compounds. For these data sets, the proposed method improved classification performance for the majority of outcomes compared to a single large, unaggregated classifier. PMID:24415822

  18. The iron compound and the chemical analysis in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil as chemically and biologically active means, where the nutrients and also the polluting agents are retained, is a very important factor in the development of a determined culture, reason why the man conducts different actions that allow to improve the nutrient composition of soil, and to eliminate the polluting agents through provision of fertilizers, wastes, etc.. The characterization of these improved soils is an indispensable task to the development of a certain culture. Plants take from the soil different elements that allows make different functions during the nutrition. Iron is one of such elements which take place en the chlorophyll in plants and can be forming different compounds. The determination of mineralogical of such iron compounds could be performed by means of different analytical techniques. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is the finger print technique in the valuation of iron compounds. The results of the valuation of the chemical composition and the iron mineralogical forms in Cuban and Spanish soil samples. A high ferric oxide concentration (100 %) in different mineralogical forms in the studied Cuban agriculture soil was found. A calcareous soil from Huelva region with ferrous sulphate as additive was characterized. This additive allows to improve the cation interchange capacity

  19. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be PMID:20821648

  20. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  1. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  2. Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

  3. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu,; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  5. Chemical Gradient-mediated Melting Curve Analysis for Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Russom, Aman; Irimia, Daniel; TONER, MEHMET

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a microfluidic solid-phase Chemical Gradient-mediated Melting Curve Analysis (CGMCA) method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The method is based on allele-specific denaturation to discriminate mismatched (MM) from perfectly matched (PM) DNA duplexes upon exposure to linear chemical gradient. PM and MM DNA duplexes conjugated on beads are captured in a microfluidic gradient generator device designed with dams, keeping the beads trapped perpendicular to a...

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) as a vegetation standard in chemical and radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfalfa (UST-1361) as a single SRM for use in chemical and radiochemical analysis of vegetation has been reported earlier, interest are shown in this paper. They were obtained in an interlaboratory comparison program currently in progress. Of the 22 split samples 15 have been acknowledged by the participants to test parameters of their interest. The chemical analysis is detailed and the procedures used are described

  7. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  8. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.)

  9. Chemical analysis of 24 dusty (pre-)main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Acke, B; Acke, Bram; Waelkens, Christoffel

    2004-01-01

    We have analysed the chemical photospheric composition of 24 Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-type stars in search for the lambda Bootis phenomenon. We present the results of the elemental abundances of the sample stars. Some of the stars were never before studied spectroscopically at optical wavelengths. We have determined the projected rotational velocities of our sample stars. Furthermore, we discuss stars that depict a (selective) depletion pattern in detail. HD 4881 and HD 139614 seem to display an overall deficiency. AB Aur and possibly HD 126367 have subsolar values for the iron abundance, but are almost solar in silicon. HD 100546 is the only clear lambda Bootis star in our sample.

  10. Modern vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Modern Vacuum Physics presents the principles and practices of vacuum science and technology along with a number of applications in research and industrial production. The first half of the book builds a foundation in gases and vapors under rarefied conditions, The second half presents examples of the analysis of representative systems and describes some of the exciting developments in which vacuum plays an important role. The final chapter addresses practical matters, such as materials, components, and leak detection. Throughout the book, the author''s explanations are presented in terms of first principles and basic physics, augmented by illustrative worked examples and numerous figures.

  11. Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    1996-08-01

    The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

  12. Chemical analysis of interplanetary dust particles with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 10-?m interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere, were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence excited by white synchrotron radiation (SYXFA) at the HASYLAB (DESY) in Hamburg. The measured abundances of the minor and trace elements with 16< Z<76 are in good agreement with abundances determined by PIXE analysis of the same particles. The results demonstrate that SYXFA is indeed a powerful nondestructive technique for multi-element analysis of micron-sized samples. Moreover the combined application of two such techniques, SYXFA and PIXE, to the same valuable particle has been found to lend high credibility to the results. (author). 5 figs., 14 refs

  13. Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m−3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

    Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/ΔCH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  15. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  16. Trace chemical analysis and molecular dynamics utilising ultraintense femtosecond lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is presented for the award of a Ph.D in laser and chemical physics. The principal doctrine of the work seeks to investigate the dynamical response of a variety of small molecules (CS2, CO2, N2O, CH3I, etc.) in an intense (typically 1016 W cm-2) femtosecond (10-15 s) linearly polarised laser pulse. The resulting ions are detected in a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The polarisation vector of the laser light is rotated with respect to the TOF spectrometer axis and the ion yield measured. In this way the preferred direction of ejection of fragment ions can be determined and the mechanisms responsible can be deduced. The other experimental investigation concerns using short-pulse (femtosecond duration) intense laser pulses to sensitively and unambiguously detect molecules of interest (dangerous and environmentally sensitive species). By increasing both the intensity and reducing the duration of the laser light the method, termed femtosecond laser mass spectrometry (FLMS), is shown to be a universal and powerful analytical tool. The sensitivity is achieved via complete ionisation of all species within the ionisation region of the laser pulse and unambiguous identification is achieved via rapid by-passing of dissociative states of the parent species. (author)

  17. Chemical analysis applied to the radiation sterilization of solid ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S.; Maquille, A.; Tilquin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of radiation sterilization of ketoprofen from a chemical point of view. Although irradiated ketoprofen has already been studied in the literature [Katusin-Razem et al., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73 111-116 (2005)], new results, on the basis of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and the use of hyphenated techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS), are obtained. The ESR spectra of irradiated ketoprofen consists of four unresolved resonance peaks and the mean G-value of ketoprofen is found to be 4 +/- 0.9 nmoles/J, which is very small. HPLC-UV analyses indicate that no significant loss of ketoprofen is detected after irradiation. LC-MS-MS analyses show that the structures of the non-volatile final products are similar to ketoprofen. Benzaldehyde is detected in the irradiated samples after dynamic-extraction GC-MS. The analyses show that ketoprofen is radioresistant and therefore might be radiosterilized.

  18. Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

  19. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

  1. Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Fionn

    2008-01-01

    The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic relationship of the u...

  2. Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

  3. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  4. Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This feature is available for PC Windows users and provides simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) features. The productivity gains for both new, and experienced users from this userfriendly interface will be enormous, and the increased user productivity will pay back the developmental costs. RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 has been moderized and restructured in order to enhance the code portability, maintenance capability, readability, and flexibility. User convenience for PC Windows users has been realized by the on-line graphical processing through Windows programming. It should be noted that the code strcuture was fully domesticated, and future improvements could be easily carried out with the restructured version of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2

  5. Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

  6. Analysis of some chemical nutrients in four Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gerardo Carneiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have various chemical components with beneficial effects for human use; however, their nutritional values in Brazilian species are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the content of water, ash, protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in four seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, Solieria filiformis, Caulerpa cupressoides and C. mexicana. Algal constituents were determined by difference, gravimetric or colorimetric method, being the values expressed as g 100 g-1 dehydrated weight (d.w.. Results revealed that the water (10.7 ± 0.18-15.06 ± 1.14 g 100 g-1 d.w., ash (7.79 ± 0.87-15.12 ± 0.51 g 100 g-1 d.w, protein (17.12 ± 0.99-20.79 ± 0.58 g 100 g-1 d.w., lipid (0.33 ± 0.01-3.77 ± 0.13 g 100 g-1 d.w. and carbohydrate (38.07 ± 0.32-54.24 ± 0.157 g 100 g-1 d.w. contents varied between the species (p < 0.05. H. musciformis and S. filiformis (Rhodophyta had highest ash contents (14.14 ± 1.23-15.12 ± 0.51 g 100 g-1 d.w., whereas lipids were higher for Caulerpa species (Chlorophyta (1.52 ± 0.17-3.77 ± 0.13 g 100 g-1 d.w. (p < 0.05. Protein and carbohydrate were the most sources in all the species. Therefore, the studied seaweeds could be a potential source of food ingredients for diets.

  7. Wet chemical analysis for the semiconductor industry—a total view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Marjorie K.

    1998-11-01

    The analysis of liquids to obtain information about semiconductor materials is known in the industry as "wet chemistry" and has been used since the beginning of the production of IC's. However, the analytical procedures never gained any significant attention until the mid 70's when the absolute measurement of phosphorus in PSG films by wet chemical analysis was incorporated by several industrial labs as the standard method of analysis. Today, over 120 different procedures are used to gain specific information about incoming and processed materials used in the industry. These procedures cover ultra pure water, chemicals, thin films, and wafer cleanliness. Furthermore, they are used to evaluate the cleanliness of reactors, cleanrooms, and components of all kinds that are used in cleanrooms, wet benches and reactors. This paper will cover a total look at the applications of wet chemical processes and the usefulness of the data obtained from these analytical techniques. The paper will cover not only those tests that one would expect to be done by wet processes such as the analysis of metals in chemicals, but will also cover many unusual applications of wet chemical analysis such as their usefulness in evaluating products from a variety of reactors. Included in this part of the presentation will be a unique application to determine ion implantation contaminants and recent advances for analyzing 300mm wafers without breaking them and the analysis of contamination metals in copper thin films. Actual data will be provided for each of the analytical techniques presented.

  8. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP. PMID:12224422

  9. Chemical-spectral analysis of high-purity volative chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical techniques for silicon and germanium tetrachlorides, trichlorosilane, phosphorus and arsenic tRichlorides and phosphorus oxychloride, subjected to deep purification process, occurring in the apparatuses, made of hyperpure quartz and borosilicate glasses, chromium-nickel alloys and niobium, are presented. Content of impurities of silicon, sodium, aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, molybdenum, niobium, manganese, calcium, iron and magnesium - was checked out. Detection limits constitute 2x10-5-1x10-8 mass. %. Data on background impurities, impurity losses, convergence and accuracy of analysis results are given

  10. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  11. Modernization, globalization and the welfare state: a comparative analysis of old and new convergence of social insurance since 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, I

    2001-09-01

    Convergence of policies and institutions across countries has been a recurrent theme within social sciences. 'Old' and 'new' convergence hypotheses have been associated with changing concepts and catchwords, such as modernization, logic of industrialism, post-industrialism, post-Fordism and globalization, but share some underlying theoretical perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to analyse tendencies towards convergence of social insurance systems in 18 OECD countries between 1930 and 1990, a period which has seen our sample of countries develop from predominantly agricultural societies to industrial or post-industrial market democracies. Data from the Social Citizenship Indicator Program (SCIP) are used to examine the development of institutional variables within the various national social insurance systems. Sub-samples of larger and smaller countries are examined separately, in order to test the open-economy hypothesis that smaller countries, being more exposed to international pressures than larger ones, could be expected to show higher degrees of social protection and also more convergence. Hypotheses on differentiated institutional barriers against pressures from the processes of transnationalization of the economy, as well as possible convergence effects of the supra-national policy making within the European Union, are discussed in the last section. PMID:11578005

  12. Chemical characterization and principal components analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The volatile organic compound composition of atmospheric aerosol particle samples was investigated through the use of a low volume particle collection/thermal desorption technique. A modification to the published procedure was developed to overcome recurring problems with contamination from organic compounds. The modification involved the construction of a new injection port which was designed to be used without a septum. Use of this injection port significantly lowered the level of contamination. With this method, the volatile organic compounds are desorbed from aerosol particles, separated by gas chromatography, and identified by mass spectrometry. Aerosols collected at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, during a collaborative field study and in Boulder, Colorado, during the 1989 Boulder Canyon forest fire were analyzed. The covariations over time of the concentrations of organic compounds and various physical and meteorological variables from 48 samples collected at the Niwot Ridge were investigated by principal components analysis (PCA). Data on 93 variables, including 59 volatile organic compounds, 22 vapor phase organic and inorganic compounds, and 8 physical and meteorological variables were included in the analysis. Twelve factors were extracted, which can be interpreted according to the identity of the variables which correlate strongly with the factors. These 12 factors accounted for 81.3% of the variance in the data set. Four factors are related to anthropogenic emission sources, 2 factors are related primarily to biogenic emission sources, one is principally a meteorological factor, and the remaining 5 factors are groups of compounds related to both anthropogenic and biogenic activity.

  13. Multivariate analysis of chemical-physical parameters to characterize and discriminate karstic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Karst near Trieste two contiguous, apparently similar, springs were sampled during autumnal and spring periods. Twelve chemical-physical parameters were monitored, with the purpose of determining the composition and verifying seasonal variations of the waters. The methodological approach for characterizing and discriminating karstic freshwater, based on a multivariate analysis of the analytical data, as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) or LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), is alternative to intrusive methods based on chemical, radioactive or biological tracers. A discriminant model was proposed for these karstic waters, verifying the significance of the variables

  14. Pneumatically actuated microvalve circuits for programmable automation of chemical and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Stockton, Amanda M; Jensen, Erik C; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-02-23

    Programmable microfluidic platforms (PMPs) are enabling significant advances in the utility of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis. Traditional microfluidic devices are analogous to application-specific devices - a new device is needed to implement each new chemical or biochemical assay. PMPs are analogous to digital electronic processors - all that is needed to implement a new assay is a change in the order of operations conducted by the device. In this review, we introduce PMPs based on normally-closed microvalves. We discuss recent applications of PMPs in diverse fields including genetic analysis, antibody-based biomarker analysis, and chemical analysis in planetary exploration. Prospects, challenges, and future concepts for this emerging technology will also be presented. PMID:26864083

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  16. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to improve control methods (e.g. legal, b

  17. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  18. COMPARATIVE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS L. USING VERMICOMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Dulal Chandra Das

    2013-01-01

    The chemical fertilizers have lost the faith on agriculture throughout the globe today; oppositely the organic amendments are gradually becoming more reliable components in the field of agriculture. The objective of the present work was to investigate the relative growth analysis of China aster (Callistephus chinensis L.) applying the vermi compost and chemical fertilizer (10:26:26) and to observe the growth efficiency of both the amendments. The present investigation also aimed to increase t...

  19. Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations:

    OpenAIRE

    Šnuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sedláčkova, Bibiana

    2009-01-01

    The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...

  20. Double-core-hole spectroscopy for chemical analysis with an intense X-ray femtosecond laser

    OpenAIRE

    Berrah, Nora; Li FANG; Murphy, Brendan; Osipov, Timur; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Kukk, Edwin; Feifel, Raimund; van der Meulen, Peter; Salen, Peter; Schmidt, Henning T.; Thomas, Richard D.; Larsson, Mats; Richter, Robert; Prince, Kevin C.; Bozek, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that double-core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy can provide a new powerful means of differentiating between similar chemical systems with a sensitivity not hitherto possible. Although DCH ionization on a single site in molecules was recently measured with double-and single-photon absorption, double-core holes with single vacancies on two different sites, allowing unambiguous chemical analysis, have remained elusive. Here we report that direct observation of double-core holes with sin...

  1. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  2. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  3. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  4. Analysis of chemically synthesized oleoylethanolamide by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabuis, Clmentine; Tissot-Favre, Delphine; Bezelgues, Jean-Baptiste; Martin, Jean-Charles; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frdric

    2008-08-22

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is known to potentially have beneficial biological effects on weight management by controlling food intake and activating lipid catabolism. In biological fluids, OEA and other endogenously biosynthesized fatty acid ethanolamides are usually analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The present study provides analytical method to routinely assess the quality of OEA prepared for biological studies by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The preparation of OEA for biomedical studies can be performed by N-acylation of oleic acid/esters or using oleoyl chloride. In the present study, OEA was prepared by transamidation of triolein. The analysis of the synthesized OEA has been performed by gas-liquid chromatography of its trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) derivatives. Free OEA cannot be analyzed as such because dehydration of the ethanolamide moiety promptly happens in the GLC injection. This thermal degradation reaction gives rise to the formation of an oxazoline derivative. The TMS moiety prevents the reaction, and the structure of the formed derivative was assessed by mass spectrometry. We show here that OEA prepared for biological studies can be routinely analyzed by GLC after TMS derivative preparation. PMID:18644599

  5. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands) Clive T Walker EMAS President János L Lábár Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, HAS, Konkoly-Thege M. u. 29-33, HU-1121 Budapest, Hungary Clive T Walker European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, Germany Michal Zelechower Silesian University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, ul. Krasinskiego 8, PL-40019 Katowice, Poland Pawel Zieba Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, ul. W. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland

  6. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR2O3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  7. Chemical and biochemical analysis using microfluidic-localized field platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael; Abu-Hatab, Nahla; Wellman, Amber; John, Joshy; Connatser, Maggie

    2007-09-01

    Microfluidics offer the advantages of multiplexed analysis on small, inexpensive platforms. We describe herein two distinct optical detection techniques that have the common point of sequestering and measuring analyte signals in highly localized EM fields. The first technique mates a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform with colloidal-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in order to perform parallel, high throughput vibrational spectroscopy. Spectra are acquired for analytes localized in surface plasmon fields associated with conventional and uniquely synthesized cubic silver colloids. SERS studies such as pH of the colloidal solution, and the type of colloid are used to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the method. In addition, a facile passive pumping method is used to deliver Ag colloids and analytes into the channels where all SERS measurements were completed under nondestructive flowing conditions. With this approach, SERS signal reproducibility was found to be better than 7%. A calibration curve for the drug mitoxantrone (resonance enhanced) was generated. The second technique seeks to integrate a passively-pumped, microfluidic, PDMS platform and planar waveguide technology, utilizing magnetic beads as solid supports for fluoro-assays with direct detection of bound analyte within the sample mixture accomplished by selectively driving functionalized beads to a localized evanescent field. Because analyte binding occurs in free solution, the reaction is not diffusion limited and, once magnetically delivered to the evanescent wave, the analyte can be detected with fewer complications arising from non-optically homogeneous, biological matrices. Additionally, the evanescent sensing surface can be easily regenerated by simply removing the bead-retaining magnetic field. Initial testing, optimization and calibration were performed using a model sandwich immunoassay system for the detection of rabbit IgG, with which we demonstrate a linear dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude and physiologically relevant detection limits of nanograms per milliliter.

  8. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 1: Summary and mission analysis (tasks 2 and 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloetscher, F.

    1975-01-01

    The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.

  9. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

  10. Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Waldherr, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point of infeasibility with the chemical master equation. Results: In this article, we apply parametric model order reduction techniques in order to construct accurate low-dimensional parametric models of the chemical master equation. These surrogate models can be used in various parametric analysis task such as parameter identificiation or sensitivity analysis. As biological examples, we consider two models for gene regulation networks, a bistable switch and a network displaying stochastic oscillations. Conclusions: The results show ...

  11. Analysis of chemical abundances in planetary nebulae with [WC] central stars. II. Chemical abundances and the abundance discrepancy factor

    CERN Document Server

    Garc\\'\\ia-Rojas, J; Morisset, C; Delgado-Inglada, G; Mesa-Delgado, A; Ruiz, M T

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the abundance analysis of 12 PNe ionized by [WC] type stars and wels obtained from high-resolution spectrophotometric data. Our main aims are to determine the chemical composition of the PNe and to study the behaviour of the abundance discrepancy problem (ADF) in this type of planetary nebulae. The detection of a large number of optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisional excited lines (CELs) from different ions were presented in Garcia-Rojas et al. (2012). Most of the ORLs are reported for the first time in these PNe. Ionic abundances were derived from the available CELs and ORLs, using previously determined physical conditions. Based on both sets of ionic abundances, we derived total chemical abundances in the nebulae using suitable ICFs (when available). In spite of the [WC] nature of the central stars, moderate ADF(O^++), in the range from 1.2 to 4, were found for all the objects. We have found that, when the quality of the spectra is high enough, the ORLs O^++/H^+ abundance r...

  12. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  13. Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

  14. The SFM/ToF-SIMS combination for advanced chemically-resolved analysis at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) allows the 3D-compositional analysis of samples or devices. Typically, the topographical data obtained by SFM is used to determine the initial sample topography and the absolute depth of the ToF-SIMS analysis. Here ToF-SIMS and SFM data sets obtained on 2 prototypical samples are explored to go beyond conventional 3D-compositional analysis. SFM topographical and material contrast maps are combined with ToF-SIMS retrospective analysis to detect features that would have escaped a conventional ToF-SIMS data analysis. In addition, SFM data is used to extrapolate the chemical information beyond the spatial resolution of ToF-SIMS, allowing the mapping of the chemical composition at the nanoscale

  15. Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M

    2000-01-01

    Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

  16. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  17. Development of a robotics system for automated chemical analysis of sediments, sludges, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptation and use of a high-reliability robot to conduct a standard laboratory procedure for soil chemical analysis are reported. Results from a blind comparative test were used to obtain a quantitative measure of the improvement in precision possible with the automated test method. Results from the automated chemical analysis procedure were compared with values obtained from an EPA-certified lab and with results from a more extensive interlaboratory round robin conducted by the EPA. For several elements, up to fivefold improvement in precision was obtained with the automated test method

  18. Chemical analysis of the atmosphere of CP 3 star ?1Boo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of the atmosphere of CP 3 star ?1Boo using the method of synthetic spectrum and the LTE model atmosphere is discussed. The CaII K line was calculated on the assumption of NLTE approximation considering partial redistribution. The selection of a suitable model atmosphere for CP 3 stars and the influence of gf-values on the resulting relative abundance of elements in the atmosphere of the star are discussed. The accuracy of the chemical analysis was primarily affected by the selection of spectral lines and their atomic parameters used in the calculation. (author). 1 fig., 5 tabs., 20 refs

  19. Study on the chemical species of platinum group elements in geological samples by molecular activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical species of platinum group elements in some upper mantle-derived xenoliths from Eastern China are studied by molecular activation analysis, in which the chemical stepwise dissolution, nickel fire assay preconcentration and neutron activation analysis are jointly applied. The weighted sums of platinum group elements in 6 phases are in agreement with their total contents. The distribution patterns of platinum group elements in sulphides show that sulphide segregation is one of the important mechanisms for the fractionation of platinum group elements in upper mantle-derived material during partial melting

  20. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater