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Sample records for modern chemical analysis

  1. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in...

  2. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MODERNIZATION FOR CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT

    Задольський, Аркадій Михайлович

    2015-01-01

    Industry of Ukraine is currently in a very difficult situation. This fully relates to the chemical industry. The real way to overcome negative developments, in the chemical industry, is improving its material base and objects of fixed assets. First of all, need improvement, machinery and equipment (chemical equipment). This important problem can be solved by upgrading existing equipment. In order to choose the most efficient option for replacement of obsolete equipment, should apply the techn...

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  4. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  5. Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  6. MODERN TERRORISM: CONCEPT AND APPROACH ANALYSIS

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  7. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate

  8. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  9. An introduction to 'Chemical knowledge in the early modern world'.

    Eddy, Matthew Daniel; Mauskopf, Seymour H.; Newman, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The essays in this volume collectively cover the development of chemistry in the “early modern world,” that is to say, from the fifteenth century through the eighteenth century. Until comparatively recently, this period was of less interest to historians of chemistry than the succeeding era of the emergence of “modern” chemistry, with its familiar chemical elements, compounds, and equations. But recent research, exemplified by the essays of this volume, has shown how exciting and complex this...

  10. Modern methodologies and tools for human hazard assessment of chemicals

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific report provides a review of modern methodologies and tools to depict toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes and their application for the human hazard assessment of chemicals. The application of these methods is illustrated with examples drawn from the literature and international efforts in the field. First, the concepts of mode of action/adverse outcome pathway are discussed together with their associated terminology and recent international developments dealing with human hazard assessment of chemicals. Then modern methodologies and tools are presented including in vitro systems, physiologically-based models, in silico tools and OMICs technologies at the level of DNA/RNA (transcriptomics, proteins (proteomics and the whole metabolome (metabolomics. Future perspectives for the potential applications of these modern methodologies and tools in the context of prioritisation of chemicals, integrated test strategies and the future of risk assessment are discussed. The report concludes with recommendations for future work and research formulated from consultations of EFSA staff, expert Panels and other international organisations.

  11. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  12. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

  13. The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis

    Mills, Professor Terence C

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

  14. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics...

  15. Probabilistic analysis of modernization options

    This paper reports on benefit-cost analysis for hydropower operations, a standard procedure for reaching planning decisions. Cost overruns and benefit shortfalls are also common occurrences. One reason for the difficulty of predicting future benefits and costs is that they usually cannot be represented with sufficient reliability by accurate values, because of the many uncertainties that enter the analysis through assumptions on inputs and system parameters. Therefore, ranges of variables need to be analyzed instead of single values. As a consequence, the decision criteria, such as net benefit and benefit-cost ratio, also vary over some range. A probabilistic approach will be demonstrated as a tool for assessing the reliability of the results

  16. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  17. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  18. Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone

    Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

  19. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  20. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens;

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which ...... bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air....

  1. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  2. Chemical process hazards analysis

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  4. A Brief Analysis to Modern American Slang

    肖煜晨; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Modern American slang has a unique display of feelings and ideas and a long history. It has become a language used widely in every field of work, and it continues to appear in newspapers, TVs, reports, and even election speeches. Modern American slang has gained importance over the years, During its development process, American slang has formed its own unique characteristics: it is humorous, vivid, easy to express feelings, and updates fast. Although scholars’ opinions toward slang have a wide discrepancy, it is undeniable that the emergence and development of modern American slang has conformed to the needs of the society and times.

  5. Radiometric chemical analysis

    The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

  6. ANALYSIS OF MODERN ELEVATOR DESIGNS AND TENDENCIES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    A. I. Antonevich

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of modern elevator designs and control systems, their classification and characteristics are given in the paper. Tendencies and prospects of their development are revealed on the basis of the executed analysis.

  7. Banking and Modern Payments System Security Analysis

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB, regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black- hat hackers and conclude that they could be automated dramatically. To demonstrate the feasibility of our predictions and prove that many two-factor authentication schemes can be bypassed, we have analyzed banking and modern payments system security. In this research we will review different payment protocols and security methods that are being used to run banking systems. We will survey some of the popular systems that are being used today, with a deeper focus on the Chips, cards, NFC, authentication etc. In addition, we will also discuss the weaknesses in the systems that can compromise the customer's trust.

  8. Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals

    Petrović Slobodan D.; Mišić-Vuković Milica M.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharm...

  9. Modern Computational Techniques for the HMMER Sequence Analysis

    Xiandong Meng; Yanqing Ji

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the latest research and critical reviews on modern computing architectures, software and hardware accelerated algorithms for bioinformatics data analysis with an emphasis on one of the most important sequence analysis applications—hidden Markov models (HMM). We show the detailed performance comparison of sequence analysis tools on various computing platforms recently developed in the bioinformatics society. The characteristics of the sequence analysis, such as data and c...

  10. Is Chinese industry modernized?——Analysis of modernization in China’s 15 key industries

    陈佳贵; 黄群慧

    2009-01-01

    Based on the construction of an evaluation indictor system, this paper analyzes the modernization levels of 15 industries included in China’s five industry categories: energy, high-tech, medium high-tech, medium low-tech and low-tech industries. Our research reaches five conclusions. First, the level of modernization of the shipbuilding, iron and steel, and petroleum industries has achieved 50% of the advanced level globally, and these three industries have covered half of the modernization process. Second, the level of industrial modernization of the electric power, computer manufacturing and textile industries has exceeded the overall level in China, and now approaches 50% of the advanced level globally. Third, the level of industrial modernization of the chemical industry is also higher than the whole level in China. Fourth, the modernization level of the cement, coal mining and lathe industries is the lowest. This level is under the Chinese overall level of industrial modernization, and has not achieved 30% of the advanced level globally, which is to say that these three industries have not covered a third of the modernization process. Lastly, the industrial modernization level of the pharmaceutical, telecommunication equipment, automobile, food and papermaking industries is equivalent to the whole level of Chinese industrial modernization, and has basically finished a third of the modernization course.

  11. Special section on modern multivariate analysis

    Kafadar, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A critically challenging problem facing statisticians is the identification of a suitable framework which consolidates data of various types, from different sources, and across different time frames or scales (many of which can be missing), and from which appropriate analysis and subsequent inference can proceed.

  12. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  13. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  14. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs

  15. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization

    Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

  17. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Regulasi Pasar Modern di Kabuoaten Bantul

    Hudiyanto Hudiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RIA or Regulatory Impact Analysis is an analysis tool that is used to develop the quality of rules or policy that is made by the Government. This article is analyzing the use of RIA that is currently being run by Bantul Government in managing he moern market that is threatening the very existence of local economy that is currently the backbone of bantul's people economical activities. Th analysis, it's found out that the most threatened business by modern market is grocery stores, but the Bupati Rules limits the definition of local economy to traditional markets, which means that this Bupati Rules isn't consistent in protecting local economy. The modern market has an oligopoly structure. This kinds of structure make benefit the consumer, but on the other side, it also impose the transaction fee to the supplier. Bupati Rules that only manages the existence of modern markets become inefficient in removing the negative impact of the modern market itself. In the structure of market with that strong network, policy that only obstruct would be ineffective, because once the permission is granted, the network will spread by any means necessary. The protection to local economy bargaining position to the consumer and seller.

  18. Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena

    Sirenko, Yuriy K

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

  19. Discussion of Population Modernization Theory and Actuality Analysis of Population Modernization in China

    Wang Shu

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic concept and connotation of population modernization.The author briefly analyzes the actuality of population modernization in China, gives some advice and puts forward some measures.

  20. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  1. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  2. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  3. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  4. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  5. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  6. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  7. Semen analysis: its place in modern reproductive medical practice.

    McLachlan, Robert I; Baker, H W Gordon; Clarke, Gary N; Harrison, Keith L; Matson, Phillip L; Holden, Carol A; de Kretser, David M

    2003-02-01

    Semen analysis is the most important laboratory investigation for men when assessing the infertile couple. Advances in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involving the direct injection of a single spermatozoon into an egg, have not diminished the role of semen analysis in modern reproductive practice. Semen analysis is the most basic laboratory investigation undertaken and is descriptive in terms of semen volume, appearance, viscosity, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology. Since the results are used by clinicians to choose appropriate treatment options, a reliable service is imperative. It is crucial that the laboratory is experienced in the performance of semen analyses to ensure an accurate result. To ensure a quality semen analysis service, laboratories must participate in internal and external quality assurance activities, incorporate rigorous training protocols for technical staff and use reliable procedures. The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm cervical mucous interaction, clearly describes the variables that need to be assessed and the methods of analysis and quality assurance to be used. PMID:12701680

  8. Analysis of Innovative and Modern Technology of Parking Lots

    Jonas Damidavičius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of urban communication systems and ensuring of residents demands are the main tasks of the sustainable city development. One of the most important areas that forms better urban image is sustainable mobility development. It has influence on social, economical viability and environmental quality. Nowadays, intensive rhythm of life and increasing transport demands, usage of cars become a significant problem which regards the air and noise pollution and lack of parking spaces. Due to the daily impossibility of residents to find vacant parking spaces influence unproper usage of public spaces, streets, pedestrian and bicycle paths, children backgrounds, green areas and other territories. This report provides an overview of concepts of parking lots and their technology, and property usage in city center, middle zones, suburban territories and as well an analysis of the evolution of parking spaces. The report presents modern and innovative concepts of parking lots, which improves quality of communication and life in city and improves architectural environment.

  9. John rawls and the theory of modernization. a retrospective analysis

    Bula, Jorge Iván

    2010-01-01

    This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of differenc...

  10. Higher education system in modern Germany: social-philosophical analysis

    NEZHYVA OLGA

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author investigates higher education system in modern Germany and shows major factors which had weighty value with assistance to development of democratic education and ways of its perfection. The author analyzes features of modern higher education in Germany and explains solving problems of higher education system in Ukraine.

  11. Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research

    Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

  12. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  13. Analysis of Modern State of Engineering Industry of Ukraine

    Bozhko Valeriy P.; Kashcheeva Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the modern state of engineering companies of Ukraine. It proves importance of the engineering industry, state and level of development of which is the main indicator of economic and, first of all, industrial development of the country. It reveals main problems of engineering companies, which arise under modern economic conditions and slow down or even stop their development. The studied material is used for development of recommendations on improvement of the state and sol...

  14. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  15. Analysis of the Reference Systems of Modern Selenographic Systems

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya

    2016-07-01

    In this work analysis of the reference systems of modern selenographic systems was made. The center of the Moon's mass position relative to its center of figure was determined from the data of "Clementine" and "Kaguya" missions and "ULCN" and "KSC-1162" catalogues. The knowledge of the Moon's center of mass position relative to its center of figure is important for researches of the lunar origin, structure and evolution and in terms of precision solutions circumlunar navigation tasks. At the present this task is the most relevant and demanded for cosmic lunar missions.The expansions by spherical harmonics N=5 degree and order of the lunar function h (λ, β) using the package ASNI USTU were executed. Module of the expansion of the local area to surfaces to full sphere was used. The parameters of cosmic missions are given for comparison (SAI; Bills, Ferrari). The normalized coefficients from expansions for eight sources of hypsometric information are obtained: "Clementine" (N=40), "KSC-1162" (N=5), "Kiev" (N=5), "SAI" (N=10; Chuikova (1975)), "Bills, Ferrari", "Kaguya" (Selena, Japan mission), "ULCN" (The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005). The displacements of the lunar center of figure relative to the lunar center of the mass were defined from equations (Chuikova (1975)): Δ ξ = C_{11} √{3}, Δ η= S_{11} √{3}, Δ ζ = C_{10} √{3}, where ξ is the axis directed towards the Earth, η is equatorial axis directed perpendicularly to ξ , ζ is rotation axis of the Moon, C_{11} , S_{11} , C_{10} are the normalized amplitudes of the harmonics of the first order expansion of the relief. After that we considered: - mathematical models in the form of expansions in spherical functions - methods for estimating the model parameters; - information technology data processing. As a model describing the behavior of the relief on the lunar sphere is used the expansion of the height in a series of spherical harmonics (Sagitov (1979)) in the form of a regression model

  16. INAA analysis for Jun porcelaim and modern Chinese Jun porcelain

    A total of 28 old Jun porcelain, seven modern Chinese Jun porcelain and two Jingdezhen porcelain samples are analyzed with INAA method. The systematic geochemical study for these 37 samples on their REE and trace elements shows that these three types of china were made with relatively stable and similar material, although they leaptover 600 years in different colors and from different kilns. However, the REE patterns of modern Chinese Jun porcelain are a little bit different from that of old Jun porcelain, and clear different from the old glaze of Jindezheng. (authors)

  17. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  18. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  19. The Intellectual Development of Modern Schooling: An Epistemological Analysis

    Alberto Arenas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes a historical account of the development of modern schooling, with a prime emphasis on the epistemological changes that took place in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. While earlier historians who focused on this same period presented a benevolent account of the growth of modern schooling, I adopt a more critical view. As I demonstrate in this article, characteristics such as a fragmented disciplinary curriculum; a privileging of rational and objective knowledge codified in book form; a mechanistic view of the natural environment as detached and wholly different from human nature; and a totalizing pedagogy that controls every moment and movement of students, were all features that emerged during this time frame and became an integral part of the ethos and organization of modern schooling. With this article I hope to contribute to our understanding of how the school as an institution was carved into the modern psyche with such potency that it overshadowed most other forms of the intergenerational transmission of culture.

  20. "The saga of alien": The analysis of the frame of otherness in modern culture

    Gorokhovskaya, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    In this article on a basis of Erving Hoffman's frame analysis the image of «Alien» in modern fantastic movies is considered. The primary social frame of «Alien» comes to light, and medieval and modern imaginary «Aliens» are compared as secondary frames.

  1. BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE PUBLICATIONS ON MODERNIZATION IN DBS WEB OF SCIENCE

    Marshakova-Shaikevich, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis of publications on modernization in leading countries of the world was carried on. The results, based on Web of science data (1945-2011), are given in tables and figures. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of modernization publications in Russia and China.

  2. The Analysis of The Waste Land from the Modern Perspective

    葛瑞应

    2015-01-01

    <正>Published in 1922,The Waste Land describes to us a doomsday scene under modernization.Eliot lived in the middle of the 20th century when industrial civilization was extremely criticized.The despair,suggested in The Waste Land,of the serious conflict between social reality,and traditional culture and the British Empire,was largely influenced by the widespread critical

  3. New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains

    Anderson, Luke; Holz, Ralph; Ponomarev, Alexander; Rimba, Paul; Weber, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Half a decade after Bitcoin became the first widely used cryptocurrency, blockchains are receiving considerable interest from industry and the research community. Modern blockchains feature services such as name registration and smart contracts. Some employ new forms of consensus, such as proof-of-stake instead of proof-of-work. However, these blockchains are so far relatively poorly investigated, despite the fact that they move considerable assets. In this paper, we explore three representat...

  4. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  5. SWOT Analysis and Strategic Research on China’s Rural Modern Industrial Development

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the necessity of China’s rural modern industrial development,and points out that developing rural modern industry is the necessary choice of increasing farmers’ income and bridging urban-rural gap;developing rural modern industry is the propeller of promoting rural economic prosperity and holistic economic growth of the nation;developing rural modern industry is the foundation of perfecting various kinds of social undertakings and changing rural appearance.SWOT analysis is conducted on China’s rural modern industrial development.The advantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include human resources advantage,economic development advantage,and policy advantage;the disadvantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include outdated thinking and concept,unsound infrastructure and imperfect system guarantee;the opportunities of China’s rural modern industrial development include great development of agricultural technology,implementation of new countryside construction strategy and development of rural informatization construction;the challenges of China’s rural modern industrial development include the transformation from closed rural environment with weak infrastructure to open rural environment with sound infrastructure,the transformation from traditional agricultural production mode to modern industrial development mode,and the transformation from administrative management model to service-oriented management model.The corresponding strategies are put forward to promote China’s rural modern industrial development at present as follows:change thinking and concept;perfect infrastructure;establish security system and perfect management system;provide good hard and soft foundation for rural industrial development so as to promote rural modern industrial development.

  6. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  7. Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations

    Т. В. Козлова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

  8. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  9. Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards

    Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

    2013-09-01

    Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

  10. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  11. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  12. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  13. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  14. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  15. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Centeno, José A.; Duane A. Rogers; Gijsbert B. van der Voet; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

  16. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  17. Evolutionary and Institutional Economic Analysis of the Scarcity Concept in Modern Economics

    Plamen Tchipev

    2006-01-01

    This is an attempt to rationalise a fundamental category of modern neoclassical economics from a critical point of view using the tools of the modern institutional and evolutionary economic analysis. The scarcity concept of economic goods has been critically analysed in an evolutionary and biological context, as well as in general social and specific market context. A possible answer regarding its specific presence in the neoclassical economics has been suggested, as well as with regard to th...

  18. Entropy generation reduction through chemical pinch analysis

    The pinch analysis (PA) concept emerged, late '80s, as one of the methods to address the energy management in the new era of sustainable development. It was derived from combined first and second law analysis, as a technique ensuring a better thermal integration, aiming the minimization of entropy production or, equivalently, exergy destruction by heat exchanger networks (HEN). Although its ascendance from the second law analysis is questionable, the PA reveals as a widespread tool, nowadays, helping in energy savings mostly through a more rational use of utilities. Unfortunately, as principal downside, one should be aware that the global minimum entropy production is seldom attained, since the PA does not tackle the whole plant letting aside the chemical reactors or separation trains. The chemical reactor network (CRN) is responsible for large amounts of entropy generation (exergy losses), mainly due to the combined composition and temperature change. The chemical pinch analysis (CPA) concept focuses on, simultaneously, the entropy generation reduction of both CRN and HEN, while keeping the state and working parameters of the plant in the range of industrial interest. The fundamental idea of CPA is to include the CRN (through the chemical reaction heat developed in reactors) into the HEN and to submit this extended system to the PA. This is accomplished by replacing the chemical reactor with a virtual heat exchanger system producing the same amount of entropy. For an endothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the (stepwise infinitesimal) supply heat δq flows from a source (an external/internal heater) to the stream undergoing the chemical transformation through the reactor, which in turn releases the heat of reaction ΔHR to a virtual cold stream flowing through a virtual cooler. For an exothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the replacement is likewise, but the heat flows oppositely. Thus, in the practice of designing or retrofitting a flowsheet, in order to

  19. Note on modern path analysis in application to crop science

    Marcin Kozak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we discuss path analysis and its applications to crop science investigations – almost all of these applications are based on the methodology that Sewall Wright developed in the 1920s, although the path analysis method has been intensively developed during the last three decades. Via this paper, we point out that new methodology of estimation and testing in path analysis is fairly advanced and is applied in many biological disciplines and that it should also be extended to crop science.

  20. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  1. Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads

    Andrei C. COVRIG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

  2. COMPARATIVE FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF MODERN AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF BROILER CHICKEN FARM BUSINESS

    Firda Rachma Amalia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility study is a study assessing a project to be undertaken in the future. This research aimed to analyze whether the broiler business by partnership pattern at Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML was feasible to be continued. This research analyzed two models of cage that is traditional cage (open with a scale of 10,000  and modern cage (close with a scale 14.500 and decided whether they were financially feasible or not. In addition, this research aimed to compare between traditional cage and modern cage with estimation for one year (six harvest times and to analyze which cage had better feasibility in order to provide recommendations or suggestions to the breeders or young breeders. Sensitivity analysis was based on current input and output data from breeder in 2012. The feasibility study of chicken broiler farm cage partnership with traditional and modern cage with the next ten year estimation showed that the modern cage was better than the traditional cage. It can be seen from the values of NPV, IRR, PP, B/C, GPM and ROI. Sensitivity analysis shows that traditional cage is more sensitive to price changes than modern cage. It is shown in the traditional cage with the capacity of 10,000 produces smaller values, indicating that is it is sensitive to cost increase by 2% and to selling price decline of chicken by 1,7%. The recommendations from this study include inputs to farmers in selecting a modern cage since it is more feasible than the traditional cage for long periods of time, while the traditional cage is more viable than the modern cage if the farmer wants a shorter investment timeKeywords: Feasibility studies, Broiler, modern and Traditional cageABSTRAKKelayakan merupakan studi  menilai proyek yang akan dikerjakan di masa mendatang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisisis apakah usaha ayam broiler dengan pola kemitraan pada Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML layak untuk diteruskan. Penelitian ini menganalisisis dua model kandang tradisional

  3. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  4. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  5. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The

  6. Physico-chemical standardization of Habbe Shifa: A polyherbal Unani formulation with modern techniques

    Asira Tarannum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habbe Shifa (HS is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation, which is used in the treatment of Humma (fever, Iya (fatigue, Tashannuje rewi (pulmonary spasm and Zeequn Nafas (asthma and opium deaddiction. Aim: The physico-chemical standards of HS were established in the present study. Materials and Methods: HS was prepared with ingredients of particle size 150 μm (100 mesh sieve, 5% w/w Gum Acacia mucilage was used as binder, dried at a temperature 90°C for 120 min and finally evaluated for different physico-chemical parameters to develop standards for HS. Results and Conclusion: Physico-chemical standards of HS were observed as characteristic brown colour, spherical shape, hard in texture, odourless and bitter in taste; average weight 242.95 ± 1.53 mg; diameter 7.33 ± 0.16 mm; hardness 3.5 ± 0.00 kg/cm; friability 0.02 ± 0.003%; pH value in 1% and 10% aqueous solution 6.22 ± 0.06 and 5.39 ± 0.008 respectively; percentage loss of weight on drying at 105°C 6.63 ± 0.12%; total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash 5.33 ± 0.16, 0.95 ± 0.05 and 1 ± 0.00% respectively and total alkaloid 0.65 ± 0.01% and R f values in the thin layer chromatography in ethanolic extract in hexane: Acetone (7.6:2.4 solvent system were 0.25, 0.78 and in hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6 solvent system were 0.58, 0.89. The results obtained for the various physico-chemical tests of lab sample of HS may be taken as standard parameter for future reference and help in setting up regulatory limit to assure the quality of Unani medicine.

  7. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  8. Analysis of chemical bonding by means of reduced density matrices

    Álvarez Boto, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The modern Theory of Chemical Bonding may be well understood as the study of reduced density matrices (RDMs) in real space regions to get new insights of the chemical bond. Although, much work has been widely used to understand chemical bonding from one-electron density, include correlation effects requires the access to higher order densities. Based on the cumulant expansion of the RDMs, a set of bonding indices which may decomposed into one-electron component may be defined. Each comp...

  9. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  10. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  11. Structure analysis of polymer crystals modernized with quantum beam usage

    One of the most significant progresses in the X-ray crystal structure analysis technique is the utilization of a synchrotron high-energy X-ray source which can give us a tremendously large number of reflections, making it possible to find out even the hydrogen atomic positions with high accuracy. The wide-angle neutron diffraction method is also important for the extraction of hydrogen atomic positions as demonstrated in the case study of full-deuterated polyethylene. The so-called X-N (X-ray-neutron) method has been also applied, which successfully clarified the bonded electron density distribution along a polydiacetylene skeletal chain. Detailed crystal structure analysis was performed also to observe the mechanical deformation mechanism of a polymer crystal viewed on the atomic level. Time-dependent rapid X-ray diffraction measurement has made it possible to trace the structural change in a photo-induced solid-state polymerization process. An organized combination of X-ray diffraction methods with others such as infrared spectroscopy has shown to be important for the study of structural evolution processes of polymer crystals. (author)

  12. Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

  13. Technical Analysis of a Ptolemaic Child Sarcophagus and the Identification of Ancient and Modern Reuse

    Mallinckrodt, Catherine Scott

    The goals of this project are the technical analysis of a Ptolemaic child coffin lid, development of a conservation strategy, and realization of priority stabilization interventions. Early in the process of evaluation and analysis irregularities in the appearance and structure of the coffin suggested re-use of components. This thesis proposes that there are incidences of ancient and modern reuse of structural elements in this coffin lid, and substantiates this assertion through the results of a technical analysis. Non-destructive and destructive methods of analysis were used including UV induced visible fluorescence, Infrared and Visible-induced luminescence (VIL) imaging. Particle samples were investigated microscopically, and using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD or X-ray Diffraction, FTIR or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technologies were used for elemental and molecular analysis. Egyptology scholars, conservators, and materials scientists were consulted. The text establishes the historical context, and the use and meaning of the artifact. The object is described, the pigment analysis is presented, and prior interventions to the object are elaborated. The collective results of the technical analysis, observation and consultation are interpreted to substantiate the assertion of modern and ancient reuse. Technical analysis supports the observation that face of the deceased is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic period and that is was created in an early dynastic period and reused on this coffin in antiquity. The components of the foot-block are identified as ancient but not associated with this coffin, and 20th century adhesives and hardware are evidence that it is a modern addition. Social and economic demands in antiquity, and also in the post-excavation period of the late 19th and 20th centuries, have motivated alterations to objects of cultural and economic importance. This thesis provides

  14. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  15. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The

  16. The Diminutive in Modern Standard Arabic: An Optimality Theoretical Analysis

    Abujoudeh Maisoun Ismail

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The diminutive in Arabic has not received the attention it deserves in the literature. Most of the work done on Arabic morphology has viewed the derivation of Arabic diminutive as a simple process which maps root consonants, according to certain principles, onto well-defined positions of a diminutive pattern. In this paper, I will demonstrate that there is no need to refer to roots in the process of diminutive formation in Arabic. I will also show that under such a view a unified and comprehensive treatment of the diminutive is possible within the framework of Optimality Theory, as developed in Prince and Smolensky (1993. Following Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999, the analysis I argue for allows for a correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the bases from which they are derived. However, my analysis goes beyond that presented in Benua (1997 and Ussishkin (1999 in that it assumes a similar correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the input.

    Key words: Optimality theory; Diminutive; Root; Base; Constraint

    Résumé Le diminutif d’Arabe n’a pas reçu l’attention qu’elle mérite dans la littérature. La plupart du travail effectué sur la morphologie arabe a vu la dérivation de l’arabe comme diminutif d’un processus simple qui associe consonnes radicales, selon certains principes, sur des positions bien définies d’un modèle diminutif. Dans cet article, je vais le démontrer qu’il n’y a pas besoin de se référer aux racines dans le processus de formation diminutif en arabe. Je vais aussi montrer que, sous ce point de vue d'un traitement unifi é et complet du diminutif est possible dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité, telle que développée dans Prince et Smolensky (1993. Après Benua (1997 et Ussishkin (1999, l’analyse que je plaider en faveur d’une relation permet de correspondance entre les formes minuscules et des bases à partir

  17. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  18. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  19. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Non-linear finite element assessment analysis of a modern heritage structure

    S. Sorace; Terenzi, G

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis of a non-linear finite element structural assessment enquiry carried out on a monumental modern heritage building is reported in this paper. The study includes a buckling analysis of the slender steel beams constituting a mushroom-type roof, and an ?integral" seismic pushover analysis of the supporting R/C columns. The computational solutions obtained for the steel roof beams are compared to the results derived from a calculation of the critical stress of beam panels, and the glob...

  1. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  2. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  4. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  5. Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements

    Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

  6. How caseload analysis led to the modernization of the DN service.

    Kane, Kay

    2009-01-01

    As we move into a new century and care moves out of hospital and into the community, there is a drive to seek new models for providing nursing care to patients in their homes. Following a Caseload Analysis report, the District Nursing Modernization Project was launched in April 2004, aimed to redesign the structure and delivery of the district nursing services in South and East Belfast. The service was totally re-engineered within the existing budget and workforce. Nursing careers changed as new supporting services were developed and new job opportunities became available within the service. The structure of the services was designed on the basis of caseload analysis gathered over a number of years. Evaluation of the project indicated that the project aim and objectives had been achieved. Caseload Analysis was instrumental in establishing the need to modernize district nursing services and how this should be carried out. PMID:19363865

  7. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF âNERIUM OLEANDERâ LEAVES

    Lakhmili Siham; Obraim Saida; Taourirte Moha; Seddiqi Nadia; Amraoui Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the a...

  8. How to make the production of methanol/DME "GREENER"-Integration of wind power with modern coal chemical industry

    Weidou NI; Jian GAO; Zhen CHEN; Zheng LI

    2009-01-01

    The urgency and necessity of alternative fuels give an impetus to the development of modern coal chemical industry. Coal-based methanol/DME is the key element of this industry. Wind power, whose installed capacity increased at a rate of more than 100% in recent years, has the most developed technologies in renewable energy. However, there still exist many unsolved problems in wind power for on-grid utilization. A new integrated system which combines coal-based methanol/DME production with wind power is proposed in this paper. In this system, wind power is used to electrolyze water to produce H2 and O2. The O2 is fed to the gasifier as gasification agent. The H2 is mixed with the CO-rich gas to adjust the H2/CO to an appropriate ratio for methanol synthesis. In comparison with conventional coal-based methanol/DME system, the proposed system omits the expensive and energy-consuming ASU and greatly reduces the water gas shift process, which brings both advantages in the utilization of all raw materials and significant mitigation of CO2 emission. This system will be attractive in the regions of China which have abundant wind and coal resources.

  9. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  10. Modern contaminants affecting microscopic residue analysis on stone tools: A word of caution.

    Pedergnana, A; Asryan, L; Fernández-Marchena, J L; Ollé, A

    2016-07-01

    Residue analysis is a method frequently used to infer the function of stone tools and it is very often applied in combination with use-wear analysis. Beyond its undeniable potential, the method itself has several intrinsic constraints. Apart from the exceptional circumstances necessary for residues to survive, the correct identification of the residue type is a very debatable topic. Before attempting to recognise ancient residues, a proper method should allow analysts to identify possible modern contaminants and exclude them from the final interpretation. Therefore, analysts should not underestimate the presence of modern contaminants and might learn how to discriminate the background noise due to handling. The main aim of this research is to provide some methodological improvements to residue analysis through the characterisation of some modern residues often present on the surface of stone tools (e.g. skin flakes, modelling clay). This characterisation was done by using both optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, a special care in the post-excavation treatment of stone tools is claimed in order to avoid major contamination of the samples. PMID:27113340

  11. Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces

    Ting, Y S; Kobayashi, C; De Silva, G M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2011-01-01

    [Shortened] In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of alpha-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the over-abundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. [...] Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly alpha-e...

  12. Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

  13. Advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps.

    Zhao, J; Xie, J; Wang, L Y; Li, S P

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese, is a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine. In 2006, we wrote a review for discussing the markers and analytical methods in quality control of Cordyceps (J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 41 (2006) 1571-1584). Since then this review has been cited by others for more than 60 times, which suggested that scientists have great interest in this special herbal material. Actually, the number of publications related to Cordyceps after 2006 is about 2-fold of that in two decades before 2006 according to the data from Web of Science. Therefore, it is necessary to review and discuss the advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps since then. PMID:23688494

  14. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  16. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  17. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  18. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    Washington: SPIE, 2012, 84360C-1-84360C-10. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8436). ISBN 978-0-8194-9128-2. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications II. Brussels (BE), 17.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical image * retinal image * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.pdf

  20. Comparative analysis of modern empirical spectrophotometric atlases with multicolor photometric catalogues

    Kilpio, E Yu; Mironov, A V

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the comparative analysis of the most known semi-empirical and empirical spectral atlases that was carried out using the data from the WBVR photometric catalogue. The results show that standard error of synthesized stellar magnitudes calculated with SEDs from best spectral atlases reaches 0.02 mag. It has been also found out that some of modern spectral atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. The agreement for the 5000-10000 A spectral range is rather satisfactory, while there are problems for wavelengths shorter than 4400 A.

  1. Literature and Critical Theory: dystopia as an analysis tool of radical modernity

    Leomir Cardoso Hilário

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to argue that the literary genre known as dystopia is configured, from the perspective of critical theory of society, as an analysis tool of radical modernity. Therefore, there is a brief description of what would such a literary genre, as well as elect three dystopian works to bring proof that argument. Such works are: 1984, Orwell, Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury, and Brave New World, Huxley. Highlighting some of these characteristics, it is possible to shed light on the distinctive features of our contemporary.

  2. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. PMID:24449141

  3. Study of Modern Human Evolution via Comparative Analysis with the Neanderthal Genome

    Ahmed, Musaddeque; Liang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans ...

  4. Modern sonography

    Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

  5. Whence and Whither? Potential and Power of Modern Isotopic Analysis for Tracing in Ecosystem Research

    Continuous advancements and improvements of modern analytical instruments allow for the determination of the isotopic composition of stable isotopes of a steadily increasing number of elements. These developments also lead to improved measurement precision and make the determination of small isotope variations possible. This results in the possibility of using isotopic and elemental fingerprints as intrinsic markers to study, trace and model environmental processes and transport pathways. Today, isotopic analysis is widely recognized as highly potential key tool in diverse research disciplines, such as ecochemistry, geochemistry, hydrology or biology. The different isotopic systems allow e.g. for the investigation of elemental cycles in nature, the determination of migration in terrestrial and aquatic systems, the tracing of anthropogenic contaminants or the assessment of mass fluxes in ecosystems. In this talk, an overview about the possibilities and the potential of modern isotopic analysis in environmental sciences is given, with a particular focus on strontium as key tool to study transport processes in biological systems. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism

    Saeid Zarghami Hamrah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present study was comparative analysis. Results: The first base was rejection of objective view toward the universe and accepting the “pre-objective universe”. In this regard, it was suggested that information technology should be considered in relation to and as a component of life. The second base was doing away with totality. The necessity of this base was in the rejection of universal approaches and designing for specific situations. The third base was uncertainty. Regarding this base, it was suggested that the educational software provide a text in which the learner confront subjects for questioning and interpreting. The forth base was focusing on the complexities of the phenomena. In this ground, it was especially necessary for the design to be integrational. Conclusion/Recommendations: It seems that postmodernism view has been able to provide the possibility of recreating information technology in education through going beyond the basic assumptions of modernism. At last and in order to escape the metanarrative view toward postmodern ideas, we cannot regard the recommended solutions by postmodernists as the definite, final and general solution for educational issues of present and past times. But, we can look at them for further illumination of technological education condition of the present time.

  7. Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis

    Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  8. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  9. Modern Dance in a Postmodern World: An Analysis of Federal Arts Funding and Its Impact on the Field of Modern Dance.

    Van Dyke, Jan

    This book om the interrelationship of economics and aesthetics from the perspective of modern dance includes a preface and six chapters. Chapter 1, "The Modern Dance Point of View," presents a history of modern dance from 1915 to the 1980s. Chapter 2, "The National Endowment for the Arts and Its Impact on Modern Dance," consists of a review of…

  10. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

  11. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data

  12. China's economic, environmental and social development in crossfire : province-specific analysis of China's ecological modernization and sustainability

    Häyhä, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Häyhä, Laura. China’s Economic, Environmental and Social Development in Crossfire – Province-specific Analysis of China’s Ecological Modernization and Sustainability. Master thesis. Autumn 2014. Supervisor: Pertti Jokivuori. Sociology. University of Jyväskylä. Pages 89 + 1 appendix. This study concentrated to examine ecological modernization process and sustainability of Chinese provinces. The examination focused on the differences between the westernmost and the easternmos...

  13. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  14. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara, E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.i [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  15. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  16. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl

  17. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2

  18. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  19. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

  20. Modern voxel based data and geometry analysis software tools for industrial CT

    Computer Tomography has become a well recognized tool in industrial quality control. Modern computer tomography systems ranging from micro-CT to huge multi MeV systems allow us to generate more and more detailed views of the inner of nearly any object. With the scan resolution becoming smaller and smaller, and at the same time image matrices becoming larger and larger, we are able to localize smallest defects even in large scale objects. At the same time even with the same data set we are able to measure the outer and inner geometry of an object with a measurement point density never known before from classical tactile or optical techniques. However, scanning objects in high resolution generates huge amounts of data, easily exceeding two GByte per scan. These huge amounts of data have caused a major drawback of a wider acceptance of CT technology in industrial use. Either no software tools have been available at all or available software process chains haven't been able to process these amounts of data in reasonable time. This presentation will introduce a new generation of 3D visualization and analysis software tools for industrial CT users. Interactive visualization of huge data sets with several Gbyte in size has become possible on a standard PC. Automatic wall thickness analysis and internal defect/porosity analysis can be done within minutes. In addition this presentation will also demonstrate the latest generation of software tools for highly accurate 3D geometry analysis based on voxel data. (author)

  1. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  2. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

  3. EDXRF for non-destructive chemical analysis

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels and also precious metals analysis. (Author)

  4. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

    Reed David L; Smith Vincent S; Hammond Shaless L; Rogers Alan R; Clayton Dale H

    2004-01-01

    Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years). One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and popula...

  5. Chemical Diversity, Origin, and Analysis of Phycotoxins.

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-03-25

    Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites. On the other hand, much less is known about the chemical nature of compounds that are toxic to fish, the so-called ichthyotoxins. Despite numerous reports of algal blooms causing massive fish kills worldwide, only a few types of compounds, such as the karlotoxins, have been proven to be true ichthyotoxins. This review will highlight marine microalgae as the source of some of the most complex natural compounds known to mankind, with chemical structures that show no resemblance to what has been characterized from plants, fungi, or bacteria. In addition, it will summarize algal species known to be related to fish-killing blooms, but from which ichthyotoxins are yet to be characterized. PMID:26901085

  6. Literature analysis on Harry Potter series under the perspective of post-modernism%Literature analysis on Harry Potter series under the perspective of post-modernism

    汪莉

    2011-01-01

    Harry Potter series books are not only the children's books that show clear good and evil forces and heroism, but also carrying strong postmodern features. This paper is to analyze the feature of post-modernism in Harry Potter series in terms of magical realism, postmodern feminism and pluralism and so on for the purpose of offering a different perspective of studying the books.

  7. Modernization and Islamist Conflict

    Meierrieks, Daniel; Krieger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This contribution studies the impact of modernization on the onset of Islamist conflict. To capture the multi-dimensional phenomenon of modernization, we create a unique modernization index. Our empirical analysis for 154 countries for the 1971-2006 period provides robust evidence that modernization rather than economic underdevelopment or a lack of democracy increases the likelihood of the onset of Islamist conflict. This relationship especially matters to Islamist groups that aim at a regim...

  8. Chemical equilibrium analysis of dry hydrogen combustion

    The present work is based on a thermo-chemical equilibrium model for studying the effect of combustion of hydrogen during postulated accident scenarios in nuclear reactor containments. This model is based on the method of element potentials which seeks to minimize the free energy of the system. The condition on internal energy balance is imposed as a constraint during the minimization process. Another simplified model purely based on the internal energy balance has also been implemented to investigate the isolated impact of free energy and the conditions under which it becomes dominant. The two models have been used to extract final pressures for a wide range of initial conditions and mixture compositions that are typically found during accident scenarios. In the absence of hydrogen combustion experimental data, such models will become important for laying down a first estimate on the possible outcomes. (author)

  9. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    Alexander Hexemer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  10. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Jordan, K.A., E-mail: kjordan@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Springfels, D., E-mail: dspringfels@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Schubring, D., E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, PO Box 118300, Gainesville, FL 32611-8300 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed.

  11. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed

  12. Analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with modern nuclear data sets

    Highlights: • ERANOS libraries are produced based on four modern nuclear data sets. • The MOZART MZA/MZB benchmarks are analyzed with these li- braries. • Results are generally acceptable in an academic context, but for highly accurate applications data adjustment is required. • Some discrepancies between the calculations and the benchmark results remain and cannot be readily explained. • Successful generation of ECCO libraries and covariance data for ERA- NOS. - Abstract: For fast reactor design and analysis, our laboratory uses, amongst others, the ERANOS code system. Unfortunately, the publicly available version of ERANOS does not have the most recent nuclear data. Therefore, it was decided to implement an integrated processing system to generate cross sections libraries for the ECCO cell code, as well as covariance data. Cross sections are generated from the original ENDF files. For our purposes, it is important to ascertain that the ECCO cross section libraries are of adequate quality to allow design and analysis of advanced fast reactors in an academic context. In this paper, we present an analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with nuclear data from JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1. Results are that reactivity is generally well predicted, with an uncertainty of about 1% due to covariances of the nuclear data. Reaction rate ratios are satisfactorily calculated, as well as the flux spectrum and reaction rate traverses. Some problems remain: the magnitude of the void effect is not satisfactorily calculated, and reaction rate traverses are not always satisfactorily calculated. On the whole, the ECCO libraries are sufficient for design and analysis tasks in an academic context. For high-precision calculations, such as required for licensing tasks and detailed design calculations, data adjustment is still necessary as the “native” covariance data in the ENDF files is not accurate enough

  13. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  14. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply...

  15. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a

  16. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide γ-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of γ-radiation;· low dose rate ∼10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature

  17. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (∼75 μL of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  18. Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management

    Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Modernity after Modernity

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  20. Analysis of carbon isotope in phytoliths from C3 and C4 plants and modern soils

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of carbon isotope in phytoliths from modern plants and surface soils in China shows that the values of carbon isotope are consistent with those from C3 and C4 plants,and the processes of photosynthesis of the original plants can be clearly identified by carbon isotope in phytoliths.The value of carbon isotope varied from -23.8‰ to -28‰,with the maximum distributed in the latitude zone from 34° N to 40° N in North China and East China areas,and the minimum in the Northeast China and South China regions.The values of carbon of phytoliths tend to increase from low to high and then reduce to low value again as the latitude increases.In the same latitude zone,the carbon isotope in phytoliths from grassland soil under the trees is obviously lower than that from grassland soil without any trees with the difference of 1‰-2‰.

  1. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Robustly Redesigned Modern Aero-Engine Fan

    Seshadri, Pranay; Shahpar, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents results from a recent computational study aimed at de-sensitizing fan stage aerodynamics---in a modern, high bypass ratio aero-engine---to the effects of rear-seal leakage flows. These flows are the result of seal erosion between a rotor and stator disk in an engine, and deterioration over the life of an engine. The density-matching technique for optimization under uncertainty was applied to this problem. This involved RANS and adjoint flow solves of a full fan stage carried out at two different leakage conditions. Here a detailed analysis of the fan stage aerodynamics is carried out to determine why exactly the new design is more insensitive to the effects of leakage flows. Specifically, it is shown that this insensitivity is attributed to three main factors: a slight rearward shift in loading, and thus a reduction in incidence; a reduction in the cross-passage pressure gradient; and a re-acceleration of the flow towards the trailing edge, which prevented any corner separation.

  2. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

  3. C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project

    This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

  4. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  5. Controlling the accuracy of chemical analysis

    Most of the IAEA reference materials are certified in intercomparisons by calculation of the overall mean of reported laboratory mean values. IAEA certification is provided at ''A level'' (satisfactory, or high degree of confidence), or at ''B level'' (acceptable, or reasonable degree of confidence) sampling , storage and preliminary processing, use of reliable analytical methods, internal and external control of accuracy and reliability result in excellent certified reference materials for inorganic, geologic, environmental, biological and other quantitative analysis by means of conventional and nuclear methods. 34 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Chemical form analysis method of particulate nickel compounds

    Chemical form of nickel is metallic nickel, nickel oxide and nickel ferrite in the PWR primary chemistry condition. The distribution of chemical form depends on Ni/Fe ratio and chemistry condition, especially dissolved hydrogen concentration. Nickel is parent element of Co-58 and the chemical form is important for Co-58 generation. A method of chemical form analysis of nickel has been developed. This method uses the difference in dissolution characteristics of nickel compounds. Metallic nickel and others are separated by nitric acid, and others are divided to nickel oxide and nickel ferrite by oxalic acid. Some cruds in the primary coolant of a PWR were analyzed by using this method. The method is not complex and available at chemical laboratory in a nuclear power plant. (author)

  7. The Completion of the Emergence of Modern Logic from Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic to Frege's Begriffsschrift

    Jetli, Priyedarshi

    Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.

  8. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  9. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Åke Sellström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  10. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities

  11. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysismodern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    Beata eGutarowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświęcim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and 9 fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of

  12. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  13. The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel

    Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

  14. Analysis on the Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Modern Physical Education

    Yipai Jiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the artificial intelligence and modern technology of physical education have researched and discussed which in order to provide the ideal theoretical basis for the modern technology of physical construction and development. As we all know, artificial intelligence belongs to a strong frontier disciplines which is developing but also one of the main direction of the computer and its related technologies interdisciplinary research, influencing the entire teaching progress. Artific...

  15. The analysis on Development of modern service industry and personnel needs in Suzhou

    冀红斌

    2015-01-01

    As a modern service industry with advanced technological capabilities to enhance the guidance of the industry, its strong development capacity, the majority of prospects, has become a focal point of our economy and raise the level of new momentum.Especially in Suzhou, favorable geographical location and advanced development conditions for the planning and development of modern service industry provides a reasonable market background and ability to support the development of the firm.

  16. LOOKING OUT CLASICAL TURKISH POEM ACCORDING TO MODERN ANALYSIS METHODS / DİVAN ŞİİRİ'NE MODERN METİN ÇÖZÜMLEME YÖNTEMLERİNDEN BAKMAK

    Dr. Dursun Ali TÖKEL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature has a characteristic of following the changes of investigations and technology. The great literal changes ın 19th century, effected deeply literature studies. After Saussure, the view of the Occident on language and literature changed. This view changed not only structuralism but also linguistic studies, perceiving and utilizing the linguistic existence. In modern terms, all scientific toughts as modernism, structuralism, post-modernism, seemeiology, semantics bring up new points of view to literary texts. The last quarter of 20th century has been the term of understanding Classical Ottoman Poems not only with the view of traditional commentary methods but also modern analysis methods. This paper gives the panorama of all these analysis, methods of Classical Ottoman Poems.

  17. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  18. 现代新型煤化工工程建设项目管理模式探讨%Discussion of project management pattern of modern new coal chemical engineering construction

    武祥东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the strengths and weeknesses of the traditional self-supporting management mode, international PMC and IPMT pattern, the speciality of the modern new coal chemical engineering construction and the fact of China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering construction, the effective management mode for China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering contruction is dicussed and a proposal for project management is suggested.%笔者分析了传统的自营管理模式、国际PMC(project management contractor,项目管理承包商)模式和IPMT( integrated project management team,联合管理团队)模式3种现行项目管理模式的优缺点,结合现代新型煤化工项目建设特点和建设业主的实际,探讨了现代煤化工项目建设的有效管理模式,提出了项目管理建议.

  19. Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals

    Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

  20. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  1. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis

    Dulieu-Barton, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The proceedings contain the papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis. The collection of papers represents the range of activities that are carried out to understand the functionality of engineering systems and structures through stress/strain based evaluation and dynamic response. The scope is broad and covers theoretical studies, modelling and experimental evaluations. Many of the papers cover integration techniques and approaches to better understanding of system performance and failure. All of the papers have been peer reviewed by at least two experts and represent the state of the art of research in this area. The conference is the seventh in the series, following on from previous conferences in Bath, Glasgow, Nottingham, Dublin, Sheffield and Liverpool. Although based in the British Isles the conference has a truly international flavour with offerings from 22 countries. The conference is organised by the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group (formerly the Stress and Vibration Group). It incorporates activities associated with the British Society for Strain Measurement including the Measurements Lecture, the EMex Exhibition and the Young Stress Analyst Competition. The organising committee is grateful for the support of all of the authors, the scientific committee and keynote speakers who played a significant role in the review process, to John Edwards who was instrumental in managing the paper review and submission process, Dawn Stewart and Claire Garland of the Institute of Physics for organising the conference, social programme and registration and Biana Gale of the British Society for Strain Measurement for organising the Exhibition. The organising committee is also grateful to the sponsors of the conference for their kind support and to the co-sponsors for distributing information on the conference. Professor Janice M Dulieu-Barton Professor of Experimental Mechanics University of

  2. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  3. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  4. Chemical Analysis of Modern Lamnid Shark Centra: Determination of the Life History?

    Labs-Hochstein, J.

    2005-12-01

    Lamnid sharks (great whites and their relatives) are of great interest not only to the scientific community but the public as well. Scientists have spent a great deal of time trying to study and understand the life history of great whites and their relatives. Since great whites do not survive well in captivity tagging and recapture studies and captured sharks from fishermen have been the main source of study. Currently there is no way the accurately age Lamnid sharks. However, sharks deposit light and dark bands on their vertebral centra throughout their lives. It is known in most sharks that darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (e.g., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (e.g., summer). The problem is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that a band pair (one light and one dark band) reflects a single year. Once, the periodicity of a band pair is determined then ages can be estimated and growth rates can be calculated. Oxygen and carbon isotopes along the growth axis of ten lamnid shark vertebral centra (including great whites, shortfin makos, and longfin makos) where used to determine the periodicity of the band pairs and indications of changes in eating habits. Bomb carbon dating was determined on two of the specimens to calibrate the cyclicity of the oxygen isotopes. Dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in seawater increase with water depth and towards the pelagic area. One exception is cerium. Cerium can be oxidized to a highly insoluble form separating it from other REE and being preferentially scavenged by suspended matter and therefore cerium decreases with water depth. Bulk samples where analyzed for rare earth elements (REE) from each of the ten centra to determine if the seawater signal was recorded in the centra and if any variations in depth and geographic distribution of individual sharks could be determined. Tracking the REE along the growth axis of the centra may allow for general migration patterns/ depth changes due to seasons or size to be determined. Utilizing the chemistry of the vertebral centra will allow for a better understanding of the life history of these ten sharks. Using the rare earth elemental compositions, δ13C, Δ14C, and δ18O the possibility exists to looking at timing of when these sharks migrate, change their eating habits, change depth, and determination of growth rates.

  5. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  6. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  7. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ROMANIAN RETAIL

    Mihaela, ASANDEI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the millennium, Romanian trade is in an intermediate stage of a complex process of development, marked by efforts and attempts to modernize the forms of commerce. After 1995 and until now, Romanian retail market has experienced a steady increase due to the entry of international modern retail chains and to changes in the Romanian consumers’ behaviour. Currently, Romanian retail has great development potential, being in a phase of accelerated growth. In this stage, features of modern trade forms are established, competition increases, modern retail networks are reinforced and there are still attractive implantation locations that promise attractive profit margins. Based on the premise that there is a wide range of factors that shape modern retail, this paper analyses the impact of macroeconomic variables on the development of Romanian retail market. The research methodology was based on multifactorial regression and statistical correlation. Study results showed that Romanian retail is influenced by gross domestic product, average monthly net salary, exchange rate of the national currency against the euro, and inflation rate.

  9. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  10. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar...

  11. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  12. A Brief Analysis on the Way to Promote Modern Logistic Operations of Railway Enterprises

    Li Zengtang

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to the "Twelfth Five-year Plan of the Economic and Social Development of Sui Fenhe City", the modern logistics industry has been given great priority.To put it more specially, the development of modern logistics industry should be based on the port strategy, and with the aid of tax-free zone, the Sino-Russian Trans-border co operation zone and land- ocean joint transportation.Therefore, during the "twelfth five-year plan" period, our company should understand how to grasp the opportunity, and establish a management model featuring integrated supply chain, to make it play a more important role to the company's rapid developments.

  13. The Effects of Modern Analysis Methods In Poetry Students’ Critical Thinking, Creative Thinking and Problem Solving Skills

    Abdulkerim KARADENİZ; GÜRSOY, ÜLKÜ

    2014-01-01

    This study is an experimental study for examining poetry analysis with modern methods of analysis in effect the students' critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving skills. The purpose of study is to determine on the students' skills said modern between methods of analysis and traditional method of analysis whether there is a difference. In the study experimental design based on pre-test, post-test and a mixed method research has been used. The research was conducted at the Univ...

  14. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  15. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  16. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

  17. The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies

    Szlechter, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

  18. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  19. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  20. Chemical Cytometry: Fluorescence-Based Single-Cell Analysis

    Cohen, Daniella; Dickerson, Jane A.; Whitmore, Colin D.; Turner, Emily H.; Palcic, Monica M.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2008-07-01

    Cytometry deals with the analysis of the composition of single cells. Flow and image cytometry employ antibody-based stains to characterize a handful of components in single cells. Chemical cytometry, in contrast, employs a suite of powerful analytical tools to characterize a large number of components. Tools have been developed to characterize nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites in single cells. Whereas nucleic acid analysis employs powerful polymerase chain reaction-based amplification techniques, protein and metabolite analysis tends to employ capillary electrophoresis separation and ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. It is now possible to detect yoctomole amounts of many analytes in single cells.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of some ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain samples

    Up to 43 glaze and body samples of ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain and other porcelain are chosen and contents of 36 elements for each sample are determined by NAA. The NAA data are then analysed by the fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that although the ancient Jun Porcelain samples span leaped 600 years and are from different kilns and their glaze colors are utterly different, they have a long-term, stable and mainly the same supply of raw material. The relation between ancient Jun Porcelain and ancient Ru Porcelain is also preliminarily analysed. It is found that only few modern Jun Porcelain samples are similar to ancient Jun Porcelain but the majority of them are different from ancient ones

  2. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  3. Geometric Morphometric Study and Cluster Analysis of Late Byzantine and Modern Human Crania

    Turan Ozdemir, Senem; Ercan, Ilker; Ozkaya, Guven; Simsek Cankur, N.; Selim Erdal, Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    Inter-population variation of cranial morphology, which plays an important role in human evolution studies and biological research, can be studied morphologically and metrically. Geometric morphometry compares body forms using specific landmarks determined by anatomical prominences. The aim of this study was to identify cranial shape differences between the crania of Byzantium period humans and modern humans. Variability in cranial shape was examined using the geometric morphometric technique...

  4. Metagenomic Analysis Suggests Modern Freshwater Microbialites Harbor a Distinct Core Microbial Community

    White, Richard Allen; Chan, Amy M.; Gavelis, Gregory S.; Brian S Leander; Brady, Allyson L.; Slater, Gregory F.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Curtis A Suttle

    2016-01-01

    Modern microbialites are complex microbial communities that interface with abiotic factors to form carbonate-rich organosedimentary structures whose ancestors provide the earliest evidence of life. Past studies primarily on marine microbialites have inventoried diverse taxa and metabolic pathways, but it is unclear which of these are members of the microbialite community and which are introduced from adjacent environments. Here we control for these factors by sampling the surrounding water an...

  5. Analysis of modernization of tire recycling machine for improvement of environmental sustainability and feasibility

    Samarskiy, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this thesis is twofold: first of all to develop utilization processes for used tires and, second, to study and explain the serious ecological problems in the tire recycling and waste utilization sector in Russia. This thesis was commissioned by a recycling firm called Istra Ecologia Company. The thesis presents improvements in a tire recycling machine owned by this company. The owner of the plant has developed a modernized version of the system, and seems to have solved som...

  6. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio;

    2014-01-01

    -generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX...... allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server....

  7. Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories

    The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

  8. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

  9. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-01-01

    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  10. Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling

    Egidi, Giovanni; De Rooij, Nicolas F

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

  11. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  12. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  13. Chemical variation from biolipids to sedimentary organic matter in modern oceans and its implication to the geobiological evaluation of ancient hydrocarbon source rocks

    WANG Hongmei; MA Xiangru; LIU Deng; YANG Xiaofen; LI Jihong

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of organic matter in modern marine Water columns greatly favors the geobiologcal evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks.Biolipids could make great contribution to petroleum hydrocarbons due to their comparable chemical components and the slightly refractory characteristics of biolipids during the microbial/thermal degradation.A variety of environmental factors such as temperature.CO2 and salinity could affect the biochemical contents in microorganisms.As a result,microorganisms living in a changing environmental condition might have a difierent contribution to the petroleum formation.Organic carbon flux is shown to bear a positive correlation with the primary productivity only within a certain range of biomass volumes in a specific biohabitat.Furthermore,organic matter is degraded much quickly in a water column with oxic conditions.Therefore,the anoxic condition,along with the enhanced biological productivity,would be one of the significant factors in the formation of high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks.The formation of biofilms and microbial mats favors the preservation of sedimentary organic matter by decreasing the degradation rate of organic matter.Identification of biofilms and microbial mats in sedimentary rocks will thus greatly help to understand the depositional processes of organic matter finally preserved in hydrocarbon source rocks.

  14. Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions

    Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

  15. Analysis of the stochastic excitability in the flow chemical reactor

    Bashkirtseva, Irina [Ural Federal University, Lenina, 51, Ekaterinburg, 620000 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A dynamic model of the thermochemical process in the flow reactor is considered. We study an influence of the random disturbances on the stationary regime of this model. A phenomenon of noise-induced excitability is demonstrated. For the analysis of this phenomenon, a constructive technique based on the stochastic sensitivity functions and confidence domains is applied. It is shown how elaborated technique can be used for the probabilistic analysis of the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations in the flow chemical reactor.

  16. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  17. Analysis of effectiveness of the use of track-and-field start in modern swimming.

    Savchenko M.I.; Kovaliov A.O.; Kovaliova Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modern approach to improvement of track-and-field start by famous swimmers is discussed. In an experiment the students of sporting improvement took part in age 16-20. Data used in this investigation include videotapes of the Ukranian, European, World championships and the Deaflympic games, as well as time sheets on the training lessons of swimming. The results of the investigation demonstrate that in order to improve of track-and-field start it is necessary to draw swimmers attention on a...

  18. How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?

    Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

  19. Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement “stag jump” within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention

    Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechosław B.; Michnik, Robert; Jurkojć, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the “stag jump”. Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Material/Methods Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male a...

  20. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  1. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Xiaoxia Ding; Wen Zhang; Xiaofeng Hu; Qi Zhang; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail....

  3. Chemical Bond Analysis of Single Crystal Growth of Magnesium Oxide

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the crystallographic structure of magnesium oxide (MgO), both the chemical bond model of solids and Pauling's third rule (polyhedral sharing rule) were employed to quantitatively analyze the chemical bonding structure of constituent atoms and single crystal growth. Our analytical results show that MgO single crystals prefer to grow along the direction and the growth rate of the {100} plane is the slowest one. Therefore, the results show that the {100} plane of MgO crystals can be the ultimate morphology face, which is in a good agreement with our previous experimental results. The study indicate that the structure analysis is an effective tool to control the single-crystal growth.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Osteosarcoma Outcomes in the Modern Medical Era

    Daniel C. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four decades ago, specialized chemotherapy regimens turned osteosarcoma, once considered a uniformly fatal disease, into a disease in which a majority of patients survive. Though significant survival gains were made from the 1960s to the 1980s, further outcome improvements appear to have plateaued. This study aims to comprehensively review all significant, published data regarding osteosarcoma and outcome in the modern medical era in order to gauge treatment progress. Our results indicate that published survival improved dramatically from 1960s to 1980s and then leveled, or in some measures decreased. Recurrence rates decreased in the 1970s and then leveled. In contrast, published limb salvage rates have increased significantly every recent decade until the present. Though significant gains have been made in the past, no improvement in published osteosarcoma survival has been seen since 1980, highlighting the importance of a new strategy in the systemic management of this still very lethal condition.

  5. Analysis on the Cultivation of Modern Chinese Farmers’ Values from the Perspective of Traditional Political Culture

    Shiwen; Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Farmers in traditional China have formed the cultural psychology of being reluctant to move from native land and hate to change during the long- term closed production and life. This has exerted negative effect on the values cultivation of farmers today,who possess weak democratic consciousness,low legal spirit and cultural quality as well as strong antagonistic psychology. Measures should be carried out to cultivate their modern values. Firstly,construction of villagers’ self-governance system should be stressed. Secondly,political socialization should be perfected to improve farmers’ political culture. Furthermore,channels of political participation should be widened in order to gradually promote the ordered political participation of farmers.

  6. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm;

    2006-01-01

    products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and......Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...... lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary...

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  8. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  9. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  10. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  11. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  12. Probabilistic Approach to Risk Analysis of Chemical Spills at Sea

    Magda Bogalecka; Krzysztof Kolowrocki

    2006-01-01

    Risk analysis of chemical spills at sea and their consequences for sea environment are discussed. Mutual interactions between the process of the sea accident initiating events, the process of the sea environment threats, and the process of the sea environment degradation are investigated. To describe these three particular processes, the separate semi-Markov models are built. Furthermore, these models are jointed into one general model of these processes interactions.Moreover, some comments on the method for statistical identification of the considered models are proposed.

  13. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  15. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman

  16. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman

  17. How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?

    Rajamahanti Surya Kiran; Vikas Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach ...

  18. Emergent Modernism

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  19. Role of neutron activation analysis in metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis. Pt.1: Qualification of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement

    The role of NAA in the metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis is to be discussed in a series of three papers, beginning from this one. They are: 1) the qualification of relative NAA as a primary method of measurement: 2) the unique function of parametric NAA as a 'back-up' method of relative NAA; and 3) the role of NAA in the characterization of a new generation CRMs suitable for quality control of microanalysis. The first of the series, the principle, the uncertainties and the traceability of NAA are analyzed. The qualification of NAA at the state of the art level as a primary ratio method is thus justified. An example is given to further verify the position of NAA as a primary ratio method. Advantages and drawbacks, as well as current status and future perspectives, of NAA as a primary method are discussed. Definitions of relevant terms and international norms are attached as appendices for the convenience of the reader

  20. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  1. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  2. Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components

    One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ''hardware'', including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been the design and development laboratory for many of these components and will be responsible for their ultimate disposition. This disposition, whether it be reuse, material recycle, or disposal, will require some level of material characterization and analysis. Previous efforts at developing a process for segregation and characterization of hazardous materials in weapon components have been documented. This paper describes the results of recent activities undertaken in support of the Weapon Hardware Inventory Reduction Effort (WHIRE) at Sandia National Laboratories. These activities have been directed principally towards: The development of a statistically sound sampling plan for chemical analysis of weapon component materials; the development of a non-destructive analytical screening method for determining the Toxicity Characteristic of excess weapon hardware

  3. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  4. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  5. 六味地黄汤现代药理学及化学的初步研究%Modern pharmacological and chemical studies of Liuwei Dihuang decoction

    张永祥

    2000-01-01

    Liuwei Dihuang decoction(LW),a classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription with the effect of “nourishing Kidney-Yin”,consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa (Shudi),Cornus officinalis(Shauzhuyu),Dioscorea opposita(Shanyao),Alisma orientale(Zexie),Porie cocos(Fuling)and Paeonia suffruticosa(Mudanpi).It has long been used clinically in the treatments of many kinds of diseases with the sign of “Kidney-Yin deficiency”,such as cancer,diabetes,autoimmue diseases,menopausal syndrome in traditional Chinese medical treatments.The effectiveness of it has been well documented during the long-term clinical practices.In our study,the effects and the possible active mechanisms of LW on learning and memory ,neuroendocrine and immune functions were studies from the angle of neuroendocrine immunomodulation(NIM)network .In chemical fractionation and purification of the immunoactive fractions or components contained in LW,the method of a close collaboration between pharmacological and chemical studies was employed.The chemical fractionation was begun from the decoction and guided by pharmacological activity evaluation.The results showed that oral administration of LW significantly improved learning and memory abilities in several kinds of model animals such as senescence accelerated mice (SAM),chronic hanging stress-loaded mice and corticosterone-treated mice and the mechanism studies suggested that the effects were achieved through several ways.LW significantly decreased the plasma level of corticosterone in SAM-prone/8 (SAMP8) ,a substrain of SAM.SAMP8 showed a marked elevation of plasma level of corticosterone with advancing age in comparison with SAMR1 ,a substrain of senescence resistant of SAM.LW also significantly improved the secretion of testosterone by primary cultured testis cells from SAMP8.The immunopharmacological studies showed that oral administration of LW not only

  6. Stable isotope (13C, 15N and 34S) analysis of the hair of modern humans and their domestic animals.

    Bol, Roland; Pflieger, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Relationships between dietary status and recent migration were examined by delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S analysis of hair samples from 43 modern humans living in a rural community in SW England. The isotopic content of 38 'local' hair samples was compared with that of five recently arrived individuals (from Canada, Chile, Germany and the USA). Hair samples from domestic animals (i.e. mainly cats, dogs, cows and horses) were analysed to examine the difference in delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S values between herbivores and carnivores. Generally, modern human hair data from the triple stable isotope (delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(34)S) provided enough information to confirm the dietary status and origin of the individual subjects. The dietary intake was generally reflected in the animal hair delta(15)N and delta(13)C values, i.e. highest in the carnivores (cats). However, a non-local origin of food sources given to domesticated omnivores (i.e. dogs) was suggested by their hair delta(34)S values. PMID:12442295

  7. Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists

    In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

  8. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  9. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  10. Assessment of modern methods of human factor reliability analysis in PSA studies

    The report is structured as follows: Classical terms and objects (Probabilistic safety assessment as a framework for human reliability assessment; Human failure within the PSA model; Basic types of operator failure modelled in a PSA study and analyzed by HRA methods; Qualitative analysis of human reliability; Quantitative analysis of human reliability used; Process of analysis of nuclear reactor operator reliability in a PSA study); New terms and objects (Analysis of dependences; Errors of omission; Errors of commission; Error forcing context); and Overview and brief assessment of human reliability analysis (Basic characteristics of the methods; Assets and drawbacks of the use of each of HRA method; History and prospects of the use of the methods). (P.A.)