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Sample records for modern chemical analysis

  1. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by...

  2. Study of the chemical and physicochemical behaviour of chromium VI in systems relevant to the PUREX process by applying modern analysis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromate flow path in the PUREX process while passing the first high-activity extraction column is described. The observable chemical and physico-chemical phenomena are investigated using modern methods of analysis. The investigations are to help optimize the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. They are also expected to help solve problems in the industrial application of this process. (orig.)

  3. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  4. Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic method of dietary analysis has been extended by using both the organic and inorganic phases of bone with equally good results. Using the reported technique with the inorganic phase, which is more stable in fossil material, dietary analysis of bone over 10,000 years old has been found possible. (U.K.)

  5. Modern Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

  6. The impact of flow injection on modern chemical analysis: has it fulfilled our expectations? And where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-12-15

    Presenting a condensation of the opening lecture of the 12th ICFIA conference, this communication presents a view of the impact that flow injection analysis (FIA) has had on modern analytical chemistry, evaluated both within the academic community and outside it, i.e. in "industry". The ensuing developments of FIA, encompassing sequential injection analysis (SIA) and bead injection lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are described and their individual features discussed. Finally, some recent results of the activities from the author's own research group are briefly mentioned. PMID:18969714

  7. Modern surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of surface analysis at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited comprise SIMS, SAM, ESCA and SEM-EDX. Their application has included studies of glass-ceramic waste forms, of fuel oil combustion residues, and of chlorocarbon residues on stainless steel

  8. Modern power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xi-Fan; Irving, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The capability of effectively analyzing complex systems is fundamental to the operation, management and planning of power systems. This book offers broad coverage of essential power system concepts and features a complete and in-depth account of all the latest developments, including Power Flow Analysis in Market Environment; Power Flow Calculation of AC/DC Interconnected Systems and Power Flow Control and Calculation for Systems Having FACTS Devices and recent results in system stability.

  9. An introduction to modern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Montesinos, Vicente; Zizler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Examining the basic principles in real analysis and their applications, this text provides a self-contained resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It contains independent chapters aimed at various fields of application, enhanced by highly advanced graphics and results explained and supplemented with practical and theoretical exercises. The presentation of the book is meant to provide natural connections to classical fields of applications such as Fourier analysis or statistics. However, the book also covers modern areas of research, including new and seminal results in the area of functional analysis.

  10. Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  11. XXI symposium Modern chemical physics. Tuapse 2009. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials of the XXI symposium Modern chemical physics, Tuapse 2009 (25 September - 6 October, 2009) are presented. Scientific program includes lectures, presentations and poster sessions on photochemistry and radiation chemistry, elementary processes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The problems of chemical reaction kinetics, quantum chemistry, chemical spectroscopy, macromolecular chemistry are discussed. Topics of chemical physics of surface, nanochemistry, nanophysics and nanotechnology are treated

  12. XIII symposium. Modern chemical physics. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the thirteenth symposium on modern chemical physics are presented. They represent different directions of development of this field of knowledge, such as synthesis, structure, properties of metal-polymer compositions, radiation-chemical investigations in nanotechnology, problems of supercritical chemistry, calculations of kinetic parameters of catalytic systems

  13. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

  14. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical par...

  15. Fundamental concepts in modern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, VL

    1999-01-01

    Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view but also occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics a

  16. Modern methodologies and tools for human hazard assessment of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    This scientific report provides a review of modern methodologies and tools to depict toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes and their application for the human hazard assessment of chemicals. The application of these methods is illustrated with examples drawn from the literature and international efforts in the field. First, the concepts of mode of action/adverse outcome pathway are discussed together with their associated terminology and recent international developments dealing with huma...

  17. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  18. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

  19. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  20. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

  1. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  2. Modern procedures for chemical cleaning of corroded carbon steel equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonski, Ileana-Hania; Spiridon, Stefania-Floriana; Robu, Maria; Doman, Carmen; Tudorache, Mariana; Bobu, Mihaela; Mateescu, Emilian; Schneider, Frank

    2000-02-01

    Modern procedures have been elaborated taking into account the laboratory findings and developments of the past two decades concerning the factors increasing the solubility of iron oxides in the cleaning agent and conditioning improving the characteristics of the protective layer, both having in mind the present state of corrosion in romanian power energetic plants. The basic reagent formulae consists in citric acid, hydro-chloric acid, ferrous sulfate as dissolution activator and a corrosion inhibitor, operating at T 80-85 degrees C. The removal of thick corrosion deposits is achieved in a basic step-by-step procedure, the number of steps depending on the layer thickness and on the degree of damage of the underlying base metal. After chemical cleaning, a passive magnetic film will be formed under special conditioning of water with long-chained amines.

  3. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens; Lundin, Magnus; Pind, Niels; Selin Lindgren, Eva; Wahnström, Tomas

    sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of...... twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and...... bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air....

  4. Chemical Analysis as Dematerialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Laszlo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis is envisaged as an exemplar of laboratory work. Matter, held at a distance within the probe of instruments, is converted there into electronic signals. Matter serves only as prime material for information production. Chemical analysis converts instrumentalized readings into informational statements. Major chemical thinkers (Auguste Laurent, Justus von Liebig, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and others made this conceptual revolution. In mid-nineteenth century, they built a daring theory of radicals. Since that time, molecular chemistry became a combinatorial art and science of radicals. These, groups of atoms with only at first fictional existence, are analogous to phonemes in speech production.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  6. Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Gangurde

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analy...

  7. Chemical analysis experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

  8. Banking and Modern Payments System Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB, regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black- hat hackers and conclude that they could be automated dramatically. To demonstrate the feasibility of our predictions and prove that many two-factor authentication schemes can be bypassed, we have analyzed banking and modern payments system security. In this research we will review different payment protocols and security methods that are being used to run banking systems. We will survey some of the popular systems that are being used today, with a deeper focus on the Chips, cards, NFC, authentication etc. In addition, we will also discuss the weaknesses in the systems that can compromise the customer's trust.

  9. Modern ideas on the chemical structure of sapropelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuturina, V.V.; Shishkov, V.F.; Myakina, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the Irkutsk coal basin are concentrated the most diverse combustible minerals, among which particular interest is presented by the sapropelites. They all lie in the immediate neighborhood of industrial underground and open-cast workings of hard coals (Cheremkhovo deposit) and, particularly, of brown coals (Aze and Mugun deposits). Furthermore, reserves of combustible shales are known (for example, the Alyuskii shales of the Aze brown coal deposit). In this paper, ideas on the structure of the sapropelites of the Irkutsk basin derived from the results of an investigation by the methods of thermal and oxidative degradation, and also halogenation and hydrolysis, are considered. The chemical and structural uniformity of the sapropelites makes them unique from the point of view of conversion into low-molecular-weight products (production of dicarboxylic acids, anticorrosion coatings, flotation reagents, plasticizers, asphalt road concrete and coal-alkali reagent used in well-drilling technique. 20 refs.

  10. An Analysis of Historical Influences of Modern Chinese Overseas Students in Japan on Education Modernization in Zhili Province

    OpenAIRE

    Guofu Fan

    2012-01-01

    This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chin...

  11. Quantitative chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhan, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative Chemical Analysis is an excellent text for a classical undergraduate course in quantitative analysis. The greatest strengths of the text are the superb organization and the programmed approach toward the presentation of the material. It is directed at an audience with a minimal background in chemistry (i.e., one year of freshman-level chemistry) and provides introductory material (i.e., basic organic chemistry, stoichiometry, and solution equilibria) in the first chapter for those who need it. The book covers the basic principles of the quantitative treatment of data, including the concepts of accuracy, precision, and basic statistical methods. As in any classical text on this subject, the text is biased toward methods involving solution equilibria. Consequently, the bulk of the discussion centers on gravimetric analysis, pH, complexation, and oxidation-reduction titrations. The principles of electroanalytical measurements are explained clearly, and several chapters on potentiometric and amperometric methods are adequately detailed. Supplementary information concerning the basics of the other instrumental techniques is provided in the last 10 chapters.

  12. Application of modern time series analysis to high stability oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, B. F.; Mattison, W. M.; Vessot, R. F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of modern time series analysis useful for investigating the characteristics of high-stability oscillators and identifying systematic perturbations are discussed with reference to an experiment in which the frequencies of superconducting cavity-stabilized oscillators and hydrogen masers were compared. The techniques examined include transformation to stationarity, autocorrelation and cross-correlation, superresolution, and transfer function determination.

  13. Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

  14. Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Slobodan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

  15. Current trends of the development of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Matakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamics of the development of all stages of chemical analysis during last 15 years. The ways of the quality improvement of chemical analysis and its considerable advancement into the field of trace concentrations of substances are shown. Features of development of analytical methods, modern techniques for concentration and separation of substances, as well as chemomerrical processing of results are analyzed. Huge importance of computerization and automation of the analysis is shown.

  16. Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sirenko, Yuriy K

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

  17. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    P?aczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  18. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  19. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  20. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  1. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  2. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Complex analysis a modern first course in function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    A thorough introduction to the theory of complex functions emphasizing the beauty, power, and counterintuitive nature of the subject Written with a reader-friendly approach, Complex Analysis: A Modern First Course in Function Theory features a self-contained, concise development of the fundamental principles of complex analysis. After laying groundwork on complex numbers and the calculus and geometric mapping properties of functions of a complex variable, the author uses power series as a unifying theme to define and study the many rich and occasionally surprising properties of analytic fun

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Shibi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%, tin (8.5% and mercury (3.1%. FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the crystalline phases, chemical nature and crystalline dimensions of the sample. The average crystalline size calculated using Debye-Scherrer equation corresponding to different diffraction planes is 37.277 nm. Measurements by DLS technique and SEM analyses were also carried out. The study highlights the appropriate application of modern scientific methods for developing new insights into metal based siddha drugs.

  5. Castem 2000: a modern approach of computerized structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early beginning of the computerized structural analysis, many general purpose programs have been developed. Their complexity has increased rapidly and they became difficult to use and to maintain. The needs for an improved user's friendliness and the treatment of complex coupled problems have led to a modern tool: CASTEM 2000. It has profited by the general progress in computers technology and by a twenty years experience in large finite element codes. Its basic principles as well as examples of applications will be presented in this paper

  6. Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

  7. Modern Phytochemical Analysis: Evaluation in Plant Tissues and Processed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in chromatography separation media, solvent delivery mechanisms, microprocessor driven hardware, computer software, and chemical detectors have combined to usher in a new era of phytochemical analysis. Technological advances have given rise to bench-top gas and liquid chromatography system...

  8. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  9. Materials of 2nd Poznan analytical meeting: Modern methods of sample preparation and trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern methods for sample preparation and treatment before analysis have been presented. The neutron activation analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis and other methods have been used for trace element analysis in samples of different origin. The new technical solutions and modern equipment for trace amount analysis have been also performed. During the conference 20 lectures have been presented

  10. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  11. John rawls and the theory of modernization. a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bula, Jorge Iván

    2010-01-01

    This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of differenc...

  12. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce2O3 by titration, ThO2 by colorimetry, and La2O3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na2O and K2O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO2 and P2O5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  13. Chemical analysis as production guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations

  14. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  15. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department

  16. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in ?13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This remineralization corresponds to a minimum pH of around 6.8 and a decrease in the saturation state of the water with respect to aragonite and calcite from -0.2 to -0.4 and -0.05 to -0.2, respectively. Similar, but more muted changes occur in Mermaid Pond, a blue hole on Rum Cay with a larger diameter and greater depth than Ink Well Blue Hole. Water from both blue holes is more undersaturated at high tide than at low tide because the flood tide forces water from the blue hole into the matrix porosity. While stored in the aquifer, the water dissolves aquifer minerals, lessening its undersaturation. This reacted water then flows back to the blue hole during the ebb tide. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the matrix porosity and conduits control the locations of water exchange that drives dissolution reactions within these aquifers and thus the distribution of secondary porosity, elevated permeability and water resources.

  17. A modern design for ? ? ? active handling facilities for chemical research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study for a modern ??? active handling facility for chemical research and development work is described. The design is intended to achieve the working and environmental conditions that are expected to be acceptable in the nuclear industry at least for the next twenty years. Radiation exposure to operators is reduced to minimum practical limits. Hands-on maintenance and man-entry are avoided for routine operations. The design is flexible to allow modifications and improvements of technique and concept to be incorporated as they become available. Finally decommissioning can be achieved with reversion to a contamination and radiation free site. The primary installation in the design is a suite of five in-line ??? active shielded cells, each capable of handling 1000 MeV Ci ? activity with accompanying high levels of ? and or ? activity. Each cell is fitted with a stainless steel containment box which is remotely removable. Adjacent to the cell line, there is a box handling bay to which boxes are interfaced, serviced and decontaminated. These operations are entirely remote. The box, when decontaminated, is returned through a commissioning area to the cell line for further service. Comprehensive facilities are provided to support the cell line. These include flask and equipment storage, fissile material accounting and interrogation systems, waste handling and transfer systems for the onward transmission of waste for processing and packaging centrally. The problems of manipulation, transfers, contamination control and shielding have been considered and are discussed in the context of the overall design. (author)

  18. Quantitative chemical analysis by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers several important advantages as a technique for quantitative chemical analysis, including the ease with which multicomponent mixtures can be analyzed, the nondestructive nature of NMR, and the direct proportionality of the integrated resonance intensity (I) and concentration (C) of nuclei giving the resonance: I = kC. With proper attention to experimental conditions, the proportionality constant is the same for all resonances in a spectrum. Thus NMR differs substantially from chromatographic methods and from together spectroscopic methods, which require a predetermined response factor for each compound being determined. Relative concentrations can be obtained directly from relative resonance intensities while absolute concentrations can be obtained by adding a known concentration of another compound as an internal intensity standard

  19. Analysis of Modern State of Engineering Industry of Ukraine ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhko Valeriy P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the modern state of engineering companies of Ukraine. It proves importance of the engineering industry, state and level of development of which is the main indicator of economic and, first of all, industrial development of the country. It reveals main problems of engineering companies, which arise under modern economic conditions and slow down or even stop their development. The studied material is used for development of recommendations on improvement of the state and solution of main problems of the engineering industry of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?, ?????? ?????, ????????????? ???????? ??????. ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????????? ?? ????????. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????.

  20. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  1. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI WANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  2. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    OpenAIRE

    HUI WANG

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  3. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  4. Gas Phase Chemical Detection with an Integrated Chemical Analysis System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, Albert G.; Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Susan L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carloyn M.; Reno, John L.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1999-07-08

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample concentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described. The design and performance of novel micromachined acoustic wave devices, with the potential for improved chemical sensitivity, are also described.

  5. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Saraswathy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanga bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation used for various diseases. An attempt was made to analyze it chemically which includes XRF, XRD, EDAX and ICP-MS techniques. Vanga Bhasma drug contained mainly tin as tin oxide. The content of tin was found to be 80 percent. XRF analysis revealed that the bhasma contained 17 elements at different levels of concentration. XRD studies exhibited that the major phase composition is cassiterite tin oxide in tetragonal structure. The crystallite size of the compound calculated from Scherrer’s formula was 52.94 nm. ICP-MS studies revealed the presence of calcium, arsenic, iron, silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and chloride. A combination of XRF, XRD, EDAX-SEM and ICP-MS was very useful in concluding that vanga bhasma is in cassiterite form of tetragonal structure. It is possible that the practical clinical application of the drug may be due to the different trace level elemental spectra besides tin. Data generated in the present study can be considered for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards for Vanga bhasma.

  6. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  7. THE DUALITY DIAGRAM IN DATA ANALYSIS: EXAMPLES OF MODERN APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Omar; Holmes, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Today's data-heavy research environment requires the integration of different sources of information into structured datasets that can not be analyzed as simple matrices. We introduce an old technique, known in the European data analyses circles as the Duality Diagram Approach, put to new uses through the use of a variety of metrics and ways of combining different diagrams together. This issue of the Annals of Applied Statistics contains contemporary examples of how this approach provides solutions to hard problems in data integration. We present here the genesis of the technique and how it can be seen as a precursor of the modern kernel based approaches. PMID:22282721

  8. Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ???????

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

  9. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  10. Analysis on modern measuring methods of curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao-Wei; Liang, Xi-Chang; Zou, Chang-Ping

    1993-09-01

    There are lots of curved surfaces in machine manufacturing. For example. blades ot' water turbine, shells of rnotoreyle shells of airplane, mould, etc. Now, there isn't satisfactorical solution about the problem how to ne asure these curved surface. Modern nasuring methods of curved surfaces include the method of three-coordinate machine, the rithod of photograrnmetry, the method of raster projection, the method of rasuring by intersection of eleetronie-theodolites, the irthod of laser interferometry, the method laser diffractometry, the method of laser triangulation, etc. Now, let's introduce then respectively.

  11. Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE POSITIVE MEDIAEDUCATION PRACTICE IN MODERN FAMILY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN THROUGH THE NETWORK MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreyva Irina Valerievna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of media education practices in the modern family of preschool children through the network media. The article describes the base of re-search, tasks, process of research, the results and conclusions.

  13. Instrumental techniques in environmental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitive instrumental techniques used for environmental monitoring like neutron activation analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, optical and emission spectrometry, etc. along with their sensitivities are given. In addition to the above instrumental techniques for trace analysis, x-ray fluorescence and some modern developments like fourier transform infrared spectrometry, gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph combination, high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and ion chromatograph are also briefly described. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

    2013-09-01

    Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

  15. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  16. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  17. Using Multimedia for Teaching Analysis in History of Modern Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Garry

    This paper presents a case for the development and support of a computer-based interactive multimedia program for teaching analysis in community college architecture design programs. Analysis in architecture design is an extremely important strategy for the teaching of higher-order thinking skills, which senior schools of architecture look for in…

  18. Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

  19. Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2013-01-01

    We extend our work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,nu e+)2H, 14N(p,gamma)15O and triple-alpha reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (t_H), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. For the stellar tracks, an increase from Z = 0...

  20. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  1. Analysis and Modeling of Traffic in Modern Data Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, G.; Vandalore, B.; Jain, R.

    1998-01-01

    In performance analysis and design of communication netword modeling data traffic is important. With introduction of new applications, the characteristics of the data traffic changes. We present a brief review the different models of data traffic and how they have evolved. We present results of data traffic analysis and simulated traffic, which demonstrates that the packet train model fits the traffic at source destination level and long-memory (self-similar) model fits the ...

  2. Sentiment Analysis For Modern Standard Arabic And Colloquial

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    The rise of social media such as blogs and social networks has fueled interest in sentiment analysis. With the proliferation of reviews, ratings, recommendations and other forms of online expression, online opinion has turned into a kind of virtual currency for businesses looking to market their products, identify new opportunities and manage their reputations, therefore many are now looking to the field of sentiment analysis. In this paper, we present a feature-based senten...

  3. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  4. Utilization of chemical derivatives in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derivative activation analysis (DAA) is a method to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear activation analysis for the more elusive elements. It may also allow a degree of chemical speciation for the element of interest. DAA uses a preirradiation chemical reaction on the sample to initiate the formation of, or an exchange with, a chemical complex which contains a surrogate element, M. As a result, the amount of the element or the chemical species to be determined, X, is now represented by measurement of the amount of the surrogate element, M, that is made part of, or released by the complex species. The surrogate element is selected for its superior properties for nuclear activation analysis and the absence of interference reaction in its final determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) after some preconcentration or separation chemistry. Published DAA studies have been limited to neutron activation analysis. DAA can offer the analyst some important advantages. It can determine elements, functional groups, or chemical species which cannot be determined directly by INAA, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA), prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), or charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) procedures. When compared with conventional RNAA, there are fewer precautions with respect to handling of intensely radioactive samples, since the chemistry is done before the irradiation. The preirradiation chemistry may also eliminate many interferences that might occur in INAA and, through use of an appropriate surrogate element, can place the analytical gamma-ray line in an interference-free region of the gamma-ray spectrum

  5. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  6. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emphasis is placed on the exploitation of the unique FIA-gradient techniques.

  7. LOOKING OUT CLASICAL TURKISH POEM ACCORDING TO MODERN ANALYSIS METHODS / D?VAN ???R?'NE MODERN MET?N ÇÖZÜMLEME YÖNTEMLER?NDEN BAKMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dursun Ali TÖKEL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature has a characteristic of following the changes of investigations and technology. The great literal changes ?n 19th century, effected deeply literature studies. After Saussure, the view of the Occident on language and literature changed. This view changed not only structuralism but also linguistic studies, perceiving and utilizing the linguistic existence. In modern terms, all scientific toughts as modernism, structuralism, post-modernism, seemeiology, semantics bring up new points of view to literary texts. The last quarter of 20th century has been the term of understanding Classical Ottoman Poems not only with the view of traditional commentary methods but also modern analysis methods. This paper gives the panorama of all these analysis, methods of Classical Ottoman Poems.

  8. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.

  9. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to prov...

  10. Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oort, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents happened in which the crew was not able to save the aircraft, although post-flight analysis showed that it was possible with alternative, perhaps unconventional, control strategies. These aircraft accid...

  11. In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, JoAnne; Lundgren, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including humanism and positive psychology. However, these approaches have failed to provide explanations of the behavior–environment relations involved in valui...

  12. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  13. Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

  14. Structure analysis of polymer crystals modernized with quantum beam usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant progresses in the X-ray crystal structure analysis technique is the utilization of a synchrotron high-energy X-ray source which can give us a tremendously large number of reflections, making it possible to find out even the hydrogen atomic positions with high accuracy. The wide-angle neutron diffraction method is also important for the extraction of hydrogen atomic positions as demonstrated in the case study of full-deuterated polyethylene. The so-called X-N (X-ray-neutron) method has been also applied, which successfully clarified the bonded electron density distribution along a polydiacetylene skeletal chain. Detailed crystal structure analysis was performed also to observe the mechanical deformation mechanism of a polymer crystal viewed on the atomic level. Time-dependent rapid X-ray diffraction measurement has made it possible to trace the structural change in a photo-induced solid-state polymerization process. An organized combination of X-ray diffraction methods with others such as infrared spectroscopy has shown to be important for the study of structural evolution processes of polymer crystals. (author)

  15. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  16. Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: We extend our previous work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. Methods: We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,?e+)2H, 14N(p,?)15O and triple-? reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way - for different metallicities - the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (tH), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. Results: For the stellar tracks, an increase in the metallicity from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 produces a cumulative physical uncertainty error variation in TO luminosity from 0.028 dex to 0.017 dex, while the global uncertainty on tH increases from 0.42 Gyr to 1.08 Gyr. For the RGB tip, the cumulative uncertainty on the luminosity is almost constant at 0.03 dex, whereas the one on the helium core mass decreases from 0.0055 M? to 0.0035 M?. The dependence of the ZAHB luminosity error is not monotonic with Z, and it varies from a minimum of 0.036 dex at Z = 0.0005 to a maximum of 0.047 dex at Z = 0.0001. Regarding stellar isochrones of 12 Gyr, the cumulative physical uncertainty on the predicted TO luminosity and mass increases respectively from 0.012 dex to 0.014 dex and from 0.0136 M? to 0.0186 M?. Consequently, from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 for ages typical of galactic globular clusters, the uncertainty on the age inferred from the TO luminosity increases from 325 Myr to 415 Myr. Tables 1, 3, 6, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Modernized spectrometer for the hydrogen contents analysis in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determination of the concentration profiles of the hydrogen isotopes in various materials is very actual problem now since hydrogen, if presents, rather strongly affects on physical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and other properties. In the INP AS (Uzbekistan) the specific method of hydrogen isotopes profiling (Neutron-induced Elastic Recoil Detection (NERD) method) has been developed. The energy spectrum of H-ions that are knocked out by fast neutrons gives the information on the depth and concentration of hydrogen in a sample. The method allows obtaining of the concentration profiles for all hydrogen isotopes simultaneously and has the analysable depth up to 1.5 mm for 1H. We have improved the analytical characteristics of the method: By sufficient decreasing the background of the charged particles and reduction of the gamma quanta background in the energy spectra of hydrogen recoils; By reduction of quantity of scattered neutrons along the neutron's trajectory to the analyzed sample; By using the fast output (short pulses) of the detector's preamplifier in the character of spectrometric circuit of electronics before the final 'slow' spectrometric amplifier. We have excluded the background of the charged particles using graphite as a constructional material for the box of the detectors' telescope. The background of gamma - quanta was reduced by removing the metallic elements and materials of the radiation protection as far as possible from a telescope of detectors. We have reduced the quantity of the scattered neutrons worsening the energy resolution by reducing up to a minimum the amount of metal between the neutron source and the sample, and using the materials with small cross sections of elastic scattering of neutrons. We have achieved the precise work of electronics with fast signals due to specially developed electronics: change -sensitive preamplifiers and linear gates. The change-sensitive preamplifiers have small signal duration (not more than 380 ns) and the counting rate ?4/5x105 counts/s. The linear gate has switching time ?20 ns and dynamic range not less then 102. Duration of the driving signal can be varied from 300 up to 1000 ns. Due to these improvements we can operate with two-detectors variant of the detecting system instead of the three detectors and simplify essentially the electronics of the spectrometer. Thus we have increased the analyzable depth of a sample. Check of the spectrometer's operation at the neutron flux (En=14 MeV) using the test samples containing hydrogen, deuterium and tritium has shown that the real (full) energy resolution of the spectrometer is equal 400 keV. The energy resolution is determined basically by the geometrical resolution and includes the own resolution of the detectors, energy dispersion of the neutron flux and the effect of scattering of neutrons on small angles before hit on the analyzed sample. This energy resolution results in the following calculated depth resolution:For hydrogen-60 microns. For deuterium-22 microns For tritium- 11 microns. Thus the analyzable depths (for example, in silicon) make: For hydrogen-1200 microns. For deuterium - 500 microns. For tritium - 260 microns. This work was supported by STCU Project no. 3067. (author)

  18. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The Lagrangian specificity of the required measurements is assured by the fact that a transducer enclosed within a solid material is necessarily linked in motion to the particles of the material which surround it. This Lagrangian instrumentation is described in the second chapter. The authors are concerned with the techniques considered today to be the most effective. These are, for stress : piezoresistive gauges (50 Ω and low impedance) and piezoelectric techniques (PVF2 gauges, quartz transducers) ; and for particle velocity : electromagnetic gauges, VISAR and IDL Doppler laser interferometers. In each case both the physical principles as well as techniques of use are set out in detail. For the most part, the authors use their own experience to describe the calibration of these instrumentation systems and to compare their characteristics : measurement range, response time, accuracy, useful recording time, detection area... These characteristics should be taken into account by the physicist when he has to choose the instrumentation systems best adapted to the Lagrangian analysis he intends to apply to any given material. The discussion at the end of chapter 2 should guide his choice both for plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. The third chapter examines to what extent the accuracy of Lagrangian analysis is affected by the accuracies of the numerical analysis methods and experimental techniques. By means of a discussion of different cases of analysis, the authors want to make the reader aware of the different kinds of sources of errors that may be encountered. This work brings up to date the state of studies on Lagrangian analysis methods based on a wide review of bibliographical sources together with the contribution made to research in this field by the four authors themselves in the course of the last ten years. Le formage des métaux par explosif, la consolidation dynamique des poudres, la balistique terminale, l'abattage des roches par explosif, sont autant d'applications, dans les domaines civil et militaire, qui exigent d'approfondir les connaissances que l'on a des comportements des matériaux chargés par des ondes de contrainte de forte intensité. C'est dans ce domaine que les méthodes d'analyse lagrangienne, sujets de cet ouvrage, seront un outil d'investigation intéressant pour le mécanicien du solide. L'analyse lagrangienne a été développée autour des années 1970 par Fowles et Williams. L'idée de base repose sur l'intégration des équations de la mécanique en utilisant l'histoire des contraintes ou des vitesses matérielles obtenues au moyen de capteurs minces sur le trajet d'une onde de contrainte. Sont ainsi obtenues toutes les grandeurs cinématiques et mécaniques contenues dans les équations de conservation. Dans le premier chapitre, les auteurs introduisent les outils mathématiques destinés à analyser les mouvements monodimensionnels plan et sphérique. Pour le premier de ces mouvements, sont décrites les méthodes mathématiques d'analyse propres aux trois régimes de propagation d'onde rencontrés: l'onde instationnaire non amortie, l'onde simple et l'onde instationnaire amortie. Par ailleurs, pour chacun de ces régimes sont traités les cas où l'on dispose initialement des profils des contraintes ou des vitesses matérielles. Les auteurs insistent sur le fait que l'une ou l'autre des deux collections de données (contraintes et vitesses matérielles) sont suffisantes pour intégrer les équations de conservation dans le cas du mouvement plan, alors que les deux collections de données sont indispensables dans le cas de mouvement sphérique. Cependant, malgré cette difficulté supplémentaire, l'analyse lagrangienne du mouvement sphérique reste particulièrement intéressante pour le mécanicien puisqu'elle permet d'accéder au comportement du matériau pour des processus de déformation différents de celui imposé par le mouvement plan. Les méthodes exposées dans le premier chapitre reposent sur la mesure lagrangienne de la vitesse matérielle et de la contrainte, en fonction du temps dans le matériau comprimé par une onde longitudinale plane ou sphérique. La spécificité lagrangienne des mesures requises est assurec par le fait qu'un capteur inclus dans un matériau solide est lié dans le mouvement aux particules du matériau qui l'entourent. Cette métrologie lagrangienne est décrite dans le deuxième chapitre. Les auteurs se sont intéressés aux techniques considérées aujourd'hui comme les plus performantes ; elles se rapportent d'une part à la vitesse matérielle: jauges électromagnétiques, interféromètres Doppler laser de types VISAR et IDL ; d'autre part à la contrainte : jauges piézorésistives (50 Ω et basse impédance) et techniques piézoélectriques (jauges PVF2-capteurs à quartz). Dans chacun des cas les principes de fonctionnement ainsi que les techniques de mise en œuvre sont détaillés. Les auteurs utilisent largement leurs propres résultats pour décrire l'étalonnage de ces moyens métrologiques et comparer leurs performances : étendue de mesure, temps de réponse, précision, durée maximale d'utilisation, surface visée... Ce sont ces performances que devra prendre en compte le mécanicien lorsqu'il devra choisir parmi les différents moyens métrologiques la technique la mieux adaptée à l'analyse lagrangienne qu'il se proposera d'effectuer dans un matériau donné. Les arguments développés à la fin du chapitre 2 devraient lui permettre de guider son choix aussi bien dans le cas du mouvement monodimensionnel plan que dans le cas du mouvement monodimensionnel sphérique. Dans le troisième chapitre la précision de l'analyse lagrangienne est examinée sous l'aspect de l'influence des précisions des méthodes d'analyse numérique d'une part et des techniques expérimentales d'autre part. A partir du traitement de différents cas concrets d'analyse, les auteurs cherchent à sensibiliser le lecteur aux différentes sources d'erreurs rencontrées. Cet ouvrage constitue un état de l'art sur les méthodes d'analyse lagrangienne à partir d'une large étude bibliographique et de la contribution apportée dans ce domaine par les quatre auteurs depuis une dizaine d'années.

  19. Femoral curvature in Neanderthals and modern humans: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-05-01

    Since their discovery, Neanderthals have been described as having a marked degree of anteroposterior curvature of the femoral shaft. Although initially believed to be pathological, subsequent discoveries of Neanderthal remains lead femoral curvature to be considered as a derived Neanderthal feature. A recent study on Neanderthals and middle and early Upper Palaeolithic modern humans found no differences in femoral curvature, but did not consider size-corrected curvature. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use 3D morphometric landmark and semi-landmark analysis to quantify relative femoral curvature in Neanderthals, Upper Palaeolithic and recent modern humans, and to compare adult bone curvature as part of the overall femoral morphology among these populations. Comparisons among populations were made using geometric morphometrics (3D landmarks) and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material involved all available complete femora from Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human, archaeological (Mesolithic, Neolithic, Medieval) and recent human populations representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are significant differences in the anatomy of the femur between Neanderthals and modern humans. Neanderthals have more curved femora than modern humans. Early modern humans are most similar to recent modern humans in their anatomy. Femoral curvature is a good indicator of activity level and habitual loading of the lower limb, indicating higher activity levels in Neanderthals than modern humans. These differences contradict robusticity studies and the archaeological record, and would suggest that femoral morphology, and curvature in particular, in Neanderthals may not be explained by adult behavior alone and could be the result of genetic drift, natural selection or differences in behavior during ontogeny. PMID:21411122

  20. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  1. Toward a Modern Secondary Information System for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the information processing system employed by Chemical Abstracts Service which utilizes computers to organize material from the data base, convert it to the appropriate type face and format, and photocompose it in a form suitable for conversion to offset printing plates. (GS)

  2. Chemical analysis of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium is an important nuclear fuel material. It is also a starting material for the fabrication of uranium based alloys. Various methodologies are employed for the production of uranium metal. It is essential to maintain the quality of the uranium metal produced. The metal should meet stringent specifications laid down by the user. This necessitates the analysis of uranium metal for both major and minor constituents. Uranium content is determined by titrimetry either by employing visual or bi-amperometric end point detection. Weight method is adapted for dispensing the titrant to achieve better accuracy and precision. In visual titrimetric method the sample is dissolved in phosphoric acid and uranium is titrated with ammonium vanadate solution employing sodium diphenylamine as indicator. In bi-amperometry, the sample after dissolution in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids is titrated with standard potassium dichromate solution to amperometric end point. For the determination of weight percentage of 235U, ? spectrometry is employed. The method involves dissolution of known amount of sample in nitric acid and monitoring the peak area at 185.7 keV gamma. The weight percentage of 235U is computed from the calibration plot obtained between the peak areas vs 235U weight percentages employing series of standards. Carbon is determined by combustion of the sample in flowing oxygen atmosphere and monitoring the carbon dioxide released employing an IR detector. Nitrogen and oxygen are determined by inert gas fusion technique. In this method, the sample is fused in a graphite crucible in presence of nickel flux at 3000 deg C followed by purification of released CO, N2 and H2 and detection of oxygen as CO and nitrogen as N2 by I R or TCD. Boron is determined by selective separation of boron employing EHD in chloroform, colour development with curcumin in acetic acid and absorbance measurement by spectrophotometry at 550nm. Boron content is read from the calibration plot between the amount of boron vs. absorbance

  3. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  4. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  5. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  6. MDTraj: A Modern Open Library for the Analysis of Molecular Dynamics Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, Robert T; Beauchamp, Kyle A; Harrigan, Matthew P; Klein, Christoph; Swails, Jason M; Hernández, Carlos X; Schwantes, Christian R; Wang, Lee-Ping; Lane, Thomas J; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-10-20

    As molecular dynamics (MD) simulations continue to evolve into powerful computational tools for studying complex biomolecular systems, the necessity of flexible and easy-to-use software tools for the analysis of these simulations is growing. We have developed MDTraj, a modern, lightweight, and fast software package for analyzing MD simulations. MDTraj reads and writes trajectory data in a wide variety of commonly used formats. It provides a large number of trajectory analysis capabilities including minimal root-mean-square-deviation calculations, secondary structure assignment, and the extraction of common order parameters. The package has a strong focus on interoperability with the wider scientific Python ecosystem, bridging the gap between MD data and the rapidly growing collection of industry-standard statistical analysis and visualization tools in Python. MDTraj is a powerful and user-friendly software package that simplifies the analysis of MD data and connects these datasets with the modern interactive data science software ecosystem in Python. PMID:26488642

  7. Failure Analysis of a Modern High Performance Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

    OpenAIRE

    Bingbin Guo; Weizheng Zhang; Xiaosong Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis on a modern high performance diesel engine cylinder head made of gray cast iron. Cracks appeared intensively at the intersection of two exhaust passages in the cylinder head. The metallurgical examination was conducted in the crack origin zone and other zones. Meanwhile, the load state of the failure part of the cylinder head was determined through the Finite Element Analysis. The results showed that both the point of the maximum temperature and the poin...

  8. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  9. Application of enhanced modern structured analysis techniques to Space Station Freedom electric power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, John; Juhasz, John; Sadler, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    A team of Space Station Freedom (SSF) system engineers are in the process of extensive analysis of the SSF requirements, particularly those pertaining to the electrical power system (EPS). The objective of this analysis is the development of a comprehensive, computer-based requirements model, using an enhanced modern structured analysis methodology (EMSA). Such a model provides a detailed and consistent representation of the system's requirements. The process outlined in the EMSA methodology is unique in that it allows the graphical modeling of real-time system state transitions, as well as functional requirements and data relationships, to be implemented using modern computer-based tools. These tools permit flexible updating and continuous maintenance of the models. Initial findings resulting from the application of EMSA to the EPS have benefited the space station program by linking requirements to design, providing traceability of requirements, identifying discrepancies, and fostering an understanding of the EPS.

  10. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with other galaxies. Studying the stars composing a galaxy can in principle, inform us about its past. Some stars can be as old as the galaxy itself, some can be much younger and we ...

  11. Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

    2014-01-01

    By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

  12. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  13. Development of a Modern Control System Analysis Package Using Visual Basic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Shu Khan; Mohd Fua’ad Rahmat

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD) program that furnishes a background necessary for studying modern control theory. The program focuses on state-space analysis which performs conversion of a system from state-space representation to transfer function and via versa. Besides, system transformation on different state coordinates, time domain solution, controller design, observer design and steady state error evaluation with interactive graphresponse are also be...

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment of a modern architecture building: analysis of the original building and retrofitting proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, H; Romão, X.; Varum, H.; Arêde, A.; Costa, A.; Delgado, R

    2008-01-01

    The seismic vulnerability of an existing building representative of modern architecture style is presented herein. To improve its seismic response, a retrofitting solution consisting of an x-bracing system associated to a shear-link dissipater was analysed. The effectiveness of the retrofit was measured by carrying out a seismic fragility analysis, considering a numerical model accounting for the nonlinear behaviour under earthquakes of both RC elements and infill masonry walls. I...

  15. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Hexemer; Peter Müller-Buschbaum

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- o...

  16. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support activities of chemical analysis division for the year of 1984 are described. A sum of 2445 samples requested from the facilities and laboratories were analyzed with the methods modified and adopted in the laboratory from 1977 to 1983. A study on the separation and determination of the trace amounts of rare earth elements in nuclear materials was carried out, and various experimental conditions were established. (Author)

  17. Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  18. Geometric morphometric study and cluster analysis of late Byzantine and modern human crania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Senem Turan; Ercan, Ilker; Ozkaya, Guven; Cankur, N Simsek; Erdal, Yilmaz Selim

    2010-06-01

    Inter-population variation of cranial morphology, which plays an important role in human evolution studies and biological research, can be studied morphologically and metrically. Geometric morphometry compares body forms using specific landmarks determined by anatomical prominences. The aim of this study was to identify cranial shape differences between the crania of Byzantium period humans and modern humans. Variability in cranial shape was examined using the geometric morphometric technique based on landmark coordinates. Landmark coordinate data were collected from two-dimensional digital photogrammetry and were analyzed using generalized Procrustes analysis, hierarchical clustering and thin-plate spline analysis. PMID:20698122

  19. Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabarcius, Raimondas; Tonkunas, Aurimas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Installation Safety Lab.

    2010-08-15

    During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

  20. Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

  1. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  2. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shibi; G. Shalu; K. Jagannathan

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%), tin (8.5%) and mercury (3.1%). FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the...

  5. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  6. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  7. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Requirements for X-ray structure analysis with modern synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction methods, including macromolecular crystallography, small-angle scattering from partly or noncrystalline systems, fiber and surface diffraction, are in the forefront of interest of a broad synchrotron user community from biomedical and technological fields. The main impact comes from the unsurpassed X-ray flux and brilliance of modern third-generation sources, facilitating on the one hand, a dramatic enhancement in sample throughput, and on the other hand, the transformation of X-ray diffraction analysis from a static to a cinematographic technique. In the present article some of the requirements for further development are being discussed

  9. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    Washington : SPIE, 2012, 84360C-1-84360C-10. ISBN 978-0-8194-9128-2. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8436). [Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications II. Brussels (BE), 17.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical image * retinal image * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.pdf

  10. Analysis of the Influence of Burst-Mode Laser Ablation by Modern Quality Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelmann, Claus; Urbina, Juan Pablo Calderón

    The development of lasers in terms of pulse length and ablation quality has made wider the perspective of material processing. Ablation using picosecond lasers offers an almost "cold material removal", which causes minimal heat affected zones and enables sublimation without melt formation. Moreover, burst-mode intensifies these effects by the partition of pulses into groups of micro-pulses. Therefore, removal rate and surface quality are improved with an appropriate combination of burst-mode and other relevant process parameters. Nevertheless, parameter identification can be costly and time demanding. Thus, analysis of parameter impact offered by modern quality tools represents a convenient approach to accelerate ablation process improvements.

  11. Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Sólheimajökull, southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

    2015-02-01

    Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Sólheimajökull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Sólheimajökull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jökulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

  12. Modern sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

  13. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  14. From Modernity to Post-Modernity: Conflicting Voices in Literary Discourse – A Corpus Analysis of You and One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Alcina Maria Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibilities of a corpus analysis applied to literary study and interpretation. It is thus its goal to present some findings related to the disambiguation of some pronominal references, i.e. you and one, as they occur in speech and thought presentation in prose fiction, across periods in the 20th century. The texts selected are two of Virginia Woolf's novels (early and late modernist period and one by Hugo Hamilton (in the postmodern era. The analysis benefits from a multi-layered interpretive framework drawing on discourse analysis, corpus-based approaches and literary study, particularly in that it unpacks ways in which writers make use of linguistic structures. These involve readers in a dialogic interpretation of the text's “polyphony” and “heteroglossia”, either conveying the generic pronoun reference or the protagonist's inner voice.

  15. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  16. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to prioritize such measurements in the face of limited sample availability, or how to render samples safe for handling in the analytical laboratory,) instrumental analysis of biological agents for purposes of sample matching alone is unlikely to present fundamental problems that require extensive research and development investments. The second way that the data generated by instrumental analysis can be useful to an investigation is through inferences that can be drawn regarding the processes used to grow and ''weaponize'' the agent. In contrast to the case of sample matching, there are significant R&D challenges associated with developing a robust capability that will reliably permit such inferential uses of instrumental data. Elaborating these challenges occupies the major portion of this paper.

  17. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  18. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  19. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ?t) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, ?- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the ?- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  20. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

  1. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

  2. PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2012-08-01

    This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

  3. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. PMID:26191955

  4. Bioaerosol analysis with Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Emge, Darren K; Fountain, Augustus W; Bottiger, Jerold R; Emmons, Erik D; Snyder, A Peter

    2009-08-15

    Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy is evaluated as a technology for waterborne pathogen and bioaerosol detection. Raman imaging produces a three-dimensional data cube consisting of a Raman spectrum at every pixel in a microscope field of view. Binary and ternary mixtures including combinations of polystyrene beads, gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. atrophaeus spores, and B. cereus vegetative cells were investigated by Raman imaging for differentiation and characterization purposes. Bacillus spore aerosol sizes were varied to provide visual proof for corroboration of spectral assignments. Conventional applications of Raman imaging consist of differentiating relatively broad areas of a sample in a microscope field of view. The spectral angle mapping data analysis algorithm was used to compare a library spectrum with experimental spectra from pixels in the microscope field of view. This direct one-to-one matching is straightforward, does not require a training set, is independent of absolute spectral intensity, and only requires univariate statistics. Raman imaging is expanded in its capabilities to differentiate and distinguish between discrete 1-6 microm size bacterial species in single particles, clusters of mixed species, and bioaerosols with interference background particles. PMID:19601631

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy storages and heat pump units represent an important part of high efficient renewable energy systems. By using thermally driven, reversible chemical reactions a combination of thermal energy storage and heat pump can be realized. The influences of thermophysical properties of the involved components on the efficiency of a heat pump cycle is analysed and the relevance of the thermodynamic driving force is worked out. In general, the behaviour of energetic and exergetic efficiency is contrary. In a real cycle, higher enthalpies of reaction decrease the energetic efficiency but increase the exergetic efficiency. Higher enthalpies of reaction allow for lower offsets from equilibrium state for a default thermodynamic driving force of the reaction. - Highlights: • A comprehensive efficiency analysis of gas-solid heat pumps is proposed. • Link between thermodynamic driving force and equilibrium drop is shown. • Calculation of the equilibrium drop based on thermochemical properties. • Reaction equilibria of the decomposition reaction of salt hydrates. • Contrary behavior of energetic and exergetic efficiency

  6. 9. Nuclear chemical analysis in pharmaceutical research and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear methods are described of chemical analysis, such as the isotope dilution analysis, radioimmunoassay, radiometric titrations, radio-release technique, activation analysis, radiation absorption analysis, radiation scattering analysis, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The applications of the methods in pharmacy and the principles of experimental techniques are discussed. (Ha)

  7. Modern contraceptive use among women in Uganda: An analysis of trend and patterns (1995-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Andi, Jimmy Ronald; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is an extensive body of literature concerning modern contraceptive use among women in Uganda. A questionable aspect however is whether the impact of factors associated with modern contraceptive use has remained the same in the recent past. Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data of women in the period 1995-2011 was adopted to establish an understanding of this issue. The focus in the investigations was none pregnant sexually active women. Variations in patterns of modern contraceptive use ...

  8. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moder

  9. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  10. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.A., E-mail: kjordan@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Springfels, D., E-mail: dspringfels@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 106 UFTR Bldg., PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Schubring, D., E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, PO Box 118300, Gainesville, FL 32611-8300 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed.

  11. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed

  12. Analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with modern nuclear data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ERANOS libraries are produced based on four modern nuclear data sets. • The MOZART MZA/MZB benchmarks are analyzed with these li- braries. • Results are generally acceptable in an academic context, but for highly accurate applications data adjustment is required. • Some discrepancies between the calculations and the benchmark results remain and cannot be readily explained. • Successful generation of ECCO libraries and covariance data for ERA- NOS. - Abstract: For fast reactor design and analysis, our laboratory uses, amongst others, the ERANOS code system. Unfortunately, the publicly available version of ERANOS does not have the most recent nuclear data. Therefore, it was decided to implement an integrated processing system to generate cross sections libraries for the ECCO cell code, as well as covariance data. Cross sections are generated from the original ENDF files. For our purposes, it is important to ascertain that the ECCO cross section libraries are of adequate quality to allow design and analysis of advanced fast reactors in an academic context. In this paper, we present an analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with nuclear data from JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1. Results are that reactivity is generally well predicted, with an uncertainty of about 1% due to covariances of the nuclear data. Reaction rate ratios are satisfactorily calculated, as well as the flux spectrum and reaction rate traverses. Some problems remain: the magnitude of the void effect is not satisfactorily calculated, and reaction rate traverses are not always satisfactorily calculated. On the whole, the ECCO libraries are sufficient for design and analysis tasks in an academic context. For high-precision calculations, such as required for licensing tasks and detailed design calculations, data adjustment is still necessary as the “native” covariance data in the ENDF files is not accurate enough

  13. Application of tracer analysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of tracer analyses to the solution of various problems in chemical and related industries are reported. The investigation of mixing and grinding processes, the determination both of drag effects through vaporization of liquids and of losses of solid matter through evaporation in sintering, investigation of the distribution of a liquid phase in solid matter as well as the determination of the conversion ratio in chemical reactions are described. (author)

  14. Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, th...

  15. Analysis and Modeling of Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Vapor Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hribsek, Marija; Tosic, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of chemical SAW sensors can be approached to in three ways: (1) exact analysis by solving the wave equation, (2) published formulas which connect frequency shifts and chemical compounds quantities, and (3) approximate analysis by means of equivalent electro-mechanical circuits. The exact analysis of SAW sensors using surface wave theory is very complex even in the case of a free surface of a single layer piezoelectric substrate. The published formulas which connect frequency shifts a...

  16. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  17. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

  18. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

  19. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

  20. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed David L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years. One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

  1. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  2. C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

  3. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CUVACAK KUTORI MATTIRAI

    OpenAIRE

    A.Saraswathy; Rani, M. Girija

    1998-01-01

    Cuvacak kutori (mattiral) is an important herbal medicine prescribed for bronchial asthma in siddha system of medicine. In order to evolve pharmacopoeial standards, the medicine was prepared in laboratory scale and chemically analysed. Analytical data along with the tlc pattern can be used for fixing standards.

  4. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which lar...

  5. The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

  6. Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said GHARBY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

  7. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  8. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  9. Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Besòs River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Besòs is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Besòs: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point. PMID:25280248

  10. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  11. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis—modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L.; Brauer, Jonathan I.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A.; Beech, Iwona B.

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II–Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  12. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern econ...

  13. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

  14. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

  15. Survey of chemical and destructive analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional methods of determining the concentration and isotopic composition of nuclear materials in the nuclear fuel cycle are reviewed. Problems of representative sampling and measurement uncertainties as they apply to conventional analytical problems are discussed. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) describe current chemical and mass-spectrometric methods typically used to characterize nuclear materials; (2) describe basic techniques for obtaining samples representative of bulk liquid, powder, or solid materials; and (3) identify principal sources of error for the above methods. 101 references

  16. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  17. Physico-chemical soil analysis of Rudovci region

    OpenAIRE

    Smilja MARKOVI?; Miško MILANOVI?; Miloš NENADOVI?; Ljiljana KLJAJEVI?; Snežana NENADOVI?; Vladimir PAVLOVI?

    2013-01-01

    Laser diffraction and pipette methods were carried out for comparative grain-size analysis of soil samples representing a similar texture classification sampled. A detail physical-chemical analysis of soils, which involves use of XRF, XRD and SEM analysis were done. XRF and XRD analysis were done on the fractions separated by pipette method. On the obtained fraction particle size distribution and SEM analysis were done. The obtained results of these different methods are in good agreement and...

  18. Why different countries manage death differently: a comparative analysis of modern urban societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    2012-03-01

    The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected. PMID:22404392

  19. Microstructures for Chemical Analysis : Design, Fabrication and Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Svedberg, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The interest for miniaturisation in chemical and biological analysis has increased in recent years. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterisation of tools for microanalysis have been studied. The focus is set on polymer microchips for applications in chemical analysis. The work consists of three parts: design and fabrication of paraffin microactuators, design and fabrication of polymer microchips as interfaces in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and characteris...

  20. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Determining a PCB Concentration for Purposes of Abandonment or Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  1. Analysis of chemical processes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main principles are presented of processing experimental data on the dynamic characteristics of flow systems operated in steady state conditions. The data were obtained by tracer techniques using suitable radionuclides. The application is discussed of the perturbation and response method to the study of behaviour of apparatus in chemical industry, and the experimental determination is shown of the residence time distribution, ie., normalized system response to a pulse perturbation function. Methods are also shown of calculating the production process pulse response. Examples are given of measurements on industrial facilities of oxosynthesis in the petrochemical process, on melting of zinc and lead agglomerate in the metallurgical process, on a granulation loop of NPK fertilizer production, and on equipment for filtering titanium white. (B.S.)

  2. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  3. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heercules, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

  4. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Michael W; Lim, Lek-Heng; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-ferti...

  5. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

  6. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use ...

  7. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  8. Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  9. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  10. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research ...

  11. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  12. Chemical Analysis of Modern Lamnid Shark Centra: Determination of the Life History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs-Hochstein, J.

    2005-12-01

    Lamnid sharks (great whites and their relatives) are of great interest not only to the scientific community but the public as well. Scientists have spent a great deal of time trying to study and understand the life history of great whites and their relatives. Since great whites do not survive well in captivity tagging and recapture studies and captured sharks from fishermen have been the main source of study. Currently there is no way the accurately age Lamnid sharks. However, sharks deposit light and dark bands on their vertebral centra throughout their lives. It is known in most sharks that darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (e.g., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (e.g., summer). The problem is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that a band pair (one light and one dark band) reflects a single year. Once, the periodicity of a band pair is determined then ages can be estimated and growth rates can be calculated. Oxygen and carbon isotopes along the growth axis of ten lamnid shark vertebral centra (including great whites, shortfin makos, and longfin makos) where used to determine the periodicity of the band pairs and indications of changes in eating habits. Bomb carbon dating was determined on two of the specimens to calibrate the cyclicity of the oxygen isotopes. Dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in seawater increase with water depth and towards the pelagic area. One exception is cerium. Cerium can be oxidized to a highly insoluble form separating it from other REE and being preferentially scavenged by suspended matter and therefore cerium decreases with water depth. Bulk samples where analyzed for rare earth elements (REE) from each of the ten centra to determine if the seawater signal was recorded in the centra and if any variations in depth and geographic distribution of individual sharks could be determined. Tracking the REE along the growth axis of the centra may allow for general migration patterns/ depth changes due to seasons or size to be determined. Utilizing the chemistry of the vertebral centra will allow for a better understanding of the life history of these ten sharks. Using the rare earth elemental compositions, ?13C, ?14C, and ?18O the possibility exists to looking at timing of when these sharks migrate, change their eating habits, change depth, and determination of growth rates.

  13. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//delta?/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and ?/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  14. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  15. An Empirical Analysis on the Development of Modern Service Industry and Its Countermeasures in Qingdao during Post-WTO Transitional Period

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxue Zhang; Peng Liu

    2010-01-01

    With the end of Post-WTO Transitional Period, Qingdao’s modern services present a picture of unprecedented prosperity. But during the process of development, many sharp problems emerged and it needs to handle seriously. By an empirical analysis on influencing factors of modern services in Qingdao, existing problems are found out and corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  16. Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are...

  17. Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-06-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

  18. The geoglyphs of Nasca : 3-D recording and analysis with modern digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Grün, Armin; Lambers, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    A serious archaeological investigation of the famous geoglyphs of Nasca (Peru) has for a long time been obstructed by the lack of an adequate recording of the ground drawings. In this article we describe photogrammetric mapping procedures employed to record two important geoglyph concentrations at Palpa, to the north of Nasca. The use of digital photogrammetry and other modern tools for measurement and modeling allowed for the first time the complete, highly accurate, and three-dimensional re...

  19. Development of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Genetic Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis, several approaches to facilitate the analysis of chemical genetic assays have been proposed. An optimal method to retrieve chemical hits from high-throughput assays was introduced, and a target prediction method was developed to predict the drug targets for the hits. Next, an efficient filtering protocol was proposed to remove the promiscuous compounds. Lastly, the integration of the assays was presented as a valuable tool to find relationships between biological activities, to ...

  20. Chemical probes for analysis of carbonylated proteins: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Liang-Jun; Forster, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a major form of protein oxidation and is widely used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Carbonyl groups do not have distinguishing UV or visible, spectrophotometric absorbance/fluorescence characteristics and thus their detection and quantification can only be achieved using specific chemical probes. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of several chemical probes that have been and are still being used for protein carbonyl analysis. These probes...

  1. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Yigzaw Binega

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...

  2. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food. PMID:23037977

  3. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl- on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl- and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  4. Extension on KOLAS accreditation for chemical analysis of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research includes the establishment of analytical target for radioactive mateials and analytical procedures fo ran international accreditatin. The determinatin of confidence level of chemical analysis for the uraniu, radium-226, radon-222, and boron was carried out. The instructions for the analysis of radioactive materials were written in this report. As a result of the research, the KOLAS accreditation was extended to the analysis of uranium innatural water, radon-222 or boron in industrial water, and cesium-137 in agricultural products

  5. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  6. Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  7. Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

  8. Chemical speciation by sequential injection analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J F; Stefan, R I

    2004-12-15

    The simplicity of the sequential injection (SIA) manifold and its low need for maintenance makes it an ideal tool in speciation. As miniaturization and reduction of reagent consumption are also ultimate goals in chemical sensing, it is useful to review the use of combined injection and programmed flow as a central issue in designing SIA systems with chemical sensors and structurally simplified chemical analysers. This overview gives an insight into the current state, analytical scope and performance characteristics of sequential injection systems as analytical tools for speciation. The suitability of SIA for speciation analysis is illustrated by the methods used in the conduits of sequential injection systems for the chemical conversion of different chemical forms into detectable chemical species. Configurations of the basic sequential injection speciation analysis systems were designed around a multi-syringe-time-based-injection system with one detector, direct and indirect speciation of different forms using a single detector including diode array detection and direct speciation of different forms using multiple detection. Examples showing the use of SIA for the simultaneous determination or speciation of metal ions, inorganic anions and organic compounds are given with some recent results from our research groups. PMID:18969718

  9. Evaluating geographically weighted regression models for environmental chemical risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Jenna; Wheeler, David C; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many correlated chemicals on disease is often of interest. The relationship between correlated environmental chemicals and health effects is not always constant across a study area, as exposure levels may change spatially due to various environmental factors. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has been proposed to model spatially varying effects. However, concerns about collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal (ie, reversal paradox), may limit the applicability of GWR for environmental chemical risk analysis. A penalized version of GWR, the geographically weighted lasso, has been proposed to remediate the collinearity effects in GWR models. Our focus in this study was on assessing through a simulation study the ability of GWR and GWL to correctly identify spatially varying chemical effects for a mixture of correlated chemicals within a study area. Our results showed that GWR suffered from the reversal paradox, while GWL overpenalized the effects for the chemical most strongly related to the outcome. PMID:25983546

  10. How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

  11. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

  13. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

  14. The assessment of acid-base analysis: comparison of the “traditional” and the “modern” approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Todorovi?

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct approaches are currently used in assessing acid-base disorders: the traditional - physiological or bicarbonate-centered approach, the base-excess approach, and the “modern” physicochemical approach proposed by Peter Stewart, which uses the strong ion difference (particularly the sodium chloride difference and the concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (particularly albumin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 as independent variables in the assessment of acid-base status. The traditional approach developed from the pioneering work of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the base-excess are still most widely used in clinical practice, even though there are a number of problems identified with this approach. The approach works well clinically and is recommended for use whenever serum total protein, albumin and phosphate concentrations are normal. Although Stewart’s approach has been largely ignored by physiologists, it is increasingly used by anesthesiologists and intensive care specialists, and is recommended for use whenever serum’s total protein, albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal, as in critically ill patients. Although different in their concepts, the traditional and modern approaches can be seen as complementary, giving in principle, the same information about the acid-base status.

  15. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining......Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  17. Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

  18. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  19. Investigation of meteorite chemical composition by activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons from a microtron for determining the chemical composition of stone and iron meteorites was investigated. Nearly 20 elements have been determined mostly by instrumental photon activation analysis, but instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis has been also applied for determining several elements in the samples. The optimal irradiation regimes and both cooling and measuring times were established. Sensitivity and accuracy of the analysis are presented. During analysis of the samples different types of interference reactions were taken into account. The experimental data were in satisfactory agreement with the results reported in literature

  20. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis which provides the relationships between the predictions of a kinetics model and the input parameters of the problem. LSENS provides for efficient and accurate chemical kinetics computations and includes sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal conditions. LSENS replaces the previous NASA general chemical kinetics codes GCKP and GCKP84. LSENS is designed for flexibility, convenience and computational efficiency. A variety of chemical reaction models can be considered. The models include static system, steady one-dimensional inviscid flow, reaction behind an incident shock wave including boundary layer correction, and the perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, computations of equilibrium properties can be performed for the following assigned states, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static problems LSENS computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rates coefficient parameters of each chemical reaction. To integrate the ODEs describing chemical kinetics problems, LSENS uses the packaged code LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, because it has been shown to be the most efficient and accurate code for solving such problems. The sensitivity analysis computations use the decoupled direct method, as implemented by Dunker and modified by Radhakrishnan. This method has shown greater efficiency and stability with equal or better accuracy than other methods of sensitivity analysis. LSENS is written in FORTRAN 77 with the exception of the NAMELIST extensions used for input. While this makes the code fairly machine independent, execution times on IBM PC compatibles would be unacceptable to most users. LSENS has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS and a DEC VAX running VMS. With minor modifications, it should also be easily implemented on other platforms with FORTRAN compilers which support NAMELIST input. LSENS required 4Mb of RAM under Sun

  1. Analysis of 239Pu in simulated chemical explosion core soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis method of 239Pu in the soil of chemical explosion core is established. The procedure includes HNO3-HF mixed acid soaking, anion-exchanging and preparing source by pulse plating-radioactivity counting. The recovery of the method is 77.6% +- 5.3%

  2. Computers for automating thermo-chemical analysis of alkylation substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullayev, I.M.; Agayev, F.G.; Efendiyev, S.T.; Glukhov, V.S.; Sadygov, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines issues related to automated measurement and processing parameters of the alkylation process when thermo-chemical analysis is utilized. It provides results of tests and study of a single class of measuring/calculation unit with the list application.

  3. Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

  4. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  5. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  6. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply. PMID:24505853

  7. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  8. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  9. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TL, Campbell; PJ, Lewis; JK, Williams.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We u [...] sed a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  10. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  11. Moderne schriftbeschouwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Trimp

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Wij willen ons konfronteren met enige moderne trends in de theologie op het punt van de schriftbeschouwing. Daarbij concentreren wij ons vooral op het bekende Nederlandse rapport uit 1981: God met ons.

  12. Emergent Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".

  13. Modische Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer opulenten Arbeit untersucht Julia Bertschik die Mode als modernes Phänomen oder besser: als Phänomen der Moderne. Für sie ist Mode nicht nur ein vestimentäres Zeichensystem, sondern eine Spiegelung sozialer und politischer Umschwünge. Somit fungiert Kleidung gleichzeitig als individueller Ausdruck des eigenen Geschmacks und als gesellschaftlicher Code. Die Kleidermode „als Indikator kulturellen Wandels“ wird von Bertschik im Hinblick auf vier Epochen untersucht: Goethezeit, Jahrhundertwende, Weimarer Republik und Nationalsozialismus.

  14. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  15. The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sapon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history political manipulate - The Principles of the building catalogue coalition and The Regional policy aspects and global world.
    Key words: benchmark; manipulate; criterion; politics

    Résumé: À la frontière de différentes époques, les vieilles théories politiques ont montré leur insolvabilité. Le monde est tombé dans la crise politique, liée aux repères politiques et civils globaux. Cette thèse a analysé la situation politique actuelle, tout en évaluant la théorie politique, concernée par la question de la modernisation et de la mondialisation. La thèse est divisée en cinq parties: les libéraux au nouveau démarrage, les institutions intellectuelles- les mythes et la réalité des modèles politiques, l'histoire politique de manipulation, les principes de la coalition et les aspects de la politique régionale et du monde global.
    Mots-Clés: benchmark; manipulation; critères; politiques

  16. Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

  17. Localizing Theory of Communicative Action for an Analysis of the Development and Modernity Process in Iran --- ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ojagh - ???? ???? ????

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical-empirical attempt in which we will try to examine the development status of Iran based on the modified postulates of Habermas’s theory of communicative action. We will also examine the compatibility of this theoretical framework to Iran’s social conditions. The primary findings of this attempt include: first and at the theoretical level, a change in the relationship between on one hand, the dichotomous concepts of rationality and lack of it and, on the other hand, their attribution to the dichotomy of tradition and modern. The second finding relates to the proposition that; a change in life-world in a situation in which tradition is still dominant is possible. The Iranian experience indicates that the belief systems have acted as an indigenous base for the development of communicative action in Iran. These findings indicate that Habermas’s theory of communicative action is capable of being treated as a development theory that can be localized and be used to explain the development process.--- ??? ????? ?? ???? ????-?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ???. ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???.

  18. Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

  19. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

  20. Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Lorenz S. Cederbaum

    2010-01-01

    We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single an...

  1. Novel optical nanoprobes for chemical and biological analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lingxin; Fu, Xiuli; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Chemical and Biological Analysis starts with a brief introduction to several kinds of versatile nanomaterials with novel optical properties, such as gold/silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles and graphene. It mainly focuses on the latest sensor design strategies, which apply the optical properties of nanomaterials to various detection techniques including colorimetry, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). These sensors are attractive owing to their high sensitivity, high specificity, and potential for easy quantificat

  2. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    OpenAIRE

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-01-01

    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  3. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

  4. Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Alfaloje, Haedar S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus...

  5. The Extension of Statistical Entropy Analysis to Chemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Rechberger; Alicja P. Soba?tka; Matthias Zessner

    2012-01-01

    Statistical entropy analysis (SEA) quantifies the dilution and concentration of conservative substances (e.g., heavy metals) in a system. In this paper, the SEA concept is extended (eSEA) to make it applicable to systems in which the chemical speciation is of particular importance. The eSEA is applied to a simplified region used for crop farming. The extent to which the region concentrates or dilutes nitrogen compounds is expressed as the change in statistical entropy (DH). A detailed derivat...

  6. Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling

    OpenAIRE

    EGIDI, Giovanni; de Rooij, Nicolas F

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

  7. Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

  8. Analysis of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To clarify the risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs) after radiotherapy (RT) versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) in the modern era. Methods: The RT cohort consisted of 2120 patients matched on a 1:1 basis with surgical patients according to age and follow-up time. RT techniques consisted of conventional or two-dimensional RT (2DRT, 36%), three-dimensional conformal RT and/or intensity modulated RT (3DCRT/IMRT, 29%), brachytherapy (BT, 16%), and a combination of 2DRT and BT (BT boost, 19%). Results: The overall SPC risk was not significantly different between the matched-pair (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.39), but the risk became significant >5 years or >10 years after RT (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.36-2.55; HR 4.94, 95% CI 2.18-11.2, respectively). The most significant sites of increased risk were bladder, lymphoproliferative, and sarcoma. Of the different RT techniques, only 2DRT was associated with a significantly higher risk (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.32-2.35), but not BT boost (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.50-1.38), 3DCRT/IMRT (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.21), or BT (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01). Conclusions: Radiation-related SPC risk varies depending on the RT technique and may be reduced by using BT, BT boost, or 3DCRT/IMRT.

  9. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  10. Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

  11. Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

  12. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and with the correct methodology provide unamibiguous detection of such life forms.

  13. Development of modern analysis techniques for characterization and testing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some developments in methods and techniques for the analysis of deposited materials. These concern X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Deri...

  15. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

    Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

    Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enri

  16. Materials of 2nd Poznan analytical meeting: Modern methods of sample preparation and trace elements analysis; Materialy 2. Poznanskiego Kowersatorium Analitycznego: Nowoczesne metody przygotowania probek i oznaczania sladowych zawartosci pierwiastkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The modern methods for sample preparation and treatment before analysis have been presented. The neutron activation analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis and other methods have been used for trace element analysis in samples of different origin. The new technical solutions and modern equipment for trace amount analysis have been also performed. During the conference 20 lectures have been presented.

  17. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  18. Is English the key to access the wonders of the modern world? A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in the world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns (Canagarajah, 1999, 2005; Pennycook, 1994a, 1998a, 2000; Phillipson, 1992, 2000 but also of the compliance of the governments associated with the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 1986. Colombia is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government is implementing a National Bilingualism Project (pnb where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of English over all other languages spoken in the country. This article is a critical discourse analysis of the handbook that sets the standards for competences in English. The analysis of data follows Fairclough¿s textual analysis and shows that the authors of the handbook perpetuate mainstream concepts about the symbolic power of English as the one and only necessary tool for academic and economic success.

  19. Chemical analysis of Panax quinquefolius (North American ginseng): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Brinckmann, Josef A; Jiang, Xue; Huang, Linfang

    2015-12-24

    Panax quinquefolius (PQ) is one of the best-selling natural health products due to its proposed beneficial anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-stress, anti-fatigue, and anxiolytic effects. In recent years, the quality of PQ has received considerable attention. Sensitive and accurate methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical constituents are necessary for the comprehensive quality control to ensure the safety and efficacy of PQ. This article reviews recent progress in the chemical analysis of PQ and its preparations. Numerous analytical techniques, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), high-speed centrifugal partition chromatography (HSCPC), high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and immunoassay, are described. Among these techniques, HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is the most promising method for quality control. The challenges encountered in the chemical analysis of PQ are also briefly discussed, and the remaining questions regarding the quality control of PQ that require further investigation are highlighted. PMID:26643719

  20. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Determination of Myoglobin Stability by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Classic and Modern Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Andrew F.; Crawford, Mary A.; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Few laboratory procedures describe the use of circular dichroism (CD) at the undergraduate level. To increase the number of laboratory exercises using CD, a thermal denaturation study of myoglobin using CD is described to assess protein stability. Values obtained from a more classic linear data analysis approach are consistent with data analyzed…

  2. A Philosophical Analysis1 On The Relationship Between The Problems Of The Modern Era And Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail Söylemez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today there are many problems waiting for the support of education to be solved. Some of them arise from social uncertainty, economic deficiency, the worldviews of policy makers who lead societies, differences in faith and some from the societies’ having an eye on other nations’ surface and underground resources. When we consider today’s problems, we notice that the source and main cause of poverty, unemployment, prejudice, environmental pollution, loss of respect for humans, individual/state interests and falling away from the essence of being human, is the wrong or poor education (Söylemez, 2010. Is it limited to mentioned problems? The answer is simply no. When we examine the underlying reasons of such problems, we come to understand that educated people always play key roles. The reason for that must be the fact that educational institutions do not sufficiently nurture needed human capital who are hardworking, sophisticated and honest. The desired and ideal person is the one who has a good court conscience, virtuous, self-conscious, knowing the reason of his existence, respecting the universal values; open to learning and always self-improving. If that is not the case so far, the reason behind it should be sought in educational philosophies and curriculum programs applied at schools. I do believe that what conveys the aim and dynamism in a country is the need for individuals who improves and develops the country without harming the social structure, discovering and knowing himself and productive. I also believe that nobody has words to claim the opposite. Some academicians presented their papers generally on raising perfect individuals in terms of professional fields; such as a good medical doctor, a good engineer, a good chemist and a good nurse. I believe that it would better if they also stress the importance of a “good person” who respects human beings and human values besides having a good content knowledge. Considering the critical age, it is too late for changing the earlier acquired character and personality structure of a young person who is about to attend a university. The chances of changing the self, character, and personality, let us say re-shaping and re-moulding him becomes significantly reduced. What is left to higher education institutions is limited to offering such youths merely the professional knowledge, skills and techniques. I suppose my fellow academicians in that congress avoided the topic I stress here for the same reason. The problems I am trying to draw attention here, is the underlying reason of serious problems for individuals, societies and the globe in general. Modern educational philosophies, institutions, and some educators either overlook or avoid these issues, or they simply remain helpless. This paper is limited to insensitivity of education in response to certain problems of individuals, societies and the world facing as caused by the above mentioned issues.

  3. Avardunud modernism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojt?ch

    Tallin : Eesti Kunstimuuseum Kumu, 2012 - (Pählapuu, L.), s. 84-105 ISBN 978-9949-485-11-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : "diverse" modernity * machinism * trajectories of relationships * Paris * Berlin * Penza * Riga * center * periphery Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 ?C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  5. Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2010-01-01

    We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

  6. Adventures in Modern Time Series Analysis: From the Sun to the Crab Nebula and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    With the generation of long, precise, and finely sampled time series the Age of Digital Astronomy is uncovering and elucidating energetic dynamical processes throughout the Universe. Fulfilling these opportunities requires data effective analysis techniques rapidly and automatically implementing advanced concepts. The Time Series Explorer, under development in collaboration with Tom Loredo, provides tools ranging from simple but optimal histograms to time and frequency domain analysis for arbitrary data modes with any time sampling. Much of this development owes its existence to Joe Bredekamp and the encouragement he provided over several decades. Sample results for solar chromospheric activity, gamma-ray activity in the Crab Nebula, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts will be displayed.

  7. Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Ifan G

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

  8. Immigration in prime time spanish television. Pathways towards inferring modern racism from content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Igartua, Juan-José; Barrios, Isabel; Ortega, Felix; Camarero, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the image of immigration in television fiction based on both Cultivation Theory and previous studies about the representation of ethnic and immigrant minorities in television fiction (Greenberg, Mastro & Brand, 2002). Empirical probe has contrasted that the media exercise a meaningful effect in perceiving one's social world. On the field of television and through Cultivation Theory, George Gerbner and his collaborators have laid the foundations for a line o...

  9. Idioms-Proverbs Lexicon for Modern Standard Arabic and Colloquial Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    Although, the fair amount of works in sentiment analysis (SA) and opinion mining (OM) systems in the last decade and with respect to the performance of these systems, but it still not desired performance, especially for morphologically-Rich Language (MRL) such as Arabic, due to the complexities and challenges exist in the nature of the languages itself. One of these challenges is the detection of idioms or proverbs phrases within the writer text or comment. An idiom or prove...

  10. A modern hydride generation- cryotrapping system for arsenic speciation analysis at sub-ppb level.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, J. M.; Svoboda, Milan; Stýblo, M.; D?dina, Ji?í

    Münster, 2011. FTM 14. [International Symposium on Metallomics /3./. 15.06.2011-18.06.2011, Münster] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * ICP MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.metallomics2011.org/event/Metallomics2011/Scientific_program.html

  11. Genetic Geostatistical Framework for Spatial Analysis of Fine-Scale Genetic Heterogeneity in Modern Populations: Results from the KORA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lacava, A N; Walier, M; Holler, D; Steffens, M; Gieger, C; Furlanello, C; Lamina, C; Wichmann, H E; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to investigate fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity in modern humans from a geographic perspective, a genetic geostatistical approach framed within a geographic information system is presented. A sample collected for prospective studies in a small area of southern Germany was analyzed. None indication of genetic heterogeneity was detected in previous analysis. Socio-demographic and genotypic data of German citizens were analyzed (212 SNPs; n = 728). Genetic heterogeneity was evaluated with observed heterozygosity (H O ). Best-fitting spatial autoregressive models were identified, using socio-demographic variables as covariates. Spatial analysis included surface interpolation and geostatistics of observed and predicted patterns. Prediction accuracy was quantified. Spatial autocorrelation was detected for both socio-demographic and genetic variables. Augsburg City and eastern suburban areas showed higher H O values. The selected model gave best predictions in suburban areas. Fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity were observed. In accordance to literature, more urbanized areas showed higher levels of admixture. This approach showed efficacy for detecting and analyzing subtle patterns of genetic heterogeneity within small areas. It is scalable in number of loci, even up to whole-genome analysis. It may be suggested that this approach may be applicable to investigate the underlying genetic history that is, at least partially, embedded in geographic data. PMID:26258132

  12. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  13. Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

    2003-01-01

    Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

  14. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  15. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33?223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4?years in never-married and 14?years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  16. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  17. Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.)

  18. Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

  19. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  20. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  1. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  2. Observed universality of phase transitions in high-dimensional geometry, with implications for modern data analysis and signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, David; Tanner, Jared

    2009-11-13

    We review connections between phase transitions in high-dimensional combinatorial geometry and phase transitions occurring in modern high-dimensional data analysis and signal processing. In data analysis, such transitions arise as abrupt breakdown of linear model selection, robust data fitting or compressed sensing reconstructions, when the complexity of the model or the number of outliers increases beyond a threshold. In combinatorial geometry, these transitions appear as abrupt changes in the properties of face counts of convex polytopes when the dimensions are varied. The thresholds in these very different problems appear in the same critical locations after appropriate calibration of variables. These thresholds are important in each subject area: for linear modelling, they place hard limits on the degree to which the now ubiquitous high-throughput data analysis can be successful; for robustness, they place hard limits on the degree to which standard robust fitting methods can tolerate outliers before breaking down; for compressed sensing, they define the sharp boundary of the undersampling/sparsity trade-off curve in undersampling theorems. Existing derivations of phase transitions in combinatorial geometry assume that the underlying matrices have independent and identically distributed Gaussian elements. In applications, however, it often seems that Gaussianity is not required. We conducted an extensive computational experiment and formal inferential analysis to test the hypothesis that these phase transitions are universal across a range of underlying matrix ensembles. We ran millions of linear programs using random matrices spanning several matrix ensembles and problem sizes; visually, the empirical phase transitions do not depend on the ensemble, and they agree extremely well with the asymptotic theory assuming Gaussianity. Careful statistical analysis reveals discrepancies that can be explained as transient terms, decaying with problem size. The experimental results are thus consistent with an asymptotic large-n universality across matrix ensembles; finite-sample universality can be rejected. PMID:19805445

  3. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

  4. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  5. Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel E-mail: israel@techunix.technion.ac.il

    2003-05-01

    A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical-looping hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers of CLH is developed. ? The second law efficiencies of different metal-based CLC and CLH were determined. ? The lower equilibrium temperature of Ni makes it a better candidate for CLH. ? The conversion rate of Ni and Co is more than 80 percentages. - Abstract: Recently, interest in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has grown because it is a technique that could allow cost-effective carbon capture and storage. Recently, the chemical-looping process was also proposed for the production of hydrogen. Chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH) generation, which is a derivation of CLC, is a water-splitting process that involves the reduction–oxidation of a metal oxide. CLC and CLH can reduce the irreversibility and the extent of heat rejection, thereby improving the cycle efficiency. The current paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of CLH to illustrate its potential for improved efficiency. A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers based on their thermodynamic properties is developed, and several candidate materials are reviewed. From a thermodynamic perspective, metals such as Ni and Fe are more suitable for CLH, whereas metals such as Ca and Cd can provide higher efficiency for CLC. Finally, comments on the practical implementations of CLH in power plants are presented

  7. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

  8. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  9. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  10. Moderne dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Hvorfor er ”dannelse” igen blevet et vedkommende begreb i aktuelle diskussioner af identitets- og samfundsmæssige problemer? Hvorfor er dannelsesromanen ikke død? Hvad er det, genren kan? Og hvordan kan en dannelsesroman som Goethes Wilhelm Meisters Læreår gøre os klogere på sammenhængen mellem identitets- og formdannelse? Disse spørgsmål forfølges i bogen. Ambitionen er at reaktualisere såvel dannelsesromanen som Læreår og at vise, hvordan de kan bidrage til en ny forståelse af moderne dannelse...

  11. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  12. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that almost all elements in the periodic table are found in petroleum products, varying from percent levels for C-H-S to parts per million and parts per billion levels for transition metals. The presence of elements in crude oil is ascribed to its marine animal and vegetative origin. Compared with two other fossil fuels coal and oil shale petroleum is a lesser source of environmental pollution. Extensive data on crude oils composition are available. Determination of S, N, V, Ni, and Fe form an integral part of crude assay analysis of oils carried out by all oil companies. Generally it is agreed that V, Ni, and Fe occur as metallo-porphyrins; Hg, Sb, and As as organometallic compounds; Mo and Ge as carboxylic acid salts; and silica and NaCl as colloidal minerals. The significance of metals either naturally present in crude and gasoline or purposely added to petroleum products is described. Trace metals in used lubricating oils indicate the wear performance of an engine, and can be used as a preventive maintenance check. A number of sample preparation schemes are necessary depending on the analytical technique to be used. This can vary from procedures as simple as dilution for XRF of AAS, to more involved procedures such as oxygen bomb combustion for ion chromatography, or wet ashing for AAS or ICPAES. Frequently, robots are used to speed sample dilution for XRF or ICPAES

  13. Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

  14. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  15. Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

  16. Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group they were 48,451.00 and 46,029.00 RUB/QALY, respectively. The NMB for the control group amounted to 10,790,910.00 and 10,815,840.00 RUB without and with discounting, respectively, while for the study group the values were 11,904,500.00 and 11,927,390.00 RUB.ConclusionsThe results of clinical and economic analysis show that treatment of the metabolic syndrome, including pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance, should be prioritized over mere medical advisory and lifestyle modifications.

  17. Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O?NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H?H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

  18. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  19. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  20. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of lignin in isolated flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Himmelsbach, D S; Akin, D E; Evans, J D

    2003-04-23

    The chemistry of pure flax fibers, free of contaminating nonfiber components, has not been determined. Fibers from the center sections of the stem of seed and fiber flax (Linum usitatissium L.), which had been retted after soaking in water and removal of the epidermis by hand, underwent chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Wet chemical analysis showed only trace indications of aromatics and no long chain fatty acids or alcohols in fibers. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) showed only trace amounts of aromatic constituents that could be attributed to the presence of lignin. Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) and Raman spectroscopy of these fibers showed no aromatic compounds present. This study suggests that earlier work reporting the presence of lignin ranging from 1 to 4% may be the result of residual shive or epidermis/cuticle material remaining after the retting process which may be responsible for the favorable properties desired by the composites industry. PMID:12696938

  1. Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O ? NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H ? H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

  2. The chemical and isotopic analysis of English forest glass

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Glass is one of several early modern industries where the development from small-scale workshop to large-scale industry offers a valuable insight into wider socio-economic trends. Previously, medieval and early modern forest (wood ash) glass has been studied using a range of analytical techniques. However, characterisations of production centres and exchange systems for forest glasses are difficult to verify, in part because very few examples of raw glass from furnace sites have been investig...

  3. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

  4. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  5. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

  6. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  7. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  8. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, BjØrn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity’ but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

  9. The traumatic rupture of the Achilles’ tendon – an analysis of the modern methods of evaluation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Barda?

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The main aim of this article is an analysis of both advantages anddisadvantages of the modern solutions of treatment – percutaneous surgery, incomparison with the classic methods of treatments described in the surgery of Achilles’tendon.Patients and method. The study was conducted on 23 patients admitted to theOrthopedics and Traumatology Clinic of Cluj-Napoca between January 2011-June2012. Nineteen (19 patients were diagnosed with a complete rupture of the Achillestendon and 4 patients with a partial rupture. The diagnosis of traumatic Achilles tendonruptures was usually clinical, the Ultrasound (common or 3D and the MRI confirmedthe lesion and determined its location and extension. We analyzed the diagnosticmethods, the elapsed time before surgery, the treatment options depending on lesion’slocation, technical difficulties, costs, postoperative care, the average healing time,complications.Results. The Ultrasound was performed in 65.2% of the patients (15 patientsfor confirming the extension of the lesion and it served for pre-operative planning. Inmost of the cases, the classical methods of Achilles tendon reconstruction were used(18 cases. The complications rate was about 8%. We diagnosed an iterative Achillestendon rupture (the patient was initially treated using the percutaneous methods anda delay in cicatrisation.Conclusions. The percutaneous surgical techniques are a viable alternative forthe acute ruptures of Achilles tendon, the classic intervention has clear indications inlesions diagnosed late, in the recurrent tendon ruptures.

  10. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  11. Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

  12. Social Capital, In spite of or due to modernization?:-An analysis of a two-dimensional concept

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson,Skol Nils David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Contemporary Social Capital research generally concludes that modernization per se is detrimental to Social Capital, and that we are getting less trusting and more alienated ass societies modernize. However, in this thesis I argue that a general decline in Social Capital is not a global trend but rather due to a bias of communitarian social capital research, emphasizing ‘Particularized trust’, in local community. ‘Particularized trust’ is trust between people who know each other, b...

  13. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis with cold neutrons. A challenge for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis today may be concerned with more detailed questions than just average elemental composition, and the same concern may be expressed over the spatial distribution, chemical form, structure, etc. The development of new techiques capable of answering such questions is fundamental for the evolution of analytical chemistry. Nuclear techniques play an important role in the understanding of the structure and composition of matter, thus acting as a link between the pure chemical and the physical approach. An experimental setup for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis is described. First results are reported and the limitations and further developments are discussed. The technique, dealing with both scattering and absorption of neutrons, seems to be very promising in the investigation of compositional and structural problems of natural materials. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  15. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  16. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  17. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

  18. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  19. Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrei, Terian.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

  20. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  1. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwell Marcus D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

  2. Methods of modern mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Michael

    1980-01-01

    This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. Modern power distribution; Moderne Energieverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenen, P.L. [Moeller-Kolleg Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Modern power supply systems work without interruption, i.e. inspections are limited to defined time intervals (usually between Chrismas and New Year). Outages incur costs between 20,000 and 3.5 million DM/h. A German car body maker, e.g., estimated a cost of 500,000 DM/h. [German] Heutige Energieverteilersysteme (EVT) werden im Dauerbetrieb gefahren. D.h. Revisionen koennen nur waehrend eines festdefinierten Zeitfensters (meist zwischen Weihnachten und Neujahr) durchgefuehrt werden. Bezogen auf diesen Ablauf sind Ausfaelle der Anlage gleich zu setzen mit hohen Folgekosten, welche je nach Branche zwischen 20.000 DM/h und 3,5 Mio DM/h liegen koennen. Ein deutscher Automobilkonzern z.B. bezifferte die Ausfallkosten fuer sein Karosseriewerk auf 500.000 DM/h. (orig.)

  5. Modern electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bockris, John O'M

    2007-01-01

    about the First Edition: `A superbly written teaching book which should become indispensable to every student of electrochemistry.' Journal of the American Chemical Society `A truly extraordinary achievement ... An enormous body of electrochemical knowledge and a wealth of stunningly penetrating detail.' Journal of the Electrochemical Society `A must.' Nature about the second edition: `These original, stimulating and informative volumes offer an unusual approach and inter alia provide an excellent entrée to the field for the non-specialist.' Emeritus Professor D

  6. The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesi? Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  7. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the...

  8. Petroleomics: the next grand challenge for chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2004-01-01

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has recently revealed that petroleum crude oil contains heteroatom-containing (N,O,S) organic components having more than 20,000 distinct elemental compositions (C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s)). It is therefore now possible to contemplate the ultimate characterization of all of the chemical constituents of petroleum, along with their interactions and reactivity, a concept we denote as "petroleomics". Such knowledge has already proved capable of distinguishing petroleum and its distillates according to their geochemical origin and maturity, distillation cut, extraction method, catalytic processing, etc. The key features that have opened up this new field have been (a) ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass analysis, specifically, the capability to resolve species differing in elemental composition by C(3) vs SH(4) (i.e., 0.0034 Da); (b) higher magnetic field to cover the whole mass range at once; (c) dynamic range extension by external mass filtering; and (d) plots of Kendrick mass defect vs nominal Kendrick mass as a means for sorting different compound "classes" (i.e., numbers of N, O, and S atoms), "types" (rings plus double bonds), and alkylation ((-CH(2))(n)) distributions, thereby extending to >900 Da the upper limit for unique assignment of elemental composition based on accurate mass measurement. The same methods are also being applied successfully to analysis of humic and fulvic acids, coals, and other complex natural mixtures, often without prior or on-line chromatographic separation. PMID:14730994

  9. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  10. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

  11. Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Alfaloje, Haedar S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of pooled calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of levels of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are compared to predictions of the Horwitz formula. It is suggested that this method is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate that the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analytical sciences because they direct researcher's attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than towards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professional laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of analytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method validation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at laboratories.

  12. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  13. Molecular analysis and chemical evaluation of ephedra plants in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Yuki; Zhu, Shu; Omote, Takayuki; Tanaka, Ken; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Mikage, Masayuki; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2009-07-01

    Ephedrae herba has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese (Kampo) medicine from ancient times, with the primary resource being in China. In the present study, a field survey as well as molecular and chemical assessments were conducted on Ephedra plants in Mongolia to clarify whether they could be an alternative resource of the Ephedrae herba used in Japanese Kampo medicine. Ephedra sinica, E. equisetina, E. przewalskii, E. regeliana, E. monosperma and an unknown taxon (ESP) collected in Mongolia were divided into 9 genotypes on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and trnK gene. E. sinica, E. equisetina, and E. monosperma presented completely identical sequences to the corresponding species from China. The sequences of trnK gene and 18S rRNA gene provide a useful index for identification and taxonomic classification of Mongolian Ephedra plants. Quantitative analysis of 5 ephedrine alkaloids revealed that almost all Mongolian Ephedra plants contained high amounts of total ephedrine alkaloids (TAs, 1.86-4.90%) and a high percentage of pseudoephedrine in TAs differed obviously from the Chinese. E. sinica and E. equisetina found in eastern and central Mongolia, showing total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine higher than 1.43%, were potential new resources of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade Ephedrae herba. PMID:19571392

  14. Microplasmas for chemical analysis: analytical tools or research toys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities of the research groups that have been involved in fabrication, development and characterization of microplasmas for chemical analysis over the last few years is presented. Microplasmas covered include: miniature inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs); capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs); microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs); a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); microhollow cathode discharge (MCHD) or microstructure electrode (MSE) discharges, other microglow discharges (such as those formed between 'liquid' electrodes); microplasmas formed in micrometer-diameter capillary tubes for gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applications, and a stabilized capacitive plasma (SCP) for GC applications. Sample introduction into microplasmas, in particular, into a microplasma device (MPD), battery operation of a MPD and of a mini- in-torch vaporization (ITV) microsample introduction system for MPDs, and questions of microplasma portability for use on site (e.g., in the field) are also briefly addressed using examples of current research. To emphasize the significance of sample introduction into microplasmas, some previously unpublished results from the author's laboratory have also been included. And an overall assessment of the state-of-the-art of analytical microplasma research is provided

  15. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE; Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON; Larisa CIUDIN; Maria-Alexandra CRACIUN

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the co...

  16. Evaluating Geographically Weighted Regression Models for Environmental Chemical Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnota, Jenna; Wheeler, David C.; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many correlated chemicals on disease is often of interest. The relationship between correlated environmental chemicals and health effects is not always constant across a study area, as exposure levels may change spatially due to various environmental factors. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has been proposed to model spatially varying effects. However, concerns about collinearity effects, incl...

  17. Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper. ((orig.))

  18. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

  19. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

  20. Savremene metode analize ulja u tehni?kim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Peri?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza ulja na osnovu pravilno definisanog programa predstavlja veoma efikasan metod monitoringa stanja tehni?kih sistema koji obezbe?uje rane upozoravaju?e znake potencijalnih problema, koji vode ka otkazu i zastoju tehni?kih sistema. Ova analiza je veoma efikasan alat programa za monitoring stanja tehni?kih sistema. Mnogobrojni ure?aji i testovi za analizu ulja omogu?avaju kvalitetan monitoring i dijagnosticiranje problema koji nastaju u procesu podmazivanja. Koriš?enjem programa za analizu motornih ulja: skra?uje se neplanirano vreme otkaza vozila, poboljšava pouzdanost vozila, produžava radni vek motora, optimizira interval zamene ulja i smanjuju troškovi održavanja vozila. / Different technical systems require an appropriate lubricant to be used at an appropriate place, at appropriate time and in appropriate quantity. Determination of technical systems condition has a very important role in the development of theory and practice of friction, wear and lubrication. Lubricant is, as a contact element of tribomechanical systems, a carrier of information about the state of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. The analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, thus represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Introduction It is not always simple to determine a type of lubricant, frequency of lubrication and the quantity of lubricant to be used. The optimal recommendation would be to follow specifications of technical system manufacturers, experience, lab research or professional recommendation of lubricant suppliers. Rational lubricant consumption can be obtained by timely oil replacement, which then enables a maximum possible period of use as well as high-quality lubrication. Since the primary role of lubricants is to reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result of wear processes, solid particles from the environment, water and products of fuel combustion. D

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide with coated and uncoated spark-discharge soot aerosol particles was found to proceed via competitive adsorption of O3 and NO2, and the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene on soot particles was faster with O3 and NO2 than only with O3. Additional experiments and the development of a formal mechanistic description of the investigated processes are currently under way.

  2. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text?s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  3. The Hippocratic oath: a comparative analysis of the ancient text's relevance to American and Indian modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, Chandrakant I; Jhala, Khushboo N

    2012-01-01

    Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed. PMID:23032817

  4. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  5. Calling and volunteering in modern society:How Weber’s analysis of the Protestant ethic may help understand volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Olav Helge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how the concept of "calling" may help shed light on volunteering as a modern, social phenomenon as "calling" is laid out in the Max Weber's essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism an with a side view to philosophical notions of the "good life".

  6. Use of modern contraception increases when more methods become available: analysis of evidence from 1982–2009

    OpenAIRE

    ROSS, JOHN; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    International data over 27 years show that as each additional contraceptive method became available to most of the population, overall modern contraceptive use rose. But in 2009 only 3.5 methods, on average, were available to at least half the population in surveyed countries. Family planning programs should strive to provide widespread access to a range of methods.

  7. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Frøst, M B; Østdal, H; Hermansen, John Erik; Kröger-Ohlsen, M; Skibsted, L H

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...... lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary...... oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine...

  8. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mezentsev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

  9. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V. A., Mezentsev.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND [...] METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients) were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

  10. Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure for the characterization of the dissimilar metal welds and the analysis of results by using 3D APT in order to get a clear understanding of structure and chemistry in the fundamental scale of weld interfaces

  11. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livezey, Bradley C; Zusi, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs. Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsi

  12. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  13. Modern Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the AdS/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles. (book review)

  14. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  15. Chemical and microbial analysis of a talik in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, B. T.; Onstott, T. C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Freifeld, B. M.; Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost in high latitude regions plays an important role in the global carbon cycle by storing a significant portion of soil carbon and providing a physical barrier to the release of methane trapped within the frozen soil and in subpermafrost water and hydrates. Projected temperature increases will likely lead to the loss of large areas of continuous permafrost and the development of discontinuous zones featuring through taliks, regions of permanently unfrozen ground within permafrost-dominated regions with the ability to form conduits through the normally impermeable permafrost. The development of through taliks may create a pathway for the migration of methane from within and below the permafrost to the atmosphere, reintroducing naturally sequestered carbon back into the global carbon cycle in the form of a greenhouse gas. To this end, the chemical and microbial composition of a talik system is of interest. Here we report the preliminary results of a subsurface sampling campaign in an Arctic system (Kangerlussuaq, Greenland). In July 2009 a borehole was drilled through the permafrost and into a talik below an overlying lake near the edge of Russell glacier. This borehole was fitted with a temperature probe and a U-tube device used to selectively collect water samples from a depth of 141 meters. Water was purged from the system for geochemical and microbial analysis during the end of the summer season in 2009 and 2010. Samples showed low cell density (300 ppm) though the isotopic signature (?34S = 4.33 ± .22‰) does not appear to indicate high levels of sulfate reduction. An understanding of these systems will help to establish potential for feedbacks on methane release within the system (e.g. anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction) and determine what role taliks may play in a warming Arctic.

  16. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel–dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

  17. Modern and post-modern patrimonialism

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Nuno

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the Angolan political system after independence. Its haracterisation confronts two interpretative perspectives or what is here called modern and post-modern patrimonialism, each will be exposed.

  18. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

  19. Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Hasna

    2011-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put i...

  20. Using space syntax analysis in detecting privacy: a comparative study of traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    FARIS ALI MUSTAFA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is, firstly, to examine the parameters which have a role in achieving privacy in using the interior domestic spaces and to what extent it influences on the way of distribution of these spaces; secondly, to investigate the relationship between house layout morphology and the privacy of inhabitants.  In this paper, space syntax theory is used to examine the spatial morphology of both types (traditional and modern) house layouts in Erbil city, in order to detect...

  1. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the gl...

  2. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  3. Comparative chemical analysis of dew and rain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekouch, Imad; Mileta, Marina; Muselli, Marc; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Irène; Šojat, Višnja; Kabbachi, Belkacem; Beysens, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Dew and rain water were collected and analyzed during 3 years (2004-2006) in Zadar, Croatia. The goal was to characterize the chemical properties of dew water versus rain water (and the atmosphere in which they form) and to determine the extent to which they can be used as potable water. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO 3-, Cl -, SO 42-, NO 3-), and major cations (NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for both dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195 µS cm - 1 (dew) and EC = 178 µS cm - 1 (rain). The ratio (SO 42- + NO 3-)/(Ca 2+ + Mg 2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably because the NO 2-, HCOO - and CH 3COO - ions were not measured), with Ca² +, Na + and Mg 2+ as the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na + as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable contribution of non-marine origin for components Ca ²+, K +, SO 42- and NO 3-, except Cl -. In contrast, in rain water, the values of the non sea-salt fraction (NSSF) indicate that only Ca² + and NO 3- are not influenced by sea proximity. The study of the neutralization factor, NF, reveals the descending order of the cations in dew and rain water, NF Ca²+ > NF Mg²+ > NF K+ > NF NH4+. The dew and rain water are in conformity with the World Health Organization directives for potability, except for Mg 2+.

  4. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer—A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J.; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/. PMID:26807911

  5. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba/Sr ranging from 0.1 to 3. This ratio varies on spatial and temporal scales and traces provenance signals as well as the fractionation of the elements in the hydrological cycle. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. The provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from about 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that with time, Ba mobility decreased relative to that of Sr. This can arise if preferential adsorption of Ba to clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide is related to increasing aridification. Additionally, weathering solutions and lake water can become increasingly alkaline and barite becomes stable. In this case, Ba will be preferentially deposited on the watershed of Lake Albert and rivers with low Ba/Sr will feed the habitats of the Hippopotamids.

  6. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojevi? Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980). The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues rai...

  7. Biologia química: uma estratégia moderna para a pesquisa em produtos naturais / Chemical biology: a modern strategy for the natural products research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Tallarico, Pupo; Margareth Borges Coutinho, Gallo; Paulo Cezar, Vieira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of the Natural Products Research in Brazil in the last five years (2002-2006), and also discusses how some relevant aspects of the Chemical Biology area could create new research opportunities and challenges for the natural product chemists. In addition, some aspects [...] of the scientific policies and their impact on current projects are discussed.

  8. Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Penal modernism: an American tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Whitman’s analysis of penal modernism. While I am in agreement with the central claim that penal modernism has been ignored and caricatured, I argue here that Whitman’s account of the penal modernist theory of judging must be understood in the context of a wider reframing of the social functions of the criminal law in penal modernism. This is explored by considering the unusual connection that the novel An American Tragedy (1925) has to the history of American criminal la...

  10. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  11. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  12. The stylistic identity of the metapoet: a corpus-based comparative analysis using translations of modern Greek poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pantopoulos, Iraklis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the stylistic identity of four translators of modern Greek poetry into English and to outline each translator’s distinct stylistic profile. In line with views on the subject expressed by Malmkjær (1996) and Baker (2000) a translator’s profile is seen as being composed by consistent patterns that can be identified throughout their work and which leave their personal mark on the text. A corpus-based methodology is used for the identification and exploration o...

  13. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3–7 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM – Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 24) in Melbourne, Australia. The prize was awarded to Aurélien Moy of the University of Montpellier (France) for his poster entitled: "Standardless quantification of heavy metals by electron probe microanalysis". This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 9 of the invited plenary lectures and of 12 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees.

  14. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis and its implementation in deep tissue with a catheter setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhou-xian; Lin, Jian-die D.; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the relative concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. This study validated the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing liver conditions during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also tested.

  15. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  16. Koopmans' Analysis of Chemical Hardness with Spectral-Like Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable “observational” effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the “frozen spin-orbitals” approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates. PMID:23970834

  17. Modern post-operative radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer may improve local control and survival: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We hypothesized that modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) could decrease local recurrence (LR) and improve overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: To investigate the effect of modern PORT on LR and OS, we identified published phase III trials for PORT and stratified them according to use or non-use of linear accelerators. Non-individual patient data were used to model the potential benefit of modern PORT in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC treated with induction chemotherapy and resection. Results: Of the PORT phase III studies, eleven trials (2387 patients) were included for OS analysis and eight (1677 patients) for LR. PORT decreased LR, whether given with cobalt, cobalt and linear accelerators, or with linear accelerators only. An increase in OS was only seen when PORT was given with linear accelerators, along with the most significant effect on LR (relative risk for LR and OS 0.31 (p = 0.01) and 0.76 (p = 0.02) for PORT vs. controls, respectively). Four trials (357 patients) were suitable to assess LR rates in stage III NSCLC treated with surgery, in most cases after induction chemotherapy. LR as first relapse was 30% (105/357) after 5 years. In the modeling part, PORT with linear accelerators was estimated to reduce LR rates to 10% as first relapse and to increase the absolute 5-year OS by 13%. Conclusions: This modeling study generates the hypothesis that modern PORT may increase both LR and OS in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC even in patients being treated with induction chemotherapy and surgery

  18. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern financ...

  19. Technology in an Alternative Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    This essay tries to defend a general embracing-controlling-stance on modern technology on the basis of the analysis of technology and a synthesized theory about the relationship between technology and culture. The task is carried out in the framework of an alternative modernity theory, in a cross-cultural context. China and specific technologies are used to illustrate the central ideas as case studies.

  20. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Jose Sánchez-Soto; Antonio Ruíz-Conde; Eduardo Garzón Garzón

    2012-01-01

    It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100? and 1000?C) wa...

  1. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth - Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  2. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth : Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401

  3. Impact of modern evolution of Paphos town to its ancient necropoleis: a multi-temporal GIS and earth observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, V.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Hellenistic and Roman ancient cemeteries are spread all over the territory of the island of Cyprus, consisting one of the major archaeological data sites. Ancient necropoleis due to their tombs "manufacturing" nature, being almost exclusively underground and hewn out of the natural rock, are preserved in a great majority respect to their equivalent domestic and other kinds of architectural remains which are primarily constructed above the ground. Having that in mind, it's understood that their thorough excavation and study could add significantly to recent archaeological research. Unfortunately, being usually neglected and mainly due to lack of economic resources, no planned excavation of tombs is usually undertaken. On the contrary, most of the tombs are to be found accidentally during infrastructural works or other modern development activities, such as roads, sewage systems and others. This reality of course deprives the archaeologists of a scrupulous study since damages are to be done to the tombs in combination to the tight time schedules that usually pushing towards the fast completion of an archaeological project, not permitting the necessary time for fully understanding in context. In this direction, remote sensing techniques are nowadays an extremely useful tool in the hands of archaeologists, for overlapping the above described modern reality. In the present paper will be briefly addressed the use of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the funerary archaeolandscape of Hellenistic and Roman Cyprus in an effort of sustainable planning, leading to its better preservation.

  4. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  5. Seasonality and season of birth of modern and late Neolithic sheep from South-Eastern France using tooth enamel ?18O analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Blaise, Emilie; Balasse, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic analysis of tooth enamel was used to investigate seasonality and season of birth in sheep. Analyses were performed on the teeth of eight modern sheep bred at the Carmejane farm in south-eastern France and born in different periods of the year. This reference data set confirms that oxygen isotopic records in the second and third molars can be used to differentiate between sheep born in late winter and those born in early autumn. The results show that inter-individual var...

  6. Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, David M

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

  7. Chemical diagnosis of DLC by ESR spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with four precursor gases such as methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene in gas phase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that dangling-bond sites (DBSs) observed in all films were characterized by an isotropic broad single line. The DLC film with unsaturated precursor gases had the higher film growth rate and the higher DBS accumulative rate. Although the DBS in DLC films were quite stable at room temperature under anaerobic conditions, the DBS decayed rapidly to level off toward a limiting value when exposed to air. The stability and reactivity of the DBS in DLC film were assumed to depend on chemical structure of organic gas used as precursor. The detailed-ESR study on DBS of the DLC films could be one of the powerful tools for diagnosing the micro-structural properties and the quality of films.

  8. Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put into effect, the final hurdle for industry adoption can only be made with the achievement of a financial return on investment. This study analyses the costs and benefits for implementing microwave systems and presents results for economic parameters used in cost calculations. The calculations method is outlined using a corrugated board case study. Furthermore in the age of green awakening microwave processing is argued to help improve process efficiency by using green electric supply hence reducing CO2 emissions.

  9. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-01-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RA...

  10. Chemical transformations during the collapse of protostars. Qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chemical reactions taking place during the protostar collapse on variations of concentrations of elements that contribute into volume energy losses has been studied. The variation of molecular hydrogen content both in a gaseous medium and in a medium containing dust particles, the relation between ionized and the neutral carbon, the adsorption of heavy elements by dust particles and the growth of the dust particle radius are considered. The paper discusses the effect of the processes on the protostar cooling rate

  11. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu? bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu? feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  12. Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

  13. Performance analysis of Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The increase of temperature of endothermic reaction reduces performance of heat pump. ? The better the performance is, the larger the number of trays. ? COP focuses on the quantity of recovered heat. ? Exergy efficiency focuses on the quantity and quality of recovered heat. - Abstract: The performance of an Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen (IAH) chemical heat pump system is investigated in terms of enthalpy efficiency (COP) and exergy efficiency, in which the exothermic and endothermic reactions take place in the gas phase. The increase of reflux ratio, temperature of endothermic reaction and temperature of exothermic reaction reduces the performance of the heat pump when the other operating parameters remain unchanged. However, the performance of the IAH chemical heat pump improves with the increase of the ratio of molar quantity of hydrogen to that of acetone in the entry of exothermic reactor and the number of heat transfer units of regenerator. Generally, a better performance of the chemical heat pump corresponds to a larger number of trays in the distillation column. The performance of the system can be improved significantly after multi-parameter optimization design. The coefficient of performance (COP) pays more attention to the heat released from the exothermic reactor, while the exergy efficiency takes into consideration of both heat released from the exothermic reactor and temperature of exothermic reaction.

  14. Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochniol, G; Broel, S; Naoumidis, A; Nickel, H

    1996-06-01

    LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites. PMID:15045345

  15. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  16. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to de...

  17. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way...

  18. Modern vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Modern Vacuum Physics presents the principles and practices of vacuum science and technology along with a number of applications in research and industrial production. The first half of the book builds a foundation in gases and vapors under rarefied conditions, The second half presents examples of the analysis of representative systems and describes some of the exciting developments in which vacuum plays an important role. The final chapter addresses practical matters, such as materials, components, and leak detection. Throughout the book, the author''s explanations are presented in terms of first principles and basic physics, augmented by illustrative worked examples and numerous figures.

  19. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C; King, H; Markanya, A; Mottram, R; Roberts, P; Salvito, D

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  1. Development of automated imaging and analysis for zebrafish chemical screens.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Andreas; Codore, Hiba; Day, Billy W.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Tsang, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of image-based high-content screening (HCS) methodology to identify small molecules that can modulate the FGF/RAS/MAPK pathway in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish embryo is an ideal system for in vivo high-content chemical screens. The 1-day old embryo is approximately 1mm in diameter and can be easily arrayed into 96-well plates, a standard format for high throughput screening. During the first day of development, embryos are transparent with most of the major ...

  2. [Analysis of main chemical composition in hydrogenated rosin from Zhuzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W G; Chen, X P; Wang, L L; Deng, S; Zhou, Y H; An, X N

    2001-01-01

    The acid fraction, the main part of the hydrogenated rosin produced by Zhuzhou Forest Chemicals Plant of China, was separated from neutral fraction by modified DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and analyzed with GC-MS-DS technique by using DB-5 capillary column. Six dihydroabietic-type resin acids, four dihydropimaric/isopimaric-type resin acids and four tetrahydroabietic-type resin acids were identified. The hydrogenated rosin is composed mainly of 8-abietenoic acid, 18-abietanoic acid, 13-abietenoic acid, 8 alpha, 13 beta-abietanoic acid, 13 beta-8-abietenoic acid and 8-isopimarenoic acid etc. PMID:12541853

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of some Pakistani crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as API gravity. Specific gravity, Pour point, Calorific value, Kinematic viscosity, Flash point, Reid vapour pressure, Copper corrosion. Condradson carbon, Water and sediments, Total sulphur, salt contents, Distillation range, I.B.P., F.B.P., total recovery, residue and metallic contents of some Pakistani crude oils collected from different oil fields of the Punjab and Sindh provinces has been employed to estimate the amounts of metallic elements, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Ni, Si, Na and K and V. Results have been compared with other international crude oils to assess the quality of Pakistani oils. (author)

  4. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...... case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature on the...

  5. Water and aqueous environments: on-line chemical analysis, problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General approaches to the automation of chemical analysis and to the design of systems for on-line monitoring of aqueous environments are considered. The advantages of flow analysis techniques in the development of these systems are substantiated. Merits and demerits of the existing versions of flow analysis, namely flow-injection and sequential injection analysis, as well as continuous flow analysis and combined versions of these two methods, are discussed.

  6. Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

    Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

  7. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  8. X-RAY, MICROSCOPE, AND WET CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES: COMPLEMENTARY TEAM FOR DEPOSIT ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly used techniques for the analysis of potable water scale and corrosion deposits do not provide equivalent information about the chemical nature and significance of the deposits. ptical examination, with unaided eye and with microscopes, provides some useful information. -...

  9. Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

  10. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  11. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  12. Chemical analysis and Vickers hardness of orthodontic mini-implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christiane Cavalcante, Feitoza; Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de, Oliveira; Rafael Leonardo Xediek, Consani; Eloisa Marcantonio, Boeck; Karina Eiras Dela Coleta, Pizzol; Nadia, Lunardi.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic mini-implants are used in clinical practice to provide efficient and aesthetically-pleasing anchorage. AIM: To evaluate the hardness Vickers hardness and chemical composition of mini-implant titanium alloys from five commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty self-drilling mini-implants, six eac [...] h from the following commercial brands, were used: Neodent NEO, Morelli MOR, Sin SIN, Conexão CON, and Rocky Mountain RMO. The hardness and chemical composition of the titanium alloys were performed by the Vickers hardness test and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Vickers hardness was significantly higher in SIN implants than in NEO, MOR, and CON implants. Similarly, VH was significantly higher in RMO implants than in MOR and NEO ones. In addition, VH was higher in CON implants than in NEO ones. There were no significant differences in the proportions of titanium and aluminum in the mini-implant alloy of the five commercial brands. Conversely, the proportion of vanadium differed significantly between CON and MOR/NEO implants. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-implants of different brands presented distinct properties of hardness and composition of the alloy.

  13. The iron compound and the chemical analysis in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil as chemically and biologically active means, where the nutrients and also the polluting agents are retained, is a very important factor in the development of a determined culture, reason why the man conducts different actions that allow to improve the nutrient composition of soil, and to eliminate the polluting agents through provision of fertilizers, wastes, etc.. The characterization of these improved soils is an indispensable task to the development of a certain culture. Plants take from the soil different elements that allows make different functions during the nutrition. Iron is one of such elements which take place en the chlorophyll in plants and can be forming different compounds. The determination of mineralogical of such iron compounds could be performed by means of different analytical techniques. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is the finger print technique in the valuation of iron compounds. The results of the valuation of the chemical composition and the iron mineralogical forms in Cuban and Spanish soil samples. A high ferric oxide concentration (100 %) in different mineralogical forms in the studied Cuban agriculture soil was found. A calcareous soil from Huelva region with ferrous sulphate as additive was characterized. This additive allows to improve the cation interchange capacity

  14. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Brown, Richard K; Hutchins, Burleigh M; Freire, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Toward this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Because ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities, and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (?60°C) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations where binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this article, we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples. PMID:23994566

  15. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND E. MARCH

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

  16. XPS analysis of combustion aerosols for chemical composition, surface chemistry, and carbon chemical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Bryg, Vicky M; Hays, Michael D

    2011-03-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols can vary in elemental content, surface chemistry, and carbon nano-structure. Each of these properties is related to the details of soot formation. Fuel source, combustion process (affecting formation and growth conditions), and postcombustion exhaust where oxidation occurs all contribute to the physical structure and surface chemistry of soot. Traditionally such physical and chemical parameters have been measured separately by various techniques. Presented here is the unified measurement of these characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present study, XPS is applied to combustion soot collected from a diesel engine (running biodiesel and pump-grade fuels); jet engine; and institutional, plant, and residential oil-fired boilers. Elemental composition is mapped by a survey scan over a broad energy range. Surface chemistry and carbon nanostructure are quantified by deconvolution of high-resolution scans over the C1s region. This combination of parameters forms a distinct matrix of identifiers for the soots from these sources. PMID:21322576

  17. O direito moderno sob a ótica dos clássicos da sociologia: análises e questionamentos / Le droit moderne dans la perspective des classiques de la sociologie: analyses et questionnements / Modern law under the lens of the classics of sociology: analysis and questions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amílcar Cardoso Vilaça de, Freitas; Elizardo Scarpati, Costa.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se, neste artigo, fazer uma análise acerca do direito moderno a partir das três abordagens clássicas da sociologia - da perspetiva weberiana, durkhemiana e marxiana sobre o campo do direito. Procurar-se-á especificar as diferentes interpretações sociológicas, discutindo-as a partir das rela [...] ções sociais e políticas estabelecidas entre a sociedade civil, o Estado e as ideologias políticas que concretizam a atual configuração do direito. Assim, como se trata de visões fundadoras, interessa-nos tanto o que elas propuseram quanto o que elas não puderam responder, reclamando continuidades da sociologia jurídica contemporânea, com atenção especial para o caso brasileiro. Portanto, pretende-se demonstrar a abertura paradigmática que a sociologia do direito possui desde sua formação e como o direito, como temática sociológica, está presente desde a fundação da disciplina. Abstract in english In this article, we intend to undertake an analysis of modern law, working from three classical, sociological approaches (the Weberian, Durkheimian, and Marxian perspectives) to the field of law. We will seek to specify the different sociological interpretations, discussing them departing from the p [...] olitical and social relations established between civil society, the State and the political ideologies that solidify the current configuration of the law. In this manner, and given that one deals with foundational visions, they interest us as much for what they propose as for what they cannot respond to, claiming a continuity with contemporary, juridical sociology, with a special attention given to the Brazilian case. As such, we intend to demonstrate the paradigmatic place that the sociology of law has possessed since its formation and how the law, as a sociological theme, is present at the foundation of the discipline.

  18. Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Fionn

    2008-01-01

    The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic relationship of the u...

  19. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu,; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) as a vegetation standard in chemical and radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfalfa (UST-1361) as a single SRM for use in chemical and radiochemical analysis of vegetation has been reported earlier, interest are shown in this paper. They were obtained in an interlaboratory comparison program currently in progress. Of the 22 split samples 15 have been acknowledged by the participants to test parameters of their interest. The chemical analysis is detailed and the procedures used are described

  2. Chemical Gradient-mediated Melting Curve Analysis for Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Russom, Aman; Irimia, Daniel; TONER, MEHMET

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a microfluidic solid-phase Chemical Gradient-mediated Melting Curve Analysis (CGMCA) method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The method is based on allele-specific denaturation to discriminate mismatched (MM) from perfectly matched (PM) DNA duplexes upon exposure to linear chemical gradient. PM and MM DNA duplexes conjugated on beads are captured in a microfluidic gradient generator device designed with dams, keeping the beads trapped perpendicular to a...

  3. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  4. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. ?56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ? 0. These near-zero bulk ?56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero ?56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (?56Fe ? -1.5 to -0.5?) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2?. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-?56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  5. Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-11-01

    The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

  6. Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    1996-08-01

    The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

  7. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  8. Chemical analysis of interplanetary dust particles with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 10-?m interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere, were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence excited by white synchrotron radiation (SYXFA) at the HASYLAB (DESY) in Hamburg. The measured abundances of the minor and trace elements with 16< Z<76 are in good agreement with abundances determined by PIXE analysis of the same particles. The results demonstrate that SYXFA is indeed a powerful nondestructive technique for multi-element analysis of micron-sized samples. Moreover the combined application of two such techniques, SYXFA and PIXE, to the same valuable particle has been found to lend high credibility to the results. (author). 5 figs., 14 refs

  9. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  10. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to improve control methods (e.g. legal, b

  11. Analysis of chemical reactivity of burnup molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivity of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 and (TRU)Cl3-NaCl (TRU: transuranium elements) molten salts with burnup has been thermodynamically analyzed with a free-energy minimization method. The results on the fluoride salts reproduced the operational experience of an experimental molten salt reactor (MSRE), particularly the distribution of fission products in the primary system and the corrosion of Hastelloy N. A possibility of U-Pd alloy segregation, which has been neglected, was newly identified. The results on the TRU chloride system indicate possibilities of (1) accumulation of PdTe which acts as a chemical potential source to cause the structural alloy corrosion, (2) segregation of Np-Pu-Pd alloys, (3) difficulty in valence control unlike that in the fluoride salts and (4) condensation of ZrCl4 vapor in the off-gas system. It was shown that the understanding of alloy systems Ni-Cr-Fe-Te, Pd-Ag-Te, U(Np)-Zr-Te etc. is important in feasibility studies of nuclear systems based on the molten salts. (author)

  12. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature on the product quality (degree of cure) are examined by means of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The variations in the activation energy as well as the density of the resin are found to have a strong influence on the centerline degree of cure at the exit whereas the other process parameters have smaller influences. Moreover, different MCS options are examined to investigate their effects on the accuracy of the random output parameter.

  13. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard. PMID:16602194

  15. Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

  16. Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia de Freitas Eduardo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose e "light" (com redução de açúcares e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars and light (low sugar and the standard brands was made.

  17. Achocolatados: análise química / Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mércia de Freitas, Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredient [...] es lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais. Abstract in english Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and [...] whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

  18. Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, F. G.; Bache, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTIT-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

  20. Modernism / Andrus Kallastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

  1. Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

  2. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M F; Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V

    1978-01-01

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  3. Technical Note: Anatomic identification of isolated modern human molars: testing Procrustes aligned outlines as a standardization procedure for elliptic fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corny, Julien; Détroit, Florent

    2014-02-01

    The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses ("EFAproc" method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated ("leave one individual out") percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. PMID:24242977

  4. Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

  5. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands

  6. Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experimen ts with several analytical technologies comprisi ng of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. Th e scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depen ds on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of poo led calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of leve ls of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are com pared to predictions of the Horwitz formu la. It is suggested that this m ethod is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate t hat the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analyticalsciences because they direct researcher’s attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than tow ards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professiona l laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of ana lytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method val idation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at labora tories.

  7. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.

  8. Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Staniek; Gessner, A.; J. Zielnica; W. Ptaszy?ski; A. Myszkowski; O. Ciszak; A. Stoi?

    2012-01-01

    The Finite element method (FEM) was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

  9. ?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

  10. Analysis of physical and chemical explosions inside a flow pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work in our analytical investigation of explosions inside a flow network, which emphasizes the explosive event itself. A special finite-difference scheme known as Flux-Corrected Transport has been adapted to solve gas-dynamic problems with large flow gradients, including shocks and contact surfaces. The results of this work can be used to supply the source or driving force for our far-field analysis. A sample model of the problem of shock and contact surface propagation is presented

  11. Chemical analysis of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd.--antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Sybilla M; Graikou, Konstantia; G?owniak, Kazimierz; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-03-01

    A new iridoid glucoside named 10-isovaleroyl-dihydropenstemide (1), along with nine known compounds was isolated from the aerial part of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd. The known compounds include three iridoid glucosides, one phenylpropanoid glucoside, one monoterpene glucoside, one monoterpene lactone and three flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Additionally four phenolic acids as well as a fatty acid were determined through GC-MS analysis. All isolated compounds and the crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against six Gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as against three human pathogenic fungi. PMID:22155592

  12. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A

    2006-01-02

    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  13. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeren, Sophie; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture.

  14. Chemical characterization and principal components analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The volatile organic compound composition of atmospheric aerosol particle samples was investigated through the use of a low volume particle collection/thermal desorption technique. A modification to the published procedure was developed to overcome recurring problems with contamination from organic compounds. The modification involved the construction of a new injection port which was designed to be used without a septum. Use of this injection port significantly lowered the level of contamination. With this method, the volatile organic compounds are desorbed from aerosol particles, separated by gas chromatography, and identified by mass spectrometry. Aerosols collected at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, during a collaborative field study and in Boulder, Colorado, during the 1989 Boulder Canyon forest fire were analyzed. The covariations over time of the concentrations of organic compounds and various physical and meteorological variables from 48 samples collected at the Niwot Ridge were investigated by principal components analysis (PCA). Data on 93 variables, including 59 volatile organic compounds, 22 vapor phase organic and inorganic compounds, and 8 physical and meteorological variables were included in the analysis. Twelve factors were extracted, which can be interpreted according to the identity of the variables which correlate strongly with the factors. These 12 factors accounted for 81.3% of the variance in the data set. Four factors are related to anthropogenic emission sources, 2 factors are related primarily to biogenic emission sources, one is principally a meteorological factor, and the remaining 5 factors are groups of compounds related to both anthropogenic and biogenic activity.

  15. Pneumatically actuated microvalve circuits for programmable automation of chemical and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Stockton, Amanda M; Jensen, Erik C; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-02-23

    Programmable microfluidic platforms (PMPs) are enabling significant advances in the utility of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis. Traditional microfluidic devices are analogous to application-specific devices - a new device is needed to implement each new chemical or biochemical assay. PMPs are analogous to digital electronic processors - all that is needed to implement a new assay is a change in the order of operations conducted by the device. In this review, we introduce PMPs based on normally-closed microvalves. We discuss recent applications of PMPs in diverse fields including genetic analysis, antibody-based biomarker analysis, and chemical analysis in planetary exploration. Prospects, challenges, and future concepts for this emerging technology will also be presented. PMID:26864083

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  17. Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Staniek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finite element method (FEM was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

  18. Strategy of modernization of Sonatrach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of modernization of Sonatrach proceeds from an analysis which assumes as fundamentals : technological evolution as a source of competitive advantage, the careful observation of the strategies followed by the main actors of the international oil industry, the evolution of relationship between the State and the state owned enterprise. (Author)

  19. Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    constructions. These materials are used in favor of achieving a proper level of thermal isolation, but it has been noticed that they can impact heavily on radio signal propagation. This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of the outdoor-to-indoor attenuation experienced in several modern constructions...... presented along the paper are useful for future radio network planning considerations....

  20. COMPARATIVE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS L. USING VERMICOMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Dulal Chandra Das

    2013-01-01

    The chemical fertilizers have lost the faith on agriculture throughout the globe today; oppositely the organic amendments are gradually becoming more reliable components in the field of agriculture. The objective of the present work was to investigate the relative growth analysis of China aster (Callistephus chinensis L.) applying the vermi compost and chemical fertilizer (10:26:26) and to observe the growth efficiency of both the amendments. The present investigation also aimed to increase t...

  1. Computer-Aided Modelling of Short-Path Evaporation for Chemical Product Purification, Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    An important stage in the design process for many chemical products is its manufacture where, for a class of chemical products that may be thermally unstable (such as, drugs, insecticides, flavours /fragrances, and so on), the purification step plays a major role. Short-path evaporation is a safe method, suitable for separation and purification of thermally unstable materials whose design and analysis can be efficiently performed through reliable model-based techniques. This paper presents a gen...

  2. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  3. MODERN ROLE OF THE REPORT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS AND THE FEATURES OF ITS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babackov A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the statement of financial performance in the current conditions. Factor analysis of earnings is studied in detail. The basic principles and steps of constructing a report for RAS and IAS have been revealed

  4. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  5. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  6. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  7. Analysis of chemically synthesized oleoylethanolamide by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabuis, Clémentine; Tissot-Favre, Delphine; Bezelgues, Jean-Baptiste; Martin, Jean-Charles; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2008-08-22

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is known to potentially have beneficial biological effects on weight management by controlling food intake and activating lipid catabolism. In biological fluids, OEA and other endogenously biosynthesized fatty acid ethanolamides are usually analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The present study provides analytical method to routinely assess the quality of OEA prepared for biological studies by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The preparation of OEA for biomedical studies can be performed by N-acylation of oleic acid/esters or using oleoyl chloride. In the present study, OEA was prepared by transamidation of triolein. The analysis of the synthesized OEA has been performed by gas-liquid chromatography of its trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) derivatives. Free OEA cannot be analyzed as such because dehydration of the ethanolamide moiety promptly happens in the GLC injection. This thermal degradation reaction gives rise to the formation of an oxazoline derivative. The TMS moiety prevents the reaction, and the structure of the formed derivative was assessed by mass spectrometry. We show here that OEA prepared for biological studies can be routinely analyzed by GLC after TMS derivative preparation. PMID:18644599

  8. Spectroscopic investigation and chemical properties analysis on anticancer compound; ?,?,?,?-Tetrabromo-p-Xylene with computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor ali, M.; George, Gene; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.; Gokulakrishnan, V.

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the pharmaceutical applications, the vibrational spectra of ?,?,?,?-Tetrabromo-p-Xylene (4?BX) were recorded using IR, Raman and NMR spectrometer with FT technique. The modified optimized structural bond parameters and vibrational group wavenumbers of molecule based on substitutional bonds, Mulliken atomic charge distribution, frontier molecular orbital levels, chemical properties, temperature dependence of thermodynamic parameters, NLO studies and natural bond orbital calculations of the molecule were performed using the HF and DFT model theories. The intense observation was made over the excitations between the electronic energy levels within the molecule which enable to explore the electronic properties. The distribution of Mulliken charges of present molecule were calculated and were interrelated with the architecture of the molecular bonds. The charge transformation over the frontier molecular orbitals between the ligand and rings has been thoroughly observed. The average Polarizability first order diagonal hyperpolarizability have been calculated and from which the linear and non linear optical activity of the molecule is interpreted in detail. The reactive site of the molecule was predicted from the molecular electrostatic potential contour map. From the thermodynamical analysis, it was found that, the values of thermo dynamic parameters were increasing with increasing temperature.

  9. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    OpenAIRE

    Nielen, M. W. F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at controlling chemical contaminants in food. Data are given for analysis of pesticides, natural toxins, veterinary drugs, food additives, adulteration, packaging migrants, and for applications of food...

  10. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR2O3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  11. Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The areas studied during the period of the contract included determinations of cross sections for nuclear reactions, determination of neutron capture cross sections of radionuclides, application of special activation techniques, and x-ray counting, elucidation of synergic solvent extraction mechanisms and development of new solvent extraction techniques, and the development of a PIXE analytical facility. The thermal neutron capture cross section of 22Na was determined, and cross sections and energy levels were determined for 20Ne(n,?)17O, 20Ne(n,P)20F, and 40Ar(n,?)37S. Inelastic scattering with 2 to 3 MeV neutrons followed by counting of the metastable states permits analysis of the following elements: In, Sr, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Bromine can be detected in the presence of a 500-fold excess of Na and/or K by thermal neutron activation and x-ray counting, and as little as 0.3 x 10-9 g of Hg can be detected by this technique. Mediun energy neutrons (10 to 160 MeV) have been used to determine Tl, Pb, and Bi by (n,Xn) and (n,PXn) reactions. The reaction 19F(P,?)76O has been used to determine as little as 50 ?mol of Freon -14. Mechanisms for synergic solvent extractions have been elucidated and a new technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction has been developed in which the neutral complex is rapidly extracted propylene carbonate by raising and lowering the temperature of the system. An external-beam PIXE system has been developed for trace element analyses of a variety of sample types. Various sample preparation techniques have been applied to a diverse range of samples including marine sediment, coral, coal, and blood

  12. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-11-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al). For the majority (five out of six) of the AGB targets, we find that the abundances of both iron and titanium determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O–Na, Al–Mg, and Na–Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for GC stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first-generation stars are expected to lie, similar to what was recently found for the AGB population of NGC 6752. While the sodium and aluminum abundances could be underestimated as a consequence of the NLTE bias affecting iron and titanium, the oxygen line used does not suffer from the same effects, and the lack of O-poor AGB stars therefore is a solid result. We can thus conclude that none of the investigated AGB stars belongs to the second stellar generation of M62. We also find an RGB star with extremely high sodium abundance ([Na/Fe] = +1.08 dex). Based on observations collected at the ESO-VLT (Cerro Paranal, Chile) under program 193.D-0232. Also based on observations (GO10120 and GO11609) with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Modern state and perspectives of polarography with accumulation in analysis of semiconductor materials and high pure substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey gives an exposition of the present state and perspective uses of polarography with accumulation of superconductor materials and superhigh-purity substances in the analysis. The problem of increasing the sensitivity of the polarographic technique is considered. Procedures for determining a number of micro-impurities in superhigh-purity substances (such as Cd, Se, Te) are discussed. Theoretical and experimental evaluations of the resolving power and mutual influence of elements show that by using the polarographic technique with accumulation it is possible to determine the content of 5 to 6 elements from one polarogram. Further a number of examples are presented in the survey illustrating the application of the polarographic technique with accumulation for solving certain problems encountered in the science of semiconductor materials: analysis of reactors and superhigh-purity water, analysis of superhigh-purity metals and alloys (e.g. determination of In and Cd impurities in lead). The application of this technique assumes the employment of such methods as separation and concentration of extraction, ion exchange, distiliation, electrolysis

  14. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

  15. Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Waldherr, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point of infeasibility with the chemical master equation. Results: In this article, we apply parametric model order reduction techniques in order to construct accurate low-dimensional parametric models of the chemical master equation. These surrogate models can be used in various parametric analysis task such as parameter identificiation or sensitivity analysis. As biological examples, we consider two models for gene regulation networks, a bistable switch and a network displaying stochastic oscillations. Conclusions: The results show ...

  16. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data. PMID:25647718

  17. Analysis of Pfizer compounds in EPA's ToxCast chemicals-assay space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Falgun; Greene, Nigel

    2014-01-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast program in 2007 with the goal of evaluating high-throughput in vitro assays to prioritize chemicals that need toxicity testing. Their goal was to develop predictive bioactivity signatures for toxic compounds using a set of in vitro assays and/or in silico properties. In 2009, Pfizer joined the ToxCast initiative by contributing 52 compounds with preclinical and clinical data for profiling across the multiple assay platforms available. Here, we describe the initial analysis of the Pfizer subset of compounds within the ToxCast chemical (n = 1814) and in vitro assay (n = 486) space. An analysis of the hit rate of Pfizer compounds in the ToxCast assay panel allowed us to focus our mining of assays potentially most relevant to the attrition of our compounds. We compared the bioactivity profile of Pfizer compounds to other compounds in the ToxCast chemical space to gain insights into common toxicity pathways. Additionally, we explored the similarity in the chemical and biological spaces between drug-like compounds and environmental chemicals in ToxCast and compared the in vivo profiles of a subset of failed pharmaceuticals having high similarity in both spaces. We found differences in the chemical and biological spaces of pharmaceuticals compared to environmental chemicals, which may question the applicability of bioactivity signatures developed exclusively based on the latter to drug-like compounds if used without prior validation with the ToxCast Phase-II chemicals. Finally, our analysis has allowed us to identify novel interactions for our compounds in particular with multiple nuclear receptors that were previously not known. This insight may help us to identify potential liabilities with future novel compounds. PMID:24328225

  18. A comparative investigation of modern feature selection and classification approaches for the analysis of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromski, Piotr S; Xu, Yun; Correa, Elon; Ellis, David I; Turner, Michael L; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-06-01

    Many analytical approaches such as mass spectrometry generate large amounts of data (input variables) per sample analysed, and not all of these variables are important or related to the target output of interest. The selection of a smaller number of variables prior to sample classification is a widespread task in many research studies, where attempts are made to seek the lowest possible set of variables that are still able to achieve a high level of prediction accuracy; in other words, there is a need to generate the most parsimonious solution when the number of input variables is huge but the number of samples/objects are smaller. Here, we compare several different variable selection approaches in order to ascertain which of these are ideally suited to achieve this goal. All variable selection approaches were applied to the analysis of a common set of metabolomics data generated by Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry (Py-MS), where the goal of the study was to classify the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus. These approaches include stepwise forward variable selection, used for linear discriminant analysis (LDA); variable importance for projection (VIP) coefficient, employed in partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); support vector machines-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE); as well as the mean decrease in accuracy and mean decrease in Gini, provided by random forests (RF). Finally, a double cross-validation procedure was applied to minimize the consequence of overfitting. The results revealed that RF with its variable selection techniques and SVM combined with SVM-RFE as a variable selection method, displayed the best results in comparison to other approaches. PMID:24856395

  19. The SFM/ToF-SIMS combination for advanced chemically-resolved analysis at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) allows the 3D-compositional analysis of samples or devices. Typically, the topographical data obtained by SFM is used to determine the initial sample topography and the absolute depth of the ToF-SIMS analysis. Here ToF-SIMS and SFM data sets obtained on 2 prototypical samples are explored to go beyond conventional 3D-compositional analysis. SFM topographical and material contrast maps are combined with ToF-SIMS retrospective analysis to detect features that would have escaped a conventional ToF-SIMS data analysis. In addition, SFM data is used to extrapolate the chemical information beyond the spatial resolution of ToF-SIMS, allowing the mapping of the chemical composition at the nanoscale

  20. Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

  1. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  2. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

  3. Comparison of dioxin-like-response in vitro and chemical analysis of emissions and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K W; Klimm, C; Hofmaier, A; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    Samples from industrial and domestic emissions and materials were investigated by using in vitro assays for dioxin-like-response (DLR) and chemical analysis. The results show a small part of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBT) to be responsive in vitro. Clean-up procedures directed to persistence decrease the amount of inducing toxicants substantially. The comparison of biological in vitro (B) and chemical (A) analysis show ratios between B and A below 10 for DLR of persistent inductors. The consideration of PAH improved the knowledge about unknown less persistent agonists. PMID:11219679

  4. Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M

    2000-01-01

    Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

  5. Chemical analysis of the atmosphere of CP 3 star ?1Boo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of the atmosphere of CP 3 star ?1Boo using the method of synthetic spectrum and the LTE model atmosphere is discussed. The CaII K line was calculated on the assumption of NLTE approximation considering partial redistribution. The selection of a suitable model atmosphere for CP 3 stars and the influence of gf-values on the resulting relative abundance of elements in the atmosphere of the star are discussed. The accuracy of the chemical analysis was primarily affected by the selection of spectral lines and their atomic parameters used in the calculation. (author). 1 fig., 5 tabs., 20 refs

  6. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-03-14

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  7. Finite element analysis of the Girkmann problem using the modern hp-version and the classical h-version

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2011-06-03

    We perform finite element analysis of the so called Girkmann problem in structural mechanics. The problem involves an axially symmetric spherical shell stiffened with a foot ring and is approached (1) by using the axisymmetric formulation of linear elasticity theory and (2) by using a dimensionally reduced shell-ring model. In the first approach the problem is solved with a fully automatic hp-adaptive finite element solver whereas the classical h-version of the finite element method is used in the second approach. We study the convergence behaviour of the different numerical models and show that accurate stress resultants can be obtained with both models by using effective post-processing formulas. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011.

  8. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  9. Analysis of practical use of modern internet technology as a mean of marketing communications in the field of B2B and B2C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Melnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of modern Internet technologies as the tool of marketing communication on the example of B2B and B2C areas of companies. The main objectives are: to explore modern tools and technology of Internet communications; to identify their kinds; to analyze the main features of the Internet communications complex (tools and technologies, using selected companies; to conduct a performance evaluation of the use of Internet communications. The results of the analysis. The Internet marketing communications complex is a specific action plan aimed at achieving the goals of the company through its implementation on the Internet. Internet marketing complex includes traditional communication tools: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, personal selling, sponsorship and modern facilities due to the specifics of the Internet resource (own corporate site, content sites, portals, banners, virtual communities, social networks, forums, message boards, search engines, etc. that are implemented using Internet technology (social media marketing, viral marketing, product placement, lead generation, search engine optimization, targeting, etc.. EFSOL Company’s Internet communications complex has a branded SEO-optimized website, base of dedicated analytical materials, contextual advertising, banner advertising, base of thematic Internet resources (portals, forums, electronic bulletin boards, etc. that helps to accommodate analytical and advertising subject content and personal communication. BASK Company uses the following Internet technologies: functional SEO-optimized site, contextual advertising and sponsorship, social work in social media marketing and personal communication. Conversion was calculated as the ratio of sales to the number of orders as a percentage. The average conversion was 26%. It means that the advertising company targeted on the wrong audience or has not attractive enough material on the site. Net income for the month of EFSOL Company is 2 040 000 monetary units. Total revenue for the month of BASK Company is 3 404 935 monetary units. As a result of evaluating the effectiveness of the advertising budget use it can be concluded that in the field of B2C acquisition cost per customer is much smaller than in B2B. Thus, the rational use of Internet communication marketing complex enables companies to operate successfully and to occupy leading positions in various fields. Conclusions and directions of the future reseaches. Analysis of the efficiency of Internet communications tools usage was conducted by using the Yandex Metrika, Google Analytics and internal social networking services that are used for network and pages analysis. According to the results of the analysis the BASK Company has more income than EFSOL Company. It is because of the acquisition cost per customer in the EFSOL Company more than 10 times larger. Results of research can be the basis of the formation of an expanded classification of tools, forms, appliances and technologies of marketing Internet communications, the method of their selection and evaluation of efficiency as traditional scientific and methodological approaches do not take into account the characteristics of the Internet as a media resource.

  10. The nets of modernism

    OpenAIRE

    Ellmann, Maud

    2015-01-01

    One of the finest literary critics of her generation, Maud Ellmann synthesises her work on modernism, psychoanalysis and Irish literature in this important new book. In sinuous readings of Henry James, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf, she examines the interconnections between developing technological networks in modernity and the structures of modernist fiction, linking both to Freudian psychoanalysis. The Nets of Modernism examines the significance of images of bodily violation and exchange -...

  11. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    2012-01-01

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under conditions of such liquid modernity. In this paper, I want to argue that this picture of Adorno is mistaken and extend the view proposed by Frederic Jameson that Adorno was not only the philosopher of 1990...

  12. Analysis of energy use and carbon losses in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P.W. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry EEI, Petten (Netherlands); Neelis, M.; Patel, M.; Blok, K. [Copernicus Institute , Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-05-01

    A preliminary bottom-up analysis of the energy use in the chemical industry has been performed, using a model containing datasets on production processes for 52 of the most important bulk chemicals as welt as production volumes for these chemicals. The processes analysed are shown to cover between 70 and 100% of the total energy use in the chemical sector. Energy use and the heat effects of the reactions taking place are separately quantified. The processes are also compared with energetically ideal processes following the stoichiometric reactions. The comparison shows that there is significant room for process improvements, both in the direction of more selective processes and in the direction of further energy savings.

  13. Analysis of energy use and carbon losses in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht, (Netherlands); Bach, Pieter [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Unit Energy Efficiency in Industry, Le Petten (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    A preliminary bottom-up analysis of the energy use in the chemical industry has been performed, using a model containing datasets on production processes for 52 of the most important bulk chemicals as well as production volumes for these chemicals. The processes analysed are shown to cover between 70 and 100% of the total energy use in the chemical sector. Energy use and the heat effects of the reactions taking place are separately quantified. The processes are also compared with energetically ideal processes following the stoichiometric reactions. The comparison shows that there is significant room for process improvements, both in the direction of more selective processes and in the direction of further energy savings.

  14. Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

  15. ????????? ? ?????????????? = modernism and rationality / ??????? ??????????

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    ??????????, ???????

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja "Project Baltia" korraldatud näitus "Leningradi modernism. Tagasivaade 21. sajandist" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 8. juulist 15. augustini 2010. Esitletakse Leningradis 1960-1980. aastatel ehitatud hooneid, kuraator Vladimir Frolov

  16. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  17. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  18. Essay on Characteristics of the Quadruplet Elements and Strategic Analysis of the Performance of It in Traditional and Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alimoradi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ancestors were attention to nature and to preserve the purity and sanctity of it. This is particularly has been true in the four main elements (water, wind, soil, fire that commonly referred to as material prima. The way that culture and literature is also very expressed. This is also evident in their architecture and the build. That can lead to environment from architecture and design of building. The importance of the issue to be determined by that time, that we face with the lake of energy resources and environmental pollution with the progress of technology, industrialization and increased fossil fuel use. The idea of Strategic analysis in this article to what methods can help to resume the relationship of man and nature elements. In line with the aim, with the Swot method we will examine the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, threats about employing the above elements and the approach the maximum exploitation of the dominant element in any area or in other words ecology.

  19. Modern methods of documentation for conservation - digital mapping in metigo® MAP, Software for documentation, mapping and quantity survey and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedler, Gunnar; Vetter, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Several years of experience of heritage documentation have given a background to develop methods of cartography and digital evaluation. The outcome of which is the development of a 2D-mapping software with integrated image rectification over a period of more then 10 years and that became the state of the art software in Germany initially and now elsewhere for Conservation and Restoration projects. If there are no mapping bases (image plan or CAD-drawing), the user can create its own image plans using different types of rectification functions. Based on true to scale mappings, quantity surveys of areas and lines can be calculated automatically. Digital maps were used for the documentation and analysis of materials and damages, for planning of required action and for calculation of costs. With the help of the hierarchy even large mapping projects with many sub projects can be managed. The results of quantification can be exported to excel spreadsheets for further processing. The combination of image processing and CAD-functionality makes operation of the programm user-friendly, both in the office and on-site. metigo MAP was developed in close cooperation with conservators and restorers. Based on simple equipment consisting of digital camera, laser measuring instrument for measuring distances or total station and standard notebook the mapping software is used in many restoration companies.

  20. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.