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1

The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in international periodicals, to which should be added a couple of dozens monographs plus several hundreds Ph.D. theses. This wealth of publication activity clearly reflects that not only has FIA given birth to numerous ingenious methods and novel applications, but quite a few of them have, in fact, allowed to implement procedures which previously were difficult or, actually, impossible to execute by conventional means. Clever examples are exploitation of bio-or chemiluminescence, methods relying on kinetic discrimination schemes, assay of metastable constituents, or the use of on-line separation and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by selected examples, emphasis being placed on the determination of trace-level concentrations of metal ions in complex matrices with detection by ETAAS and ICP-MS.

Hansen, Elo Harald Technical University of Denmark,

2

Complete chemical analysis of produced water by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in produced waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.; Johnston, A.; Boak, L.S.

1996-12-31

3

Modern Fourier analysis  

CERN Document Server

This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

Grafakos, Loukas

2014-01-01

4

Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

5

XXI symposium Modern chemical physics. Tuapse 2009. Summaries of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The materials of the XXI symposium Modern chemical physics, Tuapse 2009 (25 September - 6 October, 2009) are presented. Scientific program includes lectures, presentations and poster sessions on photochemistry and radiation chemistry, elementary processes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The problems of chemical reaction kinetics, quantum chemistry, chemical spectroscopy, macromolecular chemistry are discussed. Topics of chemical physics of surface, nanochemistry, nanophysics and nanotechnology are treated

6

Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

N. Bolf

2011-04-01

7

Methodological analysis and effectiveness of modern hypnotherapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work is to summarize the present state of development in the technique of modern hypnotherapy and its effectiveness. The first six chapters, which form the main body of the work, consist of a methodological analysis of the technique of modern hypnotherapy in the form of an integrative systematic. Hereby utilisation is regarded as the central principle, which means that all concepts and techniques of hypnotherapy, including the non-ericksonian, as well as t...

Schauer, Dietrich

2012-01-01

8

Probabilistic analysis of modernization options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on benefit-cost analysis for hydropower operations, a standard procedure for reaching planning decisions. Cost overruns and benefit shortfalls are also common occurrences. One reason for the difficulty of predicting future benefits and costs is that they usually cannot be represented with sufficient reliability by accurate values, because of the many uncertainties that enter the analysis through assumptions on inputs and system parameters. Therefore, ranges of variables need to be analyzed instead of single values. As a consequence, the decision criteria, such as net benefit and benefit-cost ratio, also vary over some range. A probabilistic approach will be demonstrated as a tool for assessing the reliability of the results

9

Real analysis modern techniques and their applications  

CERN Document Server

An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

Folland, Gerald B

1999-01-01

10

Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics and in the physical sciences.

Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

1999-01-01

11

Fundamental concepts in modern analysis  

CERN Document Server

Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view but also occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics a

Hansen, VL

1999-01-01

12

Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

Mudgett, Paul D.

2013-01-01

13

Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

14

ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse te?hnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse te?hno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

Arhun, Sch.

2013-01-01

15

Ion beam analysis and modern materials science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

Feldman, Leonard C. [Rutgers Univ. New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Inst. for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology

2012-07-01

16

Ion beam analysis and modern materials science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

17

Chemical process hazards analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

18

Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of modern education on Indian society.

Santosh Gangurde

2013-09-01

19

Analysis of textile chemicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different Chemical analysis methods have been practiced to determine and identify chemicals in textiles. Methods like HPLC, GC-MS, Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry are among the many. As for HPLC, it is a method involves a process of passing a liquid sample over a solid to hold material in a column by applying a flow liquid solvent. In GC-MS two methods are involved, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify a test sample. Colorimetric method uses human eyes capability o...

Lemma, Tsegaye Zegeye

2013-01-01

20

Chemical analysis experiment method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

 
 
 
 
21

ANALYSIS OF BASIC HISTORICAL AND MODERN DEFINITIONS OF "RISK" CONCEPT ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? «????»  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the comparative analysis of basic histori-cal and modern variations of definition of risks is pre-sented in general and from the point of enterprise ac-tivity. The gradual expansion of borders of concept of "risk" and its integral components in their direct inter-relation is investigated and eventually proved. Its modern concept is defined

Perepelitsa V. A.

2011-10-01

22

Special section on modern multivariate analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A critically challenging problem facing statisticians is the identification of a suitable framework which consolidates data of various types, from different sources, and across different time frames or scales (many of which can be missing), and from which appropriate analysis and subsequent inference can proceed.

Kafadar, Karen

2012-01-01

23

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharm...

Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Miši?-Vukovi? Milica M.; Z?, Mijin Dus?an

2002-01-01

24

Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

25

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

Petrovi? Slobodan D.

2002-01-01

26

Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena  

CERN Document Server

Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

Sirenko, Yuriy K

2010-01-01

27

Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

Deloach, Richard

2010-01-01

28

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

29

Castem 2000: a modern approach of computerized structural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early beginning of the computerized structural analysis, many general purpose programs have been developed. Their complexity has increased rapidly and they became difficult to use and to maintain. The needs for an improved user's friendliness and the treatment of complex coupled problems have led to a modern tool: CASTEM 2000. It has profited by the general progress in computers technology and by a twenty years experience in large finite element codes. Its basic principles as well as examples of applications will be presented in this paper

30

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

31

Rapid chemical analysis of allanite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce2O3 by titration, ThO2 by colorimetry, and La2O3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na2O and K2O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO2 and P2O5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

32

Comparative analysis of meat characteristics in modern selection of Lithuanian Black-and-Whites and Lithuanian Red cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative analysis of meat characteristics and quality in modern selection of Lithuanian Black-and-Whites and Lithuanian Red bulls was performed in 2004-2005. Bulls were raised at the same feeding and keeping conditions until 500 days of age. Afterwards bulls were measured, slaughtered and main indexes characterizing meat quality (chemical composition, pH, color, water binding capacity, shear force, cooking loss and index of protein) were evaluated. It was established that Lithuanian Black-...

Jukna, C?eslovas; Jukna, Vigilijus; Baltus?nikiene?, Aldona

2006-01-01

33

Chemical analysis as production guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations

34

Chemical analysis of uranium compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research and development studies relating to gaseous diffusion plants require expertise in the analysis of uranium and its compounds. Synthesis of these compounds along with subsequent use necessitates a means of identification in addition to X-ray diffraction patterns normally obtained. Analyses for fluoride, nickel, and iron have been developed to supplement the analysis for U+4 and U total previously developed. The fluoride is determined by pyrolysis, with subsequent acid-base titration. Nickel is analyzed by precipitation with dimethylglyoxime following complexation of the uranium with citric acid. Iron is analyzed iodometrically following an ammonium hydroxide-ammonium carbonate separation process from the uranium. High precision and accuracy can be obtained on these procedures using low-cost, wet chemical methods. Expensive computerized equipment is not needed. Uranium compounds analyzed include UF5, UO2F2, U3O8, and U2F9

35

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department

36

Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions versus modern observing facilities  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star ? UMa as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in near-infrared at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180 m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g. Fibered and spectrally Resolved Interferometric Equipment New Design) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure V2 ? 10-3, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure rotation and spots. Our study provides necessary details about strategies of spot detections and the requirements for modern and planned interferometric facilities essential for CP star research.

Shulyak, D.; Paladini, C.; Causi, G. Li; Perraut, K.; Kochukhov, O.

2014-09-01

37

Quantitative chemical analysis by NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers several important advantages as a technique for quantitative chemical analysis, including the ease with which multicomponent mixtures can be analyzed, the nondestructive nature of NMR, and the direct proportionality of the integrated resonance intensity (I) and concentration (C) of nuclei giving the resonance: I = kC. With proper attention to experimental conditions, the proportionality constant is the same for all resonances in a spectrum. Thus NMR differs substantially from chromatographic methods and from together spectroscopic methods, which require a predetermined response factor for each compound being determined. Relative concentrations can be obtained directly from relative resonance intensities while absolute concentrations can be obtained by adding a known concentration of another compound as an internal intensity standard

38

Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

HUI WANG

2011-06-01

39

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

40

Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

2012-07-20

 
 
 
 
41

Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

Nguyen Quang Liem; Philippe Colomban

2011-01-01

42

Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

43

Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

?. ?. ???????

2013-07-01

44

Gini s ideas: new perspectives for modern multivariate statistical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrado Gini (1884-1964 may be considered the greatest Italian statistician. We believe that his important contributions to statistics, however mainly limited to the univariate context, may be profitably employed in modern multivariate statistical methods, aimed at overcoming the curse of dimensionality by decomposing multivariate problems into a series of suitably posed univariate ones.In this paper we critically summarize Gini’s proposals and consider their impact on multivariate statistical methods, both reviewing already well established applications and suggesting new perspectives.Particular attention will be devoted to classification and regression trees, multiple linear regression, linear dimension reduction methods and transvariation based discrimination.

Angela Montanari

2013-05-01

45

An Analysis and Overview of Modern Digital Watermarking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the growth of computer networks. The computer network diminished the entire global in a nutshell, via the internet and the intranet capabilities. Approach: In the recent year, communicating information within authenticated groups in the text, image and video formats are highly unavoidable one. And in the same manner, there are more possibility that the communicated information to be hacked by the anonymous hacker. Results: The hacker may be passive or active; it is highly risk for many engineering applications like military network. Hence, digital watermarking is merged to rectify the above pitfalls. Conclusion: Watermarking techniques developed for images are mainly classified into visible and invisible approaches. The study further analyses the modern digital watermarking system.

Y. A. Raj

2012-01-01

46

7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

47

Biological/paleoecological analysis for modern archaeological research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of biological/geological methods besides geophysical/chemical ones for a multidisciplinary archaeological research is underlined. This is a necessity for a deeper knowledge of prehistoric society, settlement environment and the human landscape development. Dating methods are discussed and archaeological/paleoecological settlement studies are illustrated by a generalized case study. A proposed organization in Sweden of the research cooperation between archaeologists and natural science specialists is also discussed. (author)

48

Note on modern path analysis in application to crop science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this note, we discuss path analysis and its applications to crop science investigations – almost all of these applications are based on the methodology that Sewall Wright developed in the 1920s, although the path analysis method has been intensively developed during the last three decades. Via this paper, we point out that new methodology of estimation and testing in path analysis is fairly advanced and is applied in many biological disciplines and that it should also be extended to crop...

Marcin Kozak; Kang, Manjit S.

2006-01-01

49

Chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the development of the field of chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. The techniques applied to pyrolysis oil analysis are reviewed including proximate and ultimate analysis, water (moisture) analysis, and chemical component analysis by various forms of chromatography, solvent separations, and spectrophotometric analyses, like infrared and ultraviolet. Advanced analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular beam -- mass spectrometry are also discussed. This paper reviews and compares the methods and the results of the analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the various methods applied are identified. Comparisons derived from the IEA Round Robin are incorporated.

Elliott, D.C.

1994-09-01

50

Aeroelastic Analysis of Modern Complex Wings Using ENSAERO and NASTRAN  

Science.gov (United States)

A process is presented by which static aeroelastic analysis is performed using Euler flow equations in conjunction with an advanced structural analysis tool, NASTRAN. The process deals with the interfacing of two separate codes in the fields of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD). The process is demonstrated successfully on an F/A-18 Stabilator (horizontal tail).

Bhardwaj, Manoj

1995-01-01

51

Challenges for the modern analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of polysaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews some of the recent advances in analytical ultracentrifugation and how these advances have impacted--and can impact--on our understanding of the size, shape through conformation modelling, interactions and charge properties of polysaccharides in solution, particularly when used in combination with other solution techniques and also imaging techniques. Specifically we look at (1) polysaccharide polydispersity and simple shape analysis by sedimentation velocity, and in particular using new approaches such as SEDFIT analysis; (2) polysaccharide molecular-weight analysis by sedimentation equilibrium and MSTAR analysis and how this complements analysis of size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering; (3) polysaccharide conformation analysis using traditional procedures such as the Wales-van Holde ratio, power law or 'scaling' relations, more specialised treatments for rigid cylindrical structures, semi-flexible chains and worm-like coils and complications through draining effects; (4) Analysis of polysaccharide interactions and in particular complex formation phenomena, focusing on interesting applications in the areas of mucoadhesion and sedimentation fingerprinting; and (5) the possibilities for macromolecular charge and charge screening measurement. PMID:15780247

Harding, Stephen E

2005-04-11

52

Modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum products and lubricants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains the proceedings of an ASTM symposium on Modern Instrumental Methods of Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants. Topics covered include: trace metal characterization of crude oil by coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, precious metal assay analysis of catalyst by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and trace halide determination in hydrocarbon

53

Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

Andrei C. COVRIG

2010-08-01

54

Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition  

CERN Document Server

We extend our work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,nu e+)2H, 14N(p,gamma)15O and triple-alpha reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (t_H), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. For the stellar tracks, an increase from Z = 0...

Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

2013-01-01

55

Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

56

A guide to modern statistical analysis of immunological data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of subjects that can be recruited in immunological studies and the number of immunological parameters that can be measured has increased rapidly over the past decade and is likely to continue to expand. Large and complex immunological datasets can now be used to investigate complex scientific questions, but to make the most of the potential in such data and to get the right answers sophisticated statistical approaches are necessary. Such approaches are used in many other scientific disciplines, but immunological studies on the whole still use simple statistical techniques for data analysis. Results The paper provides an overview of the range of statistical methods that can be used to answer different immunological study questions. We discuss specific aspects of immunological studies and give examples of typical scientific questions related to immunological data. We review classical bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and more advanced methods aimed to explore causal relationships (path analysis/structural equation modelling and illustrate their application to immunological data. We show the main features of each method, the type of study question they can answer, the type of data they can be applied to, the assumptions required for each method and the software that can be used. Conclusion This paper will help the immunologist to choose the correct statistical approach for a particular research question.

Yazdanbakhsh Maria

2007-10-01

57

Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

58

Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emphasis is placed on the exploitation of the unique FIA-gradient techniques.

Hansen, Elo Harald

1996-01-01

59

Modern Sport and Chemistry: What a Chemically Aware Sports Fanatic Should Know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in the chemical and materials sciences have had dramatic impact on sporting events. Discusses some of the chemicals and materials involved in these advances with the intention of providing a mechanism to interest students in chemistry. Presents structures and properties of some materials that led to their adoption in sports and ideas for…

Giffin, Guinevere A.; Boone, Steven R.; Cole, Renee S.; McKay, Scott E.; Kopitzke, Robert

2002-01-01

60

Risk analysis for chemical production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes general problems encountered with risk analysis and goes into the specific problems of risk analysis applied to chemical plants. After discussing the different conditions and requirements for risk analyses for nuclear power plants and chemical plants, the conclusion is drawn that safe chemical plants can be planned and constructed without analyzing risk quantitatively. Applying such methods for risk assessment may be unsuitable for public discussion on risks in chemical plants owing to the great uncertainties in the accuracy of their results and such a discussion may be unnecessary as well because of the long experience in handling hazardous material. However, risk analysis methods can be used, in addition to conventional approaches, for weak point identification and can also be of assistance in finding optimum safety solutions in small systems and in emergency planning. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
61

Analysis of the Transaction Cost in Modern Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activities of any organization linked to transaction costs, which are often of great size. If the organization will be able to lower transaction costs while maintaining performance, this can result in more effective organizational management structure and activities of the organization as a whole. Transaction costs arise because of different interests of the communicating parties, but also because of the uncertainty factor. Because transaction costs was escorted somehow all the functioning of the organization, you must implement their accounting and analysis. This will help to understand the causes of transaction costs and reduce them. But when ones transaction costs are decrease another transaction costs can increase. In order to reduce transaction costs, the need to consider options for the management structure, which would enable the organization to achieve their goals? The various organizational structures of governance have a different structure of transaction costs and a different size of transaction costs. Not to use the methodology transaction cost analysis can lead to unreasonable use of the resources of the organization. Analysis of the transaction cost is not possible without clear classification. In this article, this classification is presented. Transaction costs can be considered as the cost of the resources spent on the transaction. This allows you to calculate the size of transaction costs in the size in a cost equivalent. By use of the methodology which was proposed in this article, were examined the organizations that are located in Russian Federation and works in the petrochemical industry.

Elina A Gurianova

2014-09-01

62

Technical Analysis of a Ptolemaic Child Sarcophagus and the Identification of Ancient and Modern Reuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this project are the technical analysis of a Ptolemaic child coffin lid, development of a conservation strategy, and realization of priority stabilization interventions. Early in the process of evaluation and analysis irregularities in the appearance and structure of the coffin suggested re-use of components. This thesis proposes that there are incidences of ancient and modern reuse of structural elements in this coffin lid, and substantiates this assertion through the results of a technical analysis. Non-destructive and destructive methods of analysis were used including UV induced visible fluorescence, Infrared and Visible-induced luminescence (VIL) imaging. Particle samples were investigated microscopically, and using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD or X-ray Diffraction, FTIR or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technologies were used for elemental and molecular analysis. Egyptology scholars, conservators, and materials scientists were consulted. The text establishes the historical context, and the use and meaning of the artifact. The object is described, the pigment analysis is presented, and prior interventions to the object are elaborated. The collective results of the technical analysis, observation and consultation are interpreted to substantiate the assertion of modern and ancient reuse. Technical analysis supports the observation that face of the deceased is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic period and that is was created in an early dynastic period and reused on this coffin in antiquity. The components of the foot-block are identified as ancient but not associated with this coffin, and 20th century adhesives and hardware are evidence that it is a modern addition. Social and economic demands in antiquity, and also in the post-excavation period of the late 19th and 20th centuries, have motivated alterations to objects of cultural and economic importance. This thesis provides substantial evidence of ancient and modern reuse and contributes information about ancient materials and methods of manufacture and distinctions between modern and ancient materials.

Mallinckrodt, Catherine Scott

63

Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

64

Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis  

CERN Document Server

Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

Bornmann, Lutz

2014-01-01

65

Radioisotope XRF spectrometers for quick chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different portable systems for chemical analysis by Radioisotope X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) are summarized. Its advantages and limitations referred to a fixed conventional installation of XRF are described along with the advantages of combining these two equipments: the high sensitivity of the fixed installation being applied to the preparation of reference samples and the mobility of the portable installation to carrying out quick in-situ analysis with a high frequency. This simple portable system is intended to be used with the development of a methodology of simple analysis to the chemical control of wastes constituted by solid and liquid. (Author) 27 refs

66

ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

Himanshu Shewale

2014-03-01

67

Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

Nguyen Quang Liem

2011-12-01

68

CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND MODERN LITERARY ARABIC.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE RESEARCH OUTLINED HERE IS CONCERNED WITH A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND MODERN LITERARY ARABIC FROM A PEDAGOGICAL VIEWPOINT. THE MAJOR GOALS OF THIS STUDY ARE--(1) TO DETERMINE THE SPECIFIC AREAS OF DIFFICULTY ENCOUNTERED BY AMERICAN STUDENTS IN PRONOUNCING AND READING ARABIC, AND (2) TO STUDY THE STRUCTURE…

MCCARUS, ERNEST; RAMMUNY, RAJI

69

Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research  

Science.gov (United States)

While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

Piotrowski, Chris

2013-01-01

70

Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

71

Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

1498-15-01

72

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

2013-01-01

73

Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

74

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

75

Entropy generation reduction through chemical pinch analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pinch analysis (PA) concept emerged, late '80s, as one of the methods to address the energy management in the new era of sustainable development. It was derived from combined first and second law analysis, as a technique ensuring a better thermal integration, aiming the minimization of entropy production or, equivalently, exergy destruction by heat exchanger networks (HEN). Although its ascendance from the second law analysis is questionable, the PA reveals as a widespread tool, nowadays, helping in energy savings mostly through a more rational use of utilities. Unfortunately, as principal downside, one should be aware that the global minimum entropy production is seldom attained, since the PA does not tackle the whole plant letting aside the chemical reactors or separation trains. The chemical reactor network (CRN) is responsible for large amounts of entropy generation (exergy losses), mainly due to the combined composition and temperature change. The chemical pinch analysis (CPA) concept focuses on, simultaneously, the entropy generation reduction of both CRN and HEN, while keeping the state and working parameters of the plant in the range of industrial interest. The fundamental idea of CPA is to include the CRN (through the chemical reaction heat developed in reactors) into the HEN and to submit this extended system to the PA. This is accomplished by replacing the chemical reactor with a virtual heat exchanger system producing the same amount of entropy. For an endothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the (stepwise infinitesimal) supply heat ?q flows from a source (an external/internal heater) to the stream undergoing the chemical transformation through the reactor, which in turn releases the heat of reaction ?HR to a virtual cold stream flowing through a virtual cooler. For an exothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the replacement is likewise, but the heat flows oppositely. Thus, in the practice of designing or retrofitting a flowsheet, in order to minimize the entropy production, the chemical reactor should be viewed as a group of two or three virtual heaters/coolers destroying the same amount of exergy. As a result of PA, new operating conditions could be revealed for some or all of the chemical reactors, ensuring a further reduction of the global entropy production of the plant. In this paper, the simple case of the methanol synthesis heat integrated reactor will be analyzed, proving the benefits of the CPA

76

Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

77

[Application and research progress of element analysis of urinary calculi using modern instruments].  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of elements of urinary stones can provide significant reference for the treatment and prevention of recurrence of urolithiasis. In the present paper, the application and research progress of element analysis of urinary stones by means of modern instruments were summarized. These techniques include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), proton induced X-ray emission(PIXE), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and ion selective electrode, etc. PMID:16826927

Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2006-02-01

78

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

Jin-Ao Duan

2012-09-01

79

Development of a Modern Control System Analysis Package Using Visual Basic Programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD program that furnishes a background necessary for studying modern control theory. The program focuses on state-space analysis which performs conversion of a system from state-space representation to transfer function and via versa. Besides, system transformation on different state coordinates, time domain solution, controller design, observer design and steady state error evaluation with interactive graphresponse are also being emphasized in this program.

Lee Shu Khan

2007-01-01

80

Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities  

CERN Document Server

By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Use of ultrasonics in chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of chemical analysis, ultrasound action with a frequency of 10-100 MHz, an intensity of 0.05-15 W/cm2, and a duration of 0.1-20 min is sufficient. Even under these conditions, ultrasonic vibrations initiate and intensify oxidation and reduction, hydrolysis, polymerization molecular rearrangement, precipitate aging, metal electrodeposition, and solvation of minerals and soils; they also change the states of ions in solution, etc. 98 refs

82

Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

83

Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is hyposaline (8.5-10 g l-1 ) and alkaline (pH 8.9-9.1 and alkalinity of 37 meq l-1 ) with sodium and chloride being the dominant ions but also with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These conditions are favorable for active carbonate deposition that results in the formation of distinctive stromatolite structures in the littoral region of the lake. These structures generate extended submerged carbonaceous platforms down to a depth of 15 m that slope steeply to the bottom of the lake where soft sediments prevail (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998). The lake is populated by 18 species of cyanobacteria (Tavera and Komárek, 1996) which are the primary producers in the food web a of the lake fixing not only carbon (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998) but also nitrogen (Falcón eto al, 2002). The stromatolite samples were freeze-dried and then were finely grounded with an agate mor-tar mill for analyses. The mineral composition of the sample is essentially hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 , 4 H2 O)) with traces of quartz (SiO2 ) as determined by X-rays diffraction. This is also consistent with differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry of the sample. Analysis of the sample by TV-mass spectrometry (MS) using the Phoenix Lander Protocol (Navarro-González et al., 2009) indicates that the major volatile released is carbon dioxide a from 350 C to 1000° C with broad peaks centered at 400° C and 600° C. Organics are also re-° leased from 380° C to 750° C as monitored by a characteristic organic fragment with m/z=41 and that is attributed to the allyl cation: [CH2 CHCH2 ]+ . Analysis of the sample by TV-gas chromatography (GC)-MS using the Viking Lander Protocol but at 750° C (Navarro-González a et al., 2009) demonstrates that a complex suite of organics are released such as 1,3-butadiene, furan, propanal, 2-propenenitrile, 1,3 cyclopentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, propanenitrile, methylfuran, butanal, benzene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, 1-H-pyrrole, pyridine, methylbenzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-n

Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

84

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

2013-09-01

85

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Tomas Grigalis

2012-04-01

86

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses specific features of their application in insuring coal mining projects. It uses the analysis for highlighting key types of insurance, application of which could ensure complex protection of investments into Ukrainian coal mining projects.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????, ? ?????????, ???, ????????? ? ???. ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????.

Gusak Andrey S.

2013-03-01

87

Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

88

Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. PMID:24449141

El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-04-01

89

Principal component analysis on chemical abundances spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In preparation for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES) chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. This leads to a way to study the origin of elements from observed chemical abundances using principal component analysis. We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disc stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By studying solar-neighbourhood stars, we confirm the universality of the r-process that tends to produce [neutron-capture elements/Fe] in a constant ratio. We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of ?-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the overabundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. We also verify the contribution from the s-process in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at high metallicity. Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly ?-elements, the other produces both ?-elements and Fe-peak elements with a large enhancement of heavy Fe-peak elements which may be the contribution from hypernovae. Excluding light elements that may be subject to internal mixing, K and Cu, we find that the [X/Fe] chemical abundance space in the solar neighbourhood has about six independent dimensions both at low metallicity (-3.5 ? [Fe/H] ?-2) and high metallicity ([Fe/H] ?-1). However the dimensions come from very different origins in these two cases. The extra contribution from low-mass AGB stars at high metallicity compensates the dimension loss due to the homogenization of the core-collapse supernovae ejecta. Including the extra dimensions from [Fe/H], K, Cu and the light elements, the number of independent dimensions of the [X/Fe]+[Fe/H] chemical space in the solar neighbourhood for HERMES is about eight to nine. Comparing fainter galaxies and the solar neighbourhood, we find that the chemical space for fainter galaxies such as Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud has a higher dimensionality. This is consistent with the slower star formation history of fainter galaxies. We find that open clusters have more chemical space dimensions than the nearby metal-rich field stars. This suggests that a survey of stars in a larger Galactic volume than the solar neighbourhood may show about one more dimension in its chemical abundance space.

Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

2012-04-01

90

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

91

Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present study was comparative analysis. Results: The first base was rejection of objective view toward the universe and accepting the â??pre-objective universeâ?. In this regard, it was suggested that information technology should be considered in relation to and as a component of life. The second base was doing away with totality. The necessity of this base was in the rejection of universal approaches and designing for specific situations. The third base was uncertainty. Regarding this base, it was suggested that the educational software provide a text in which the learner confront subjects for questioning and interpreting. The forth base was focusing on the complexities of the phenomena. In this ground, it was especially necessary for the design to be integrational. Conclusion/Recommendations: It seems that postmodernism view has been able to provide the possibility of recreating information technology in education through going beyond the basic assumptions of modernism. At last and in order to escape the metanarrative view toward postmodern ideas, we cannot regard the recommended solutions by postmodernists as the definite, final and general solution for educational issues of present and past times. But, we can look at them for further illumination of technological education condition of the present time.

Saeid Zarghami Hamrah

2012-01-01

92

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and identification. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the recent development and trends of separation, identification and quantification for flavonoids by modern chromatographic and spectrophotometric analytical techniques, including gas chromatography (GC, liquid chromatography (LC, and capillary electrophoresis (CE. The sample preparation before analysis is also briefly summarized.

Yong-Bo Peng

2008-10-01

93

Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces  

CERN Document Server

[Shortened] In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of alpha-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the over-abundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. [...] Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly alpha-e...

Ting, Y S; Kobayashi, C; De Silva, G M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

2011-01-01

94

Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

Alferov, P.V.; Kargin, N.I.; Panchuk, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Semenovb, V.G. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Irkaev, S.M., E-mail: val_sem@mail.ru [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-07-01

95

Chemical reactivity concepts in charge sensitivity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent reactivity concepts formulated within charge analysis (CSA) are outlined. The charge stability criteria of equilibrium states in open and closed systems are conveniently characterized in terms of the condensed reactant hardness quantities of reactants; their implications for catalytic systems are examined. A use of characteristics associated with selected collective charge displacement modes, including the populational normal modes and minimum-energy coordinates, as diagnostic tools in the theory of chemical reactivity is proposed. The importance of the mapping relations between modes defined in the electron population and nuclear position spaces, respectively, as the unifying concept linking the conjugate charge and geometry displacements, is commented upon. Recent results for model catalytic clusters are used to illustrate some of the concepts introduced. Finally, the relevant contributions to the quadratic interaction energy between reactants are reexamined and expressed in terms of relevant charge sensitivities. 46 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

96

Chemical analysis of LARC-160 polyimide  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a detailed NASA-sponsored study of chemical composition/property sensitivity of the LARC-160 polymerization of monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimide system, a number of liquid chromatographic techniques have been employed. The ester monomers in this system are characterized by a reverse-phase ion-suppression method. Mono, di, and triesters of the 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid ingredient are identified and their isomeric forms resolved. The 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ester (nadic ester) endcapper is detected by low wavelength ultraviolet sensing. A second method, reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, is employed for determining unreacted amines. The extent of resin B-staging is monitored through analysis of the ester/amine oligomers.

Dynes, P. J.

1980-01-01

97

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-11-15

98

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

Reddy, B. Sudhakara, E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.i [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

2009-11-15

99

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

100

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

2010-01-01

102

PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

Cartmell, Matthew P.

2012-08-01

103

Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

2012-01-01

104

9. Nuclear chemical analysis in pharmaceutical research and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear methods are described of chemical analysis, such as the isotope dilution analysis, radioimmunoassay, radiometric titrations, radio-release technique, activation analysis, radiation absorption analysis, radiation scattering analysis, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The applications of the methods in pharmacy and the principles of experimental techniques are discussed. (Ha)

105

Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

C. Sanchez-Lopez

2013-06-01

106

Uncertainty analysis for complex chemical systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The validation of the models for complex reactors, such as planetary atmospheres, ionospheres or interstellar dark clouds relies on the estimation of the accuracy of their predictions. For a deterministic chemistry model, uncertainty has two major sources, the variability of the environment (temperatures, photon and electron fluxes...) and the uncertainty about the intrinsic parameters of the model (chemical kinetics parameters). We focus here on the latter source of uncertainty. Individual reactions are characterized by parameters (rate constants, branching ratios) which result from laboratory measurements or theoretical estimations. Uncertainty on these parameters has to be evaluated and propagated through the model. This basic problem becomes challenging when hundreds or thousands of parameters have to be considered. We will review different approaches developped in the recent years to deal either with uncertainty representation for the parameters, or with efficient uncertainty propagation. Application to Titan's ionospheric chemistry will be presented [1]. References [1] Uncertainty analysis of bimolecular reactions in Titan ionosphere chemistry model. N. Carrasco, O. Dutuit, R. Thissen, P. Pernot M. Banaszkiewicz. Planetary and Space Science. Accepted.

Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.

107

Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Hoe-Chee, C; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

2014-08-01

108

COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

109

Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moder

Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

2012-12-15

110

NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

Schubert, Siegfried

2008-01-01

111

Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

Jeyaraj, Joseph

2009-01-01

112

Priority analysis of NPP modernization and safety improve measures by risk-based methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with general issues of prioritization of modernization and safety improve measures of NPP by use of RISK-assessment approaches. Approaches apply to the expediency analyses of the implantation of I and C system modernization for automated control to interfacing LOCA are demonstrated.

113

Artificial Cobweb: Chemical and Physical Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we list only the most important chemical and physical properties of the foreign matter that was 'delivered' in the Croatian atmosphere in respectable amounts: - man-made product, organic fibrous matter - composite structure of at least two materials ...

K. Furic, Z. Orehovec

2001-01-01

114

Modernity after Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

Marin Dinu

2007-08-01

115

Radiochemical neutron activation analysis: Status in chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining numerous trace elements in a large variety of samples. The main advantages of NAA are (a) multielement character, (b) low level of determination for a sizeable number of elements, (c) virtual freedom of a blank, (d) generally good selectivity, and (e) absence of interferences due to differences in physical or chemical state. In addition to instrumental NAA, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) is often employed for improvement of the determination limit, accuracy, and/or precision. Radiochemical separations may be performed in various degrees of radiochemical purity, depending of the problem at hand. Since germanium detectors with large active volumes have become available as well as germanium well-type detectors with high geometric efficiency, a noticeable development has progressed in the direction of a combination of minimal post-irradiation chemical efforts with the potentials of germanium gamma spectrometry and computerized data handling, at least in cases in which no ultimate sensitivity is required. Automation has been frequently advocated as an attractive way to solve problems of lengthy and complex radiochemical procedures. In general, it can be said that, whereas instrumental NAA has a strong point in respect to costs and multielement character, RNAA scores high in analytical quality as the main feature. Areas where RNAA remains to play a role in the foreseeable future discussedeeable future discussed

116

Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years. One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

Reed David L

2004-01-01

117

The Completion of the Emergence of Modern Logic from Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic to Frege's Begriffsschrift  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.

Jetli, Priyedarshi

118

CFD Sensitivity Analysis of a Modern Civil Transport Near Buffet-Onset Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity analysis is conducted for a modern civil transport at several conditions ranging from mostly attached flow to flow with substantial separation. Two different Navier-Stokes computer codes and four different turbulence models are utilized, and results are compared both to wind tunnel data at flight Reynolds number and flight data. In-depth CFD sensitivities to grid, code, spatial differencing method, aeroelastic shape, and turbulence model are described for conditions near buffet onset (a condition at which significant separation exists). In summary, given a grid of sufficient density for a given aeroelastic wing shape, the combined approximate error band in CFD at conditions near buffet onset due to code, spatial differencing method, and turbulence model is: 6% in lift, 7% in drag, and 16% in moment. The biggest two contributers to this uncertainty are turbulence model and code. Computed results agree well with wind tunnel surface pressure measurements both for an overspeed 'cruise' case as well as a case with small trailing edge separation. At and beyond buffet onset, computed results agree well over the inner half of the wing, but shock location is predicted too far aft at some of the outboard stations. Lift, drag, and moment curves are predicted in good agreement with experimental results from the wind tunnel.

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Allison, Dennis O.; Biedron, Robert T.; Buning, Pieter G.; Gainer, Thomas G.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Mysko, Stephen J.; Witkowski, David P.

2001-01-01

119

C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

120

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

 
 
 
 
121

Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allows chemists to rationalize novel approaches to chemical research (e.g. combinatorial chemistry and possibly exploit the vast area of 'surprise discoveries'.

Claus Jacob

2001-03-01

122

Study of Modern Human Evolution via Comparative Analysis with the Neanderthal Genome  

Science.gov (United States)

Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans to become extinct, and many factors made them the best representatives of archaic humans. Even though a number of comparisons have been made sporadically between Neanderthals and modern humans, mostly following a candidate gene approach, the major breakthrough took place with the sequencing of the Neanderthal genome. The initial genome-wide comparison, based on the first draft of the Neanderthal genome, has generated some interesting inferences regarding variations in functional elements that are not shared by the two species and the debated admixture question. However, there are certain other genetic elements that were not included or included at a smaller scale in those studies, and they should be compared comprehensively to better understand the molecular make-up of modern humans and their phenotypic characteristics. Besides briefly discussing the important outcomes of the comparative analyses made so far between modern humans and Neanderthals, we propose that future comparative studies may include retrotransposons, pseudogenes, and conserved non-coding regions, all of which might have played significant roles during the evolution of modern humans. PMID:24465235

Ahmed, Musaddeque

2013-01-01

123

Study of Modern Human Evolution via Comparative Analysis with the Neanderthal Genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans to become extinct, and many factors made them the best representatives of archaic humans. Even though a number of comparisons have been made sporadically between Neanderthals and modern humans, mostly following a candidate gene approach, the major breakthrough took place with the sequencing of the Neanderthal genome. The initial genome-wide comparison, based on the first draft of the Neanderthal genome, has generated some interesting inferences regarding variations in functional elements that are not shared by the two species and the debated admixture question. However, there are certain other genetic elements that were not included or included at a smaller scale in those studies, and they should be compared comprehensively to better understand the molecular make-up of modern humans and their phenotypic characteristics. Besides briefly discussing the important outcomes of the comparative analyses made so far between modern humans and Neanderthals, we propose that future comparative studies may include retrotransposons, pseudogenes, and conserved non-coding regions, all of which might have played significant roles during the evolution of modern humans. PMID:24465235

Ahmed, Musaddeque; Liang, Ping

2013-12-01

124

The social context of adolescent women's use of modern contraceptives in Zimbabwe: a multilevel analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Efforts aimed at reducing maternal mortality as per the Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5) include reducing early childbearing through increased adolescent contraceptive use. Despite a substantial attempt to study factors influencing adolescent contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), few studies have explored the role of community level characteristics on adolescent modern contraceptive use. This study examines the influence of both individual, household and community variables in influencing adolescent contraceptive use in Zimbabwe. This study posits that community characteristics are more critical predictors of adolescent contraceptive use in Zimbabwe than other individual and household characteristics. Methods Data from the 2010/11 Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS), supplemented by additional data from the Measure DHS consultants were used. A total weighted sample of 457 non-pregnant adolescent women aged 15 to 19 years who had their last sex within 12 months preceding the 2010/11 ZDHS was analysed. Univariate, bivariate and multilevel binary logistic regression analysis were performed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). Results The odds of contraceptive use were higher for adolescent women with one or more children ever born (Odds Ratio (OR), 13.6) and for those ever married (OR, 2.5). Having medium and high access to media also increased the odds of using contraceptives (OR, 1.8; 2.1 respectively). At community level, the odds of modern contraceptive use decreased with an increase in the mean number of children ever borne per woman (OR, 0.071), an increase in the mean number of school years per women (OR, 0.4) and an increase in the proportion of women with at least secondary education (OR, 0.5). It however increased with an increase in the proportion of women experiencing at least one problem accessing health care (OR, 2.0). Individual and community level variables considered successfully explained the variation of adolescent contraceptive use across provinces. Conclusions Both individual and community characteristics were important predictors of adolescent contraceptive use in Zimbabwe. Reproductive program interventions aimed at increasing adolescent contraceptive use should take into account both individual and community factors. There is need for further research that examines other community characteristics influences that include political and cultural factors. PMID:25108444

2014-01-01

125

Complementary information from RBS, ERDA and SIMS for analysis of modern magnesium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical Mg alloys (AZ91, AM50, AE42 and pure Mg) were used as targets in ion beam sputter deposition of corrosion resistant thin films. Due to the large number of chemical elements and the widespread concentration range between 100 ppm and 90 wt.%, a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was employed for a quantitative analysis of the resulting film composition. While a lateral and vertical homogeneous layer was observed, the concentration of elements present in precipitates (mainly Al, Si and Mn) in the base material decreased by more than 50% in the deposited film. As the concentration of the other alloying constituents distributed in the Mg matrix remained constant, different angular sputter distributions of the matrix and the precipitates can be inferred from these observations

126

Information Technology Portfolio Management Proof of Concept: Modern Portfolio Theory With KVA and ROI Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic research question guiding this thesis is: 'How can Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) be defensibly applied to DoD Information Technology (IT) portfolio optimization problems.' The research will demonstrate how to derive the appropriate raw performan...

M. Nelson

2010-01-01

127

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

128

Chemical properties and methods of analysis of refractory compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactions involving refractory metals and the alloys based on them are discussed. Chemical, electrochemical, photometric, spectrophotometric, and X-ray analysis are among the methods described for analyzing the results of the reactions and for determining the chemical properties of these materials.

Samsonov, G. V. (editor); Frantsevich, I. N. (editor); Yeremenko, V. N. (editor); Nazarchuk, T. N. (editor); Popova, O. I. (editor)

1978-01-01

129

Alpha particle backscattering measurements used for chemical analysis of surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha particle backscattering performs a chemical analysis of surfaces. The apparatus uses a curium source and a semiconductor detector to determine the energy spectrum of the particles. This in turn determines the chemical composition of the surface after calibration to known samples.

Patterson, J. H.

1967-01-01

130

Comparative analysis of traditional and modern controller for piezoelectric actuated nanopositioner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanopositioning, Precise control and manipulation of devices and materials at nanoscale is the most important constraint of nanotechnology. Nanopositioning stage consisting of piezoelectric actuator has widespread use in applications requiring positioning with precision at nanoscale. In this paper, open loop characteristics of the non minimum phase nanopositioning system are investigated. To guarantee high precision positioning and improvement in the system characteristics demands different types of feedback controllers. The main aim of the controller is to design a closed loop system with good dynamic characteristics and to maintain the desired stability margins. PID controller is a generic closed loop controller widely used for industrial control applications. This paper presents design of PID controller using Ziegler Nichols tuning method. This paper analyzes time and frequency response of traditional PID controller. Non minimum phase system can be stabilized more effectively by modern controller such as pole placement controller, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR and H infinity controllers. This paper develops a methodology for the design of full state feedback controller using pole placement and LQR control techniques. Step response and frequency responses under variety of conditions are plotted and analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Closed loop system is analyzed in both time and frequency domain for different dynamic characteristics such as rise time, settling time, maximum overshot and stability margins. A comparative assessment based upon the system’s response characteristics of traditional PID controller, pole placement controller and LQR controller is presented. Simulation results for the performance analysis are carried out on MATLAB and demonstrate effectiveness and adaptability of controller for precise control of piezoelectric actuated nanopositioning system.

Sheilza Aggarwal

2012-11-01

131

Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

Said GHARBY

2011-01-01

132

PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

2012-03-01

133

PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

2014-03-01

134

Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study

135

Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

136

Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008  

CERN Document Server

The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

2008-01-01

137

The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

Szlechter, Diego

2007-11-01

138

An Empirical Analysis on the Development of Modern Service Industry and Its Countermeasures in Qingdao during Post-WTO Transitional Period  

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Full Text Available With the end of Post-WTO Transitional Period, Qingdao’s modern services present a picture of unprecedented prosperity. But during the process of development, many sharp problems emerged and it needs to handle seriously. By an empirical analysis on influencing factors of modern services in Qingdao, existing problems are found out and corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

Wenxue Zhang

2010-09-01

139

Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

Åke Sellström

2011-12-01

140

Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

 
 
 
 
141

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

142

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-12-10

143

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (?75 ?L of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

144

Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

145

Physico-chemical soil analysis of Rudovci region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser diffraction and pipette methods were carried out for comparative grain-size analysis of soil samples representing a similar texture classification sampled. A detail physical-chemical analysis of soils, which involves use of XRF, XRD and SEM analysis were done. XRF and XRD analysis were done on the fractions separated by pipette method. On the obtained fraction particle size distribution and SEM analysis were done. The obtained results of these different methods are in good agreement and for detailed soil analysis comparison of both methods are recommended.

Smilja MARKOVI?

2013-09-01

146

Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

147

Analysis on Turbulent Flow in the Impeller of Chemical Pump  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the phenomena of two-phase flow with salt crystallizing in the chemical pump, the 3-D turbulent flow in the impeller of chemical pump was simulated under the condition of rinsing. The internal flow between the impellers of 1H65 chemical pump was investigated. Based on the Reynoldsaveraging N-S equations and the standard k -? two equations turbulent model, the simulations of turbulent flow between the impellers are performed by using the flow computing software Fluent under different operating conditions. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Based on the analysis of the calculated results of velocity and pressure profiles in the chemical pump and experimentally observed phenomenon of flow impact, secondary flow and recirculation, some design improvements are proposed, which give suggestions on the optimal design and internal two-phase flow study of the chemical pump.

Yang, M. G.; Liu, D.; Gu, H. F.; Kang, C.; Li, H.

148

Mo-total organic carbon covariation in modern anoxic marine environments: Implications for analysis of paleoredox and paleohydrographic conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentary molybdenum, [Mo]s, has been widely used as a proxy for benthic redox potential owing to its generally strong enrichment in organic-rich marine facies deposited under oxygen-depleted conditions. A detailed analysis of [Mo]s-total organic carbon (TOC) covariation in modern anoxic marine environments and its relationship to ambient water chemistry suggests that (1) [Mo]s, while useful in distinguishing oxic from anoxic facies, is not related in a simple manner to dissolved sulfide concentrations within euxinic environments and (2) patterns of [Mo]s-TOC covariation can provide information about paleohydrographic conditions, especially the degree of restriction of the subchemoclinal water mass and temporal changes thereof related to deepwater renewal. These inferences are based on data from four anoxic silled basins (the Black Sea, Framvaren Fjord, Cariaco Basin, and Saanich Inlet) and one upwelling zone (the Namibian Shelf), representing a spectrum of aqueous chemical conditions related to water mass restriction. In the silled-basin environments, increasing restriction is correlated with a systematic decrease in [Mo]s/TOC ratios, from ˜45 ± 5 for Saanich Inlet to ˜4.5 ± 1 for the Black Sea. This variation reflects control of [Mo]s by [Mo]aq, which becomes depleted in stagnant basins through removal to the sediment without adequate resupply by deepwater renewal (the "basin reservoir effect"). The temporal dynamics of this process are revealed by high-resolution chemostratigraphic data from Framvaren Fjord and Cariaco Basin sediment cores, which exhibit long-term trends toward lower [Mo]s/TOC ratios following development of water column stratification and deepwater anoxia. Mo burial fluxes peak in weakly sulfidic environments such as Saanich Inlet (owing to a combination of greater [Mo]aq availability and enhanced Mo transport to the sediment-water interface via Fe-Mn redox cycling) and are lower in strongly sulfidic environments such as the Black Sea and Framvaren Fjord. These observations demonstrate that, at timescales associated with deepwater renewal in anoxic silled basins, decreased sedimentary Mo concentrations and burial fluxes are associated with lower benthic redox potentials (i.e., more sulfidic conditions). These conclusions apply only to anoxic marine environments exhibiting some degree of water mass restriction (e.g., silled basins) and are not valid for low-oxygen facies in open marine settings such as continent-margin upwelling systems.

Algeo, Thomas J.; Lyons, Timothy W.

2006-03-01

149

Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

2012-06-01

150

Neutron activation analysis of some ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Up to 43 glaze and body samples of ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain and other porcelain are chosen and contents of 36 elements for each sample are determined by NAA. The NAA data are then analysed by the fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that although the ancient Jun Porcelain samples span leaped 600 years and are from different kilns and their glaze colors are utterly different, they have a long-term, stable and mainly the same supply of raw material. The relation between ancient Jun Porcelain and ancient Ru Porcelain is also preliminarily analysed. It is found that only few modern Jun Porcelain samples are similar to ancient Jun Porcelain but the majority of them are different from ancient ones

151

Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-06-01

152

Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, ...

Jianhua sun

2013-01-01

153

Analysis of the use of modern contraception and identity of the young people  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According tradition of the Christian anthropology human nature is unity of the human body and soul. Humans are sexually different, however according Christian tradition are two dimensions of sexuality – expression of love and procreation of new life – are undividable. Modern hedonistic tradition is based on searching of personal satisfaction and dividing this unity of human nature and sexuality. Intimacy of human life – sexual relations – is open, transformed to the business item, mor...

S?vedas, Eimantas

2007-01-01

154

Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record. PMID:24789039

Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

2014-01-01

155

Neandertal demise: an archaeological analysis of the modern human superiority complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record. PMID:24789039

Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

2014-01-01

156

Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX.  

Science.gov (United States)

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next-generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server. PMID:24722405

Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2014-05-01

157

Arrays in biological and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research laboratorium, hospital clinic or at the local doctor, there are high expectations for arrays screening predispositions and following therapy, monitoring the amount of bacteria in food stuff, measuring the small signs from cardiac arrest before it happens, analysing the toxin level in a water sample (preferentially on-line) or deciphering the identity of an infecting bug. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

2002-01-01

158

Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study for the separation of Nd from synthetic sample solution containing U, Sm, Nd, and Ce has been carried out for burnup determination of irradiated fuels by mass spectrometry. Sm, Nd, and Ce have been eluted in group on anion exchange resin column (Dowex 1 x 8, 200-400 mesh) with 12M-HCl solution followed by U fraction with 0.1M-HCl solution. Distribution coefficients of Sm, Nd, and Ce for the Dowex 1 x 8, anion exchange resin have been determined by the batch method in various concentrations of HNO3 together with 90% CH3OH and, from the results, 0.008M-HNO3/90% CH3OH is a suitable eluent for the separation of Nd from Ce and Sm. The pure Nd fraction has been identified to be in the 8-10ml region as a result of the Nd isotopic analysis by Mass Spectrometry

159

Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

2005-09-23

160

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1. Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

162

Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl- on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl- and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

163

Chemical analysis without a laboratory: quick tests techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems on improvement, cost-saving and simplification of the environmental objects analysis were considered at the meeting of the RAS Presidium. The scientists hope that wide distribution of analytical express-methods in the society will remove the social tension, while everyone himself will be able with their help to determine the quality of water, air and the state of the environmental medium near the chemical combine, nuclear power plant or the facility for chemical weapons elimination, where he lives. One of the leading specialists in the area of analytical chemistry presents here information on the newest national methods of express analysis

164

Analysis of effectiveness of the use of track-and-field start in modern swimming.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modern approach to improvement of track-and-field start by famous swimmers is discussed. In an experiment the students of sporting improvement took part in age 16-20. Data used in this investigation include videotapes of the Ukranian, European, World championships and the Deaflympic games, as well as time sheets on the training lessons of swimming. The results of the investigation demonstrate that in order to improve of track-and-field start it is necessary to draw swimmers attention on accurate and multiple implementation of all phases of start.

Savchenko M.I.

2011-06-01

165

Analysis of Science Curriculums Applied at High Schools in Turkey: Modern Science Curriculum Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, curriculum development studies to achieve effective science teaching at the secondary level are examined. The characteristics of modern science teaching curriculums which have been developed at 1950’s that many countries renewed their educational systems are examined and the renewals are defined. The curriculum development studies of that period and the problems encountered while applying the curriculum are analized, thus, the kind of studies which must be done to eliminate the problems are identified. By examining the curriculum development studies which are held by Ministry of National Education, some useful suggestions for productive application of science teaching curriculums are explained.

Rahmi YA?BASAN

2005-12-01

166

How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

2014-08-01

167

Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

2013-06-01

168

Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

Kueker, W.; Mehnert, F.; Mader, I.; Naegele, T. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tuebingen Medical School, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Ruff, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Gaertner, S. [Department of Neurology, University of Tuebingen Medical School, Tuebingen (Germany)

2004-06-01

169

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-06-24

170

An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize  

Science.gov (United States)

In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

2011-01-01

171

Analysis of Budget Management at a Chemical Enterprise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the use of the methodology of application of the gap-analysis and regression analysis for finding out reasons of non-performance of the planned measures and assessment of priority of zones of management of the production programme of the enterprise. The article justifies application of the gap-analysis and regression analysis of budgeting of the production programme at a chemical enterprise. It establishes the reasons of non-performance of planned measures and assessment of priority of zones of management and recommends re-orientation of management of production processes of a chemical enterprise on the basis of the process-oriented budgeting. A direction of further studies is justification of the model of effective realisation of the strategy of enterprise development on the basis of the process-oriented budgeting.

Gudz Petro V.

2013-12-01

172

METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

173

Environmental and Chemical Analysis Technician Curriculum Planning Guide. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental and Chemical Analysis Technician (ECAT) Curriculum Planning Guide is one of three such guides developed as part of project RP 1266-6, Educational Research in Solid-Fuel Technology. The first phase of the project included a needs assessme...

D. M. Hull, B. F. Rinard

1980-01-01

174

Culture & Education: An Analysis on Schooling of an Ethnic Minority Village in Pre-modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focuses on a Miao village of Southwest China, where the educations both home and community existing in the village are affecting the children. Before the place becomes part of modern society, traditional culture working in their reality life as well as rooting deeply in villagers’ mind. They haven’t recognized the meaning of the schooling education completely yet. The study finds that the point is that there are the different education types between schooling and home & community, including different contents, methods and aims of teaching. The findings suggest that they are badly in need a process of getting themselves to adapt to schooling, that is not the time problem, but understanding that “why I am going to school”, and “what I am studying for”.

Xiaoyan Wang

2011-07-01

175

Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We u [...] sed a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

TL, Campbell; PJ, Lewis; JK, Williams.

2011-02-01

176

Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia rock salt deposit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that require further processing or separation.

Yigzaw Binega

2006-12-01

177

Chemical Cytometry: Fluorescence-Based Single-Cell Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytometry deals with the analysis of the composition of single cells. Flow and image cytometry employ antibody-based stains to characterize a handful of components in single cells. Chemical cytometry, in contrast, employs a suite of powerful analytical tools to characterize a large number of components. Tools have been developed to characterize nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites in single cells. Whereas nucleic acid analysis employs powerful polymerase chain reaction-based amplification techniques, protein and metabolite analysis tends to employ capillary electrophoresis separation and ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. It is now possible to detect yoctomole amounts of many analytes in single cells.

Cohen, Daniella; Dickerson, Jane A.; Whitmore, Colin D.; Turner, Emily H.; Palcic, Monica M.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Dovichi, Norman J.

2008-07-01

178

Foucault and modern medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity. PMID:7664146

Peerson, A

1995-06-01

179

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

re : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

180

Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

Jianhua sun

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Developing professional habitus: a Bernsteinian analysis of the modern nurse apprenticeship.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development of professional habitus in nursing students from a sociological, and specifically, a Bernsteinian perspective. It outlines the theoretical basis for the development of this trait, regarded as one of the defining characteristics of professional practice, and discusses how its development has shaped the modern nurse apprenticeship with its current emphasis on situated learning. The paper considers some of the pitfalls to this approach and raises some caveats about the assumptions which underpin nursing education at the current time. It discusses how students' legitimate peripheral participation in the workplace may be jeopardised, and outlines how they may be faced with untenable choices in respect of 'fitting in' to the ward team or challenging poor practice where this occurs. Moreover, the paper considers how the increasing abrogation of 'caring' activities to non-registered staff threatens the very notion of professional habitus in nursing and posits some possible explanations for this. The paper concludes by arguing that a better understanding of professional habitus is required by all within the profession, and suggests that this concept provides the means by which two seemingly disparate concepts, 'professionalism' and 'vocationalism' can be brought together to the benefit of the nursing profession. PMID:17134794

O'Connor, Stephen J

2007-10-01

182

[Comparative analysis of modern approaches to risk estimation from artificially created nanoparticles and nanomaterials].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article represents a review of modern approaches to problem of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials risk estimation for human health and environment that were elaborated in EU, USA and some international authorities. Submitted data suggests that there is a significant coincidence with approaches being developed and introduced in Russian Federation under the guidance of Rospotrebnadzor. Particularly criteria being used in Russian Federation and EU for classification of nanotechnologies and nanoindustry production are mainly similar. They include a) identification of nanomaterials in production, b) establishment of production disintegration possibility with concomitant migration of free nanoparticles, c) possibility of nanoparticles emission/migration both in normal conditions of utilization and in possible emergency conditions, d) degree of proximity of particular kind of production to it's consumer that means the possibility of exposition being from closely to zero (in conditions of unhabitated exploitation) up to approximately 100% (in case of medicine, food and cosmetics), e) biological examination of potential danger of nanomaterials according to current volume of scientific information. As applied to nanotechnology plants there are such criteria in use as a) nanomaterial identification, b) personnel exhibiting possibility, c) potential toxicity of stuff in aerosol nano-form, d) characteristics of biological action. Thus applied in Russia principles for nanomaterials safety estimation do not contradict to concepts of foreign authorities that builds up a possibility of said approaches harmonization to internationally recognized norms. PMID:23156045

Kazak, A A; Stepanov, E G; Gmoshinski?, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

2012-01-01

183

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

184

Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

185

The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

186

Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

Egidi, Giovanni

2004-01-01

187

Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

188

Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

2007-02-26

189

Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

Aptekar Saveliy S.

2013-03-01

190

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enri

G. Brügmann

2011-05-01

191

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations – are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ?1%. Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300% across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granites and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed, the observed element distribution can only be explained by equilibration of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. It appears the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and N

G. Brügmann

2012-01-01

192

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail....

Xiaoxia Ding; Wen Zhang; Xiaofeng Hu; Qi Zhang; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang

2012-01-01

193

Osteometric analysis for sexing of modern sternum - An autopsy study from South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732

Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

2014-11-01

194

Statistics and mathematical modelling; A major recent modern tool in biotechnology and bioinformatics data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistics and Mathematical models can be in many forms, including differentialequations, or theoretic models. Lack of correlation between theoreticalmathematical models and experimental measurements sometime leads todevelopment of better theories in the area of biology. The mathematical designfinds wide application in nutrient media optimization for microbial enzymeproduction. On the other hand these mathematical tools in the field of statisticsplay an important role with data analysis of proteomics and genomics studies. Forthe MS/MS spectroscopic data, micro array, RT-PCR data analysis, linkage study,gene-gene interaction studies are very difficult to interpret, but the statistical toolsmade it very easier from the conventional method of data analysis in bothBiotechnology and Bioinformatics.

Suneetha V.

2013-01-01

195

TAMkin: a versatile package for vibrational analysis and chemical kinetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

TAMkin is a program for the calculation and analysis of normal modes, thermochemical properties and chemical reaction rates. At present, the output from the frequently applied software programs ADF, CHARMM, CPMD, CP2K, Gaussian, Q-Chem, and VASP can be analyzed. The normal-mode analysis can be performed using a broad variety of advanced models, including the standard full Hessian, the Mobile Block Hessian, the Partial Hessian Vibrational approach, the Vibrational Subsystem Analysis with or without mass matrix correction, the Elastic Network Model, and other combinations. TAMkin is readily extensible because of its modular structure. Chemical kinetics of unimolecular and bimolecular reactions can be analyzed in a straightforward way using conventional transition state theory, including tunneling corrections and internal rotor refinements. A sensitivity analysis can also be performed, providing important insight into the theoretical error margins on the kinetic parameters. Two extensive examples demonstrate the capabilities of TAMkin: the conformational change of the biological system adenylate kinase is studied, as well as the reaction kinetics of the addition of ethene to the ethyl radical. The important feature of batch processing large amounts of data is highlighted by performing an extended level of theory study, which TAMkin can automate significantly. PMID:20738140

Ghysels, An; Verstraelen, Toon; Hemelsoet, Karen; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

2010-09-27

196

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

Riber, Christian; Spliid, Henrik

2007-01-01

197

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF â??NERIUM OLEANDERâ? LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

Lakhmili Siham

2014-01-01

198

Status of the problem and analysis of modern approaches to regulation of potential exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyzes the current tendencies of methods accumulated by the world community for calculations of potential exposure. The analysis of technical requirements for prevention of emergencies and accidents stipulated by the Ukrainian regulatory framework demonstrates that they either partly or completely fail to comply with regulations for protection against potential exposure

199

CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF THE POLYSEMANTIC VERB «K??» IN THE MODERN YAKUT LANGUAGE ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? «???» ? ??????????? ???????? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conceptual analysis of the polysemantic verb ??? revealed the following relevant concepts: man, animals, time, elements, artifact, odor, sound, mental action, physical condition, physiological condition, psychological condition, emotional-psychological condition, abstract phenomenon. The direct nominative meaning of the verb ??? reflects the basic components of the concept structure that may be ascribed to the concept core: object, operation, result

Prokopieva S. M.

2012-05-01

200

Modern maths  

CERN Multimedia

Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

Thom,R

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Modern Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

Barrow, Gordon M.

1970-01-01

202

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

CERN Document Server

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

2003-01-01

203

Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 ?C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

2014-07-01

204

Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

CERN Document Server

We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

2010-01-01

205

ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water  

Science.gov (United States)

During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

2009-01-01

206

Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis  

CERN Document Server

This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

Hughes, Ifan G

2010-01-01

207

Adventures in Modern Time Series Analysis: From the Sun to the Crab Nebula and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

With the generation of long, precise, and finely sampled time series the Age of Digital Astronomy is uncovering and elucidating energetic dynamical processes throughout the Universe. Fulfilling these opportunities requires data effective analysis techniques rapidly and automatically implementing advanced concepts. The Time Series Explorer, under development in collaboration with Tom Loredo, provides tools ranging from simple but optimal histograms to time and frequency domain analysis for arbitrary data modes with any time sampling. Much of this development owes its existence to Joe Bredekamp and the encouragement he provided over several decades. Sample results for solar chromospheric activity, gamma-ray activity in the Crab Nebula, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts will be displayed.

Scargle, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

208

Phylogenetic analysis of relationship between woolly mammoth and modern elephants using bioinformatics tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Majority of Proboscideans are extinct today, except the African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Along with them, Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) has been one of the most well known extinct Proboscidean. Mammuthus, Elephas and Loxodonta are very closely related to each other, yet precise relationship amongst them has been a matter of great debate. Our investigation dealt with this issue. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) an...

Garg, Abhishek D.; Hippargi, Rajshekhar V.

2006-01-01

209

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and i...

Yong-Bo Peng; Chang-Yin Li; Ping Li; Jun Cao; Lian-Wen Qi; E-Hu Liu

2008-01-01

210

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel--Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM). Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members. PMID:24464236

Centeno, Jose A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

2014-01-01

211

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values), as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE), dendrite arm spacing (DAS) and length eutectic (Le) and also distribution by size (histogram) and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5...

Zlati?anin Biljana V.; Radonji? Branislav M.; Jordovi? Branka M.

2002-01-01

212

Chemical analysis of anodic oxidic films on indium arsenide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The procedure has been developed for chemical analysis of anodic dielectric films on indium arsenide obtained by electrooxidation of indium arsenide in an electrolyte of complex composition (orthophosphoric acid, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerin). The arsenic content in oxide films after etching with tartaric acid has been determined spectrophotometrically by the intensity of colour of molybdenum arsenate blue. Indium has been determined photocolorimetrically with xylene orange in the presence of an acetate buffer. It is shown that the mass ratio In:As is 5.2:1 independently of the anodizing conditions

213

Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.)

214

Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

215

Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

Marius BREBENEL

2014-04-01

216

Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

217

Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5-40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7-19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws. PMID:23425043

Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

2013-04-01

218

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range

219

Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

220

Analysis of modern threats to information security occurring while the network interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification of information security threats from networking was based on the general scheme of networking, networks location, network infra-structure components relative to potential offenders. Furthermore, three classes of vulnerable parts of the system (software, hardware, man-made were identified for convenience. The structuring method of objectives and functions was used for the analysis. According to it, the set of vulnerable sections and security threats is represented as a system of six levels, where the upper components – goals, and the bottom ones- functions, except for the level of the life cycle. The result is a system, where each vulnerable part can be compared with the list of threats to information security.

Babenko German Valerievich

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Modern Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

Zhang Yuan Zhong

2002-01-01

222

Modern biooxidation  

CERN Document Server

Filling a gap in the literature, leading expert editors and top international authors present the field of biooxidation from an academic and industrial point of view, taking many examples from modern pharmaceutical research. Topics range from the application of different monooxygenases to applications in the pharmaceutical industry, making this volume of high interest not only for those working in biotechnology but also for organic synthetic chemists, among others.

Schmid, Rolf D

2007-01-01

223

The Multiple Modernities of Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity’ but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

Thomassen, BjØrn

224

Tate Modern  

Science.gov (United States)

Yesterday, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Tate Modern, Britain's new national museum of modern art housed in a former power station on London's Bankside. Those who weren't invited to the gala opening party last night and can't make it to the official public opening today can still visit the new museum online. In addition to the ordinary visiting information, special exhibitions, and so forth, the site offers a complete overview of the works displayed in each of its four themed groups. Though modern sounding, the four display themes (Landscape/ Matter/ Environment; Still Life/ Object/ Real Life; Nude/ Action/ Body; and History/ Memory/ Society) are actually based on the major genres of art established by the French Academy in the seventeenth century: landscape, still life, the nude, and history painting. Clicking on a section will bring up a list of rooms, each of which links to a short description and list of works. From this list, users can access more information on a particular work (and an image when available) and other pieces by the same artist held at Tate galleries via the Tate Collections Website (see the June 11, 1999 Scout Report).

2000-01-01

225

Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analysis of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol particle have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

226

Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

227

Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

228

Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ''hardware'', including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been the design and development laboratory for many of these components and will be responsible for their ultimate disposition. This disposition, whether it be reuse, material recycle, or disposal, will require some level of material characterization and analysis. Previous efforts at developing a process for segregation and characterization of hazardous materials in weapon components have been documented. This paper describes the results of recent activities undertaken in support of the Weapon Hardware Inventory Reduction Effort (WHIRE) at Sandia National Laboratories. These activities have been directed principally towards: The development of a statistically sound sampling plan for chemical analysis of weapon component materials; the development of a non-destructive analytical screening method for determining the Toxicity Characteristic of excess weapon hardware

229

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error becomes a minimum. The overall system is found to be stable, controllable, and observable. The system is also analyzed in sampled data control domain (z domain. The stability in z domain is analyzed using Jury’s Stability test. MATLAB software is appropriately used in the entire analysis.

Ashis Kumar Das

2013-03-01

230

Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

2010-12-01

231

Using modern time series analysis techniques to predict ENSO events from the SOI time series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the monthly 1866-2000 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI data to determine: 1 whether the SOI data are sufficiently noise-free that useful predictions can be made from them, and 2 in particular, whether future ENSO events can be predicted from the SOI data.  The "Hilbert-EMD" technique is used to aid the analysis. This new frequency-time algorithm, based on the Hilbert transform, may be applied to time series for which the conventional assumptions of linearity and stationarity may not apply.With the aid of the EMD procedure, a cleaner representation of ENSO dynamics is obtained from the SOI data. A polynomial function is then used to predict SOI values. Using only the data from January 1866 through December 1996, this prediction correctly indicated a warm event in 1997-1998 and a cold event in 1999. Using all the data (through December 2000, this prediction shows no strong ENSO events (positive or negative during the time period January 2001 through December 2004.

J. I. Salisbury

2002-01-01

232

Attempt of analysis of the functional state of modern students of technical higher educational establishment.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The functional state of students of higher educational establishment - general and special medical separation on employments on physical education is considered. 31 student of general separation and 56 students of the special medical separation took part in an experiment (age 17-20 years. Such indexes of the cardiovascular system, as coefficient of economized of circulation of blood, vegetative index of Kerdo, minute volume of blood, are investigational. It is set that adaptation of vagetonic to the dosed physical loading is more high, than at symbatotonic. On the absolute values of violation of economized of circulation of blood at vagetonic less than, than in symbatotonic. On the analysis of coefficient of economized of circulation of blood about 87% students of medical separation and 67% general separation have violation of economized of circulation of blood of the cardiovascular system. The formula of index of adaptation is offered in relation to the physical loading. It is set that among the students of task medical force of violation of economized of circulation of blood among vagetonic have 100% tested persons, among symbatotonic are 86% persons (from them 2% youths and 98% girls. Among normatonic are 85% students.

Kopa V.M.

2012-08-01

233

Information-Theoretical Complexity Analysis of Selected Elementary Chemical Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the complexity of selected elementary chemical reactions (namely, the hydrogenic-abstraction reaction and the identity SN2 exchange reaction) by means of the following single and composite information-theoretic measures: disequilibrium (D), exponential entropy(L), Fisher information (I), power entropy (J), I-D, D-L and I-J planes and Fisher-Shannon (FS) and Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) shape complexities. These quantities, which are functionals of the one-particle density, are computed in both position (r) and momentum (p) spaces. The analysis revealed that the chemically significant regions of these reactions can be identified through most of the single information-theoretic measures and the two-component planes, not only the ones which are commonly revealed by the energy, such as the reactant/product (R/P) and the transition state (TS), but also those that are not present in the energy profile such as the bond cleavage energy region (BCER), the bond breaking/forming regions (B-B/F) and the charge transfer process (CT). The analysis of the complexities shows that the energy profile of the abstraction reaction bears the same information-theoretical features of the LMC and FS measures, however for the identity SN2 exchange reaction does not hold a simple behavior with respect to the LMC and FS measures. Most of the chemical features of interest (BCER, B-B/F and CT) are only revealed when particular information-theoretic aspects of localizability (L or J), uniformity (D) and disorder (I) are considered.

Molina-Espíritu, M.; Esquivel, R. O.; Dehesa, J. S.

234

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

235

Chemical analysis of dentin surfaces after Carisolv treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : This study was done to characterize the surface chemistry after caries excavation with burs and Carisolv 2, by analyzing the relative amounts of organic and inorganic content, and also to analyze the penetration of the adhesive after etching and bonding using Micro Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods : Twenty extracted molars with caries were distributed into the following groups and treated accordingly. Group 1-excavation with bur (10 teeth, and Group 2-excavation using Carisolv 2 (10 teeth. Results and Conclusion : Spectroscopic analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the chemical composition of the tooth between the groups after excavation ( P > 0.05 either with bur or with Carisolv. The penetration of the dentin bonding resin in all samples of the Carisolv group was up to 15?m, whereas, in the bur group it was upto 10?m in few samples. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed the surfaces of the Carisolv-treated dentin to be free of the smear layer, with open tubules, whereas, the dentin surfaces of the bur group showed surfaces covered with a smear layer. In the Carislov group the resin tags were found comparatively deeper than in the bur excavation group. In both the groups the integrity of the remaining dentin surfaces were maintained chemically and morphologically.

Pai Veena

2009-01-01

236

Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O?NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H?H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

237

Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

2008-01-01

238

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

Bartlomiej Zylinski

2011-01-01

239

Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

240

Moderne Volumenvisualisierung (Modern Volume Visualization)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Volumenvisualisierung hat sich in den letzten zehn Jahren zu einer unentbehrlichen Visualisierungstechnik für viele Anwendungsbereiche entwickelt. In diesem Beitrag präsentieren wir einen Überblick über moderne, hardwarebeschleunigte Methoden zur Visualisierung von Volumendaten: Raycasting, Texture-Slicing, Shear-Warp-Rendering und Splatting. (Over the last decade, volume rendering has become an invaluable visualization technique for a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we d...

Pfister, Hanspeter

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

242

Modern Cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the unive The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and velocity biases, dark-matter halos of galaxies, etc. In short, the book has substantial content of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models as well as from the basics to development. I would recommend this book to those who are working on and interested in this subject. (book review; Ian D. Lawry ISBN: 0-7503-0604-1)

243

Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

Xiaoxia Ding

2012-07-01

244

Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

245

Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In National Nature Reserve Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mlýn in Beskydy Mountains young trees are affected by bark damage caused by a rodent species. Young tree species were injured selectively as bark of deciduous trees were more attractive for voles than coniferous. Differences were found also in various tree categories as to age. To explain rodent selectivity in bark damage to young trees, bark of spruce, beech and rowan was chemically analysed. These selected trees were all important in mountain forestry regeneration. The bark of younger stems of rowan and beech (C1 category contained more nutritive substances (fat, crude protein and the low content of fibre. The highest nutritional quality of the younger (C1 stems of rowan resulted in higher impact (27%. But the older rowan stems were of lower attractivity (10% than the older beech (37%. Differences between the broadleaved tree bark and spruce bark were significant as to crude protein and the fibre content. Chemical analysis clearly explained selectivity between broad-leaved and coniferous trees.

Miloslav Homolka

2009-12-01

246

[DNA amplification on chemically structured chips in forensic STR analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study deals with low-volume amplification of short tandem repeats (STRs) for forensic DNA analysis. A chemically structured chip in microscopic slide format was used to amplify standard forensic casework samples in a 1-microL reaction volume primarily with the well-known and widely used PowerPlex kit and with other commercially available STR kits. Tests regarding sensitivity, mixture analysis, robustness, reproducibility, buffer composition and technical performance were carried out to check the usefulness of this amplification strategy. The results obtained show that low-volume amplification is a promising option in the forensic DNA typing toolbox. Restrictions to this method, which are strictly related to the kit and the respective buffer used, were found in low copy number (LCN) DNA typing, mixture analysis and technical performance. Problematic typing results included artefact alleles, increase in locus and heterozygote imbalance, allelic and locus dropout as well as increase of stutters, especially when amplifying less than 200-300 pg of DNA. In contrast, convincing advantages are a higher sensitivity, better amplification efficiency and the low cost factor of this method. PMID:19044139

Schmidt, Ulrike; Proff, Carsten; Schneider, Peter M; Matt, Katja; Sänger, Timo; Zacher, Thomas; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

2008-01-01

247

Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

Tautvaišien? G.

2012-02-01

248

Bacterial mixture analysis with Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy (RCIM) is being evaluated as a technology for waterborne pathogen detection. Binary and ternary mixtures including combinations of polystyrene beads, Grampositive Bacillus anthracis and B. atrophaeus spores, B. cereus vegetative cells, and Gram-negative E. coli cells were investigated by RCIM for differentiation and characterization purposes. We have demonstrated the ability of RCIM, in combination with Pearson's cross correlation and multivariate principal components analysis data reduction techniques, to differentiate these components in the same field of view (FOV). Conventional applications of RCIM consist of differentiating relatively broad areas in a FOV. Here, RCIM is expanded in its capabilities to differentiate and distinguish between different micron size species in single particles and clusters of mixed species.

Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Emge, Darren K.; Jensen, Janet L.; Snyder, A. Peter

2009-05-01

249

Revolutionary impact of today's array detector technology on chemical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

State-of-the-art array detector technology is having a profound impact on numerous types of chemical analysis. The unique capabilities of these detectors create unprecedented opportunities in the various domains of high resolution, ultra sensitive optical spectroscopy. These array detectors, including charge coupled devices (CCDs) and charge injection devices (CIDs) have found successful application in molecular fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and atomic emission spectroscopies. The potential of these detectors for spatial and spectral imaging has been realized in a variety of applications including thin layer chromatography and flow cytometry. Applications of array detectors to these areas are discussed along with the inherently unique methods of operation such as random access integration, time delay integration, and flat fielding.

Radspinner, David A.; Fields, Robert E.; Earle, Colin W.; Denton, M. Bonner

1991-12-01

250

Flow Injection Analysis and Liquid Chromatography for Multifunctional Chemical Analysis (MCA) Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The large class sizes of first-year chemistry labs makes it challenging to provide students with hands-on access to instrumentation because the number of students typically far exceeds the number of research-grade instruments available to collect data. Multifunctional chemical analysis (MCA) systems provide a viable alternative for large-scale…

Mayo, Ana V.; Loegel, Thomas N.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

2013-01-01

251

Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content. PMID:20122826

Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N

2010-06-01

252

Phase transitions modern applications  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

Gitterman, Moshe

2014-01-01

253

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2010-02-02

254

Modern electrodynamics  

CERN Document Server

An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

Zangwill, Andrew

2013-01-01

255

Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

Andrei, Terian.

2014-06-01

256

Análisis del algoritmo red con la teoría de control moderna / Analysis of the red algorithm with modern control theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estabilidad del sistema formado por el algoritmo de detección temprana aleatoria (RED) en conjunto con el protocolo de control de transmisión (TCP) en función de los parámetros del sistema utilizando la teoría de control moderna. Se deduce la ecuación lin [...] ealizada del sistema mediante la cual se hace un estudio de la estabilidad en función de la posición de los polos de la matriz del sistema linealizado. Se observa que a medida que crece la cantidad N de conexiones TCP, disminuye la estabilidad. Mediante simulaciones, se comprobaron los resultados obtenidos del análisis teórico. Los experimentos incluyeron diferentes condiciones de operación del sistema con varios valores de máxima probabilidad de marcado de los paquetes, observándose que para valores grandes de probabilidad, la estabilidad relativa también disminuye Abstract in english This paper presents a study of the stability of the system of the RED (Random Early Detection) algorithm in conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) based on the parameters of the system using modern control theory. We deduce the linearized equation of the system through which a study of [...] stability depending on the position of the poles of the linearized system matrix is made. It was noted that as the number (N) of TCP connections grows, stability reduces. Through simulations, the expected results were verified by theoretical analysis. The experiments include different system operating conditions with various values of highest probability of marking packets, noting that for high probability values, the relative stability also decreases

Claudio, Parra.

2010-03-01

257

Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. PMID:23914934

Martinón-Torres, María; Sp?vá?ková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

2013-10-01

258

Análisis del algoritmo red con la teoría de control moderna / Analysis of the red algorithm with modern control theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estabilidad del sistema formado por el algoritmo de detección temprana aleatoria (RED) en conjunto con el protocolo de control de transmisión (TCP) en función de los parámetros del sistema utilizando la teoría de control moderna. Se deduce la ecuación lin [...] ealizada del sistema mediante la cual se hace un estudio de la estabilidad en función de la posición de los polos de la matriz del sistema linealizado. Se observa que a medida que crece la cantidad N de conexiones TCP, disminuye la estabilidad. Mediante simulaciones, se comprobaron los resultados obtenidos del análisis teórico. Los experimentos incluyeron diferentes condiciones de operación del sistema con varios valores de máxima probabilidad de marcado de los paquetes, observándose que para valores grandes de probabilidad, la estabilidad relativa también disminuye Abstract in english This paper presents a study of the stability of the system of the RED (Random Early Detection) algorithm in conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) based on the parameters of the system using modern control theory. We deduce the linearized equation of the system through which a study of [...] stability depending on the position of the poles of the linearized system matrix is made. It was noted that as the number (N) of TCP connections grows, stability reduces. Through simulations, the expected results were verified by theoretical analysis. The experiments include different system operating conditions with various values of highest probability of marking packets, noting that for high probability values, the relative stability also decreases

Claudio, Parra.

259

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

2001-07-01

260

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

Hanwell Marcus D

2012-08-01

262

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

263

Theoretical aspects by means of discourse analysis of juvenile subculture furry and its sublanguage in conditions of modern mass-media universum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines current theoretical and cultural discourse-analysis issue concerned with discourse studies and intercultural communication of modern mass-media universum, and cultural values in spiritual human space. Special attention is given to the significance of experimental verification in the authentic field volume for the dynamics of optimization and accuracy linguistic and extralinguistic data. Also examined are innovations in theory and forms of representation that are responses to such spiritual contexts and influences.

Alina Arnaytova

2014-04-01

264

CHEMICALS  

CERN Multimedia

It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

Medical Service

2002-01-01

265

American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility  

Science.gov (United States)

The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

daSilva, Arlindo

2009-01-01

266

Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China and 1.58% (Thailand. Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained ?-pinene 3.59, ?-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, ?-pinene 0.74, ?-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains ?-pinene 0.305, ?-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, ?-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, ?-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%.

Misbah Sultan

2005-01-01

267

Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of pooled calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of levels of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are compared to predictions of the Horwitz formula. It is suggested that this method is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate that the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analytical sciences because they direct researcher's attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than towards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professional laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of analytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method validation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at laboratories.

Andersen, Jens

2012-01-01

268

[Subacute toxicity and chemical analysis of Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata].  

Science.gov (United States)

Four different extracts of Oxytropis falcata, including the aerial aqueous extract, and the underground aqueous extract, the aerial lipophilic extract, and the underground lipophilic extract were prepared and then administrated orally to mice at the maximum dose (50 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) calculated by raw material) for fifteen days respectively. Compared with the control group, which was administrated of 1.0% tween-80, the treatment groups did not show significant differences in appearance and behavior. However, the organcoefficient, blood biochemical indicator and pathological section results showed that the lipophilic extracts of the aerial and underground parts of O. flacata showed mild injury to the liver of mice, while the aerial and underground aqueous extracts and the underground lipophilic extract showed mild toxicity to the kidney of male mice. Chemical analysis showed that the lipophilic extracts of the aerial and underground parts, especially aerial lipophilic extract, consisted of large amount of flavonoid aglycones with little amount of polysaccharides and proteins, while the aqueous extracts contained much polysaccharides and proteins with almost no flavonoid aglycones detected. PMID:25011246

Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Wei-Xia; Wei, Peng; Kelsang, Norbo; Que, Sheng; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Qing-Ying

2014-04-01

269

Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

270

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 ?m and 1000 ?m were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

2003-01-01

271

Studies on Chemical Analysis of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L. Wilczek  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine commercially grown varieties of mung bean were subjected to chemical analysis to determine total protein contents, amino acids, lipids, ash, crude fiber, moisture and calories. All varieties differed significantly in their total protein contents (22.88 - 24.65%; total amino acids (20.98 - 25.61% and lipids (1.53 - 2.63% whereas the differences in the ash contents (3.20 - 3.87%, crude fiber (4.30 - 4.80%, moisture (10.13 - 10.77% and total calories (341 - 371 were non-significant. Higher values were recorded for amino acids such as Lysine (1.54 - 1.97%, aspartic acid (2.73 - 3.48% and glutamic acid (4.29 - 5.24% whereas the sulpher containing amino acids were limiting. The new varieties compared favourably with the native cultivar in their nutritional status. Variety NIAB Mung - 92 was found to be superior among all the varieties studied for seed protein and sulpher containing amino acids contents.

B.Saleem

1998-01-01

272

Chemical analysis of archaeological copper and brass from northeastern Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is now possible, with some reliability, to separate native from European copper using chemical analysis, archaeological copper has been sorted into geological (North American) or smelted (European) groups and thereby help address issues relating to the cultural impact of earliest aboriginal - European contact in northeastern Ontario. Twenty six metal samples from 11 archaeological sites, dating from the 17th to 19th centuries, were analyzed by INAA. The results were compared with reference data for native copper and European trade copper and indicate that of the 17 copper samples in the suite, an archaeologically-unexpected high number of 12 were made of native copper. The majority of these samples derived from the post-contact early 17th century Providence Bay Odawa village. The remaining samples were made of brass and zinc. Two of the brass samples, from Point Louise, have remarkably similar chemistries and probably came from the same object, or at least from the same batch of brass. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

273

SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the co...

Balaure, Sofia-paulina; Filimon, Marioara Nicoleta; Ciudin, Larisa; Craciun, Maria-alexandra

2012-01-01

274

The Hippocratic oath: a comparative analysis of the ancient text's relevance to American and Indian modern medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed. PMID:23032817

Jhala, Chandrakant I; Jhala, Khushboo N

2012-01-01

275

Modern Supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY ? function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among ? functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solutrong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the AdS/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles. (book review)

276

Chemical analysis of secondary household waste. Results for 1994 and 1995  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of an analysis carried out on the chemical composition (e.g. heavy metals) of secondary household waste for 1994 and 1995 are reported here. Chemical analysis results are presented as concentrations per component (e.g. biowaste, paper, plastics) and as concentrations in (total) secondary household waste. The relative contributions of the substances to the various components are also given.

Beker D; Aaj, Cornelissen

2012-01-01

277

Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

278

XPS chemical analysis of tholins: the oxygen contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

In Titan's atmosphere, solid organic aerosols are initiated in the upper atmosphere by the photo-dissociation and photo-ionization of N2 and CH4. In order to simulate this complex chemistry several experimental setups have been built, among them plasma experiments. The aerosol analogues produced in such plasma discharges contain oxygen, as a few percents of the elemental composition, despite the absence of oxygen source in the reactive medium [1]. The present study aims at studying the origin of such systematic oxygen incorporation in tholins. A low pressure (0.9mbar) RF CCP discharge is used described in [2]. Gas mixtures of N2 and CH4 (from 1 to 10% of CH4) are injected continuously. The plasma discharge leads to the production of analogues of Titan's atmospheric aerosols: both as grains in the volume [1] and as thin films on the surface of the reactor [3]. SiO2 substrates of 1cm diameter and 1mm thickness are placed on the grounded electrode of the discharge. Organic films are deposited during 2 hours in order to have films thickness less than 1?m. After the two hours, samples are recovered at ambient air for ex-situ analysis. Two complementary analyses are performed to analyse the thin film chemical composition: XPS and SIMS, in order to probe both the surface and depth profile. References [1] Sciamma-O'brien E., Carrasco N., Szopa C., Buch A., Cernogora G. Icarus 209, 2 (2010) 704-714 [2] Alcouffe G., Cavarroc M., Cernogora G., Ouni F., Jolly A., Boufendi L., Szopa C. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 19, 1 (2010) 015008 (11pp) [3] Mahjoub A., Carrasco N., Dahoo P.-R., Gautier T., Szopa C., Cernogora G. Icarus 221, 2 (2012) 670-677.

Carrasco, N.; Jomard, F.; Vigneron, J.; Cernogora, G.

2013-12-01

279

Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel–dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

I. Ssemmanda

2012-11-01

280

Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 ?g g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 ?g g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

2012-05-01

282

The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

Asa Auta

2011-07-01

283

Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

Justas Braži?nas

2011-04-01

284

ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL MODERNIZERS NETWORK FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM PROCESS FROM ROMANIA* 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, ?nancial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simpli?cation.

Alina PROFIROIU (corresponding author

2010-10-01

285

Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

2013-01-01

286

Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained mor...

Schuetzle, D.

1983-01-01

287

Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with the use of electric fields for evaluation and control of chemical systems. An electric field can result in the flow of charge across an interface between a metal and a solution, by means of chemical reactions. This interplay between electricity and chemistry, i.e. electrochemistry, is a field of crucial importance both within research and industry. Applications based on electrochemical principles encompass such diverse areas as batteries and fuel cells, pH electrodes, a...

Ulrich, Christian

2008-01-01

288

Biologia química: uma estratégia moderna para a pesquisa em produtos naturais Chemical biology: a modern strategy for the natural products research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Natural Products Research in Brazil in the last five years (2002-2006, and also discusses how some relevant aspects of the Chemical Biology area could create new research opportunities and challenges for the natural product chemists. In addition, some aspects of the scientific policies and their impact on current projects are discussed.

Mônica Tallarico Pupo

2007-12-01

289

Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01

290

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba/Sr ranging from 0.1 to 3. This ratio varies on spatial and temporal scales and traces provenance signals as well as the fractionation of the elements in the hydrological cycle. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. The provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from about 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that with time, Ba mobility decreased relative to that of Sr. This can arise if preferential adsorption of Ba to clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide is related to increasing aridification. Additionally, weathering solutions and lake water can become increasingly alkaline and barite becomes stable. In this case, Ba will be preferentially deposited on the watershed of Lake Albert and rivers with low Ba/Sr will feed the habitats of the Hippopotamids.

I. Ssemmanda

2012-03-01

291

Evaluating Chemical Persistence in a Multimedia Environment: ACART Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Persistent chemicals are difficult to remove if adverse health or ecological effects are later discovered. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as ''persistent'' or ''non-persistent'' based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

1999-02-01

292

International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

1996-01-01

293

Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

2008-01-01

294

Seasonality and season of birth of modern and late Neolithic sheep from South-Eastern France using tooth enamel ?18O analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stable oxygen isotopic analysis of tooth enamel was used to investigate seasonality and season of birth in sheep. Analyses were performed on the teeth of eight modern sheep bred at the Carmejane farm in south-eastern France and born in different periods of the year. This reference data set confirms that oxygen isotopic records in the second and third molars can be used to differentiate between sheep born in late winter and those born in early autumn. The results show that inter-individual var...

Blaise, Emilie; Balasse, Marie

2011-01-01

295

ASTP chemical and microbiological analysis of potable water  

Science.gov (United States)

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project procedures for potable water system servicing and the results of preflight and postflight chemical and microbiological analyses of the water are discussed. Tables show results of the analyses. The effectiveness of the water system is evaluated.

Sauer, R. L.; Leslie, S. A.

1976-01-01

296

Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratorylytical laboratory

297

Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) - Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction  

Science.gov (United States)

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100-150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m-3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA) does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB), resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC) and 30% total carbon (TC) are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA. Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15-23% of the OA and 7-9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2-3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

Aiken, A. C.; de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Decarlo, P. F.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Wehrli, M. N.; Szidat, S.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Noda, J.; Wacker, L.; Volkamer, R.; Fortner, E.; Wang, J.; Laskin, A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, L. T.; Sosa, G.; Querol, X.; Jimenez, J. L.

2009-12-01

298

Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

J. L. Jimenez

2009-12-01

299

Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis

Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

2012-01-01

300

Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure for the characterization of the dissimilar metal welds and the analysis of results by using 3D APT in order to get a clear understanding of structure and chemistry in the fundamental scale of weld interfaces

Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

 
 
 
 
301

Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put into effect, the final hurdle for industry adoption can only be made with the achievement of a financial return on investment. This study analyses the costs and benefits for implementing microwave systems and presents results for economic parameters used in cost calculations. The calculations method is outlined using a corrugated board case study. Furthermore in the age of green awakening microwave processing is argued to help improve process efficiency by using green electric supply hence reducing CO2 emissions.

A.M. Hasna

2011-01-01

302

Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration  

CERN Document Server

Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

Rogers, David M

2009-01-01

303

The detection of irradiated food using chemical methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main stumbling blocks which has hindered the development of a detection method which is specific for irradiation is that the chemical changes which occur are in many cases very similar to those which arise as a result of other processes such as heating or autoxidation. Also, the actual amounts of radiolytic products formed are small at the doses which are likely to be used in practical food irradiation. For these reasons, it is important that a number of different tests are developed so that more than one test may be available to confirm whether or not a food has been irradiated. There are a number of chemical methods which merit further research and show promise for the detection of irradiated food. Of those which are currently under examination, the methods based on the radiolytic products formed from lipids show most promise and merit intensive investigation. 12 refs

304

Chemical diagnosis of DLC by ESR spectral analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with four precursor gases such as methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene in gas phase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that dangling-bond sites (DBSs) observed in all films were characterized by an isotropic broad single line. The DLC film with unsaturated precursor gases had the higher film growth rate and the higher DBS accumulative rate. Although the DBS in DLC films were quite stable at room temperature under anaerobic conditions, the DBS decayed rapidly to level off toward a limiting value when exposed to air. The stability and reactivity of the DBS in DLC film were assumed to depend on chemical structure of organic gas used as precursor. The detailed-ESR study on DBS of the DLC films could be one of the powerful tools for diagnosing the micro-structural properties and the quality of films.

305

CFD ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN HUMAN NOSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to simulate the chemical transport of ammonia vapor with density ? = 0.6894 kg/m3 and coefficient of viscosity ? = 1.015e-05 kg/m-s inside the healthy Indian nose by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique and to analyze the olfactory sensitivity. The computed tomographic images of a healthy adultwith normal nasal structure and function was used to built a physically realistic model with the help of Mimics software. Navier-Stokes and continuity equations were solved numerically for steady and unsteady state conditions by finite volume method to determine laminar flow patterns. CFD simulation was performed using Gambit and Fluent software to visualize implications for olfaction. The graphs indicate that only part of the inspired chemical passes through the olfactory airway. The total olfactory uptake for the odorant increased as inlet velocity increased.

K.B. NAIDU

2013-04-01

306

Chemical atomic emission analysis of high-purity boron bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique of chemical atomic emission determination of Fe,Mg,Mn,Pb,Cr,Sn,Ni,Bi,Ti,Co,Cd,Al,Sb,Ag,Cu,Ca,Zn,Mo,V impurities in high-purity boron bromide is developed. The relative detection limit is 6x10-8-2x10-10 mass %. The relative standard deviation in the 10-7-10-9 mass % impurity content range constituted from 0.27 to 0.53 depending on determined element

307

Correlated Imaging - A Grand Challenge in Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Correlated chemical imaging is an emerging strategy for acquisition of images by combining information from multiplexed measurement platforms to track, visualize, and interpret in situ changes in the structure, organization, and activities of interesting chemical systems, frequently spanning multiple decades in space and time. Acquiring and correlating information from complementary imaging experiments has the potential to expose complex chemical behavior in ways that are simply not available from single methods applied in isolation, thereby greatly amplifying the information gathering power of imaging experiments. However, in order to correlate image information across platforms, a number of issues must be addressed. First, signals are obtained from disparate experiments with fundamentally different figures of merit, including pixel size, spatial resolution, dynamic range, and acquisition rates. In addition, images are often acquired on different instruments in different locations, so the sample must be registered spatially so that the same area of the sample landscape is addressed. The signals acquired must be correlated in both spatial and temporal domains, and the resulting information has to be presented in a way that is readily understood. These requirements pose special challenges for image cross-correlation that go well beyond those posed in single technique imaging approaches. The special opportunities and challenges that attend correlated imaging are explored by specific reference to correlated mass spectrometric and Raman imaging, a topic of substantial and growing interest. PMID:23431559

Masyuko, Rachel; Lanni, Eric; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Bohn, Paul W.

2013-01-01

308

Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.  

Science.gov (United States)

LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites. PMID:15045345

Stochniol, G; Broel, S; Naoumidis, A; Nickel, H

1996-06-01

309

Performance analysis of Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen chemical heat pump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The increase of temperature of endothermic reaction reduces performance of heat pump. ? The better the performance is, the larger the number of trays. ? COP focuses on the quantity of recovered heat. ? Exergy efficiency focuses on the quantity and quality of recovered heat. - Abstract: The performance of an Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen (IAH) chemical heat pump system is investigated in terms of enthalpy efficiency (COP) and exergy efficiency, in which the exothermic and endothermic reactions take place in the gas phase. The increase of reflux ratio, temperature of endothermic reaction and temperature of exothermic reaction reduces the performance of the heat pump when the other operating parameters remain unchanged. However, the performance of the IAH chemical heat pump improves with the increase of the ratio of molar quantity of hydrogen to that of acetone in the entry of exothermic reactor and the number of heat transfer units of regenerator. Generally, a better performance of the chemical heat pump corresponds to a larger number of trays in the distillation column. The performance of the system can be improved significantly after multi-parameter optimization design. The coefficient of performance (COP) pays more attention to the heat released from the exothermic reactor, while the exergy efficiency takes into consideration of both heat released from the exothermic reactor and temperature of exothermic reaction.

310

Heat and Chemical Exergy Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, derived from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat and electricity generation, can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated by substituting fossil fuels with a clean energy source, e.g. solar energy. However, solar radiation reaching the earth is diluted, intermittent, and, unequally distributed. These disadvantages can be overcome by converting solar energy into chemical energy carriers, i.e. solar fuels, such as solar hydrogen and solar methanol, which can be long-termed stored and long-ranged transported. Since the energy conversion efficiency of thermochemical processes is limited by the Carnot efficiency, the use of concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat provides a thermodynamically efficient path for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. In this study, water-gas shift reaction in parabolic trough collector is evaluated with regarding the heat exergy and chemical exergy analyses and the results are given as tables and graphs.

Öztürk, M.; Üçgül, I.; Özek, N.

2007-04-01

311

Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

Blagojevi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

312

40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

...292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, or a method validated under...

2010-07-01

313

Chemical spectral analysis of high-purity volatile inorganic hydrides, halides and organoelemental substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the review data on chemical spectral analysis of highly pure volatile inorganic hydrides, volatile halides and organoelemental compounds, including boron, molybdenum, vanadium and cadmium compounds, have been systematized. The near prospects of the determination limit decrease are evaluated

314

Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

315

ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

Kun Li; Shiyu Fu,; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucia, Lucian A.

2010-01-01

316

Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the techni...

Thomson, B. A.; Davidson, W. R.; Lovett, A. M.

1980-01-01

317

Ionic melts in modern technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem content of ionic melts is studied. The methods of applying the ionic melts in different spheres of modern technology, i.e metallurgy, machine building, energetics, manufacturing, atomic power engineering hemical industry are considered. The and c/ application of ionic melts in such domains as high temperature current sources, crystal growing, chemical reactions in ionic melts as reaction media is in the stage of studying and is thus considered briefly

318

Scaling and the design of miniaturized chemical-analysis systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Micrometre-scale analytical devices are more attractive than their macroscale counterparts for various reasons. For example, they use smaller volumes of reagents and are therefore cheaper, quicker and less hazardous to use, and more environmentally appealing. Scaling laws compare the relative performance of a system as the dimensions of the system change, and can predict the operational success of miniaturized chemical separation, reaction and detection devices before they are fabricated. Some devices designed using basic principles of scaling are now commercially available, and opportunities for miniaturizing new and challenging analytical systems continue to arise.

Janasek, Dirk; Franzke, Joachim; Manz, Andreas

2006-07-01

319

Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic rel...

Murtagh, Fionn

2008-01-01

320

Analysis of fracture surface of titanium-porcelain bonding by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially available porcelains bonded to titanium were evaluated to determine the weakest zone of the titanium-porcelain bonding structures. Tensile bond tests were performed for these specimens (NO, DU, and VI) and for Ni-Cr alloy-porcelain bonding samples that served as controls. The maximum bond strengths between porcelain and titanium and the Ni-Cr alloy subjected to different metal surface treatments were compared. Sand blasting effectively increased bond strengths in titanium-porcelain bonding materials. No statistically significant differences in the maximum bond strengths were found between the NO sample and a control; however, sample NO exhibited greater maximum bond strength than DU and VI samples. The bond strengths increased with increasing area fractions of porcelain failure on fracture surfaces. The weakest zones were investigated based on the oxygen chemical states determined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si), nonbridging oxygen (Si-O(-) M(+)), and titanium oxide (O(2-)) states. We concluded that the titanium oxide layer is the weakest zone of titanium-porcelain bonding structures. PMID:25273050

Kannari, Yoshiteru; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ida, Yusuke; Ochi, Morio; Ohno, Hiroki

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

Noy, A

2006-01-02

322

Anthropology and Multiple Modernities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed to be unpacked and left behind. The debate was an essential part of a disciplininary reflexivity reconsidering anthropology’s epistemological and political roots in that very modernity. From the mid 1990s modernity was, somewhat surprisingly, reintroduced as a useful if not necessary conceptual tool, as the concept was pluralized into a variety of forms: multiple modernities, parallel modernities, manifold modernities, alternative modernities, competing modernities, reflexive modernities, early modernities, other modernities – the list still unfolding. By reviewing various attempts to conceptualise “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose better. This paper will tentatively argue that if anthropology wishes to embrace the concept of multiple modernities, it could profitably do so by taking more seriously the intellectual trajectory that paved the way for the idea of “multiple modernities”. This trajectory moves outside anthropology as a discipline, and has important roots in Max Weber’s comparative sociology, elaborated for example by Shmul Eisenstadt. If anthropology, as Arjun Appadurai argues in Modernity at Large, wishes to contribute to a new social theory of modernity, it would need to tackle the theoretical luggage that the modernity concept does carry with it, referring to social dynamics and problematics that are indeed not simply everywhere. This does not imply a return to ethno-centric notions of Western modernity. Quite the contrary: it implies recognising the various sources of these multiple modernities.

Thomassen, BjØrn

323

The iron compound and the chemical analysis in agricultural soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil as chemically and biologically active means, where the nutrients and also the polluting agents are retained, is a very important factor in the development of a determined culture, reason why the man conducts different actions that allow to improve the nutrient composition of soil, and to eliminate the polluting agents through provision of fertilizers, wastes, etc.. The characterization of these improved soils is an indispensable task to the development of a certain culture. Plants take from the soil different elements that allows make different functions during the nutrition. Iron is one of such elements which take place en the chlorophyll in plants and can be forming different compounds. The determination of mineralogical of such iron compounds could be performed by means of different analytical techniques. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is the finger print technique in the valuation of iron compounds. The results of the valuation of the chemical composition and the iron mineralogical forms in Cuban and Spanish soil samples. A high ferric oxide concentration (100 %) in different mineralogical forms in the studied Cuban agriculture soil was found. A calcareous soil from Huelva region with ferrous sulphate as additive was characterized. This additive allows to improve the cation interchange capacity

324

Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra  

Science.gov (United States)

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

2014-07-01

325

Variance-based sensitivity analysis for stochastic chemical kinetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensitivity analysis is a process of computing sensitivity indices, which are certain measures of importance of parameters in influencing the outputs of mathematical models. Sensitivity indices computed in variance-based sensitivity analysis yield quantitative answers to questions like how much on average the variance of model output, measuring its uncertainty, decreases, if exact values of certain unknown parameters are determined, e. g. in an experiment. We propose new sch...

Badowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

326

Chemical analysis of steel by atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed for the determination of manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and copper in low-and medium-alloy carbon steels by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a single sample and a single dilution. Results obtained with regard to solution of the sample, analytical procedure, reproducibility and accuracy, time taken and cost of analysis compared with the photometric method are given. It is concluded that the proposed method offers a considerable reduction in the time and cost of analysis

327

Analysis of the method of division of spatial channels with successive interference cancellation in modern MIMO-OFDM cellular systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the problem of parallel data transmission via several spatial channels in modern high-throughput cellular systems employing the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and antenna arrays at both ends of the communication system. Parallel data transmission in such MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems is achieved by using the beamforming schemes in the transmitter and the special methods of the spatial-channel division in the receiver. Interference immunity of the scheme of the spatial-channel division by the maximum-likelihood criterion using the method of successive interference cancellation is analyzed. Probability of implementation of the stage of successive interference cancellation for the case of two spatial channels and various combinations of the coding schemes and modulations is obtained. We analyze the efficiency of a cellular communication system using horizontal coding and successive interference cancellation. Practical recommendations on choosing modulation and the code speed for each spatial channel, which ensure maximum interference immunity of a receiver with successive interference cancellation, are made.

Davydov, A. V.; Mal'Tsev, A. A.

2011-10-01

328

Institutions and Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to improve control methods (e.g. legal, b

Witold Morawski

2013-09-01

329

Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)(am)] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe-S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. delta(56)Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were approximately 0. These near-zero bulk delta(56)Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero delta(56)Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (delta(56)Fe approximately -1.5 to -0.5 per thousand) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)(am) by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)(am) are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)(am) of approximately -2 per thousand. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-delta(56)Fe minerals during BIF genesis. PMID:20374296

Tangalos, G E; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Alpers, C N; Shelobolina, E S; Xu, H; Konishi, H; Roden, E E

2010-06-01

330

Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks  

Science.gov (United States)

The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. ?56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ? 0. These near-zero bulk ?56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero ?56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (?56Fe ? -1.5 to -0.5?) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2?. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-?56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

2012-01-01

331

Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

2012-11-01

332

Chemical effects in materials studies using Auger analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core-valence-valence Auger spectra (AES) afford a unique local view of valence electron structure. The direct involvement in the Auger process of both core and valence states means that the transition matrix element will have a large value only for that portion of the valence electron density which covers the same spatial extent as the core wave function. Thus, the information content of AES is local to the atomic site containing the initial core hole. Our approach in understanding the local information content of AES has been mainly experimental through the intercomparison of model systems, both molecular and solid. The use of molecules in this regard is particularly useful since the vast array of molecular species of known geometric and electronic structures allows one to both vary these properties in a systematic fashion to observe trends and to choose a molecule to probe a specific chemical question

333

Construction of a ?-X fluorescence gauge for chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author has made a theoretical and experimental study of phenomena occurring when beta radiation from a radioactive source causes X-fluorescence in the atoms of a sample. A semi-empirical equation is put forward for calculating the intensity of the photo-electric peaks caused by the elements which are being determined. The set-up proposed has a much better performance than that of previous ?-X equipment. It is now possible to apply this new method both to chemical determinations and to layer-thickness measurements. The process has proved to be slightly more satisfactory than that using tritium-on-zirconium sources for producing X excitation. An extension of this work is proposed for the case where the matrix effects are taken into account for determining the contents. (author)

334

Chemical analysis of 24 dusty (pre-)main-sequence stars  

CERN Document Server

We have analysed the chemical photospheric composition of 24 Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-type stars in search for the lambda Bootis phenomenon. We present the results of the elemental abundances of the sample stars. Some of the stars were never before studied spectroscopically at optical wavelengths. We have determined the projected rotational velocities of our sample stars. Furthermore, we discuss stars that depict a (selective) depletion pattern in detail. HD 4881 and HD 139614 seem to display an overall deficiency. AB Aur and possibly HD 126367 have subsolar values for the iron abundance, but are almost solar in silicon. HD 100546 is the only clear lambda Bootis star in our sample.

Acke, B; Acke, Bram; Waelkens, Christoffel

2004-01-01

335

Analysis of a basic chemically recuperated gas turbine power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates a basic Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine (a basic CRGT is defined here to be one without intercooling or reheat). The CRGT is of interest due to its potential for ultralow NOx emissions. A computer code has been developed to evaluate the performance characteristics (thermal efficiency and specific work) of the basic CRGT, and to compare it to the steam-injected gas turbine (STIG), the combined cycle (CC), and the simple cycle gas turbine (SC) using consistent assumptions. The CRGT model includes a methane-steam reformer (MSR), which converts a methane-steam mixture into a hydrogen-rich fuel using the waste heat in the turbine exhaust. Models for the effects of turbine cooling air, variable specific heats, and the real gas effects of steam are included. The calculated results show that the basic CRGT has a thermal efficiency higher than the STIG and simple cycles but not quite as high as the combined cycle.

Kesser, K. F.; Hoffman, M. A.; Baughn, J. W.

1994-04-01

336

Passion for Modern Art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The story of the Nierendorf Gallery and the Nierendorf brothers exemplify the extremely important, however, often underestimated influence of modern art dealers on the development of single artists, whole art movements and thus of modern art history itself.

Walter-ris, Anja

2010-01-01

337

Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

1998-03-01

338

Risk analysis of chemical and radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic problem in dealing with risky events is to compare the costs of various precautions taken to reduce risk with the risk reduction achieved. Deep-well injection serves as an example for a risk analysis of hazardous waste decisions, but the analysis can apply to other decisions. The failure of a deep-well disposal system can be traced to human error, mechanical failure, or hydrologic occurrence. Even while the value of resources endangered by deep-well disposal is considerable, the low probability of such an extreme event reduces the expected value of such an alternative to modest levels. 28 references, 3 tables

339

Cost efficiency analysis of modern cytocentrifugation methods versus liquid based (Cytyc Thinprep(R)) processing of urinary samples  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims: Liquid based cytology (LBC) was developed as a replacement for cytocentrifugation in the treatment of cell suspensions. Because accurate data comparing the quality and total cost of modern cytocentrifugation methods versus LBC in non-gynaecological samples are not available, this study was designed to investigate these issues. Methods: The study comprised 224 urine samples treated with the Thermo Shandon Cytospin® 4 using reusable TPX® chambers, disposable Cytofunnels® for samples up to 0.5 ml, and disposable Megafunnels® for samples up to 6 ml. Each method was compared with the Cytyc Thinprep® processing of a paired sample. Quality was assessed by scoring cellularity, fixation, red blood cells, leucocytes, abnormalities of urothelial cells, and suitability for molecular studies. Wage costs, investment, and consumables allowed a “total cost” to be calculated on the basis of 200 specimens/month. Total cost and quality combined were used to calculate an index of total quality (ITQ). Results: Cytocentrifugation with disposable chambers resulted in a global quality superior to that of Cytyc Thinprep LBC. Preparation and screening times were 2.25 and 1.33–2 times greater when using LBC compared with cytocentrifugation. The total cost each month reached 1960.23 $ to 2833.43 $ for cytocentrifugation methods and 5464.95 $ for Cytyc Thinprep LBC (92.8–178.8% increased cost). ITQ of cytocentrifugation with disposable chambers surpassed that of Cytyc Thinprep LBC (37.25/32.08 and 9.98, respectively). Conclusion: Cytyc Thinprep LBC and cytocentrifugation are both appropriate methods for cytology based molecular studies, but cytocentrifugation remains the quality standard for current treatment of urinary samples because of its lower cost. PMID:15509686

Piaton, E; Hutin, K; Faynel, J; Ranchin, M-C; Cottier, M

2004-01-01

340

Research Explains Modern Art!  

Science.gov (United States)

This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

Eickhorst, William S.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands

2010-07-01

342

The first modern Europeans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known. PMID:22781582

Benazzi, Stefano

2012-01-01

343

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WET SCRUBBERS UTILIZING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the key elements required to develop a sampling and analysis program for a wet scrubber using ion chromatography as the main analytical technique. The first part of the report describes a sampling program for two different types of wet scrubbers: the venturi/...

344

Chemical analysis of friction surfaces: application of Auger electron spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study deals with the analysis of the protective layer generated in the friction interface AISI52100 bearing steel/lamellar graphite cast iron when lubricated with a blend containing zinc di-n-butyl dithiophosphate as an anti-wear additive

345

Modern Apprenticeships: A Regional Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of Modern Apprenticeships (n=2,222) in Devon and Cornwall was conducted in four industries: engineering manufacturing, hospitality, construction, and agriculture. Apprenticeship appeared to be a feasible vocational alternative to full-time education, attracting high-quality students. Trainers and career counselors played a crucial role in…

Churchill, Sue

1997-01-01

346

THE NON-LINEAR METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN MODERN DESIGNING (BY THE EXAMPLE OF GEOTECHNICS FACILITIES AND BRIDGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement. Non-linear solutions are widely used within the framework of solution of the problems of development of the areas which were earlier unsuitable for construction (wetlands, slope areas; bases consisting of weak overwet soils.Results and conclusions. Design models and examples of practical implementa-tion of two groups of non-linear analysis in design of construction objects are considered. These are spatial deformation analysis of reinforced concrete decks of road bridges and elastoplastic numerical analysis of the bases, soil structures and structures interacting with soil structures.

N. N. Melnichuk

2010-10-01

347

A comparative study of modern and fossil cone scales and seeds of conifers: A geochemical approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cone scales and seeds of Pinus strobus and Sequoia sempervirens, and their fossil (Upper Miocene, c. 6 Mar) counterparts Pinus leitzii and Sequoia langsdorfi have been studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), electron-microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic observations revealed only minor microbial activity and high-quality structural preservation of the fossil material. The pyrolysates of both modern genera showed the presence of ligno-cellulose characteristic of conifers. However, the abundance of (alkylated)phenols and 1,2-benzenediols in modern S. sempervirens suggests the presence of non-hydrolysable tannins or abundant polyphenolic moieties not previously reported in modern conifers. The marked differences between the pyrolysis products of both modern genera are suggested to be of chemosystematic significance. The fossil samples also contained ligno-cellulose which exhibited only partial degradation, primarily of the carbohydrate constituents. Comparison between the fossil cone scale and seed pyrolysates indicated that the ligno-cellulose complex present in the seeds is chemically more resistant than that in the cone scales. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the pyrolysis data allowed for the determination of the discriminant functions used to assess the extent of degradation and the chemosystematic differences between both genera and between cone scales and seeds. Elemental composition (C, O, S), obtained using electron-microprobe, corroborated the pyrolysis results. Overall, the combination of chemical, microscopic and statistical methods allowed for a detailed characterization and chemosystematic interpretations of modern and fossil conifer cone scales and seeds.

Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, M.; Kruge, M.A.; Van Bergen, P. F.; Sadowska, A.

1997-01-01

348

Chemical analysis of americium samples irradiated under fast neutron spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the transmutation behavior of americium under fast neutron spectra, two irradiated 241Am samples (No. 69, No. 70) were analyzed by radiochemical methods. About 100 ?g of 241Am (Am oxide, 99.9%) samples encapsulated in a small vanadium capsule were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO for 275 effective full power day (EFPD) by the fast neutron flux of 1.08 x 1015 (No. 69, in the reflector region) and 3.25 x 1015 (No. 70, at the center core) n·cm-2 s-1 (E ? 0.1 MeV). After dissolution of these samples, americium, curium, and plutonium were chemically separated and the isotopic composition was determined by alpha and gamma-ray spectrometries and mass spectroscopy. 242mAm, 243Am, 238-242Pu and 242-248Cm were clearly observed. The isotopic composition of 242mAm exceeded 1.01 at.% for sample No. 69 and 1.48 at.% for No. 70. It was suggested that this difference came from the different rates of neutron capture reaction. The main detected curium isotope 243Cm was formed through 242m,gAm by the neutron capture of 241Am. The transmutation ratios of americium could be evaluated from these experimental results and were around 7.8% and 11.1% for the sample No. 69 and No. 70, respectively. (author)

349

Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

350

186 Re-HEDP synthesis and analysis of chemical stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beta emitting radionuclides are of great interest in Oncology. They present great potential as radiotherapeutics and also in palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain. Since their particles are of small ranges, they are adequate for small and medium tumor treatment. Rhenium-186, one of these radionuclides, which nuclear properties are E? = 0,137 MeV e E?-= 1,07 and 0,93 MeV and T1/2 = 3,7 days, is obtained by the 185 Re (n,?) 186 Re reaction in nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research is to study a method to obtain the radiotherapheutic 186 Re-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate), which has adequate characteristics for use in Nuclear Medicine. After irradiation, the metallic rhenium is transformed in perrhenic acid, which with adition of Na OH becomes sodium perrhenate. The final product, 186 Re-HEDP, is obtained by the reaction of sodium perrhenate, in presence of the reducing medium (Sn Cl2 and/or gentisic acid), with the complexing agent (HEDP) and specific conditions. The radiochemical purity and chemical stability of 186 Re-HEDP are evaluated. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

351

Chemical analysis, mycological examination and improvement of the indoor ecology ??????-?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substantial fungosity of numerous historic buildings has been identifi ed in the course of mycological examinations performed by the authors. The authors demonstrate a correlation between the interior temperature, the moisture content, and the intensity of fungi growth over the surfaces of walls and in the indoor air of premises. The findings have proven that there is a pressing need for an antiseptic treatment of premises. The research completed by the authors demonstrates that a substantial improvement of the ecological condition of the premises requires the use of the chemicals that contain an active biocide that has a long-term antiseptic effect. The authors have also identified that any long-term improvement of ecological conditions is possible, if the premises are treated by Mipor, a fungicide and an antiseptic. Any treatment causes a long-term reduction in the concentration of viable spores both on the surfaces and in the air. Mipor, designed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, may be applied to stone, masonry, and concrete surfaces to assure a long-term protection from microorganisms that represent a hazard to the human health and destruct indoor surfaces.?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????????. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ? ??????? ?????????. ???????????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? «?????».

Pokrovskaya Elena Nikolaevna

2012-08-01

352

Achocolatados: análise química / Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredient [...] es lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais. Abstract in english Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and [...] whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas, Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

353

Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature on the product quality (degree of cure) are examined by means of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The variations in the activation energy as well as the density of the resin are found to have a strong influence on the centerline degree of cure at the exit whereas the other process parameters have smaller influences. Moreover, different MCS options are examined to investigate their effects on the accuracy of the random output parameter.

Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal

2012-01-01

354

Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose e "light" (com redução de açúcares e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars and light (low sugar and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas Eduardo

2004-09-01

355

Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTIT-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Andersen, S. S.; Nielsen, K. A.

2012-01-01

356

Nanohole arrays in chemical analysis: manufacturing methods and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the last decade, nanohole arrays have emerged from an interesting optical phenomenon to the development of applications in photophysical studies, photovoltaics and as a sensing template for chemical and biological analyses. Numerous methodologies have been designed to manufacture nanohole arrays, including the use of focus ion beam milling, soft-imprint lithography, colloidal lithography and, more recently, modified nanosphere lithography (NSL). With NSL or colloidal lithography, the experimental conditions control the density of the nanosphere mask and, thus, the aspect of the nanohole arrays. Low surface coverage of the nanosphere mask produces disordered nanoholes. Ordered nanohole arrays are obtained with a densely packed nanosphere mask in combination with electrochemical deposition of the metal, glancing angle deposition (GLAD) or etching of the nanospheres prior to metal deposition. A review of these methodologies is presented here with an emphasis on the optical properties of nanoholes interesting in analytical chemistry. In particular, applications of these novel plasmonic materials will be demonstrated as substrates for a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and in electrochemistry with nano-patterned electrodes. PMID:20358096

Masson, Jean-François; Murray-Méthot, Marie-Pier; Live, Ludovic S

2010-07-01

357

Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 1: Summary and mission analysis (tasks 2 and 4)  

Science.gov (United States)

The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.

Bloetscher, F.

1975-01-01

358

Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

359

Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

Kaplan, M F; Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V

1978-01-01

360

Comparison of photon activation analysis with other modern analytical methods as tools for the solution of actual analytical problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 35-MeV linear electron accelerator is used to investigate how far photon activation analysis can be used within the broad spectrum of analytical methods applied in BAM. The irradiation facilities are described. Examples are given for the application of PAA in the analysis of oxygen in metals and compared with conventional heat extraction and other nuclear analytical methods. It is further shown that PAA is a very useful tool for the analysis of traces of noble metals in Cu compared with other methods. Finally the possibilities of PAA in the field of multielement analysis are demonstrated taking ancient roman potsherds and bronze as examples. The results are compared with those of XRF and AAS. It is concluded PAA is a valuable tool in the analysis of light elements with at least partly unique possibilities, that it can serve as an independent method for the certification of Reference Materials in many cases and that PAA can be very useful when applied to multielement analysis. (T.G.)

 
 
 
 
361

Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experimen ts with several analytical technologies comprisi ng of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. Th e scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depen ds on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of poo led calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of leve ls of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are com pared to predictions of the Horwitz formu la. It is suggested that this m ethod is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate t hat the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analyticalsciences because they direct researcher’s attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than tow ards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professiona l laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of ana lytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method val idation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at labora tories.

Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

2013-01-01

362

COMPARATIVE GROWTH ANALYSIS OF CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS L. USING VERMICOMPOST AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical fertilizers have lost the faith on agriculture throughout the globe today; oppositely the organic amendments are gradually becoming more reliable components in the field of agriculture. The objective of the present work was to investigate the relative growth analysis of China aster (Callistephus chinensis L.) applying the vermi compost and chemical fertilizer (10:26:26) and to observe the growth efficiency of both the amendments. The present investigation also aimed t...

Dulal Chandra Das

2013-01-01

363

Permeability and chemical analysis of aromatic polyamide based membranes exposed to sodium hypochlorite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, a cross-linked aromatic polyamide based reverse osmosis membrane was exposed to variable sodium hypochlorite ageing conditions (free chlorine concentration, solution pH) and the resulting evolutions of membrane surface chemical and structural properties were monitored. Elemental and surface chemical analysis performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that chlorine is essentially incorporated on the polyamide...

Ettori, Axel; Gaudichet-maurin, Emmanuelle; Schrotter, Jean-christophe; Aimar, Pierre; Causserand, Christel

2011-01-01

364

Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...

S?nuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-vonc?ina, Darinka; Sedla?c?kova, Bibiana

2012-01-01

365

Chemical-spectral analysis of high-purity volative chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical techniques for silicon and germanium tetrachlorides, trichlorosilane, phosphorus and arsenic tRichlorides and phosphorus oxychloride, subjected to deep purification process, occurring in the apparatuses, made of hyperpure quartz and borosilicate glasses, chromium-nickel alloys and niobium, are presented. Content of impurities of silicon, sodium, aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, molybdenum, niobium, manganese, calcium, iron and magnesium - was checked out. Detection limits constitute 2x10-5-1x10-8 mass. %. Data on background impurities, impurity losses, convergence and accuracy of analysis results are given

366

Some comments on misuse of terms related to chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

method for 226Ra and 228Ra analysis in water samples. The above list is far from exhaustive. I believe that this incorrect use of terminology should be avoided at least in the titles of scientific papers, in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry as well as in other scientific journals. In some of the above cases replacing 'of' with 'for the determination of', or just with 'for', would have solved the problem. In other cases it would be preferable to reverse the order of words in the sentence, such as e.g., 'Determination of selenium, cobalt and iodine by NAA using activated carbon as a pre-separation agent'. (author)

367

?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

368

Modernizing sports facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

Dustin, R. [McKenney`s, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01

369

Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR2O3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

370

DERIVING VP-NEG QUESTIONS IN MODERN CHINESE: A UNIFIED ANALYSIS OF A-NOT-A SYNTAX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a unified analysis of various subtypes of A-not-A questions, including VP-neg questions. It is proposed that all A-not-A subtypes are derived from a simplex VP source via morphological reduplication, with certain subtypes undergoing a further process of anaphoric ellipsis. Under this proposal, VP-neg questions are formed by deleting the second VP of a reduplicated VP-not-VP structure. It is argued that the analysis of VP-neg as an A-not-A variant is more desirable than the analysis of VP-neg as being on a par with a particle question (Cheng et al. 1996, because a number of parallelisms are shown to exist between VP-neg and other subtypes of A-not-A questions, but not between VP-neg and typical particle questions.

Rui-heng Ray Huang

2008-06-01

371

Beck, Asia and second modernity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

Calhoun, Craig

2010-09-01

372

Strategic Management in Modern Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The defining marks of the thesis regard the creation of new scientific premises, that shouldstructure the approached issue – strategic management in modern organizational structures – relatedto its implementation stages. The suggested approach has the purpose of establishing the elementswhich characterize modern organizations and management, inclusively from the perspective ofinducing strategic changes in an organizational structure, related to the dynamics of the environment,in order to achieve the objectives. In the effort of organizing such a scientifically background, wehave tried to realize clear, concise delimitations, by the research method – the study and analysis ofthe organizations and management activities (components, functionality, specificities, implementingstages. Initially, we have pointed out the constitutive elements of the modern organizationalstructures, characteristic processes and their functionality, as well as a series of important factors andtheir consequences regarding knowledge foundation. Subsequently, we have disclosed the coordinatesof the management activity, its functions, as well as the strategic management implementation stages.

Cristian - Sorin Prun?

2008-06-01

373

Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Finite element method (FEM was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

R. Staniek

2012-01-01

374

[Modern instrumentation for the studies of isoflavones].  

Science.gov (United States)

Isoflavones belong to the natural substances exhibiting a number of physiological effects in living organisms. The substances are synthesized in plant tissues as protective agents against biotic stress (i.e. bacterial infection). Isoflavones are also an important dietary constituent in human nutrition. The review discusses modern trends in the studies of isoflavones in plant materials and foodstuffs and procedures for chemical analyses of isoflavones in human body fluids and plant tissues. Highly effective extraction and purification techniques, i.e. solid-phase extraction (SFE), accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE), and Soxhlet extraction, are presented. Latest procedures in chromatographic separation of isoflavones that apply different types of stationary phases are described. Immunochemical analysis, electrochemical sensing of isoflavones, spectrometric and other analytical techniques and their applications are also mentioned. Special attention is focused on a highly selective and sensitive technique of mass spectrometry and its application for identification of isoflavones and their glucosides in plants. Studies of interactions of isoflavones with cell receptors and a number of biologically active substances such as DNA and proteins are described. The reason for the presentation of the review was not to give a full overview of the presented topics but mainly to show modern and the most recent methods in the studies of isoflavones. PMID:18578418

Vacek, J; Klejdus, B; Lojková, L; Kubán, V

2008-04-01

375

Modernidade e crítica da modernidade: a Sociologia e alguns desafios feministas às categorias de análise Modernity and criticism of modernity: Sociology and some feminists challenges to the categories of analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda as tradições do pensamento sociológico para compreender e explicar a modernidade e seus fenômenos econômicos, sociais e políticos, que transformaram a sociedade moderna ocidental. As discussões em torno dos desafios colocados para a Sociologia para a reformulação das tradições científicas na contemporaneidade foram alavancadas pelas críticas feministas, colocando questionamentos de ordem histórica, epistemológica e metodológica.This paper deals with the traditions of sociological thought in order to understand and explain modernity and its economical, social and political phenomena which have transformed modern western society, as well as the discussions of the contemporary challenges faced by Sociology and by the production of feminist criticism for the reformulation of scientific traditions. This factor present Sociology with historical, epistemological and methodological issues.

Silvana Aparecida Mariano

2008-06-01

376

Prototypal Course in Newspaper Mangement: A Systems Analysis Approach to Teaching the Economic Context of Press Freedom in Modern Society.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prototypal course in newspaper management described in this paper is based on systems analysis and the systems flow approach. The introductory section of the paper discusses the need for instruction in newspaper management, the concepts of the systems approach and systems flow and the way they relate to enterprise management, and specific…

DeMott, John

377

Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)  

Science.gov (United States)

This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice package overall, although I might personally prefer a chapter on environmental chemometrics as well. Most of the major instrumental methods actively employed in environmental analysis are treated either in the theoretical chapters or in the later application chapters. These include introductions to UV­vis, FTIR, SFC, HPLC, IC (but not CE), GC, GC­MS, ISEs, anodic stripping, FAA, GFAA, XRF, ICP, ICP­MS, and even two pages on the basics of immunoassays. Although this text provides an update of the earlier book, its greatest failing is a particular strength of the first text: it fails to provide any detailed references within the text, relying on an average of five generic "suggested readings" at the end of each chapter. Even tables such as "Some US drinking water quality standards" give no references, setting a bad example for students who have to write research papers of their own. As it also does not provide the detailed procedures or fine-quality figures that were available in the earlier text, it is not worth as much as a reference book or for library acquisitions. In the first book the detailed procedures served as a "lab manual within the text" and this increased its pedagogic value tremendously. Still, this text does make use of generalized procedures to step through many of the standard methods encountered by practicing environmental scientists, and the tables are in most cases superior to those in similar texts, lacking only the references to make them as useful as they might be. A second weakness of note comes from the organization. Having two different parts of the book covering material that relates to each of the instrumental methods means that it is not always clear where the reader should go to find information that relates to a particular method. For example, specifics on sampling equipment for water and soils appear in the chapter on sampling, but for air they appear in the applications section. Similarly, the sample preparation chapter would make more logical sense if it appe

Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

1999-11-01

378

Enzymatic microreactors in chemical analysis and kinetic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fields of application of microreactors are becoming wider every year. A considerable number of papers have been published recently reporting successful application of enzymatic microreactors in chemistry and biochemistry. Most are devices with enzymes immobilized on beads or walls of microfluidic channels, whilst some use dissolved enzymes to run a reaction in the microfluidic system. Apart from model systems, mostly with glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase, the principal fields of application of microreactors are tryptic digestion of proteins and polymerase chain reaction in automated analyses of proteomic and genetic material, respectively. Enzymatic microreactors also facilitate characterization of enzyme activity as a function of substrate concentration, and enable fast screening of new biocatalysts and their substrates. They may constitute key parts of lab-on-a-chip and muTAS, assisting the analysis of biomolecules. This review provides systematic coverage of examples of reports on enzymatic microreactors published recently, as well as relevant older papers. PMID:16055295

Urban, Pawel L; Goodall, David M; Bruce, Neil C

2006-01-01

379

Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2014-06-01

380

Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

Helrich, Carl S

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

382

Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

Tidjani Amza

2010-07-01

383

Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-14

384

Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

385

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

2000-08-01

386

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

387

Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

388

Chemical and biochemical analysis using microfluidic-localized field platforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Microfluidics offer the advantages of multiplexed analysis on small, inexpensive platforms. We describe herein two distinct optical detection techniques that have the common point of sequestering and measuring analyte signals in highly localized EM fields. The first technique mates a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform with colloidal-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in order to perform parallel, high throughput vibrational spectroscopy. Spectra are acquired for analytes localized in surface plasmon fields associated with conventional and uniquely synthesized cubic silver colloids. SERS studies such as pH of the colloidal solution, and the type of colloid are used to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the method. In addition, a facile passive pumping method is used to deliver Ag colloids and analytes into the channels where all SERS measurements were completed under nondestructive flowing conditions. With this approach, SERS signal reproducibility was found to be better than 7%. A calibration curve for the drug mitoxantrone (resonance enhanced) was generated. The second technique seeks to integrate a passively-pumped, microfluidic, PDMS platform and planar waveguide technology, utilizing magnetic beads as solid supports for fluoro-assays with direct detection of bound analyte within the sample mixture accomplished by selectively driving functionalized beads to a localized evanescent field. Because analyte binding occurs in free solution, the reaction is not diffusion limited and, once magnetically delivered to the evanescent wave, the analyte can be detected with fewer complications arising from non-optically homogeneous, biological matrices. Additionally, the evanescent sensing surface can be easily regenerated by simply removing the bead-retaining magnetic field. Initial testing, optimization and calibration were performed using a model sandwich immunoassay system for the detection of rabbit IgG, with which we demonstrate a linear dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude and physiologically relevant detection limits of nanograms per milliliter.

Sepaniak, Michael; Abu-Hatab, Nahla; Wellman, Amber; John, Joshy; Connatser, Maggie

2007-09-01

389

Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas studied during the period of the contract included determinations of cross sections for nuclear reactions, determination of neutron capture cross sections of radionuclides, application of special activation techniques, and x-ray counting, elucidation of synergic solvent extraction mechanisms and development of new solvent extraction techniques, and the development of a PIXE analytical facility. The thermal neutr