WorldWideScience
1

The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in international periodicals, to which should be added a couple of dozens monographs plus several hundreds Ph.D. theses. This wealth of publication activity clearly reflects that not only has FIA given birth to numerous ingenious methods and novel applications, but quite a few of them have, in fact, allowed to implement procedures which previously were difficult or, actually, impossible to execute by conventional means. Clever examples are exploitation of bio-or chemiluminescence, methods relying on kinetic discrimination schemes, assay of metastable constituents, or the use of on-line separation and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by selected examples, emphasis being placed on the determination of trace-level concentrations of metal ions in complex matrices with detection by ETAAS and ICP-MS.

Hansen, Elo Harald Technical University of Denmark,

2

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

3

The modern alchemy: The chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

4

Complete chemical analysis of produced water by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in produced waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.; Johnston, A.; Boak, L.S.

1996-12-31

5

Analysis of surface structures of chemically peculiar stars with modern and future interferometers  

Science.gov (United States)

Interferometry is a very powerful observational technique known in astronomy for many decades. Its application to main-sequence stars, however, is still limited to only brightest objects. In this work we aim to explore the application of interferometry to a special class of main-sequence stars known as chemically peculiar (CP) stars. These stars demonstrate surface chemical abundance inhomogeneities (spots) that usually cover a considerable part of the stellar surface and induce a pronounced spectral and photometric variability. Interferometry thus has a potential to naturally resolve such spots in single stars, providing unique complementary information about spots sizes and contrasts. By means of numerical experiments we derive the actual interferometric requirements essential for the CP stars research that can be addressed in future instrument development. The first comparison between theoretical predictions and already available observations will also be discussed.

Shulyak, D.; Perraut, K.; Paladini, Claudia; Li Causi, G.; Sacuto, Stephane; Kochukhov, O.

2014-07-01

6

Introduction to modern analysis  

CERN Document Server

This new-in-paperback edition provides a comprehensive course in Modern Analysis. The first 10 chapters discuss theoretical methods in Measure Theory and Functional Analysis, and contain over 120 end of chapter exercises. The final two chapters apply theory to applications in Probability Theory and Partial Differential Equations. - ;This new-in-paperback text is based on lectures given by the author at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels in Measure Theory, Functional Analysis, Banach Algebras, Spectral Theory (of bounded and unbounded operators), Semigroups of Operators, Probability and Mathematical Statistics, and Partial Differential Equations. The first 10 chapters discuss theoretical methods in Measure Theory and Functional Analysis, and contain over 120 end of chapter exercises. The final two. chapters discuss applications in Probability Theory and Partial Differential Equations. Solutions to the end of chapter exercises may be found on the companion website for this text. -

Kantorovitz, Shmuel

2006-01-01

7

Modern Fourier analysis  

CERN Document Server

This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

Grafakos, Loukas

2014-01-01

8

Modern power systems analysis  

CERN Document Server

The capability of effectively analyzing complex systems is fundamental to the operation, management and planning of power systems. This book offers broad coverage of essential power system concepts and features a complete and in-depth account of all the latest developments, including Power Flow Analysis in Market Environment; Power Flow Calculation of AC/DC Interconnected Systems and Power Flow Control and Calculation for Systems Having FACTS Devices and recent results in system stability.

Wang, Xi-Fan; Irving, Malcolm

2010-01-01

9

Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

10

XXI symposium Modern chemical physics. Tuapse 2009. Summaries of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The materials of the XXI symposium Modern chemical physics, Tuapse 2009 (25 September - 6 October, 2009) are presented. Scientific program includes lectures, presentations and poster sessions on photochemistry and radiation chemistry, elementary processes, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The problems of chemical reaction kinetics, quantum chemistry, chemical spectroscopy, macromolecular chemistry are discussed. Topics of chemical physics of surface, nanochemistry, nanophysics and nanotechnology are treated

11

Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

12

Real analysis modern techniques and their applications  

CERN Document Server

An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

Folland, Gerald B

1999-01-01

13

Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

Mudgett, Paul D.

2013-01-01

14

ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse te?hnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse te?hno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

Arhun, Sch.

2013-01-01

15

Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

16

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

17

Ion beam analysis and modern materials science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

18

Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

19

Chemical analysis experiment method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

20

EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer, fabricated by the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, is a modern well-equipped chemical analysis laboratory. This mobile laboratory, sketched in Figure 1, has complete capability for sampling of geothermal fluids and analysis of brine, steam, and noncondensible gases. The objective of the laboratory is to provide accurate onsite chemical analyses in a timely manner that results in preservation of the sample integrity and the efficient implementation of a test program. The laboratory is built on a standard 40-ft truck trailer bed. The trailer chassis has been modified to carry requisite gas cylinders, compressor, and vacuum pump equipment in undercarriage bins, and has been equipped with air-ride shock absorbers to minimize road vibrations.

Eaton, W.S.; Nealy, C.L.; Sudar, S.

1980-12-01

21

Radiometric chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

22

Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a. completing the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JPA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

2009-01-01

23

Chemical and Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past six months we have conducted significant research in several domains in order to clarify and understanding the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. We organized numerous analytical studies with methods including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Stress Relaxation experiments. In addition we have reanalyzed previous thermogravimetric data concerning the rate of deplasticization of Coflon pipe. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We conducted stress relaxation experiments of Coflon pipe at several temperatures and determined an activation energy. We also examined the dynamic mechanical response PVDF during deplasticization and during methanol plasticization. We performed numerous DSC analyses to research the changing crystalline morphology. We have noted significant changes in crystallinity upon aging for both PVDF and Tefzel. Little variation in elemental composition was noted for many of the aged Coflon and Tefzel samples tested.

Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

1995-01-01

24

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

OpenAIRE

Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharm...

Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Miši?-Vukovi? Milica M.; Z?, Mijin Dus?an

2002-01-01

25

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

Petrovi? Slobodan D.

2002-01-01

26

Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

Panda, Binayak

2009-01-01

27

Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach  

CERN Document Server

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

Anderson, Brian D O

2013-01-01

28

Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

29

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

30

Modern trends in activation analysis. Vol. 1, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two volumes contain 164 special papers presented at the international conference on activation analysis, including five plenary lectures which give a general survey of modern trends and possibilities of applications in fields where activation analysis is capable of solving problems which are hitherto unsolved. The emphasis during this meeting is put on applications, though other subjects (e.g. sampling, homogeneity of samples, instrumental development, computer evaluation of gamma spectra, comparisons with other analytical methods) are also dealt with. The proceedings contain lectures on applications in the fields of biology, biomedicine, archaeology, the arts, forensic sciences, environmental research, ecology, materials research, geo- and cosmo-sciences, and other individual applications. (RB)

31

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

32

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO{sub 2} fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by {alpha}{beta}{gamma}-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods.

Han, Sun Ho; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, Y. B. (and others)

2008-12-15

33

Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

Nataliia Valinkevych

2013-05-01

34

Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

1994-01-01

35

Three-dimensional Procrustes analysis of modern human craniofacial form.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to analyze modern human craniofacial form using 3D Procrustes superimposition in order to establish a reference model and validate it on computed tomography (CT). The sample consists of 136 specimens from five modern human regional groups. Thirty-three craniofacial landmark coordinates have been recorded using a Microscribe and calculated on CT scans for five crania from the sample. Procrustes superimposition has been performed to calculate the mean shape, and a discriminant analysis has also been carried out to estimate the variability of shape. The results show that the repeatability of measurements made on CT and on Microscribe is excellent (R = 0.99). There is no major distinctiveness in the craniofacial shape; however, discriminant function 1 separates out the European crania from the others, especially African and American. It includes the width and the length of the face, the flatness of the upper face, the prognathism of the maxilla, as well as the length and the inclination of the palate. The width of the maxilla and the palate do not show a great variability. This may be the common invariant feature responsible for the alignment of the teeth in all specimens. It may correspond to functional patterns related to masticatory constraints manifested by the important interproximal and occlusal dental wear in all specimens. This study confirms the high accuracy of measurements made on CT scan and the importance of geometric morphometrics, which provides an accurate characterization of the overall craniofacial shape and its variation within the entire population. PMID:17525943

Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain

2007-03-01

36

Brief Analysis of the Medieval and Modern European Cultures  

OpenAIRE

Irrationality of the medieval culture in the Dark Ages gave birth to the bright modern European culture and the modern European culture had more rational, scientific, secular and individualist characteristics. The progress in the culture meanwhile promoted the progresses in other aspects of politics, economy and social life, etc.

Hongli Shi

2011-01-01

37

Brief Analysis of the Medieval and Modern European Cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrationality of the medieval culture in the Dark Ages gave birth to the bright modern European culture and the modern European culture had more rational, scientific, secular and individualist characteristics. The progress in the culture meanwhile promoted the progresses in other aspects of politics, economy and social life, etc.

Hongli Shi

2011-02-01

38

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department

39

Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

40

Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals  

OpenAIRE

Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional exper...

Jinxia Wang; Xiaoqing Tang; Yali Pang; Wenjie Duan

2014-01-01

41

INAA analysis for Jun porcelaim and modern Chinese Jun porcelain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 28 old Jun porcelain, seven modern Chinese Jun porcelain and two Jingdezhen porcelain samples are analyzed with INAA method. The systematic geochemical study for these 37 samples on their REE and trace elements shows that these three types of china were made with relatively stable and similar material, although they leaptover 600 years in different colors and from different kilns. However, the REE patterns of modern Chinese Jun porcelain are a little bit different from that of old Jun porcelain, and clear different from the old glaze of Jindezheng. (authors)

42

Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era  

OpenAIRE

There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

HUI WANG

2011-01-01

43

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

44

"Turkish Modernization," Democracy, and Education: An Analysis from Dewey's Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Dewey is an important representative of the libertarian education movement, which has its roots based on the values of the enlightenment. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between "Turkish modernization" and education from Dewey's perspective. In the paper, the place and effect of Dewey in the Turkish pedagogical vision was analyzed…

Ozsoy, Seckin

2009-01-01

45

A modern design for ? ? ? active handling facilities for chemical research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study for a modern ??? active handling facility for chemical research and development work is described. The design is intended to achieve the working and environmental conditions that are expected to be acceptable in the nuclear industry at least for the next twenty years. Radiation exposure to operators is reduced to minimum practical limits. Hands-on maintenance and man-entry are avoided for routine operations. The design is flexible to allow modifications and improvements of technique and concept to be incorporated as they become available. Finally decommissioning can be achieved with reversion to a contamination and radiation free site. The primary installation in the design is a suite of five in-line ??? active shielded cells, each capable of handling 1000 MeV Ci ? activity with accompanying high levels of ? and or ? activity. Each cell is fitted with a stainless steel containment box which is remotely removable. Adjacent to the cell line, there is a box handling bay to which boxes are interfaced, serviced and decontaminated. These operations are entirely remote. The box, when decontaminated, is returned through a commissioning area to the cell line for further service. Comprehensive facilities are provided to support the cell line. These include flask and equipment storage, fissile material accounting and interrogation systems, waste handling and transfer systems for the onward transmission of waste for processing and packaging centrally. The ing and packaging centrally. The problems of manipulation, transfers, contamination control and shielding have been considered and are discussed in the context of the overall design. (author)

46

Application of modern NMR techniques for conformational analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of modern NMR techniques for the determination of spin-spin coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser effect is addressed, as well as the use of these data in experimental conformational analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides.

Grachev, Alexey A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Shashkov, Alexander S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-08-31

47

Gini s ideas: new perspectives for modern multivariate statistical analysis  

OpenAIRE

Corrado Gini (1884-1964) may be considered the greatest Italian statistician. We believe that his important contributions to statistics, however mainly limited to the univariate context, may be profitably employed in modern multivariate statistical methods, aimed at overcoming the curse of dimensionality by decomposing multivariate problems into a series of suitably posed univariate ones.In this paper we critically summarize Gini’s proposals and consider their impact on multivariate statist...

Angela Montanari; Paola Monari

2013-01-01

48

Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional experience identity, missing of traditional folk arts, mess of the application of festival symbols, and popularity of western festivals culture are important representations of the anomie situation of Chinese traditional festivals in modern society, and also the crucial reason for it failed to overcome the difficulties. Globalization and the rapid development of information technology, the advancement of industrialization and urbanization have changed the social structure and people's lifestyles, rhythm, and also interpersonal relationships to a considerable extent, thus social environment for the survival of the traditional festivals related to agricultural society increasingly becomes narrow, and its impact and charm naturally bleak. Therefore, it is imperative to re-understanding and reconstructing traditional festivals, with new representations to restore the cultural connotations of traditional festivals, making it back into ordinary people's lives.

Jinxia Wang

2014-04-01

49

Gini s ideas: new perspectives for modern multivariate statistical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrado Gini (1884-1964 may be considered the greatest Italian statistician. We believe that his important contributions to statistics, however mainly limited to the univariate context, may be profitably employed in modern multivariate statistical methods, aimed at overcoming the curse of dimensionality by decomposing multivariate problems into a series of suitably posed univariate ones.In this paper we critically summarize Gini’s proposals and consider their impact on multivariate statistical methods, both reviewing already well established applications and suggesting new perspectives.Particular attention will be devoted to classification and regression trees, multiple linear regression, linear dimension reduction methods and transvariation based discrimination.

Angela Montanari

2013-05-01

50

Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

51

Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by ? 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between coral calcification and annual SST, precipitation and insolation (p-values > 0.05).To analyze the variety of coral calcification rate with time variants and future prospect, generalized state space model with local linear trend model was applied by statistic software of R (dlm packages). All unknown variances and unobserved components were estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) using forwards filtering, backward samplings (FFBS). Iteration was 11000 times and burn in first 1000 times. The coral calcification did not have common constant increasing or decreasing trends between three study areas. We will discuss more detail about temperate coral skeletal growth and GCA.

Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

2011-12-01

52

Analysis of individual environmental particles using modern methods of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors' laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution

53

Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

2013-09-01

54

Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods. v.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in the field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B., and translated to farsi language in two volumes. The first volume consist of ten chapters as follow: Radiation Interaction with matter, Radiation Detectors, Radiation Sources. The fourth chapter is about Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Reactions. Radiation Protection is discussed at fifth chapter; Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis is presented at six chapter. Neutron Activation by radiochemistry procedures and Prompt Activation are discussed at seven and eight chapters. Chemical Analysis Radiation Scattering Analysis and radiation Absorption Analysis of Neutron are presented in the 9th chapter and the 10th chapter isdevoted to Charged Particle Activation Analysis

55

7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

56

Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

1498-15-01

57

Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

58

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

OpenAIRE

Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

Centeno, Jose? A.; Rogers, Duane A.; Voet, Gijsbert B.; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

2014-01-01

59

Challenges for the modern analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of polysaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews some of the recent advances in analytical ultracentrifugation and how these advances have impacted--and can impact--on our understanding of the size, shape through conformation modelling, interactions and charge properties of polysaccharides in solution, particularly when used in combination with other solution techniques and also imaging techniques. Specifically we look at (1) polysaccharide polydispersity and simple shape analysis by sedimentation velocity, and in particular using new approaches such as SEDFIT analysis; (2) polysaccharide molecular-weight analysis by sedimentation equilibrium and MSTAR analysis and how this complements analysis of size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering; (3) polysaccharide conformation analysis using traditional procedures such as the Wales-van Holde ratio, power law or 'scaling' relations, more specialised treatments for rigid cylindrical structures, semi-flexible chains and worm-like coils and complications through draining effects; (4) Analysis of polysaccharide interactions and in particular complex formation phenomena, focusing on interesting applications in the areas of mucoadhesion and sedimentation fingerprinting; and (5) the possibilities for macromolecular charge and charge screening measurement. PMID:15780247

Harding, Stephen E

2005-04-11

60

Note on modern path analysis in application to crop science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note, we discuss path analysis and its applications to crop science investigations – almost all of these applications are based on the methodology that Sewall Wright developed in the 1920s, although the path analysis method has been intensively developed during the last three decades. Via this paper, we point out that new methodology of estimation and testing in path analysis is fairly advanced and is applied in many biological disciplines and that it should also be extended to crop science.

Marcin Kozak

2006-06-01

61

Risk analysis for chemical production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes general problems encountered with risk analysis and goes into the specific problems of risk analysis applied to chemical plants. After discussing the different conditions and requirements for risk analyses for nuclear power plants and chemical plants, the conclusion is drawn that safe chemical plants can be planned and constructed without analyzing risk quantitatively. Applying such methods for risk assessment may be unsuitable for public discussion on risks in chemical plants owing to the great uncertainties in the accuracy of their results and such a discussion may be unnecessary as well because of the long experience in handling hazardous material. However, risk analysis methods can be used, in addition to conventional approaches, for weak point identification and can also be of assistance in finding optimum safety solutions in small systems and in emergency planning. (orig.)

62

Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

63

Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition  

CERN Document Server

We extend our work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,nu e+)2H, 14N(p,gamma)15O and triple-alpha reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (t_H), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. For the stellar tracks, an increase from Z = 0...

Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

2013-01-01

64

Modern analysis of ion channeling data by Monte Carlo simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic scheme of ion channeling spectra Monte Carlo simulation is reformulated in terms of statistical sampling. The McChasy simulation code is described and two examples of the code applications are presented. These are: calculation of projectile flux in uranium dioxide crystal and defect analysis for ion implanted InGaAsP/InP superlattice. Virtues and pitfalls of defect analysis using Monte Carlo simulations are discussed.

Nowicki, Lech [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Turos, Andrzej [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Ratajczak, Renata [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Stonert, Anna [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Garrido, Frederico [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

2005-10-15

65

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This site includes resources for the instrumental analysis class at St Olaf's College. The syllabus, a sample exam, problem sets, a class calendar, and an introduction to the use of role playing in the class are provided.

Walters, John P.

66

Radioisotope XRF spectrometers for quick chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different portable systems for chemical analysis by Radioisotope X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) are summarized. Its advantages and limitations referred to a fixed conventional installation of XRF are described along with the advantages of combining these two equipments: the high sensitivity of the fixed installation being applied to the preparation of reference samples and the mobility of the portable installation to carrying out quick in-situ analysis with a high frequency. This simple portable system is intended to be used with the development of a methodology of simple analysis to the chemical control of wastes constituted by solid and liquid. (Author) 27 refs

67

Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft:  

OpenAIRE

There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents happened in which the crew was not able to save the aircraft, although post-flight analysis showed that it was possible with alternative, perhaps unconventional, control strategies. These aircraft accid...

Oort, E. R.

2011-01-01

68

In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including humanism and positive psychology. However, these approaches have failed to provide explanations of the behavior–environment relations involved in val...

Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, Joanne; Lundgren, Tobias

2009-01-01

69

Analysis of the Transaction Cost in Modern Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activities of any organization linked to transaction costs, which are often of great size. If the organization will be able to lower transaction costs while maintaining performance, this can result in more effective organizational management structure and activities of the organization as a whole. Transaction costs arise because of different interests of the communicating parties, but also because of the uncertainty factor. Because transaction costs was escorted somehow all the functioning of the organization, you must implement their accounting and analysis. This will help to understand the causes of transaction costs and reduce them. But when ones transaction costs are decrease another transaction costs can increase. In order to reduce transaction costs, the need to consider options for the management structure, which would enable the organization to achieve their goals? The various organizational structures of governance have a different structure of transaction costs and a different size of transaction costs. Not to use the methodology transaction cost analysis can lead to unreasonable use of the resources of the organization. Analysis of the transaction cost is not possible without clear classification. In this article, this classification is presented. Transaction costs can be considered as the cost of the resources spent on the transaction. This allows you to calculate the size of transaction costs in the size in a cost equivalent. By use of the methodology which was proposed in this article, were examined the organizations that are located in Russian Federation and works in the petrochemical industry.

Elina A Gurianova

2014-09-01

70

Co-occurrence network analysis of modern Chinese poems  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 606 co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words are constructed from rhymes, free verses, and prose poems. It is found that 98.5 % of networks have scale-free properties, while 19.8 % of networks do not have small-world features, especially the clustering coefficients in 5.6 % of networks are zero. In addition, 61.4 % of networks have significant hierarchical structures, and 98 % of networks are disassortative. For the above observed phenomena, analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

Liang, Wei; Wang, Yanli; Shi, Yuming; Chen, Guanrong

2015-02-01

71

Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

72

Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis  

CERN Document Server

Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

Bornmann, Lutz

2014-01-01

73

Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

Nguyen Quang Liem

2011-12-01

74

Paper prediction versus reality at the 1981 Modern Trends in Activation Analysis Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparison of predicted subject matter at the 1981 Modern Trends in Activation Analysis Conference with actual number of papers shows a fall off in environmental papers that is compensated for by increase in geological-forensic and materials-industrial contributions. (author)

75

Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research  

Science.gov (United States)

While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

Piotrowski, Chris

2013-01-01

76

Chemical analysis of high purity graphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

77

Chemical genetic and chemogenomic analysis in yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemogenomics is the systematic genome-wide study of the cellular response to small molecule agents. Modern high-throughput genetic techniques allow massively parallel examination of the genetic effects of such biologically active small molecules (BASM). Here we present methodology for the identification and characterization of potentially bioactive compounds using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. First, we present a method for screening libraries of compounds for growth inhibition in solid or liquid phase, followed by techniques for potency determination using a half-log dose response. Then the Deletion Mutant Array (DMA), a genome-wide library of single gene deletion strains, is used to probe the chemical genetic interactions of individual BASMs on genetic networks-a process that can be achieved with a solid phase pinning assay or a pooled liquid assay utilizing barcode microarray techniques. Finally, we offer some considerations for optimizing these protocols. PMID:25213245

Coorey, Namal V C; Sampson, Liam D P; Barber, Jacqueline M; Bellows, David S

2014-01-01

78

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

2013-01-01

79

ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

Himanshu Shewale

2014-03-01

80

Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

81

Modernized spectrometer for the hydrogen contents analysis in samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Determination of the concentration profiles of the hydrogen isotopes in various materials is very actual problem now since hydrogen, if presents, rather strongly affects on physical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and other properties. In the INP AS (Uzbekistan) the specific method of hydrogen isotopes profiling (Neutron-induced Elastic Recoil Detection (NERD) method) has been developed. The energy spectrum of H-ions that are knocked out by fast neutrons gives the information on the depth and concentration of hydrogen in a sample. The method allows obtaining of the concentration profiles for all hydrogen isotopes simultaneously and has the analysable depth up to 1.5 mm for 1H. We have improved the analytical characteristics of the method: By sufficient decreasing the background of the charged particles and reduction of the gamma quanta background in the energy spectra of hydrogen recoils; By reduction of quantity of scattered neutrons along the neutron's trajectory to the analyzed sample; By using the fast output (short pulses) of the detector's preamplifier in the character of spectrometric circuit of electronics before the final 'slow' spectrometric amplifier. We have excluded the background of the charged particles using graphite as a constructional material for the box of the detectors' telescope. The background of gamma - quanta was reduced by removing the metallic elements and materials of the radiation protection as far as possible from a telescope of detectors. We have reduced the quantity of the scattered neutrons worsening the energy resolution by reducing up to a minimum the amount of metal between the neutron source and the sample, and using the materials with small cross sections of elastic scattering of neutrons. We have achieved the precise work of electronics with fast signals due to specially developed electronics: change -sensitive preamplifiers and linear gates. The change-sensitive preamplifiers have small signal duration (not more than 380 ns) and the counting rate ?4/5x105 counts/s. The linear gate has switching time ?20 ns and dynamic range not less then 102. Duration of the driving signal can be varied from 300 up to 1000 ns. Due to these improvements we can operate with two-detectors variant of the detecting system instead of the three detectors and simplify essentially the electronics of the spectrometer. Thus we have increased the analyzable depth of a sample. Check of the spectrometer's operation at the neutron flux (En=14 MeV) using the test samples containing hydrogen, deuterium and tritium has shown that the real (full) energy resolution of the spectrometer is equal 400 keV. The energy resolution is determined basically by the geometrical resolution and includes the own resolution of the detectors, energy dispersion of the neutron flux and the effect of scattering of neutrons on small angles before hit on the analyzed sample. This energy resolution results in the following calculated depth resolution:For hydrogen-60 microns. For deuterium-22 microns For tritium- 11 microns. Thus the analyzable depths (for example, in silicon) make: For hydrogen-1200 microns. For deuterium - 500 microns. For tritium - 260 microns. This work was supported by STCU Project no. 3067. (author)

82

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

83

Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

84

Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present study was comparative analysis. Results: The first base was rejection of objective view toward the universe and accepting the â??pre-objective universeâ?. In this regard, it was suggested that informatio...

Saeid Zarghami Hamrah; Parvin Bazghandi

2012-01-01

85

Electrochemical recovery of damaged bonding area during failure analysis of the modern integrated circuits  

Science.gov (United States)

During failure analysis of modern integrated circuits it might be necessary to carry out investigations, including both analysis of the die topology and the input of electrical signals on its contact pads. However, during access to the die the contact pads might be damaged due to different factors. In present work several types of damaged contact pads and experimental investigations on its reconstructions by electrochemical deposition of silver and copper are discussed.

Zubov, D. N.; Kelm, E. A.; Milovanov, R. A.; Molodtsova, G.

2014-12-01

86

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

Jin-Ao Duan

2012-09-01

87

Advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of chuanxiong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX's use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. PMID:22955453

Li, Weixia; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao

2012-01-01

88

Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overcoming the complexity of cheese matrix to reliably analyze cheese composition, flavor, and ripening changes has been a challenge. Several sample isolation or fractionation methods, chemical and enzymatic assays, and instrumental methods have been developed over the decades. While some of the methods are well established standard methods, some still need to be researched and improved. This chapter reviews the chemical and instrumental methods available to determine cheese composition and monitor biochemical events (e.g., glycolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis) during cheese ripening that lead to the formation of cheese flavor. Chemical and enzymatic methods available for analysis of cheese composition (fat, protein, lactose, salt, nitrogen content, moisture, etc.) are presented. Electrophoretic, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques are also reviewed in the light of their application to monitor cheese ripening and flavor compounds. Novel instrumental methods based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy that are currently being researched and applied to cheese analysis are introduced. PMID:20610176

Subramanian, Anand; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

2010-01-01

89

Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

90

Energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of modern coloured glasses from Marinha Grande (Portugal)  

OpenAIRE

The elemental composition (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Ba, Nd and Pb) of modern coloured glasses was obtained by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. This nondestructive technique is frequently used in the analysis of historical glass objects. Two reference glasses were also measured to assess the overall accuracy of the EDXRF method. Reference and unknown glasses were analysed without any preparation. The coloured glass samples studied...

Matos, Anto?nio Pires; Vale?rio, P.; Markowicz, A.; Kregsamer, P.; Arau?jo, M. F.; Chinea-cano, E.; Carvalho, C.

2003-01-01

91

Wedding ritual in the modern Chinese and Russian urban cultures: communicative and linguistic conceptological analysis / ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article opens a series of publi?ations devoted to the comparative linguistic and cultural analysis of basic rituals of the modern Russian and Chinese urban cultures. The data presented in the articles results from the research carried out by a group of Chinese postgraduates under the guidance of professor G.G. Slyshkin. In the first article the ritual of wedding is viewed as a communicative custom and a linguistic cultural concept. / ?????? ????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????. ?.?. ????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??? ???????????????? ???????.

Ran Dong / ??? ????

2008-12-01

92

Development of a Modern Control System Analysis Package Using Visual Basic Programming  

OpenAIRE

This paper introduces a Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD) program that furnishes a background necessary for studying modern control theory. The program focuses on state-space analysis which performs conversion of a system from state-space representation to transfer function and via versa. Besides, system transformation on different state coordinates, time domain solution, controller design, observer design and steady state error evaluation with interactive graphresponse are also be...

Lee Shu Khan; Mohd Fua’ad Rahmat

2007-01-01

93

GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY SIMS  

OpenAIRE

Al-Li alloys are prone to severe intergranular fracture if certain metallurgical parameters are not controlled. The concentration level of trace elements, notably Na which is likely to segregate at grain boundaries, may well be of critical importance. To investigate the possible role of Na a novel approach to grain boundary chemical analysis using SIMS has been developed. This general method, based on depth profiles performed on controlled bevelled sections, is demonstrated for an Al-Li alloy...

Lang, J.; Degre?ve, F.; Thorne, N.

1987-01-01

94

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

95

Chemical Composition Profile and Envelope Parameters in the Modern Solar Model  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the models of the Sun with gravitational settling and thermal diffusion of elements (specifically helium) during the evolution. These processes are rather slow but they lead to remarkable lowering of helium content in the convection zone as well as to skewing chemical composition profile underneath. We focus on the helium abundance (Y) and the specific entropy in the adiabatic part of the convection zone (S) as main parameters of solar model. Baturin, Ayukov (1996) have shown that set of models with fixed sound speed profile in the radiative zones forms a line on the (Y,S) plane. Obviously, successful ``helioseismic'' model should belong to this line because it has ``uniquely true'' sound speed profile provided by helioseismic inversions. The models with different cores can be sorted out with the low-l frequency spacing to find the most ``helioseismic'' model. With this technique, it was found that the "best model" is close to the standard one (without helium diffusion), however the helium abundance in envelope posed a problem. Now the described technique is applied to models with helium settling. Despite the fact that ``diffusive'' models have modified hydrogen profiles, they appeared to obey the same Y-S dependence. It is due to certain relations between mechanical structure of the model (e.g. sound speed profile) in the radiative zone and convective envelope (cf. Baturin, Ayukov 1996, 1997) which is common for all models in hydrostatic equilibrium, with or without settling. Currently, OPAL equation of state is adopted as the most adequate EOS for describing the solar interior. We also consider the transition from MHD EOS to OPAL and its effect on model structure.

Ayukov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.

96

Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

Pabarcius, Raimondas; Tonkunas, Aurimas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Installation Safety Lab.

2010-08-15

97

Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

2005-01-01

98

Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is hyposaline (8.5-10 g l-1 ) and alkaline (pH 8.9-9.1 and alkalinity of 37 meq l-1 ) with sodium and chloride being the dominant ions but also with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These conditions are favorable for active carbonate deposition that results in the formation of distinctive stromatolite structures in the littoral region of the lake. These structures generate extended submerged carbonaceous platforms down to a depth of 15 m that slope steeply to the bottom of the lake where soft sediments prevail (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998). The lake is populated by 18 species of cyanobacteria (Tavera and Komárek, 1996) which are the primary producers in the food web a of the lake fixing not only carbon (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998) but also nitrogen (Falcón eto al, 2002). The stromatolite samples were freeze-dried and then were finely grounded with an agate mor-tar mill for analyses. The mineral composition of the sample is essentially hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 , 4 H2 O)) with traces of quartz (SiO2 ) as determined by X-rays diffraction. This is also consistent with differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry of the sample. Analysis of the sample by TV-mass spectrometry (MS) using the Phoenix Lander Protocol (Navarro-González et al., 2009) indicates that the major volatile released is carbon dioxide a from 350 C to 1000° C with broad peaks centered at 400° C and 600° C. Organics are also re-° leased from 380° C to 750° C as monitored by a characteristic organic fragment with m/z=41 and that is attributed to the allyl cation: [CH2 CHCH2 ]+ . Analysis of the sample by TV-gas chromatography (GC)-MS using the Viking Lander Protocol but at 750° C (Navarro-González a et al., 2009) demonstrates that a complex suite of organics are released such as 1,3-butadiene, furan, propanal, 2-propenenitrile, 1,3 cyclopentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, propanenitrile, methylfuran, butanal, benzene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, 1-H-pyrrole, pyridine, methylbenzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-n

Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

99

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

2013-09-01

100

Synthesis and analysis in chemical evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first part the author examines the synthesis of the fundamental complex molecules of life (aminoacids and their polymerization to proteins, lipids, sugars, purines and pyrimidines, and nucleic acids) from simple molecules (H2O, CH4, NH3, HCN, CO2, etc.) under a variety of natural and laboratory conditions and sources of energy. In the second part the author examines the analysis of the data that confirm the early appearance of life on Earth and the presence of complex organic compounds in a variety of environments (carbonaceous chondritic meteorites, the atmospheres of Jupiter and Titan, interstellar space, etc.). All these results confirm the universal effectiveness of chemical evolution.

Ponnamperuma, C.

101

Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

102

Principal component analysis on chemical abundances spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In preparation for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES) chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. This leads to a way to study the origin of elements from observed chemical abundances using principal component analysis. We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disc stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. By studying solar-neighbourhood stars, we confirm the universality of the r-process that tends to produce [neutron-capture elements/Fe] in a constant ratio. We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of ?-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the overabundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. We also verify the contribution from the s-process in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars at high metallicity. Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly ?-elements, the other produces both ?-elements and Fe-peak elements with a large enhancement of heavy Fe-peak elements which may be the contribution from hypernovae. Excluding light elements that may be subject to internal mixing, K and Cu, we find that the [X/Fe] chemical abundance space in the solar neighbourhood has about six independent dimensions both at low metallicity (-3.5 ? [Fe/H] ?-2) and high metallicity ([Fe/H] ?-1). However the dimensions come from very different origins in these two cases. The extra contribution from low-mass AGB stars at high metallicity compensates the dimension loss due to the homogenization of the core-collapse supernovae ejecta. Including the extra dimensions from [Fe/H], K, Cu and the light elements, the number of independent dimensions of the [X/Fe]+[Fe/H] chemical space in the solar neighbourhood for HERMES is about eight to nine. Comparing fainter galaxies and the solar neighbourhood, we find that the chemical space for fainter galaxies such as Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud has a higher dimensionality. This is consistent with the slower star formation history of fainter galaxies. We find that open clusters have more chemical space dimensions than the nearby metal-rich field stars. This suggests that a survey of stars in a larger Galactic volume than the solar neighbourhood may show about one more dimension in its chemical abundance space.

Ting, Yuan-Sen; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

2012-04-01

103

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

104

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Tomas Grigalis

2012-04-01

105

Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Washington : SPIE, 2012, 84360C-1-84360C-10. ISBN 978-0-8194-9128-2. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8436). [Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications II. Brussels (BE), 17.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical image * retinal image * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine .pdf

Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

106

Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Sólheimajökull, southern Iceland  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Sólheimajökull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Sólheimajökull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jökulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

2015-02-01

107

Phytane from chemolytic analysis of modern marine sediments: A product of desulfurization or not?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of modern marine sediments was analyzed to evaluate the role of sulfurization as a mechanism for biomarker preservation during early diagenesis. The set consisted of sediments accumulating within various oxic to anoxic depositional environments. Raney nickel treatment of the polar fraction of total extractable lipids (pTEL) from each sample yielded 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane ({open_quote}phytane{close_quote}) as the dominant product, accompanied in several cases by minor levels of C{sub 27}, C{sub 28}, and C{sub 29} 5{alpha}/{Beta}(H)-steranes, n-C{sub 31} alkane, and {Beta}-carotane. Although others have ascribed such products to a desulfurization reaction, our work reveals significant production of phytane from the action of Raney nickel on the esterified side chain of chlorophyll. Results suggest that catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation of chlorophyll accounts for {approximately}50 and {approximately}4% of the Raney nickel phytane (rnPhy) yield measured in suboxic sediments from the Washington shelf and anoxic sediments from Saanich Inlet, respectively. If 8-10% of the pheopigment detected in the suboxic sediments and all of the pheopigment detected in the anoxic sediment exists as pheophytin, the catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation process would account for 100 and 50%, respectively, of the observed rnPhy yield. The collective findings from our work underscore the necessity to exercise extreme caution when interpreting the geo chemical significance of hydrocarbon products from Raney nickel treatment of pTEL from sediments. Despite the organic chemical fact that Raney nickel is a well-known desulfurizing agent, desulfurization cannot be assigned necessarily as the source of hydrocarbons generated by the action of this reagent on complex lipid extracts from sediments, particularly those from modern environments. 25 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prahl, F.G.; Pinto, L.A.; Sparrow, M.A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-03-01

108

A combined application of Moessbauer spectroscopy and chemical transformation for chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method including the application of Moessbauer spectroscopy and chemical transformation has been developed for chemical analysis. The determination of the iron distribution in pyrite-biotite systems is demonstrated as an example. (author)

109

SALI chemical analysis of provided samples  

Science.gov (United States)

SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

Becker, Christopher H.

1993-01-01

110

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and identification. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the recent development and trends of separation, identification and quantification for flavonoids by modern chromatographic and spectrophotometric analytical techniques, including gas chromatography (GC, liquid chromatography (LC, and capillary electrophoresis (CE. The sample preparation before analysis is also briefly summarized.

Yong-Bo Peng

2008-10-01

111

Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis  

CERN Document Server

In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

2015-01-01

112

Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

Alferov, P.V.; Kargin, N.I.; Panchuk, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Semenovb, V.G. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Irkaev, S.M., E-mail: val_sem@mail.ru [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-07-01

113

Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of a by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

114

Phytane from chemolytic analysis of modern marine sediments: A product of desulfurization or not?  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of modern marine sediments was analyzed to evaluate the role of sulfurization as a mechanism for biomarker preservation during early diagenesis. The set consisted of sediments accumulating within various oxic to anoxic depositional environments. Raney nickel treatment of the polar fraction of total extractable lipids (pTEL) from each sample yielded 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane ('phytane') as the dominant product, accompanied in several cases by minor levels of C 27, C 28, and C 29 5 ?/ ?(H)-steranes, n-C 31 alkane, and ?-carotane. Although others have ascribed such products to a desulfurization reaction, our work reveals significant production of phytane from the action of Raney nickel on the esterified side chain of chlorophyll. Results suggest that catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation of chlorophyll accounts for ~50 and ~4% of the Raney nickel phytane (rnPhy) yield measured in suboxic sediments from the Washington shelf and anoxic sediments from Saanich Inlet, respectively. If 8-20% of the pheopigment detected in the suboxic sediments and all of the pheopigment detected in the anoxic sediment exists as pheophytin, the catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation process would account for 100 and 50%, respectively, of the observed rnPhy yield. The collective findings from our work underscore the necessity to exercise extreme caution when interpreting the geochemical significance of hydrocarbon products from Raney nickel treatment of pTEL from sediments. Despite the organic chemical fact that Raney nickel is a well-known desulfurizing agent, desulfurization cannot be assigned necessarily as the source of hydrocarbons generated by the action of this reagent on complex lipid extracts from sediments, particularly those from modern environments.

Prahl, F. G.; Pinto, L. A.; Sparrow, M. A.

1996-03-01

115

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

116

The Making of the Modern Subject: A Cross-Cultural Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The postmodern critique of modernity has focused on the construction of the modern subject and the self-disciplining and self-cancellation tendencies within it. This critique, however, fails to consider what happens during the early years of children's development--the period during which the modern subject is made, and the one in which the…

Zhao, Guoping

2007-01-01

117

Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

2012-01-01

118

PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

Cartmell, Matthew P.

2012-08-01

119

COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

120

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

OpenAIRE

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were...

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2007-01-01

121

Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moder

Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

2012-12-15

122

Recent advances in the instrumental techniques for the analysis of modern materials (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS a logical development of equally established sister technique of ICP-AEA discussed in part-1 of this series of article on modern analytical techniques. The rapid adaptation of argon plasma as ion source for time of flight quadrupole mass analyser has led to the development of truly integrated instrumental technique for analysis of solutions and slurries. The powerful combination with laser ablation device has made the direct analysis of geological, geochemical and other complex conducting and non conducting samples possible in days rather months at sub ppm levels. Parallel development in computer hardware and software has made the instrumental optimization easy enabling the generation of meaningful analytical data a matter of routine. The limitations imposed by spectroscopic and non restricted the variety of matrices and materials covered by ICP-MS of LA-ICP-MS. The technique has provided it formidable analytical power in wide areas of industrial environmental, social, biological and break through advanced materials used in space mass communication, transportation and general areas of advanced analytical chemistry. It is expected that in combination with other instrumental methods as HPLC, ETC, ion chromatography. ICP-MS shall continue to dominate well into the 21st century. (author)

123

NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

Schubert, Siegfried

2008-01-01

124

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

Alexander Hexemer

2015-01-01

125

Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

2009-01-01

126

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2015-01-01

127

Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

128

Modern voxel based data and geometry analysis software tools for industrial CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer Tomography has become a well recognized tool in industrial quality control. Modern computer tomography systems ranging from micro-CT to huge multi MeV systems allow us to generate more and more detailed views of the inner of nearly any object. With the scan resolution becoming smaller and smaller, and at the same time image matrices becoming larger and larger, we are able to localize smallest defects even in large scale objects. At the same time even with the same data set we are able to measure the outer and inner geometry of an object with a measurement point density never known before from classical tactile or optical techniques. However, scanning objects in high resolution generates huge amounts of data, easily exceeding two GByte per scan. These huge amounts of data have caused a major drawback of a wider acceptance of CT technology in industrial use. Either no software tools have been available at all or available software process chains haven't been able to process these amounts of data in reasonable time. This presentation will introduce a new generation of 3D visualization and analysis software tools for industrial CT users. Interactive visualization of huge data sets with several Gbyte in size has become possible on a standard PC. Automatic wall thickness analysis and internal defect/porosity analysis can be done within minutes. In addition this presentation will also demonstrate the latest generation of software tools for highly accurate 3D geometrtware tools for highly accurate 3D geometry analysis based on voxel data. (author)

129

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parare : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

130

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide ?-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of ?-radiation;· low dose rate ?10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence ofater parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature of 350-400C up to 85% of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective applied for purification of polluted water

131

Modern utilization of penile prosthesis surgery: a national claim registry analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the modern utilization of penile prosthesis surgery based on data derived from national claim databases and contrast to an analysis of patients similarly treated at an academic center during a contemporaneous period. A retrospective claim analysis utilizing a national database (MarketScan, Thomson Reuters) was performed for Commercial insurer and Medicare databases between January 2000 and March 2011. A retrospective analysis of contemporaneous penile prosthesis implantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) was done. Population demographics, comorbidities, previous (ED) therapies and time from ED diagnosis to surgery were assessed. Median ages for patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation were 58, 70 and 63 years for the Commercial, Medicare and JHH cohorts, respectively. For the claim databases (Commercial, Medicare, respectively), hypertension (72%, 78%), dyslipidemia (71%, 56%) and diabetes mellitus (45%, 40%) were predominant comorbidities, whereas for the JHH database prostate cancer (51%) and its management by prostatectomy (45%) or radiation (12%) were predominant. Previous use of PDE5 inhibitors was similar across databases (60, 58 and 69% for Commercial, Medicare and JHH cohorts, respectively), although previous use of non-oral ED therapies was greater in the JHH database. Median time to surgery from initial ED diagnosis was 2, 2 and 4 years for the Commercial, Medicare and JHH patients, respectively. Demographic variables and ED risk factors associated with penile prosthesis surgery at a national population-based level over a contemporary period were defined. Some differences in utilization trends of penile prosthesis surgery exist at a single institutional level. PMID:24830674

Segal, R L; Camper, S B; Burnett, A L

2014-01-01

132

Modernity after Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

Marin Dinu

2007-08-01

133

NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis at low magnetic fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter addresses the limits of low-field NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis and will answer the question of whether high-resolution NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis of solutions can be achieved with magnetic fields much lower than 0.1 T without losing the chemical information which at high field is derived from the chemical shift and the indirect spin-spin or J-coupling. The focus is on two major issues. First, the thermal spin population differences given by the Boltzmann distribution are small at low field and so is the signal-to-noise-ratio when starting measurements from thermal equilibrium. Second, the possibility of identifying chemical groups is explored at low magnetic fields where the chemical shift can usually no longer be resolved. PMID:22167575

Glöggler, Stefan; Blümich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

2013-01-01

134

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-05-01

135

CFD Sensitivity Analysis of a Modern Civil Transport Near Buffet-Onset Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity analysis is conducted for a modern civil transport at several conditions ranging from mostly attached flow to flow with substantial separation. Two different Navier-Stokes computer codes and four different turbulence models are utilized, and results are compared both to wind tunnel data at flight Reynolds number and flight data. In-depth CFD sensitivities to grid, code, spatial differencing method, aeroelastic shape, and turbulence model are described for conditions near buffet onset (a condition at which significant separation exists). In summary, given a grid of sufficient density for a given aeroelastic wing shape, the combined approximate error band in CFD at conditions near buffet onset due to code, spatial differencing method, and turbulence model is: 6% in lift, 7% in drag, and 16% in moment. The biggest two contributers to this uncertainty are turbulence model and code. Computed results agree well with wind tunnel surface pressure measurements both for an overspeed 'cruise' case as well as a case with small trailing edge separation. At and beyond buffet onset, computed results agree well over the inner half of the wing, but shock location is predicted too far aft at some of the outboard stations. Lift, drag, and moment curves are predicted in good agreement with experimental results from the wind tunnel.

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Allison, Dennis O.; Biedron, Robert T.; Buning, Pieter G.; Gainer, Thomas G.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Mysko, Stephen J.; Witkowski, David P.

2001-01-01

136

C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases

137

Theory, Image Simulation, and Data Analysis of Chemical Release Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The final phase of Grant NAG6-1 involved analysis of physics of chemical releases in the upper atmosphere and analysis of data obtained on previous NASA sponsored chemical release rocket experiments. Several lines of investigation of past chemical release experiments and computer simulations have been proceeding in parallel. This report summarizes the work performed and the resulting publications. The following topics are addressed: analysis of the 1987 Greenland rocket experiments; calculation of emission rates for barium, strontium, and calcium; the CRIT 1 and 2 experiments (Collisional Ionization Cross Section experiments); image calibration using background stars; rapid ray motions in ionospheric plasma clouds; and the NOONCUSP rocket experiments.

Wescott, Eugene M.

1994-01-01

138

Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years. One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

Reed David L

2004-01-01

139

Chemical properties and methods of analysis of refractory compounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactions involving refractory metals and the alloys based on them are discussed. Chemical, electrochemical, photometric, spectrophotometric, and X-ray analysis are among the methods described for analyzing the results of the reactions and for determining the chemical properties of these materials.

Samsonov, G. V. (editor); Frantsevich, I. N. (editor); Yeremenko, V. N. (editor); Nazarchuk, T. N. (editor); Popova, O. I. (editor)

1978-01-01

140

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

141

Modern pollen analysis: a reliable tool for discriminating Quercus rotundifolia communities in Central Spain  

OpenAIRE

The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from the Iberian Peninsula is a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important southwestern mediterranean region. The relationships between current vegetation, the available environmental data and modern pollen are examined in Central Spain for both natural and human-induced vegetation types, as an aid for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. A set of 60 surface moss polsters was sampled from differ...

Lo?pez Sa?ez, Jose? Antonio; Alba Sa?nchez, Francisca; Lo?pez-merino, Lourdes; Pe?rez Di?az, Sebastia?n

2010-01-01

142

The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

2011-11-01

143

Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

Said GHARBY

2011-01-01

144

Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

145

Chemical analysis for excimer laser systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical methods and procedures used to determine fluorine, krypton, xenon, and argon in fill gases for excimer lasers are described. Fluorine was determined by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and wet chemical (iodine liberation) methods. The noble gases were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and attempts to identify impurities were made using mass spectrometry. Analytical results for 26 gas cylinders are reported. Limitations of the methods are discussed and recommendations for future efforts are presented.

Heaton, R. C.; Hemberger, P. H.; Sandoval, W. F.

1987-09-01

146

Chemically integrating dosimeter and gas analysis methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemically integrating dosimeter for measuring gases, composed of a dual membrane system and an internal electrolyte solution. The outer membrane is a gas permeation rate controlling membrane. The inner membrane is a microporous hydrophobic protective membrane interposed between the electrolyte solution and the outer membrane. The dosimeter makes accurate determinations of time integrated exposures to various gases in the atmosphere and can be conveniently used by workers in industrial environments over a wide range of field conditions

147

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

148

PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

2014-03-01

149

PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

2012-03-01

150

Quantifying chemical reactions by using mixing analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is motivated by a sound understanding of the chemical processes that affect the organic pollutants in an urban aquifer. We propose an approach to quantify such processes using mixing calculations. The methodology consists of the following steps: (1) identification of the recharge sources (end-members) and selection of the species (conservative and non-conservative) to be used, (2) identification of the chemical processes and (3) evaluation of mixing ratios including the chemical processes. This methodology has been applied in the Besòs River Delta (NE Barcelona, Spain), where the River Besòs is the main aquifer recharge source. A total number of 51 groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to May 2010 during four field campaigns. Three river end-members were necessary to explain the temporal variability of the River Besòs: one river end-member is from the wet periods (W1) and two are from dry periods (D1 and D2). This methodology has proved to be useful not only to compute the mixing ratios but also to quantify processes such as calcite and magnesite dissolution, aerobic respiration and denitrification undergone at each observation point. PMID:25280248

Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Tubau, Isabel; Pujades, Estanislao

2015-01-01

151

Comparative analysis of traditional and modern controller for piezoelectric actuated nanopositioner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanopositioning, Precise control and manipulation of devices and materials at nanoscale is the most important constraint of nanotechnology. Nanopositioning stage consisting of piezoelectric actuator has widespread use in applications requiring positioning with precision at nanoscale. In this paper, open loop characteristics of the non minimum phase nanopositioning system are investigated. To guarantee high precision positioning and improvement in the system characteristics demands different types of feedback controllers. The main aim of the controller is to design a closed loop system with good dynamic characteristics and to maintain the desired stability margins. PID controller is a generic closed loop controller widely used for industrial control applications. This paper presents design of PID controller using Ziegler Nichols tuning method. This paper analyzes time and frequency response of traditional PID controller. Non minimum phase system can be stabilized more effectively by modern controller such as pole placement controller, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR and H infinity controllers. This paper develops a methodology for the design of full state feedback controller using pole placement and LQR control techniques. Step response and frequency responses under variety of conditions are plotted and analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Closed loop system is analyzed in both time and frequency domain for different dynamic characteristics such as rise time, settling time, maximum overshot and stability margins. A comparative assessment based upon the system’s response characteristics of traditional PID controller, pole placement controller and LQR controller is presented. Simulation results for the performance analysis are carried out on MATLAB and demonstrate effectiveness and adaptability of controller for precise control of piezoelectric actuated nanopositioning system.

Sheilza Aggarwal

2012-11-01

152

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

Zlati?anin Biljana V.

2002-01-01

153

AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ROMANIAN RETAIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the millennium, Romanian trade is in an intermediate stage of a complex process of development, marked by efforts and attempts to modernize the forms of commerce. After 1995 and until now, Romanian retail market has experienced a steady increase due to the entry of international modern retail chains and to changes in the Romanian consumers’ behaviour. Currently, Romanian retail has great development potential, being in a phase of accelerated growth. In this stage, features of modern trade forms are established, competition increases, modern retail networks are reinforced and there are still attractive implantation locations that promise attractive profit margins. Based on the premise that there is a wide range of factors that shape modern retail, this paper analyses the impact of macroeconomic variables on the development of Romanian retail market. The research methodology was based on multifactorial regression and statistical correlation. Study results showed that Romanian retail is influenced by gross domestic product, average monthly net salary, exchange rate of the national currency against the euro, and inflation rate.

Mihaela, ASANDEI

2014-03-01

154

Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008  

OpenAIRE

The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-ferti...

Mahoney, Michael W.; Lim, Lek-heng; Carlsson, Gunnar E.

2008-01-01

155

Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008  

CERN Document Server

The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

2008-01-01

156

Exergy analysis of a chemical metallurgical process  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of available work or exergy is used to develop an expression from which the causes of exergy losses in a chemical reactor are identified. The concept is illustrated by application to a lead blast furnace. The performance of the sinter plant and the lead smelter are assessed by the same procedures. The possibilities of exergy recovery are discussed and a heat pump installation is described. The advantages of the exergy method of process assessment relative to the traditional heat balance are discussed.

Morris, D. R.; Steward, F. R.

1984-12-01

157

Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study

158

An Empirical Analysis on the Development of Modern Service Industry and Its Countermeasures in Qingdao during Post-WTO Transitional Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the end of Post-WTO Transitional Period, Qingdao’s modern services present a picture of unprecedented prosperity. But during the process of development, many sharp problems emerged and it needs to handle seriously. By an empirical analysis on influencing factors of modern services in Qingdao, existing problems are found out and corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

Wenxue Zhang

2010-09-01

159

Chemical luminescent analysis of inorganic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretic basis of luminescence and luminescent analysis is presented, the most common equipment necessary for its conducting being described. Luminescent reactions of 1,2,3,4 and 5 analytical group cations and of anions (F-, NO2-, B4O7-2, BO2-) being in the basis of qualitative luminescent analysis are considered. The methods of quantitative luminescent analysis are discussed based on the luminescence utilization of the substances under investigation (determination of uranium (6), tellurium (4) lanthanides). Described is utilization of phosphor crystals, organic and inorganic reagents (in particular at Zr, B, Be, In determination) and also utilization of catalytic and titrimetric methods, at determineation of molubdates, tungstates and zirconium

160

Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

161

Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...

Yigzaw Binega

2006-01-01

162

Laser mass spectrometry for environmental and industrial chemical trace analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Resonant laser mass spectrometry is a promising method for chemical trace analysis since it combines selectivity, sensitivity and rapidity of measurement. It is a two-dimensional technique incorporating medium- or high-resolution UV spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No sample preparation and chemical clean-up is necessary to reach detection limits in the sub-ppb range even when highly complicated mixtures of chemical species are analyzed. After an introduction to the principles of resonant laser mass spectrometry, illustrative examples of applications are presented. Drawbacks, possibilities of overcoming them, some interesting features and future developments of resonant laser mass spectrometry are discussed. PMID:10767757

Boesl

2000-03-01

163

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (?75 ?L of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

164

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2009-12-10

165

Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25315338

Wi?niewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-10-15

166

Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

167

Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

2005-09-23

168

Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

169

Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

2012-06-01

170

The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages  

OpenAIRE

On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history...

Vladimir Sapon

2009-01-01

171

Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine  

OpenAIRE

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are...

Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-01-01

172

Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX.  

Science.gov (United States)

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next-generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server. PMID:24722405

Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2014-05-01

173

Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next-generation sequencing reads, PALEOMIX carries out adapter removal, mapping against reference genomes, PCR duplicate removal, characterization of and compensation for postmortem damage, SNP calling and maximum-likelihood phylogenomic inference, and it profiles the metagenomic contents of the samples. As such, PALEOMIX allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server.

Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca

2014-01-01

174

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-03-07

175

Comparison of rapid methods for chemical analysis of milligram samples of ultrafine clays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two rapid methods for the decomposition and chemical analysis of clays were adapted for use with 20-40mg size samples, typical amounts of ultrafine products (< 0.5 micrometer diameter) obtained from modern separation methods for clay minrals. The results of these methods were compared with those of 'classical' rock analyses. The two methods consisted of mixed lithium metaborate fusion and heated decomposition with HF in a closed vessel. The latter technique was modified to include subsequent evaporation with concentrated H2SO4 and re-solution in HCl, which reduced the interference of the fluoride ion in the determination of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, and K.-from Authors

Rettig, S.L.; Marinenko, J.W.; Khoury, H.N.; Jones, B.F.

1983-01-01

176

Chemical analysis of Plutonium-238 for space applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an overview of chemical analysis capabilities that support 238Pu programs for space applications and the progress of establishing these capabilities at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility will be discussed. These chemical and in-line analysis capabilities include (1) UV-visible spectrometry for Pu Assay, (2) nuclear detection systems (integrated gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, and gas proportional counter) for radiochemical analysis, (3) direct-current are (DC Arc) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for trace analysis, (4) plutonium process monitoring (PPM) system for ion-exchange operations, and (5) solution in-line alpha counter (SILAC) for gross alpha determination of aqueous solutions. .

Wong, Amy S.

2001-02-01

177

Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

1997-05-01

178

Local and global uncertainty analysis of complex chemical kinetic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer modelling plays a crucial part in the understanding of complex chemical reactions. Parameters of elementary chemical and physical processes are usually determined in independent experiments and are always associated with uncertainties. Two typical examples of complex chemical kinetic systems are the combustion of gases and the photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In this study, local uncertainty analysis, the Morris method, and Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling were applied to an atmospheric and to a combustion model. These models had 45 and 37 variables along with 141 and 212 uncertain parameters, respectively. The toolkit used here consists of complementary methods and is able to map both the sources and the magnitudes of uncertainties. In the case of the combustion model, the global uncertainties of the local sensitivity coefficients were also investigated, and the order of parameter importance based on local sensitivities were found to be almost independent of the parameter values within their range of uncertainty

179

Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 2, ?. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

2009-01-01

180

Rethinking the History of Artists' Pigments Through Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

Berrie, Barbara H.

2012-07-01

181

METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

182

Analysis of 239Pu in simulated chemical explosion core soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis method of 239Pu in the soil of chemical explosion core is established. The procedure includes HNO3-HF mixed acid soaking, anion-exchanging and preparing source by pulse plating-radioactivity counting. The recovery of the method is 77.6% +- 5.3%

183

Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

184

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-11-15

185

How to Make the Financial Analysis an Easy Task – A Comparative Analysis between the Traditional and the Modern Approach?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper is based upon the comparison of the Traditional Approaches / Methods with the Modern Approach / Methods in a simple manner so the beginners of the Financial Mangement could understand the relevance of the latest approaches as well . In this paper a sample example had been taken to solve a case of the two projects which are mutually exclusive wherein the best project is to be selected out of the two. The Same had been solved both by the traditional approach as well as by the modern approach so that the comparisons could be easily justified .

Rajamahanti Surya Kiran

2014-08-01

186

Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

2010-01-01

187

Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic powerSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

188

All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

189

Near-field Optical Imagigng and Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of molecular structures in complex mixtures represents a major challenge in chemical research today. Microfabricated devices or lab-on-a-chip that perform chemical analysis allows dynamic sampling of picoliter microenvironments and separation. The long-term goals of nanochemistry down to the femtoliter scale involve refinement of the detection limit to single-molecule. Our approach consists in designing a very sensitive near-field optical microscope (NSOM-SIAM) to explore the mesoscopic properties of organic compounds. The validity, sensitivity and unique spatial resolution of this system will be discussed for multiple analyte chemosensing.

Andres, La Rosa

1998-03-01

190

Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

191

Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

192

Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed. PMID:22998050

?entürk, Zühre

2013-02-01

193

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/:SiO/sub 2/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/:SiO/sub 2/, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO/sub 2/ films.

Tallant, D.R.; Taylor, E.L.

1980-05-01

194

Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling  

OpenAIRE

Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

Egidi, Giovanni

2004-01-01

195

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

Ashis Kumar Das

2013-01-01

196

Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

197

Medium-term analysis of modern ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in THA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of different bearing surfaces have been used to avoid osteolysis following hip replacement. We report a retrospective review of medium-term results of a modern ceramic-ceramic bearing (Biolox, CeramTec, Plochingen, Germany) and uncemented components (Alpha Cera Fit Alphanorm, Lassnitzhohe, Austria) in 107 hip arthroplasties. The clinical outcome based on serial radiographs and scoring was assessed with a minimum follow-up of 7 years (mean, 7, 6 years; range, 7, 1-8, 3 years). The average age of the patients at surgery was 64, 6 + 11, 7 years (range: 21-88 years). The mean Harris hip score was 90, 4 (range, 84, 7-99, 2). Three patients with an extra long femoral neck experienced fracture of the ceramic femoral head, resulting in cessation of use of this combination. Radiological evaluation did not reveal any signs of lysis or loosening. Massive heterotopic ossification was seen in three patients. Medium-term follow-up showed excellent clinical and radiological results. Continued follow-up will be required to determine if this ceramic-on-ceramic bearing is associated with extended survivorship. PMID:19455500

Aldrian, Silke; Nau, Thomas; Gillesberger, Felix; Petras, Nina; Ehall, Reinhard

2009-01-01

198

Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

Jianhua sun

2013-12-01

199

40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. 761.292 ...6) § 761.292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. Use...

2010-07-01

200

QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

201

Assessment of modern methods of human factor reliability analysis in PSA studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is structured as follows: Classical terms and objects (Probabilistic safety assessment as a framework for human reliability assessment; Human failure within the PSA model; Basic types of operator failure modelled in a PSA study and analyzed by HRA methods; Qualitative analysis of human reliability; Quantitative analysis of human reliability used; Process of analysis of nuclear reactor operator reliability in a PSA study); New terms and objects (Analysis of dependences; Errors of omission; Errors of commission; Error forcing context); and Overview and brief assessment of human reliability analysis (Basic characteristics of the methods; Assets and drawbacks of the use of each of HRA method; History and prospects of the use of the methods). (P.A.)

202

AN ANALYSIS OF THE NEW TRACTORS DISTRIBUTION LOGISTICS IN THE ASPECT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMMES FOR SUPPORTING AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article contains an analysis of issues concerning logistics of agricultural tractors distribution. Programmes and the level of utilization of means from Structural Funds of the European Union for modernization of equipment of agricultural farms in Poland have been presented. Structure of agricultural tractors market in Poland and the issues on domestic selective distribution of leading producers of agricultural tractors have been characterized. The achieved results of research on the sales level of agricultural tractors have been presented. The research has been carried out at the Trade Department of the authorized distributor of tractors and agricultural machines. The research cycle covered the years 2003-2010. The research results have been statistically prepared using the R programme for Windows (version 2.14.1 and defining trend, random fluctuations and seasonal fluctuations. The time schedules of sales were analysed in the aspect of subsidizing purchases from the Structural Funds of the European Union and the agritechnical procedures calendar.

S?awomir JU?CI?SKI

2012-12-01

203

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF â??NERIUM OLEANDERâ? LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

Lakhmili Siham

2014-01-01

204

Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Addransfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport

205

Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests  

CERN Document Server

Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

2014-01-01

206

Chemical analysis with a low energy particle accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low energy particle accelerator at Brooklyn College is being applied to chemical analysis by studies of: charged particle induced nuclear reaction, proton induced X-ray emission, and inelastic neutron scattering. A great advantage in sensitivity and resolution (i.e., freedom from interferences) is attained when it is possible to observe the nuclear reactions per se. The prompt products may be gamma-rays, neutrons, and/or emergent charged particles such as protons, alphas, and even heavier ions. Chemical analysis by direct observation of the prompt phenomenon offers these advantages: the analysis does not depend upon the half life of the product nuclide; the sensitivity is increased by as much as several orders of magnitude; there is a greater selectivity due to the characteristic energy requirements; and the prompt methods lend themselves more readily for absolute rather than relative determinations. Fluorine-containing gaseous compounds in the atmosphere and fluorine in airborne particulates will be determined by detection of the prompt gamma-rays and/or alpha particles emitted in the reaction 19F(p, ?)16O. The PIXE technique is being applied to analysis of a variety of environmental samples, and activation by inelastic neutron scattering is being investigated for elements which are not amenable to thermal neutron activation. (T.G.)

207

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.

2007-01-01

208

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

OpenAIRE

Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations we...

Bartlomiej Zylinski; Radovan Petrovi?; Andrzej Banaszek

2011-01-01

209

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

José A. Centeno

2014-01-01

210

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations – are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ?1%. Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300% across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granites and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed, the observed element distribution can only be explained by equilibration of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. It appears the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and N

G. Brügmann

2012-01-01

211

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enri

G. Brügmann

2011-05-01

212

Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

CERN Document Server

We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

2010-01-01

213

Osteometric analysis for sexing of modern sternum - an autopsy study from South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of sex is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology and requires foremost attention in the analysis of commingled and unidentified remains. In India, there is a paucity of population specific morphometric standards for identifying sex from unknown human remains in different population groups. The present research is an osteometric analysis to study the sexual dimorphism of the sternum of South Indian origin using statistical considerations. The study sample constituted of adult autopsied sternums of known age and sex. Five linear measurements (length of the manubrium, mesosternum, manubrium and mesosternum together, and width at 1st and at 3rd sternebra) were examined during the study. Three indices (manubrio-corpus Index, ratio of the length of the mesosternum and manubrium, and sternubrial-width index) were computed from the length and width measurements of the sternum. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software and Student's t-test was applied to find the sex differences in these variables. While statistically significant sex differences were observed for all the five linear measurements of the sternum, none of the sternal indices showed statistically significant sex differences. Discriminant function and logistic regression analysis were performed to derive the predicting models for estimation of sex from the different variables. The predictability of sternal measurements in sexing using univariate models ranged between 67.5% for the width at 3rd sternebra and 74.4% for the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum. The classification accuracy rates of sternal measurements were observed to be higher when multivariate analysis was performed. Length of manubrium and mesosternum together along with width at 1st sternebra yielded maximum accuracy of 79.5% (discriminant function analysis) and 81.2% (logistic regression analysis) in sexing of male and female sternum. The present research concludes that the application of sternum in sex estimation should be restricted to cases when other more reliable bones for sexing are not available to the investigators. PMID:25127732

Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal

2014-11-01

214

ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water  

Science.gov (United States)

During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

2009-01-01

215

Analysis of nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillation in BWR using modern frequency domain theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear boiling water reactor (BWR) is susceptible to thermal-hydrodynamic instabilities due to boiling flow and its higher operational parameters. These instabilities may cause flow oscillations of constant amplitude or diverging amplitude and further induce boiling crisis, disturb control systems as well as cause mechanical damage. The phenomena of nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillations, the most common type of the instabilities are of considerable importance in the stability analysis of BWR. The single-input model and Nyquist Stability Criterion have been widely used for the stability analyses of the boiling water reactors. The need of accurate stability analysis method has become more important with the erosion of stability margins that has accompanied new generation plant and fuel. In this paper a multi-variable model is developed and the system transfer matrix function is derived. The characteristic locus method used for the BWR stability and analysis and the corresponding computer code are provided

216

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

CERN Document Server

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

2003-01-01

217

Adlayers of dimannoside thiols on gold: surface chemical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrate films on gold based on dimannoside thiols (DMT) were prepared, and a complementary surface chemical analysis was performed in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), FT-IR, and contact angle measurements in order to verify formation of ?-carbohydrate-functionalized alkylthiol films. XPS (C 1s, O 1s, and S 2p) reveals information on carbohydrate specific alkoxy (C-O) and acetal moieties (O-C-O) as well as thiolate species attached to gold. Angle-resolved synchrotron XPS was used for chemical speciation at ultimate surface sensitivity. Angle-resolved XPS analysis suggests the presence of an excess top layer composed of unbound sulfur components combined with alkyl moieties. Further support for DMT attachment on Au is given by ToF-SIMS and FT-IR analysis. Carbon and oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra were interpreted by applying the building block model supported by comparison to data of 1-undecanethiol, poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyoxymethylene. No linear dichroism effect was observed in the angle-resolved C K-edge NEXAFS. PMID:21417247

Dietrich, Paul M; Horlacher, Tim; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Gross, Thomas; Lippitz, Andreas; Min, Hyegeun; Wirth, Thomas; Castelli, Riccardo; Seeberger, Peter H; Unger, Wolfgang E S

2011-04-19

218

Modern maths  

CERN Multimedia

Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

Thom,R

1974-01-01

219

Avardunud modernism.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Tallin : Eesti Kunstimuuseum Kumu, 2012 - (Pählapuu, L.), s. 84-105 ISBN 978-9949-485-11-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : "diverse" modernity * machinism * trajectories of relationships * Paris * Berlin * Penza * Riga * center * periphery Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

Lahoda, Vojt?ch

220

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

221

Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater  

Science.gov (United States)

The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

2013-01-01

222

Chemical pathway analysis of Titan's upper atmosphere: Oxygen species  

Science.gov (United States)

CO, CO2, and H2O are the only oxygen bearing species in Titan's atmosphere which have been clearly detected so far. Their abundances are controlled by the interaction of external and internal sources, photochemistry and condensation. In this contribution, we determine all significant chemical pathways responsible for the production and consumption of CO, CO2, and H2O. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of different oxygen sources on the efficiencies of the pathways. In order to achieve this, we apply a unique algorithm, called the Pathway Analysis Program - PAP to the results of a 1D photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere.

Stock, J. W.; Lara, L. M.; Lehmann, R.

2014-04-01

223

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could...

Joshi, S.; Semenko, E.; Martinez, P.; Sachkov, M.; Joshi, Y. C.; Seetha, S.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mary, D. L.; Girish, V.; Ashoka, B. N.

2012-01-01

224

Rapid on-site methods of chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adressed is the problem of monitoring contaminated land for the presence of hazardous and/or toxic materials. This chapter is primarily concerned with methods of chemical analysis that can be readily applied in the field, can provide real time data and be cost effective. The study has been restricted to a user survey rather than an extensive literature search. The survey supplies information on available techniques and provides recommendations regarding their proper application. Topics discussed include sampling, sampling design, sample matrices, compatibility testing, air monitoring equipment, soil monitoring techniques, specialized screening techniques and mobile analytical laboratories

225

Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

226

Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

227

Sneak circuit analysis of chemical and volume control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the chemical and volume control system (RCV) of nuclear power plant pipelines are very complex, there are many valve control nodes. These make the probabilistic risk of unexpected situation rather high in design and running. In order to increase the reliability and safety of the system in design and running, the sneak circuit analysis technology is applied in gas and liquid pipelines of RCV to find latent path and temporal sequence in design and running. Improvements and advices are given to avoid these latent risks in design and running. (authors)

228

Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.)

229

THE MODERN TOOLKIT IN THE RESEARCH OF MACROECONOMIC DYNAMICS. 3 - THE PHASE ANALYSIS ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????. 3 – ??????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the third article from the series of the works dedi-cated to the tool methods of the research of macroeco-nomic dynamics the phase space, the phase analysis in it and their macroeconomic appendices are described. Phase pictures alongside with a parameter contain its first derivative (tendency, which in the best degree characterizes aspirations of a macroeconomic process. In a phase space, periodic economic processes (sea-sonal prevalence and cyclicity become rather cyclic or “circular” designs, which facilitate the recognition of economic archetypes. The phase analysis has appeared new, more universal, simple, but at the same time thin, intellectual, mathematically exacted tool at the re-search of macroeconomic conjuncture. It has enabled the possibility to analyze, to represent, to visualize and to predict the development of cycles in macroeco-nomic analytically, numerically and in a graphical way

Botascheva F. B.

2012-11-01

230

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

OpenAIRE

Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and i...

Yong-Bo Peng; Chang-Yin Li; Ping Li; Jun Cao; Lian-Wen Qi; E-Hu Liu

2008-01-01

231

A modern hydride generation- cryotrapping system for arsenic speciation analysis at sub-ppb level.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Münster, 2011. FTM 14. [International Symposium on Metallomics /3./. 15.06.2011-18.06.2011, Münster] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * ICP MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.metallomics2011.org/event/Metallomics2011/Scientific_program.html

Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, J. M.; Svoboda, Milan; Stýblo, M.; D?dina, Ji?í

232

Statistics and mathematical modelling; A major recent modern tool in biotechnology and bioinformatics data analysis  

OpenAIRE

Statistics and Mathematical models can be in many forms, including differentialequations, or theoretic models. Lack of correlation between theoreticalmathematical models and experimental measurements sometime leads todevelopment of better theories in the area of biology. The mathematical designfinds wide application in nutrient media optimization for microbial enzymeproduction. On the other hand these mathematical tools in the field of statisticsplay an important role with data analysis of pr...

Suneetha V.; Bishwambhar Mishra; Parul Kamat; Gopi chand T.; Saranya.C; Rani Anupama; Alok Prakash

2013-01-01

233

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range.

Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel E-mail: israel@techunix.technion.ac.il

2003-05-01

234

Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

235

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

OpenAIRE

Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values), as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE), dendrite arm spacing (DAS) and length eutectic (Le) and also distribution by size (histogram) and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5...

Zlati?anin Biljana V.; Radonji? Branislav M.; Jordovi? Branka M.

2002-01-01

236

Testing Methods and Analysis of the Main Electrical Properties of Modernized Locomotives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Laboratory of Traction and Rolling Stock systematic research into the methods of testing a traction drive, using the real models has been conducted. The aim of this research was to completely define all elements of the system for testing the main electrical and mechanical properties which include the selection of measuring transducers, the selection and implementation of the system for conditioning and transmitting signals to processing methods and analysis by using application software. This kind of approach has made it possible for a target test of an electric locomotive on the field to be performed in a reliable manner and without failure.

Dragutin Kosti?

2011-06-01

237

The Multiple Modernities of Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity’ but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

Thomassen, BjØrn

238

Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

2010-12-01

239

Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O?NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H?H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

240

Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

Jonathan B. Thacker

2015-04-01

241

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2009-07-01

242

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

243

Analysis of modern threats to information security occurring while the network interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classification of information security threats from networking was based on the general scheme of networking, networks location, network infra-structure components relative to potential offenders. Furthermore, three classes of vulnerable parts of the system (software, hardware, man-made were identified for convenience. The structuring method of objectives and functions was used for the analysis. According to it, the set of vulnerable sections and security threats is represented as a system of six levels, where the upper components – goals, and the bottom ones- functions, except for the level of the life cycle. The result is a system, where each vulnerable part can be compared with the list of threats to information security.

Babenko German Valerievich

2010-08-01

244

Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

245

Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC  

Science.gov (United States)

The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

2008-01-01

246

Cyberspace modernization :  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

2014-07-01

247

Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

248

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

Bartlomiej Zylinski

2011-01-01

249

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

250

Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group they were 48,451.00 and 46,029.00 RUB/QALY, respectively. The NMB for the control group amounted to 10,790,910.00 and 10,815,840.00 RUB without and with discounting, respectively, while for the study group the values were 11,904,500.00 and 11,927,390.00 RUB.ConclusionsThe results of clinical and economic analysis show that treatment of the metabolic syndrome, including pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance, should be prioritized over mere medical advisory and lifestyle modifications.

Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

2014-04-01

251

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

OpenAIRE

Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancip...

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

252

Análisis del algoritmo red con la teoría de control moderna / Analysis of the red algorithm with modern control theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estabilidad del sistema formado por el algoritmo de detección temprana aleatoria (RED) en conjunto con el protocolo de control de transmisión (TCP) en función de los parámetros del sistema utilizando la teoría de control moderna. Se deduce la ecuación lin [...] ealizada del sistema mediante la cual se hace un estudio de la estabilidad en función de la posición de los polos de la matriz del sistema linealizado. Se observa que a medida que crece la cantidad N de conexiones TCP, disminuye la estabilidad. Mediante simulaciones, se comprobaron los resultados obtenidos del análisis teórico. Los experimentos incluyeron diferentes condiciones de operación del sistema con varios valores de máxima probabilidad de marcado de los paquetes, observándose que para valores grandes de probabilidad, la estabilidad relativa también disminuye Abstract in english This paper presents a study of the stability of the system of the RED (Random Early Detection) algorithm in conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) based on the parameters of the system using modern control theory. We deduce the linearized equation of the system through which a study of [...] stability depending on the position of the poles of the linearized system matrix is made. It was noted that as the number (N) of TCP connections grows, stability reduces. Through simulations, the expected results were verified by theoretical analysis. The experiments include different system operating conditions with various values of highest probability of marking packets, noting that for high probability values, the relative stability also decreases

Claudio, Parra.

2010-03-01

253

Spectroscopic analysis of cinnamic acid using quantum chemical calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra for cinnamic acid have been recorded for the vibrational and spectroscopic analysis. The observed fundamental frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The computed frequencies and optimized parameters have been calculated by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods and the corresponding results are tabulated. On the basis of the comparison between computed and experimental results assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes are examined. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The alternation of the vibration pattern of the pedestal molecule related to the substitutions was analyzed. The 13C and 1H NMR spectra have been recorded and the chemical shifts have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Mulliken charges, UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of have been calculated and reported. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was constructed.

Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

2015-02-01

254

[DNA amplification on chemically structured chips in forensic STR analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study deals with low-volume amplification of short tandem repeats (STRs) for forensic DNA analysis. A chemically structured chip in microscopic slide format was used to amplify standard forensic casework samples in a 1-microL reaction volume primarily with the well-known and widely used PowerPlex kit and with other commercially available STR kits. Tests regarding sensitivity, mixture analysis, robustness, reproducibility, buffer composition and technical performance were carried out to check the usefulness of this amplification strategy. The results obtained show that low-volume amplification is a promising option in the forensic DNA typing toolbox. Restrictions to this method, which are strictly related to the kit and the respective buffer used, were found in low copy number (LCN) DNA typing, mixture analysis and technical performance. Problematic typing results included artefact alleles, increase in locus and heterozygote imbalance, allelic and locus dropout as well as increase of stutters, especially when amplifying less than 200-300 pg of DNA. In contrast, convincing advantages are a higher sensitivity, better amplification efficiency and the low cost factor of this method. PMID:19044139

Schmidt, Ulrike; Proff, Carsten; Schneider, Peter M; Matt, Katja; Sänger, Timo; Zacher, Thomas; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

2008-01-01

255

Comparative crystal chemical analysis of borophosphates and borosilicates  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative crystal chemical analysis of mixed borophosphate and borosilicate anionic radicals revealed the main difference between them: the condensation of [PO4] tetrahedra does not proceed via common vertices, whereas the sharing of vertices is possible for the [SiO4] tetrahedra. In all the borophosphates considered, phosphorus is found only in the formally isolated tetrahedra. The central part of the heterogeneous radicals is formed by tetrahedra of lower charge ions (B+3), and the tetrahedra that incrust the central part have higher valences (Si+4, P+5). In borosilicates, silicon forms its own constructions up to complex layers and frameworks because its charge (Si+4) is lower than that of phosphorus (P+5). The higher charge of phosphorus impedes two-dimensional and three-dimensional condensation. As a result, borophosphates form a variety of soro and chain radicals and only few layer and framework constructions.

Gurbanova, O. A.; Belokoneva, E. L.

2007-07-01

256

Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

Tautvaišien? G.

2012-02-01

257

Methods of modern mathematical physics  

CERN Document Server

This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

Reed, Michael

1980-01-01

258

Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

259

Modern Cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the unive The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and velocity biases, dark-matter halos of galaxies, etc. In short, the book has substantial content of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models as well as from the basics to development. I would recommend this book to those who are working on and interested in this subject. (book review; Ian D. Lawry ISBN: 0-7503-0604-1)

260

Modernizing Borssele  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Borssele Modificaties Project is one of the most comprehensive and most complex backfitting projects ever conducted in a commercial nuclear power plant. The modernization of the plant, for which Siemens had been commissioned under a turnkey contract, was planned in detail over a period of five years, examined in an extensive licensing procedure, and completed in only five months of downtime. In the series of Siemens pressurized water reactor plants, Borssele was number three, commissioned in 1973 after Obrigheim and Stade and before Biblis A. Its dual-loop reactor has an installed power of 450 MW. After only 158 days, Borssele was reconnected to the public grid system after a comprehensive backfitting exercise. The plant is now equipped with all safety features of a modern nuclear power plant covering the whole spectrum of accidents to be assumed in accordance with international codes and rules. Safety against core meltdown (TCDF) was raised from 5.6 . 10-6 to 4.5x10-6 by the measures completed. One year of full load operation after the modification, with an availability of 98% over the period between restarting on July 14, 1997 and shutdown for refueling on June 13, 1998, is a clear sign of the successful completion of an ambitious project. (orig.)

261

Phase transitions modern applications  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

Gitterman, Moshe

2014-01-01

262

An Experiment in the Sampling of Solids for Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment is described that is suitable for demonstrating the principles of sampling uncertainty in the chemical analysis of particulate materials. Although uncertainty due to the sampling of heterogeneous materials is a pervasive problem in the analysis of "real world" samples, there are very few experiments designed to introduce this topic into the undergraduate laboratory. In the experiment described here, students analyze mixtures of KH2PO4 and NaCl (0.5 to 0.8% KH2PO4), with sample masses between 0.1 and 2.5 g, and observe the effect of sample size on analytical uncertainty. The variance due to sampling is isolated from other sources of variance and used to estimate Ingamells' sampling constant, Ks, for the mixture. The determination of phosphate is performed using the molybdenum-blue method implemented on a simple flow-injection apparatus, which permits a high sample throughput. The experiment is easily completed by two students in one laboratory period and consistently shows improved analytical precision with increasing sample size. Values for Ks typically range from 100 to 1000 g.

Guy, Robert D.; Ramaley, Louis; Wentzell, Peter D.

1998-08-01

263

[The chemical and structural analysis of Tibetan medicine Zhuxi].  

Science.gov (United States)

Zhuxi is a mineral medicine widely used in traditional Tibetan medicine throughout history. However, the bioactive component in Zhuxi still remains unclear. In order to enunciate the material basis of its pharmacological activity, the present research has determined the chemical component and structure of Zhuxi. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to assay two samples of Zhuxi. XRF and ICP-OES analysis indicated that the main elements in Zhuxi are Fe, S and O, also containing some minor elements, such as Si, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ni, Ca, Ti and so on. XRD analysis suggested that the main crystal compound in Zhuxi is FeS2 (Cubic, Pa-3), also existing a few of Fe(+3)O(OH) (orthorhombic, Pbnm) and other some unknown compounds. These studies has highlighted the potential the element components and compound structures of Zhuxi, so it may be a good starting point for exploring the material basis of its pharmacological activity. PMID:22870663

Li, Cen; Sang-Lao; Leng-Bencairang; Xia, Zhen-Jiang; Du, Yu-Zhi; Wei, Li-Xin

2012-06-01

264

Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for chemical measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron induced Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) offers a nondestructive, sensitive and relatively rapid method for the determination of trace and major elements and is proven to be convenient for online analysis of minerals, metals, coal, cement, petrochemical, coating, paper as well as many other materials and products. The technique has found many uses in medicine, industry, research, security and the detection of contraband items. This report reviews the present status and future trends of the PGAA techniques. Requirements for the system are neutron source, high resolution HPGe detectors with a high-voltage power supply, an amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, and a multichannel analyzer for the detection and measurement of prompt ?-ray emit form the neutron capture elements. Introducing a ?-? coincidence system also improves the quality of the ?-ray spectrum by suppressing the background created from the compton scattering of high energy prompt ?-rays. A PGAA system using a 252Cf neutron source is currently under construction for the on-line measurement of several elements in aqueous samples at KAERI. The system can be applied for the detection of chemical weapons and explosives as well as various narcotics

265

Dielectric annular core optical fiber for chemical trace analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of annular core fiber (ACF) for chemical trace analysis is novel approach in the field of evanescent wave optical sensors. It allows extending the sensitivity of conventional absorbance spectroscopy by extending optical interaction path length of evanescent wave. ACF is waveguide, typically consisting of small diameter tubes capable of guiding light through a sample by evanescent wave. AFC waveguides are capillaries that contain a liquid or gas sample for spectroscopic analysis. The core of doubly clad step index optical fiber is a dielectric annulus lying between two different claddings. Benefit of this solution is possibility to use of small volume samples, long path lengths by constraining light propagation within a liquid or gas medium by evanescent wave. Preform preparation by MCVD process and fiber drawing and coating of this special capillary structure have been realized in the workplace of IREE AS CR. Primary shielding of silica capillary is ultraviolet radiation activated acrylic copolymer. Basic optical characteristic were measured - attenuation, refractive index (RI) profile, loss spectral distribution, near field intensity distribution.

Solarik, Petr; Burian, Zdenek; Kasik, Ivan

2006-03-01

266

Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

2010-01-01

267

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

268

ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

2014-06-05

269

Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. PMID:23914934

Martinón-Torres, María; Sp?vá?ková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

2013-10-01

270

Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

Andrei, Terian.

2014-06-01

271

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

272

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented analysis and Recursive Design methods as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method. (author)

273

A Contribution To The Development And Analysis Of A Combined Current-Voltage Instrument Transformer By Using Modern CAD Methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle aim and task of the thesis is the analysis and development of 20 kV combined current-voltage instrument transformer (CCVIT) by using modern CAD techniques. CCVIT is a complex electromagnetic system comprising of four windings and two magnetic cores in one insulation housing for simultaneous transformation of high voltages and currents to measurable signal values by standard instruments. The analytical design methods can be applied on simple electromagnetic configurations, which is not the case with the CCVIT. There is mutual electromagnetic influence between the voltage measurement core (VMC) and the current measurement core (CMC). After the analytical CCVIT design had been done, exact determination of its metrological characteristics has been accomplished by using the numerical finite element method implemented in the FEM-3D program package. The FEM-3D calculation is made in 19 cross-sectional layers of the z-axis of the CCVIT three-dimensional domain. By FEM-3D application the three-dimensional CCVIT magnetic field distribution is derived. This is the basis for calculation of the initial metrological characteristics of the CCVIT (VMC is accuracy class 3 and CMC is accuracy class 1). By using the stochastic optimization technique based on genetic algorithm the CCVIT optimal design is achieved. The objective function is the minimum of the metrological parameters (VIM voltage error and CMC current error). There are I I independent input variables during te I I independent input variables during the optimization process by which the optimal project is derived. The optimal project is adapted for realization of a prototype and the optimized project is derived. Full comparative analysis of the metrological and the electromagnetic characteristics of the three projects is accomplished. By application of the program package MATLAB/SIMULINK the CCVIT transient phenomena is analyzed for different regimes in the three design projects. In the Instrument Transformer Factory of EMO A. D.-Ohrid a CCVIT prototype has been realized and it has been tested experimentally in a laboratory, tbrough which the CAD results have been verified. The prototype VIM is accuracy class 1 and the CMC is accuracy class 0,5 (one accuracy class higher than the accuracy class of the initial project).(Author)

274

Modern stochastics and applications  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents an extensive overview of all major modern trends in applications of probability and stochastic analysis. It will be a  great source of inspiration for designing new algorithms, modeling procedures, and experiments. Accessible to researchers, practitioners, as well as graduate and postgraduate students, this volume presents a variety of new tools, ideas, and methodologies in the fields of optimization, physics, finance, probability, hydrodynamics, reliability, decision making, mathematical finance, mathematical physics, and economics. Contributions to this Work include those of selected speakers from the international conference entitled “Modern Stochastics: Theory and Applications III,”  held on September 10 –14, 2012 at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine. The conference covered the following areas of research in probability theory and its applications: stochastic analysis, stochastic processes and fields, random matrices, optimization methods in probability, st...

Limnios, Nikolaos; Mishura, Yuliya; Sakhno, Lyudmyla; Shevchenko, Georgiy

2014-01-01

275

Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials

276

Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials.

Kim, Jong Seog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

277

CHEMICALS  

CERN Multimedia

It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

Medical Service

2002-01-01

278

Studies on Chemical Analysis of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L. Wilczek  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine commercially grown varieties of mung bean were subjected to chemical analysis to determine total protein contents, amino acids, lipids, ash, crude fiber, moisture and calories. All varieties differed significantly in their total protein contents (22.88 - 24.65%; total amino acids (20.98 - 25.61% and lipids (1.53 - 2.63% whereas the differences in the ash contents (3.20 - 3.87%, crude fiber (4.30 - 4.80%, moisture (10.13 - 10.77% and total calories (341 - 371 were non-significant. Higher values were recorded for amino acids such as Lysine (1.54 - 1.97%, aspartic acid (2.73 - 3.48% and glutamic acid (4.29 - 5.24% whereas the sulpher containing amino acids were limiting. The new varieties compared favourably with the native cultivar in their nutritional status. Variety NIAB Mung - 92 was found to be superior among all the varieties studied for seed protein and sulpher containing amino acids contents.

B.Saleem

1998-01-01

279

Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

280

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 ?m and 1000 ?m were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

2003-01-01

281

Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

2015-02-01

282

Chemical analysis of archaeological copper and brass from northeastern Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since it is now possible, with some reliability, to separate native from European copper using chemical analysis, archaeological copper has been sorted into geological (North American) or smelted (European) groups and thereby help address issues relating to the cultural impact of earliest aboriginal - European contact in northeastern Ontario. Twenty six metal samples from 11 archaeological sites, dating from the 17th to 19th centuries, were analyzed by INAA. The results were compared with reference data for native copper and European trade copper and indicate that of the 17 copper samples in the suite, an archaeologically-unexpected high number of 12 were made of native copper. The majority of these samples derived from the post-contact early 17th century Providence Bay Odawa village. The remaining samples were made of brass and zinc. Two of the brass samples, from Point Louise, have remarkably similar chemistries and probably came from the same object, or at least from the same batch of brass. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

283

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

2012-01-01

284

Modern electrochemistry  

CERN Document Server

about the First Edition: `A superbly written teaching book which should become indispensable to every student of electrochemistry.' Journal of the American Chemical Society `A truly extraordinary achievement ... An enormous body of electrochemical knowledge and a wealth of stunningly penetrating detail.' Journal of the Electrochemical Society `A must.' Nature about the second edition: `These original, stimulating and informative volumes offer an unusual approach and inter alia provide an excellent entrée to the field for the non-specialist.' Emeritus Professor D

Bockris, John O'M

2007-01-01

285

SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the co...

Balaure, Sofia-paulina; Filimon, Marioara Nicoleta; Ciudin, Larisa; Craciun, Maria-alexandra

2012-01-01

286

Savremene metode analize ulja u tehni?kim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analiza ulja na osnovu pravilno definisanog programa predstavlja veoma efikasan metod monitoringa stanja tehni?kih sistema koji obezbe?uje rane upozoravaju?e znake potencijalnih problema, koji vode ka otkazu i zastoju tehni?kih sistema. Ova analiza je veoma efikasan alat programa za monitoring stanja tehni?kih sistema. Mnogobrojni ure?aji i testovi za analizu ulja omogu?avaju kvalitetan monitoring i dijagnosticiranje problema koji nastaju u procesu podmazivanja. Koriš?enjem programa za analizu motornih ulja: skra?uje se neplanirano vreme otkaza vozila, poboljšava pouzdanost vozila, produžava radni vek motora, optimizira interval zamene ulja i smanjuju troškovi održavanja vozila. / Different technical systems require an appropriate lubricant to be used at an appropriate place, at appropriate time and in appropriate quantity. Determination of technical systems condition has a very important role in the development of theory and practice of friction, wear and lubrication. Lubricant is, as a contact element of tribomechanical systems, a carrier of information about the state of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. The analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, thus represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Introduction It is not always simple to determine a type of lubricant, frequency of lubrication and the quantity of lubricant to be used. The optimal recommendation would be to follow specifications of technical system manufacturers, experience, lab research or professional recommendation of lubricant suppliers. Rational lubricant consumption can be obtained by timely oil replacement, which then enables a maximum possible period of use as well as high-quality lubrication. Since the primary role of lubricants is to reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result of wear processes, solid particles from the environment, water and products of fuel combustion. D

Sreten R. Peri?

2010-01-01

287

American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility  

Science.gov (United States)

The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

daSilva, Arlindo

2009-01-01

288

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

289

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

1995-11-01

290

Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide with coated and uncoated spark-discharge soot aerosol particles was found to proceed via competitive adsorption of O3 and NO2, and the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene on soot particles was faster with O3 and NO2 than only with O3. Additional experiments and the development of a formal mechanistic description of the investigated processes are currently under way.

Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

291

Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

Odarno, Lily Ameley

292

The Hippocratic oath: a comparative analysis of the ancient text's relevance to American and Indian modern medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed. PMID:23032817

Jhala, Chandrakant I; Jhala, Khushboo N

2012-01-01

293

Analysis and design of plasma chemical reactions based on quantum chemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elementary processes in plasma chemical reactions were studied on the basis of an ab initio molecular orbital method. A pressure dependence of the film structure prepared by plasma CVD of vinylsilane was consistent with an excitation energy dependence of gas phase reactions of vinylsilane predicted by molecular orbital calculations. Anomalous electronic structures at the lowest excited triplet state of SiH3F and SiH2FCH=CH2 were predicted by a quantum chemical study. (orig.)

294

Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

295

Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, 32P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reanting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using 85Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of activity changes from records of changes of a digital counter and a timer which were continuously and photographically recorded, in spite of the fact that the residence time was only several seconds. The diffusion constant was then obtained from the concentration-time curve. (author)

296

Fuzzy clustering analysis of the first 10 MEIC chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss the classification results of the toxicological responses of 32 in vivo and in vitro test systems to the first 10 MEIC chemicals. In this order we have used different fuzzy clustering algorithms, namely hierarchical fuzzy clustering, hierarchical and horizontal fuzzy characteristics clustering and a new clustering technique, namely fuzzy hierarchical cross-classification. The characteristics clustering technique produces fuzzy partitions of the characteristics (chemicals) involved and thus it is a useful tool for studying the (dis)similarities between different chemicals and for essential chemicals selection. The cross-classification algorithm produces not only a fuzzy partition of the test systems analyzed, but also a fuzzy partition of the considered 10 MEIC (multicentre evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity) chemicals. In this way it is possible to identify which chemicals are responsible for the similarities or differences observed between different groups of test systems. In another way, there is a specific sensitivity of a chemical for one or more toxicological tests. PMID:10665388

Sârbu, C; Pop, H F

2000-03-01

297

Effect of enamel prism decussation and chemical composition on the biomechanical behavior of dental tissue: a theoretical approach to determine the loading conditions to which modern human teeth are adapted.  

Science.gov (United States)

This theoretical study explored whether the directions of loads to which modern human molars are commonly subjected to are reflected in the biomechanical behavior of the tissue itself. A detailed finite element model of a piece of decussating enamel (M(3) paracone) was created, taking into account differences in crystal orientation between the prism head and the interprismatic matrix, and was tested under differently angled mediolateral loads (i.e., mimicking various stages of the chewing cycle). Second, although teeth are highly mineralized, they also contain organic material and water, while in modern humans, there are systematic differences in chemical composition from the outer enamel surface to the dentinoenamel junction. To test the biomechanical effects of this gradient in mineralization a second set of models with gradually changing properties was created and subjected to the same loads. Chemically heterogeneous enamel yielded overall lower stress levels than homogenous enamel, especially at extreme loading angles. However, the general trends regarding the increase in tensile stresses at more oblique angles, and the number of nodes exhibiting tension, were comparable between the different set-ups. The findings support suggestions that (a) the biomechanical behavior of dental tissue is the combined result of micromorphology and chemical composition and (b) that the range of loading directions, to which teeth are normally subjected to, can be inferred from dental microanatomy. For (palaeo)biological applications, the findings suggest that the absolute strength of teeth (e.g., bite force) cannot be predicted with certainty, whereas kinematic parameters of the masticatory apparatus can. PMID:18085630

Shimizu, Daisuke; Macho, Gabriele A

2008-02-01

298

Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical me...

Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas; Catalina Bosch Ojeda

2006-01-01

299

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD  

OpenAIRE

It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100? and 1000?C) w...

Pedro Jose Sánchez-Soto; Antonio Ruíz-Conde; Eduardo Garzón Garzón

2012-01-01

300

SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

2012-01-01

301

Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

2013-01-01

302

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

303

Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 ?g g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 ?g g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

2012-11-01

304

Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing.  

OpenAIRE

Representative dilution tube sampling techniques for particulate and gas phase vehicle emissions are described using Teflon filter media and XAD-2 resin. More than 90% of the total gas (C8-C18) and particulate direct acting Ames assay mutagenicity (TA 98) was found in the particulate phase. The gas and particulate phase material was fractionated by HPLC into nonpolar, moderately polar and highly polar chemical fractions. The moderately polar chemical fraction of the particulates contained mor...

Schuetzle, D.

1983-01-01

305

Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Agaricus brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the chemical composition of A. blasiliensis and the chemical structural properties of an immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. The amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids by HPLC and fatty acids by GC were analyzed. The immuno-stimulating substance from A. blasiliensis was extracted with hot water and purified by ethanol precipitation. It underwent ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Toyopearl HW 65F. Through GP-HPLC, the substance was foun...

Cho, Soo-muk; Jang, Kab-yeul; Park, Hong Ju; Park, Jeong-sik

2008-01-01

306

Multivariate analysis of the first 10 MEIC chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonlinear mapping coupled to powerful graphical tools was used to compare the toxicological responses of 32 in vivo and in vitro test systems to the first 10 MEIC chemicals. The obtained results clearly underline the usefulness of our methodological approach for the comparison of the different endpoints and the selection of a battery of in vitro toxicity tests allowing to estimate the possible harmful effects of chemicals in vivo. PMID:8790647

Devillers, J; Domine, D; Bintein, S

1994-01-01

307

Analysis of chemical composition using prompt gamma ray neutron activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, an ion accelerator is used to produce a beam of deuterons that strikes the target to produce neutrons with 14 MeV energy. Elemental distribution are obtained by measuring gamma ray spectrum after the beam of 14 MeV neutrons pass through the chemical composition (Sugar, Urea etc.). The characteristic gamma rays emitted due to fast neutron interaction with the elements present in the chemical compositions are being used to determine the respective elemental densities or concentrations

308

Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with the use of electric fields for evaluation and control of chemical systems. An electric field can result in the flow of charge across an interface between a metal and a solution, by means of chemical reactions. This interplay between electricity and chemistry, i.e. electrochemistry, is a field of crucial importance both within research and industry. Applications based on electrochemical principles encompass such diverse areas as batteries and fuel cells, pH electrodes, a...

Ulrich, Christian

2008-01-01

309

The epistemology of modern finance  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern fina...

Scheemaekere, Xavier

2006-01-01

310

An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

2012-05-01

311

Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

Alina PROFIROIU

2010-10-01

312

International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

1996-01-01

313

Biologia química: uma estratégia moderna para a pesquisa em produtos naturais Chemical biology: a modern strategy for the natural products research  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview of the Natural Products Research in Brazil in the last five years (2002-2006), and also discusses how some relevant aspects of the Chemical Biology area could create new research opportunities and challenges for the natural product chemists. In addition, some aspects of the scientific policies and their impact on current projects are discussed.

Mônica Tallarico Pupo; Margareth Borges Coutinho Gallo; Paulo Cezar Vieira

2007-01-01

314

Modern Potentiometry**  

OpenAIRE

For most chemists, potentiometry with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) probably just means pH measurements with a glass electrode. Only those interested in clinical analysis might know that ISEs, routinely used for the determination of blood electrolytes, have a market size comparable to that of glass electrodes. It is even less known that potentiometry went through a silent revolution during the last decade. The lower detection limit and the discrimination of interfering ions (the selectivity...

Bakker, Eric; Pretsch, Erno?

2007-01-01

315

The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title se...

Grandjean Philippe; Eriksen Mette L; Ellegaard Ole; Wallin Johan A

2011-01-01

316

Chemical physics of decomposition of energetic materials. Problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review is concerned with analysis of the results obtained in the kinetic and mechanistic studies on decomposition of energetic materials (explosives, powders and solid propellants). It is shown that the state-of-the art in this field is inadequate to the potential of modern chemical kinetics and chemical physics. Unsolved problems are outlined and ways of their solution are proposed.

317

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Science.gov (United States)

For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 ?g g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 ?g g-1). Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba/Sr ranging from 0.1 to 3. This ratio varies on spatial and temporal scales and traces provenance signals as well as the fractionation of the elements in the hydrological cycle. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. The provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from about 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that with time, Ba mobility decreased relative to that of Sr. This can arise if preferential adsorption of Ba to clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide is related to increasing aridification. Additionally, weathering solutions and lake water can become increasingly alkaline and barite becomes stable. In this case, Ba will be preferentially deposited on the watershed of Lake Albert and rivers with low Ba/Sr will feed the habitats of the Hippopotamids.

Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

2012-03-01

318

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

319

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

Powell, C.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Surface and Microanalysis Science Division

1999-12-01

320

Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the quality of different brands of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC available in Bangladesh. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, insoluble residue (IR, free lime and loss on ignition (LOI were determined in accordance with British Standard (BS Specifications. All the results are presented to provide both quantitative and qualitative notion of several locally produced ordinary Compositions of most of this constituents as determined experimentally were within the range of the standard values. The possible reasons for variation in chemical compositions and their consequences have been discussed.

MS Ali

2008-12-01

321

Chemical shift and coupling constant analysis of dibenzyloxy disulfides  

Science.gov (United States)

Dialkoxy disulfides have found applications in the realm of organic synthesis as an S2 or alkoxy donor, under thermal and photolytic decompositions conditions, respectively. Spectrally, dibenzyloxy disulfides possess an ABq in the 1H NMR, which can shift by over 1.1 ppm depending on the substituents present on the aromatic ring, as well as the solvent employed. The effect of the said substituents and solvent were analyzed and compared to the center of the ABq, geminal coupling, and the differences in chemical shifts of the individual doublets. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations demonstrated the intramolecular H-bonding arrangement, found within the dibenzyloxy disulfides.

Stoutenburg, Eric G.; Gryn'ova, Ganna; Coote, Michelle L.; Priefer, Ronny

2015-02-01

322

Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas  

OpenAIRE

In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (Cl) technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The di...

March, Raymond E.; Lausevic, Mila D.; Vasiljevic, Tatjana M.

2000-01-01

323

Next Generation Wet Chemical Analysis Laboratory for Mars Sample Return and Human Hazard Evaluations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars chemical analysis lab builds on Phoenix WCL heritage and improvements in sensor and lab-on-a-chip technology. As part of a MER-class rover it can perform wet chemical analyses over a variety of geological surfaces and the mission lifetime.

Kounaves, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.; Bauer, J. M.; Hecht, M. H.; McElhoney, K. M.; O'Neil, G. D.; Quinn, R. C.

2012-06-01

324

Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper). PMID:17738182

Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

1968-10-01

325

Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

326

COST AND RISK ANALYSIS OF HEAT AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

An economic evaluation of newly developed methods for disinfesting empty grain storage bins by heat treatment will be a useful tool for decision-making by grain storage managers. The economic empirical model of heat treatment and chemical applications that was developed to evaluate these heat treatm...

327

Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

328

Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

329

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

330

Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

Noy, A

2006-01-02

331

Modern Ferrite Technology  

CERN Document Server

Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

Goldman, Alex

2006-01-01

332

Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

J. L. Jimenez

2009-12-01

333

Interlaboratory comparison of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) as a vegetation standard in chemical and radiochemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alfalfa (UST-1361) as a single SRM for use in chemical and radiochemical analysis of vegetation has been reported earlier, interest are shown in this paper. They were obtained in an interlaboratory comparison program currently in progress. Of the 22 split samples 15 have been acknowledged by the participants to test parameters of their interest. The chemical analysis is detailed and the procedures used are described

334

ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM  

OpenAIRE

An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

Kun Li; Shiyu Fu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucia, Lucian A.

2010-01-01

335

Powerful chemical technique. [CSIR uses new x-ray diffractometer for structural chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CSIR's National Chemical Research Laboratory (NCRL) is now using one of the most powerful techniques available to determine the structure of molecules. It has recently acquired a Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer. This powerful method provides the only means of determining the structure of certain compounds. NCRL scientists often carry out structure determinations to find out the relative or absolute stereochemistry of molecules. This is important when correlating physiological activity and structure, information which is necessary for synthesizing medicines with specific characteristics.

336

Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration  

CERN Document Server

Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

Rogers, David M

2009-01-01

337

Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put into effect, the final hurdle for industry adoption can only be made with the achievement of a financial return on investment. This study analyses the costs and benefits for implementing microwave systems and presents results for economic parameters used in cost calculations. The calculations method is outlined using a corrugated board case study. Furthermore in the age of green awakening microwave processing is argued to help improve process efficiency by using green electric supply hence reducing CO2 emissions.

A.M. Hasna

2011-01-01

338

Pathway analysis approach comparing health effects from chemical carcinogens/radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an improved method is developed for comparing the health effects from chemical carcinogens and radionuclides using pathway analysis techniques. Recent concerns of the health effects from chemical contaminants present at FUSRAP sites have indicated the need for evaluating their impact in addition to radionuclides. To properly evaluate the cleanup alternatives at a particular site it is necessary to investigate the chemical substances present, particularly carcinogenic substances, since they may influence the final cleanup guidelines more profoundly than the radionuclide contaminants. To illustrate this dual pathway analysis approach for comparing health effects, two radionuclides and two chemicals were chosen: 238U and 237Np as the radionuclides and arsenic and beryllium for the chemical contaminants. Neptunium-237 demonstrates particularly significant health effects from the internal dose. Arsenic and beryllium are two contaminants that are considered to be carcinogens through the inhalation pathway, while only arsenic is considered carcinogenic by ingestion

339

Modeling and analysis of uranium isotope enrichment by chemical exchange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical study of uranium isotopes separation by chemical exchange, starting with an accurate mathematical model, is presented. The experimental data used in this study were obtained by reverse break-through operation and the numerical algorithm, developed for simulation in a previous study, was adapted to be suitable for this kind of processes. The model parameters were identified from experimental data and simulations were carried out for different experimental conditions. (author)

340

Fluid dynamic analysis and modelling of industrial chemical equipment  

OpenAIRE

The research is aimed at contributing to the identification of reliable fully predictive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for the numerical simulation of equipment typically adopted in the chemical and process industries. The apparatuses selected for the investigation, specifically membrane modules, stirred vessels and fluidized beds, were characterized by a different and often complex fluid dynamic behaviour and in some cases the momentum transfer phenomena were coupled with mass t...

Coroneo, Mirella

2011-01-01

341

Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood  

OpenAIRE

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached...

Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, A. N. T.; Gosselink, R. J. A.; Westin, M.

2010-01-01

342

siRNA function in RNAi: A chemical modification analysis  

OpenAIRE

Various chemical modifications were created in short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to determine the biochemical properties required for RNA interference (RNAi). Remarkably, modifications at the 2?-position of pentose sugars in siRNAs showed the 2?-OHs were not required for RNAi, indicating that RNAi machinery does not require the 2?-OH for recognition of siRNAs and catalytic ribonuclease activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) does not involve the 2?-OH of guide antisense RNA....

Chiu, Ya-lin; Rana, Tariq M.

2003-01-01

343

Performance analysis of Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen chemical heat pump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The increase of temperature of endothermic reaction reduces performance of heat pump. ? The better the performance is, the larger the number of trays. ? COP focuses on the quantity of recovered heat. ? Exergy efficiency focuses on the quantity and quality of recovered heat. - Abstract: The performance of an Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen (IAH) chemical heat pump system is investigated in terms of enthalpy efficiency (COP) and exergy efficiency, in which the exothermic and endothermic reactions take place in the gas phase. The increase of reflux ratio, temperature of endothermic reaction and temperature of exothermic reaction reduces the performance of the heat pump when the other operating parameters remain unchanged. However, the performance of the IAH chemical heat pump improves with the increase of the ratio of molar quantity of hydrogen to that of acetone in the entry of exothermic reactor and the number of heat transfer units of regenerator. Generally, a better performance of the chemical heat pump corresponds to a larger number of trays in the distillation column. The performance of the system can be improved significantly after multi-parameter optimization design. The coefficient of performance (COP) pays more attention to the heat released from the exothermic reactor, while the exergy efficiency takes into consideration of both heat released from the exothermic reactor and temperature of exothermic reaction..

344

[The possibilities of modern automated clinical blood analysis in differentiated diagnostic of true and redistributing (functional) iron deficiency under anemic syndrome in oncologic patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical blood analysis implemented at modern hematological analyzers can be used as a foundation for primary differentiated diagnostic of anemic syndrome related to true and functional iron deficiency in oncologic patients. The normocyte normochromic anemia with normal and higher level of hemoglobin of reticulocytes (RET-HE) testifies presence in higher degree of anemia of chronic diseases which is more often combined with higher content of serum ferritin (Ferr), lower level of soluble receptors of ferritin (sTfR) and production of erythropoietin (EPO) inadequate to anemia degree. The microcyte hypochromic anemia can be present both under iron-deficient anemia and under functional iron deficiency as a result of its blocking in macrophages under anemia of chronic diseases in oncologic patients. Hence the differentiated diagnostic of these states demands additional analysis of content of serum ferritin, soluble receptors of ferritin and production of erythropoietin. PMID:25338459

Zubrikhina, G N; Blinder, V N; Matveyeva, I I

2014-05-01

345

Different Models Used to Interpret Chemical Changes: Analysis of a Curriculum and Its Impact on French Students' Reasoning  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an analysis of the new French curriculum on chemical changes describing the underlying models and highlighting their relations to the empirical level. The authors of the curriculum introduced a distinction between the chemical change of a chemical system and the chemical reactions that account for it. We specify the different roles of…

Kermen, Isabelle; Meheut, Martine

2009-01-01

346

Thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and crystal chemical characterization of phases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthetic rocks of different compositions have been prepared through melting in order to evaluate the technological potential of this process (in contrast with the favoured hot-pressing technique working well below solidus temperatures). Thermal analyses guiding the cooling process and the optimization of the texture of synthetic rocks have been performed as well as thermal gravimetry has been applied to control mass losses due to incongruent evaporation. The crystalline phases formed have been characterized crystal-chemically by means of X-ray diffraction. So far all synthetic rocks prepared through melting contain smaller amounts of glass. (orig.)

347

Electron spectroscopies for simultaneous chemical and electrical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrons are used as spectroscopic probes to determine elemental composition and chemistry, and are also useful as probes of the electrical properties of devices and materials. In this paper, four examples with incident and emitted electrons were used to evaluate the electrical and chemical properties of samples. These examples were the electrical conductivity of an Ag-epoxy composite, the electric field in an avalanche photodiode near breakdown, the mechanism of conductivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline films, and the charge at an oxide/semiconductor interface for high-k applications. This kind of work is very much in the spirit of the work done by Prof. Sefik Suzer.

348

Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering  

CERN Document Server

The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic relationship of the university to society.

Murtagh, Fionn

2008-01-01

349

Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering  

OpenAIRE

The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic rel...

Murtagh, Fionn

2008-01-01

350

Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater  

Science.gov (United States)

The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

2015-01-01

351

Cost and risk analysis of heat and chemical treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

An economic evaluation of newly developed methods for disinfesting empty grain storage bins by heat treatment will be a useful tool for decision-making by grain storage managers. An economic empirical model of heat treatment and chemical applications was developed using minimization of costs at a target risk level associated with the grain-damaging insects Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Risk was measured as a deviation below a target mortality goal (Target MOTAD). Insect mortality and air temperature during heat treatment were evaluated for empty storage bins with a full drying floor, along with a similar evaluation of insect mortality for two application rates of a contact pyrethroid insecticide, cyfluthrin 20% active ingredient (AI) wettable powder. A high-output propane heater (29 kW) had the lowest cost and risk level of all heating systems and produced 100% mortality in 2 h for the three insect species at all test locations. An electric duct-heater system (18 kW) also produced 100% mortality at all test locations after 40 h, but it had significantly higher costs. The other heating system configurations in the study had significantly higher risk levels of insect mortality, and the electric systems were not cost-effective. Both chemical rates had low costs and risk levels, with high mortality results. PMID:17461090

Tilley, D R; Langemeier, M R; Casada, M E; Arthur, F H

2007-04-01

352

Anthropology and Multiple Modernities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed to be unpacked and left behind. The debate was an essential part of a disciplininary reflexivity reconsidering anthropology’s epistemological and political roots in that very modernity. From the mid 1990s modernity was, somewhat surprisingly, reintroduced as a useful if not necessary conceptual tool, as the concept was pluralized into a variety of forms: multiple modernities, parallel modernities, manifold modernities, alternative modernities, competing modernities, reflexive modernities, early modernities, other modernities – the list still unfolding. By reviewing various attempts to conceptualise “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose better. This paper will tentatively argue that if anthropology wishes to embrace the concept of multiple modernities, it could profitably do so by taking more seriously the intellectual trajectory that paved the way for the idea of “multiple modernities”. This trajectory moves outside anthropology as a discipline, and has important roots in Max Weber’s comparative sociology, elaborated for example by Shmul Eisenstadt. If anthropology, as Arjun Appadurai argues in Modernity at Large, wishes to contribute to a new social theory of modernity, it would need to tackle the theoretical luggage that the modernity concept does carry with it, referring to social dynamics and problematics that are indeed not simply everywhere. This does not imply a return to ethno-centric notions of Western modernity. Quite the contrary: it implies recognising the various sources of these multiple modernities.

Thomassen, BjØrn

353

Emanation thermal analysis of natural and chemically-modified vermiculite.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 50, ?. 6 (2002), s. 791-798. ISSN 0009-8604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : DTA * emanation thermal analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.594, year: 2002

Poyato, J.; Pérez-Maqueda, L.A.; Justo, A.; Balek, Vladimír

2002-01-01

354

Variance-based sensitivity analysis for stochastic chemical kinetics  

OpenAIRE

Sensitivity analysis is a process of computing sensitivity indices, which are certain measures of importance of parameters in influencing the outputs of mathematical models. Sensitivity indices computed in variance-based sensitivity analysis yield quantitative answers to questions like how much on average the variance of model output, measuring its uncertainty, decreases, if exact values of certain unknown parameters are determined, e. g. in an experiment. We propose new sch...

Badowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

355

Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture.

Beeren, Sophie R.; Meier, Sebastian

2015-01-01

356

Using space syntax analysis in detecting privacy: a comparative study of traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract The aim of this paper is, firstly, to examine the parameters which have a role in achieving privacy in using the interior domestic spaces and to what extent it influences on the way of distribution of these spaces; secondly, to investigate the relationship between house layout morphology and the privacy of inhabitants.  In this paper, space syntax theory is used to examine the spatial morphology of both types (traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, in order to detect the level of privacy in their configurations, through an analytical comparative approach. After a sample of house layouts has been analyzed morphologically, it has been researched as to whether the house layout pattern affects the level of privacy and to what degree. The results shows that the traditional house layouts offer better design solutions in terms of privacy because it carries a higher value of (RRA with a higher tendency towards asymmetry structure comparing with modern house layouts. It is believed that the data that is collected will be valuable in the design process of the future house layouts at least in the city of Erbil.

FARIS ALI MUSTAFA

2010-07-01

357

Factors predicting survival in peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the USA: a population-based analysis of 8802 patients in the modern era.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current prognostic models for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) have multiple limitations, and questions exist regarding applicability to current patients. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-18 database to evaluate factors affecting overall survival (OS) of PTCL in the modern era and identified 8802 patients between 2000-2010. Most subtypes of PTCL increased in incidence during the study period. In univariate analyses, age >55 years, black race, advanced stage, absence of extra-nodal disease, omission of radiation therapy (RT) and high-risk histology each predicted inferior OS (P analysis (MVA) demonstrated that hepatosplenic, enteropathy-associated and extra-nodal Natural Killer/T cell histologies, each had hazard ratios >1·5 (P ? 0·0001) for death. Further, age ?55 years, black race and advanced stage maintained their significance in the MVA (P < 0·0001 each). Based on the significant factors, a prognostic model was constructed and subsequently validated in an independent cohort. The new model incorporated age, stage, histology and race, with an OS ranging from 9 months (highest risk group) to 120 months (lowest risk group). In summary, this is the largest study of PTCL patients in the modern era that provides risk stratification utilizing a new prognostic model that can be incorporated into future prospective clinical trials. PMID:25382108

Petrich, Adam M; Helenowski, Irene B; Bryan, Locke J; Rozell, Shaina A; Galamaga, Robert; Nabhan, Chadi

2015-03-01

358

Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: Barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

2015-06-01

359

Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

2012-11-01

360

Tribological analysis on powder slurry in chemical mechanical polishing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a key technique for wafer global planarization. Many studies have been conducted in recent years to analyse the slurry flow between a pad and a wafer due to its importance in CMP processing. In these studies, however, the grains in the slurry were not considered. Thus this investigation uses a grain flow model to analyse the slurry flow between wafer and pad. The proposed model predicts the film thickness of the slurry flow with various convex wafer curvature radius under a variety of the CMP parameters including load, rotation speed and grain size. The theoretical results compare well with experimental data in the literature. This study elucidates grain flow during CMP processing and further contributes to understanding of the CMP mechanism. (author)

361

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.)

362

Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of solid oxide cells (SOCs) is highly dependent on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). Therefore, detailed TPB characterization is crucial for their further development. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare a similar to 50 nm thick transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical composition of nanoscale impurity phases at the TPBs has been obtained with a few nanometers lateral resolution. (c) 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.

2008-01-01

363

Time Resolved Photometric and Spectroscopic Analysis of Chemically Peculiar Stars  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present the report on the ``Nainital-Cape survey'' research project aiming to search for and study the pulsational variability of main-sequence chemically peculiar (CP) stars. For this study, the time-series photometric observations of the sample stars were carried out at the 1.04 m ARIES telescope (India), while the high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out at the the 6.0 m Russian telescope. Under this project, we have recently found clear evidence of photometric variability in the Am star HD 73045, which is likely to be pulsating in nature with a period of about 36 min, hence adding a new member to the family of the ? Scuti pulsating variables that have peculiar abundances.

Joshi, Santosh; Joshi, Gireesh C.; Joshi, Y. C.; Aggrawal, Rahul

2015-01-01

364

Chemical effects in materials studies using Auger analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core-valence-valence Auger spectra (AES) afford a unique local view of valence electron structure. The direct involvement in the Auger process of both core and valence states means that the transition matrix element will have a large value only for that portion of the valence electron density which covers the same spatial extent as the core wave function. Thus, the information content of AES is local to the atomic site containing the initial core hole. Our approach in understanding the local information content of AES has been mainly experimental through the intercomparison of model systems, both molecular and solid. The use of molecules in this regard is particularly useful since the vast array of molecular species of known geometric and electronic structures allows one to both vary these properties in a systematic fashion to observe trends and to choose a molecule to probe a specific chemical question

365

Modernization, globalization and the welfare state: a comparative analysis of old and new convergence of social insurance since 1930.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergence of policies and institutions across countries has been a recurrent theme within social sciences. 'Old' and 'new' convergence hypotheses have been associated with changing concepts and catchwords, such as modernization, logic of industrialism, post-industrialism, post-Fordism and globalization, but share some underlying theoretical perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to analyse tendencies towards convergence of social insurance systems in 18 OECD countries between 1930 and 1990, a period which has seen our sample of countries develop from predominantly agricultural societies to industrial or post-industrial market democracies. Data from the Social Citizenship Indicator Program (SCIP) are used to examine the development of institutional variables within the various national social insurance systems. Sub-samples of larger and smaller countries are examined separately, in order to test the open-economy hypothesis that smaller countries, being more exposed to international pressures than larger ones, could be expected to show higher degrees of social protection and also more convergence. Hypotheses on differentiated institutional barriers against pressures from the processes of transnationalization of the economy, as well as possible convergence effects of the supra-national policy making within the European Union, are discussed in the last section. PMID:11578005

Montanari, I

2001-09-01

366

ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT FLOW IN THE IMPELLER OF A CHEMICAL PUMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the phenomena of two-phase flow with salt crystallising in the chemical pump, the 3-D turbulent flow in the impeller of chemical pump was simulated at the condition of rinsing. The internal flow between the impellers of 1H65 chemical pump is investigated. Based on the Reynolds-averaging N-S equations and the standard k-? two equations turbulent model, the simulations of turbulent flow between the impellers are performed using the flow computing software Fluent under different operating conditions. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data by particle image velocimetery (PIV. Based on the analysis of the calculated results of velocity and pressure profiles in the chemical pump and experimentally observed phenomenon of flow impact, secondary flow and recirculation, some design improvements are proposed, which give suggestions on the optimal design and internal two-phase flow study of the chemical pump.

MIN-GUAN YANG

2007-12-01

367

Modernism / Andrus Kallastu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

2003-01-01

368

Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility

369

Modern Apprenticeships: A Regional Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of Modern Apprenticeships (n=2,222) in Devon and Cornwall was conducted in four industries: engineering manufacturing, hospitality, construction, and agriculture. Apprenticeship appeared to be a feasible vocational alternative to full-time education, attracting high-quality students. Trainers and career counselors played a crucial role in…

Churchill, Sue

1997-01-01

370

Synthesis and analysis in studies of chemical evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of the various processes that may have given rise to life on the Earth have demonstrated the appropriateness of an approach that makes use of analysis and synthesis. Analysis of extraterrestrial samples in the form of meteorites has demonstrated the presence of several precursors of biomolecules, most notably a full suite of nucleic acid bases and nucleotides of biological significance. These species were determined after exhaustive extraction of the sample and subsequent analysis using HPLC, GC, MS, and GC-MS. Procedural blanks indicate that these molecules are likely not the result of contamination during the extraction and analysis process. Similar species were found as products of spark discharge experiments in atmospheres thought to mimic primitive Earth conditions. These results indicate that the basic chemistry underlying these syntheses is common, and that life may not be unique to the Earth. Studies underway in the laboratory make use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a probe to assess associations between selected amino acids and any of several nucleotides comprising their genetic code and genetic anticode sequences. These studies demonstrate a clear selectivity by the anticode sequences, thus confirming the hydrophobicity studies performed by Lacey et al. These studies further support the contention that life is likely a natural result of the physics and chemistry of the universe.

Ponnamperuma, C.; Hobish, M. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Hua, L. L.; Senaratne, N.

1986-01-01

371

PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands

2010-07-01

372

Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

373

Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. Ihat this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This feature is available for PC Windows users and provides simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) features. The productivity gains for both new, and experienced users from this userfriendly interface will be enormous, and the increased user productivity will pay back the developmental costs. RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 has been moderized and restructured in order to enhance the code portability, maintenance capability, readability, and flexibility. User convenience for PC Windows users has been realized by the on-line graphical processing through Windows programming. It should be noted that the code strcuture was fully domesticated, and future improvements could be easily carried out with the restructured version of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2

374

Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

Weber, P; Holt, J

2008-07-28

375

Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose e "light" (com redução de açúcares e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars and light (low sugar and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas Eduardo

2004-09-01

376

Achocolatados: análise química / Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredient [...] es lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais. Abstract in english Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and [...] whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas, Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

2004-09-01

377

Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTIT-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bosco, F. G.; Bache, M.

2012-01-01

378

Trace chemical analysis and molecular dynamics utilising ultraintense femtosecond lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis is presented for the award of a Ph.D in laser and chemical physics. The principal doctrine of the work seeks to investigate the dynamical response of a variety of small molecules (CS2, CO2, N2O, CH3I, etc.) in an intense (typically 1016 W cm-2) femtosecond (10-15 s) linearly polarised laser pulse. The resulting ions are detected in a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The polarisation vector of the laser light is rotated with respect to the TOF spectrometer axis and the ion yield measured. In this way the preferred direction of ejection of fragment ions can be determined and the mechanisms responsible can be deduced. The other experimental investigation concerns using short-pulse (femtosecond duration) intense laser pulses to sensitively and unambiguously detect molecules of interest (dangerous and environmentally sensitive species). By increasing both the intensity and reducing the duration of the laser light the method, termed femtosecond laser mass spectrometry (FLMS), is shown to be a universal and powerful analytical tool. The sensitivity is achieved via complete ionisation of all species within the ionisation region of the laser pulse and unambiguous identification is achieved via rapid by-passing of dissociative states of the parent species. (author)

379

Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specifia negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

380

Modular approach to analysis of chemically recuperated gas turbine cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current research programmes such as the CAGT programme investigate the opportunity for advanced power generation cycles based on state-of-the-art aeroderivative gas turbine technology. Such cycles would be primarily aimed at intermediate duty applications. Compared to industrial gas turbines, aeroderivatives offer high simple cycle efficiency, and the capability to start quickly and frequently without a significant maintenance cost penalty. A key element for high system performance is the development of improved heat recovery systems, leading to advanced cycles such as the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle, the chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT) cycle and the Kalina combined cycle. When used in combination with advanced technologies and components, screening studies conducted by research programmes such as the CAGT programme predict that such advanced cycles could theoretically lead to net cycle efficiencies exceeding 60%. In this paper, the authors present the application of the modular approach to cycle simulation and performance predictions of CRGT cycles. The paper first presents the modular simulation code concept and the main characteristics of CRGT cycles. The paper next discusses the development of the methane-steam reformer unit model used for the simulations. The modular code is then used to compute performance characteristics of a simple CRGT cycle and a reheat CRGT cycle, both based on the General Electric LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbine. (author)

Carcasci, C.; Facchini, B. [University of Florence, `Sergio Stecco` (Italy). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Harvey, S. [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Goeteberg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology

1998-12-31

381

Chemical sample preparation during analysis of rare metal industry materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ways of the sample break-down by mineral acids, hydrogen peroxide or their mixtures, by melting with lithium metaborate, potassium pyrosulphate, using the complexing agents with an aid of analytical autoclaves, are generalized. The means of the break-down of objects, containing rare elements for subseguent studies using the methods of atomic adsorption spectroscopy, inductance binding plasma, X-ray fluorescence analysis, are reduced in a table

382

Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation

383

Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: Review of Toxicological Mechanisms Using Molecular Pathway Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine disruptors are known to cause harmful effects to human through various exposure routes. These chemicals mainly appear to interfere with the endocrine or hormone systems. As importantly, numerous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of endocrine disruptors can induce fatal disorders including obesity and cancer. Using diverse biological tools, the potential molecular mechanisms related with these diseases by exposure of endocrine disruptors. Recently, pathway analysis, a bioinformatics tool, is being widely used to predict the potential mechanism or biological network of certain chemicals. In this review, we initially summarize the major molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of the above mentioned diseases by endocrine disruptors. Additionally, we provide the potential markers and signaling mechanisms discovered via pathway analysis under exposure to representative endocrine disruptors, bisphenol, diethylhexylphthalate, and nonylphenol. The review emphasizes the importance of pathway analysis using bioinformatics to finding the specific mechanisms of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors.

Yang, Oneyeol; Kim, Hye Lim; Weon, Jong-Il; Seo, Young Rok

2015-01-01

384

Modern Russia: modernization vs shadow economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modernization of Russian is one of the most popular and actual topics of recent domestic investigations. A lot of measures are taken for the perfection and stimulating the efficiency of the macroeconomic system (production – distribution – exchange – consumption, different programs of the devel-opment of all spheres of social, political and economical life up to 2020 are approved. However, meas-ures of the state support and encouragement of modernization frequently do not give a proper effect. Sometimes it happens due to the enormous size of the Russian shadow economy. This article is devoted to the question of the influence of shadow processes on the realization of the state policy in the sphere of modernization of the Russian economy. Moreover, the author focuses on the investiga-tion of modernization on each stage of the reproduction process inside the shadow sector. The main question of the paper is: does shadow economy affect the improvement of the economic sphere?

Morozova Daria Vasilievna

2011-12-01

385

Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 1: Summary and mission analysis (tasks 2 and 4)  

Science.gov (United States)

The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.

Bloetscher, F.

1975-01-01

386

Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data. PMID:25647718

Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-03-01

387

?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

388

Computational analysis of modern HTGR fuel performance and fission product release during the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • HFR-EU1 irradiation test demonstrates high quality of HTGR spherical fuel elements. • Irradiation performance is in good agreement with German fuel performance modeling. • International benchmark exercise expected first particle to fail at ?13–17% FIMA. • EOL silver release is predicted to be in the percentage range. • EOL cesium and strontium are expected to remain at a low level. - Abstract: Various countries engaged in the development and fabrication of modern HTGR fuel have initiated activities of modeling the fuel and fission product release behavior with the aim of predicting the fuel performance under HTGR operating and accident conditions. Verification and validation studies are conducted by code-to-code benchmarking and code-to-experiment comparisons as part of international exercises. The methodology developed in Germany since the 1980s represents valuable and efficient tools to describe fission product release from spherical fuel elements and TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given conditions. Continued application to new results of irradiation and accident simulation testing demonstrates the appropriateness of the models in terms of a conservative estimation of the source term as part of interactions with HTGR licensing authorities. Within the European irradiation testing program for HTGR fuel and as part of the former EU RAPHAEL project, the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment explores the potential for high performance of the presently existing German and newly produced Chinese fuel spheres under defined conditions up to high burnups. The fuel irradiation was completed in 2010. Test samples are prepared for further postirradiation examinations (PIE) including heatup simulation testing in the KÜFA-II furnace at the JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe, to be conducted within the on-going ARCHER Project of the European Commission. The paper will describe the application of the German computer models to the HFR-EU1 irradiation test and compare within the preliminary experimental results as well as with previously conducted, true predictive calculations. Furthermore, results will be compared with the German code development STACY that extends the earlier codes toward new features

389

Computational analysis of modern HTGR fuel performance and fission product release during the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • HFR-EU1 irradiation test demonstrates high quality of HTGR spherical fuel elements. • Irradiation performance is in good agreement with German fuel performance modeling. • International benchmark exercise expected first particle to fail at ?13–17% FIMA. • EOL silver release is predicted to be in the percentage range. • EOL cesium and strontium are expected to remain at a low level. - Abstract: Various countries engaged in the development and fabrication of modern HTGR fuel have initiated activities of modeling the fuel and fission product release behavior with the aim of predicting the fuel performance under HTGR operating and accident conditions. Verification and validation studies are conducted by code-to-code benchmarking and code-to-experiment comparisons as part of international exercises. The methodology developed in Germany since the 1980s represents valuable and efficient tools to describe fission product release from spherical fuel elements and TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given conditions. Continued application to new results of irradiation and accident simulation testing demonstrates the appropriateness of the models in terms of a conservative estimation of the source term as part of interactions with HTGR licensing authorities. Within the European irradiation testing program for HTGR fuel and as part of the former EU RAPHAEL project, the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment explores the potential for high performance of the presently existing German and newly produced Chinese fuel spheres under defined conditions up to high burnups. The fuel irradiation was completed in 2010. Test samples are prepared for further postirradiation examinations (PIE) including heatup simulation testing in the KÜFA-II furnace at the JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe, to be conducted within the on-going ARCHER Project of the European Commission. The paper will describe the application of the German computer models to the HFR-EU1 irradiation test and compare within the preliminary experimental results as well as with previously conducted, true predictive calculations. Furthermore, results will be compared with the German code development STACY that extends the earlier codes toward new features.

Verfondern, Karl, E-mail: k.verfondern@fz-juelich.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Xhonneux, André, E-mail: xhonneux@lrst.rwth-aachen.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nabielek, Heinz, E-mail: heinznabielek@me.com [Research Center Jülich, Monschauerstrasse 61, 52355 Düren (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef, E-mail: h.j.allelein@fz-juelich.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Chair for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

2014-07-01

390

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

391

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN BRUSSELATOR CHEMICAL DYNAMICS SYSTEM USING HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brusselator equations, originally studied as a model for chemical dynamics, exhibit a wide range of behavior. In this paper, a powerful analytical method, called Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve the system of nonlinear differential equations. Furthermore, in this work the numerical simulation of the problem is also reported using Scilab/Matlab program. Our analytical results are compared with simulation results. A good agreement between analytical and numerical results is noted.Keywords: Chemical dynamics; Mathematical modeling; Brusselator equation; Non-linear reaction- diffusion equation; Homotopy analysis method.

A. Jayalakshmi

2013-06-01

392

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

2000-08-01

393

ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM. The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for the first time from using LM and CLSM that banana stems possess a structure involving helicoidal fibers separated by barrier films.

Kun Li

2010-05-01

394

Estimation of ultra-shallow implants using SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation methods for ultra-shallow implants (boron and arsenic) were investigated. SIMS analysis enables accurate junction depth estimation for ultra-shallow junctions, when concentration and depth calibration methods using bulk-doped samples and multi-delta-structure samples are used together. Even with this advanced SIMS measurement, accurate implant doses cannot be estimated for ultra-shallow implants. NRA and chemical analyses have been developed for accurate measurements of boron and arsenic doses, respectively. Using three analytical methods (SIMS, NRA and chemical analysis), junction depths and implant doses can be estimated accurately and precisely

395

Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices. PMID:24682160

Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

2014-06-01

396

GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

2007-11-01

397

Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

Mityagin A. Yu.

2009-02-01

398

Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)  

Science.gov (United States)

This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice package overall, although I might personally prefer a chapter on environmental chemometrics as well. Most of the major instrumental methods actively employed in environmental analysis are treated either in the theoretical chapters or in the later application chapters. These include introductions to UV­vis, FTIR, SFC, HPLC, IC (but not CE), GC, GC­MS, ISEs, anodic stripping, FAA, GFAA, XRF, ICP, ICP­MS, and even two pages on the basics of immunoassays. Although this text provides an update of the earlier book, its greatest failing is a particular strength of the first text: it fails to provide any detailed references within the text, relying on an average of five generic "suggested readings" at the end of each chapter. Even tables such as "Some US drinking water quality standards" give no references, setting a bad example for students who have to write research papers of their own. As it also does not provide the detailed procedures or fine-quality figures that were available in the earlier text, it is not worth as much as a reference book or for library acquisitions. In the first book the detailed procedures served as a "lab manual within the text" and this increased its pedagogic value tremendously. Still, this text does make use of generalized procedures to step through many of the standard methods encountered by practicing environmental scientists, and the tables are in most cases superior to those in similar texts, lacking only the references to make them as useful as they might be. A second weakness of note comes from the organization. Having two different parts of the book covering material that relates to each of the instrumental methods means that it is not always clear where the reader should go to find information that relates to a particular method. For example, specifics on sampling equipment for water and soils appear in the chapter on sampling, but for air they appear in the applications section. Similarly, the sample preparation chapter would make more logical sense if it appe

Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

1999-11-01

399

Chemical characterization of graphite by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear and commercial grade graphite samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using high flux reactor neutrons. Eleven elements (Na, K, As, Sc, Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, La, Ce, and Sm) were determined in eight samples of graphite (two nuclear grade and six commercial grade) by irradiating at a neutron flux of 3 x 1013 cm-2 s-1 in CIRUS reactor and assaying the activity by high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry using 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an MCA. Concentrations of elements were determined by relative method of INAA. Results of both types of graphites as well as detection limits achieved by INAA method are discussed in the paper. (author)

400

Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

401

Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics  

CERN Document Server

With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

Helrich, Carl S

2009-01-01

402

First GIS Analysis of Modern Stone Tools Used by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

2015-01-01

403

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

Rodgers, A.L.

1985-01-01

404

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

405

Chemical analysis and antioxidant properties of foxtail millet bran extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to extract phenolic compounds and assess the antioxidant potential of defatted foxtailmillet bran (DFMB extracts. Distilled water, 30%, 50%, and 70% ethanol were used as solvent for extraction. The proximatecomposition, fatty acid analysis, total phenolic content and extraction yield were carried out. The antioxidant efficacies ofDFMB extract were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS, superoxide radical and reducing power. The highest inhibitory concentration (IC50 values scavenging on DPPH,ABTS and superoxide radicals were in the range of 0.131±0.002, 0.795±0.003, and 0.158±0.009 mg/ml, for distilled water, and 30and 50% ethanol extracts respectively. The reducing power increased with increase of sample concentration. Total phenoliccontent ranged from 21.49±3.26 to 29.39±1.36 gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g extract. The phenolic content and antioxidantactivity in DFMB extracts were significantly correlated (p<0.05. These results indicated that 50% ethanol extract fromDFMB appeared to be the most promoting phenolic compound with substantial antioxidant activity.

Guo-Wei Le

2011-10-01

406

Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

Tidjani Amza

2010-07-01

407

Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

408

Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis based on the number of publications and cited references  

OpenAIRE

Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique - segmented regression analysis - which can identify specific segments ...

Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Ruediger

2014-01-01

409

Investigation of the use of ICT in the modernization of the health care sector : a comparative analysis  

OpenAIRE

This Ph.D project started from a broad analysis aiming at investigating the key issues in the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the health care sector, with the aim of making an in depth investigation to evaluate the effects of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementation on the organizations adopting them. Furthermore the study examined two study settings which have adopted the same EMR system produced by the same provider. This comparative study aims, in p...

Cucciniello, Maria

2011-01-01

410

Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

2006-10-01

411

SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation. PMID:18093731

Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

2008-06-15

412

Chemometric analysis with near-infrared spectroscopy for chemically pretreated Erianthus toward efficient bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report the combination of a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method with multivariate analysis in order to develop a calibration model of the saccharification ratio of chemically pretreated Erianthus. The regression models clearly depend on the NIR spectral regions, and the information of CH and aromatic framework vibrations contributed most effectively to the alkaline dataset. From interpretations of the regression coefficient, lignin and cellulose were negatively and positively correlated with the saccharification ratio, respectively, and this result was supported by the data from wet chemical analysis. A more complex dataset was obtained from varied chemical pretreatments; here, the saccharification ratio was either small or had no linear correlation with each structural monocomponent. These results enabled the successful construction of the PLS regression model. NIR spectroscopy can be a rapid screening method for the saccharification ratio, and furthermore, can provide information of the key factors influencing the realization of more efficient enzymatic accessibility. PMID:22127809

Horikawa, Yoshiki; Imai, Tomoya; Takada, Rie; Watanabe, Takashi; Takabe, Keiji; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Junji

2012-02-01

413

Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas studied during the period of the contract included determinations of cross sections for nuclear reactions, determination of neutron capture cross sections of radionuclides, application of special activation techniques, and x-ray counting, elucidation of synergic solvent extraction mechanisms and development of new solvent extraction techniques, and the development of a PIXE analytical facility. The thermal neutron capture cross section of 22Na was determined, and cross sections and energy levels were determined for 20Ne(n,?)17O, 20Ne(n,P)20F, and 40Ar(n,?)37S. Inelastic scattering with 2 to 3 MeV neutrons followed by counting of the metastable states permits analysis of the following elements: In, Sr, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Bromine can be detected in the presence of a 500-fold excess of Na and/or K by thermal neutron activation and x-ray counting, and as little as 0.3 x 10-9 g of Hg can be detected by this technique. Mediun energy neutrons (10 to 160 MeV) have been used to determine Tl, Pb, and Bi by (n,Xn) and (n,PXn) reactions. The reaction 19F(P,?)76O has been used to determine as little as 50 ?mol of Freon -14. Mechanisms for synergic solvent extractions have been elucidated and a new technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction has been developed in which the neutral complex is rapidly extracted propylene carbonate by raising and lowering the temperature of the system. An external-beam PIXE system has been developed for trace element analyses of a variety of sample types. Various sample preparation techniques have been applied to a diverse range of samples including marine sediment, coral, coal, and blood

414

Development of chemical analysis technique in nuclear fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution coefficients of some rare earth elements, Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy, between cation exchange resin and hydroxyisobulyric acid were determined. Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy in magnesium diuranate samples were separated chromatographically and found to be existing by on amount of 0.36, 0.18, 0.73 and 0.40ug/g of sample by fluorimetry. An apparatus and procedure for electroplating actinide elements was made and established. Percentage recoveries of the electrodeposition were 98.3% with +-0.7% reproducibility. By this method and alpha spectrometry, we obtained the atom ratio of U-238 and U-234 for a natural uranium sample of Korean originality (Kwe-San, Choong-Buk) as 1:6.1x10sup(-5). For a neutron-irradiated uranium sample electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry resulted in 2.39g/1, 0.620mg/1 and 1.24ug/1 for the concentration of U-238, Pu-239 and Am-241, respectively. Gamma ray emitters in the irradiated sample were determined by gamma spectrometry. After Pu and Np in the sample were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by TTA extraction each followed by alpha spectrometry, it was found that Pu-239 concentrations were 0.60 and 0.55mg/1 by each method. Isotope dilution analysis accompanied by ion exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry of the irradiated sample in purpose of U, Pu and Nd determination reveable U-238 concentration to be 2.48g/1. (Author)

415

Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge  

OpenAIRE

Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals.

Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M.

2013-01-01

416

FAST ANALYSIS OF BEVERAGES USING A MASS SPECTRAL BASED CHEMICAL SENSOR  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of adulteration, contamination or inconsistencies in food and flavor samples should be accurate and fast. Chemical sensors are ideal for these types of applications because they provide fast measurement times (2-6 minutes). While analysis times are crucial, accuracy and precision of the ...

417

MUTAGENICITY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the use of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay to perform bioassay-directed chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires in both a small laboratory study using tires cut into two sizes (CHUNK and SHRED) and a field study of the larg...

418

Thermal analysis, correlation between physical and chemical properties of humic acids.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 71-83 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - (Chemistry Research and Applications) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : humic acids * thermal analysis * physical and chemical properties Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

Ku?erík, J.; Novák, František; Madronová, L.; Novák, J.

419

New results from assessment of chosen microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of groundwater by factor analysis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ostrava : VŠB Ostrava, 2003, s. 389-395. ISBN 80-248-0248-1. [International conference : Ore processing and environment. Ostrava (CZ), 26.06.2003-28.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3060102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : groundwater * chemical , microbiological and physical qualities * factor analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

?ur?ová, Libuše; Tungli, L.

420

A Chemical Instrumentation Game for Teaching Critical Thinking and Information Literacy in Instrumental Analysis Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

A simulation game is used to teach students in instrumental analysis courses to find the latest developments in the field, use the journal literature, and apply critical thinking to determine the relative importance of the work they find. They also learn about the business of chemical instruments and to make oral presentations. The competitive…

Henderson, David E.

2010-01-01