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Sample records for modern chemical analysis

  1. Modern spectro-chemical methods of analysis for environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of metal ions is a major requirement in environmental analysis. The toxicity to the ecosystem is generally through the use of these materials in industry. Among the metals, the so-called heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and chromium are especially important in view of their toxicity, even at very low concentration levels. Hence their analysis is needed at various concentration levels. This article gives an overview of the spectro-analytical techniques, employed in environmental analysis

  2. Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic method of dietary analysis has been extended by using both the organic and inorganic phases of bone with equally good results. Using the reported technique with the inorganic phase, which is more stable in fossil material, dietary analysis of bone over 10,000 years old has been found possible. (U.K.)

  3. Modern Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

  4. Modern power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xi-Fan; Irving, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The capability of effectively analyzing complex systems is fundamental to the operation, management and planning of power systems. This book offers broad coverage of essential power system concepts and features a complete and in-depth account of all the latest developments, including Power Flow Analysis in Market Environment; Power Flow Calculation of AC/DC Interconnected Systems and Power Flow Control and Calculation for Systems Having FACTS Devices and recent results in system stability.

  5. An introduction to modern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Montesinos, Vicente; Zizler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Examining the basic principles in real analysis and their applications, this text provides a self-contained resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It contains independent chapters aimed at various fields of application, enhanced by highly advanced graphics and results explained and supplemented with practical and theoretical exercises. The presentation of the book is meant to provide natural connections to classical fields of applications such as Fourier analysis or statistics. However, the book also covers modern areas of research, including new and seminal results in the area of functional analysis.

  6. Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  7. XIII symposium. Modern chemical physics. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the thirteenth symposium on modern chemical physics are presented. They represent different directions of development of this field of knowledge, such as synthesis, structure, properties of metal-polymer compositions, radiation-chemical investigations in nanotechnology, problems of supercritical chemistry, calculations of kinetic parameters of catalytic systems

  8. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

  9. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

  10. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  11. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

  12. Probabilistic analysis of modernization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on benefit-cost analysis for hydropower operations, a standard procedure for reaching planning decisions. Cost overruns and benefit shortfalls are also common occurrences. One reason for the difficulty of predicting future benefits and costs is that they usually cannot be represented with sufficient reliability by accurate values, because of the many uncertainties that enter the analysis through assumptions on inputs and system parameters. Therefore, ranges of variables need to be analyzed instead of single values. As a consequence, the decision criteria, such as net benefit and benefit-cost ratio, also vary over some range. A probabilistic approach will be demonstrated as a tool for assessing the reliability of the results

  13. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical par...

  14. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  15. Fundamental concepts in modern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, VL

    1999-01-01

    Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view but also occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics a

  16. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse te?hnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse te?hno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  17. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  18. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens; Lundin, Magnus; Pind, Niels; Selin Lindgren, Eva; Wahnström, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the am...

  19. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  20. Modern immunoassays in meat-product analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukal, L

    1991-01-01

    The increased regulation of foodstuffs in modern society requires analytical methods which are easy to perform, sensitive, specific and relatively inexpensive. The basic antigen-antibody reaction provides means for very specific analytical procedures. Immunoassays are powerful analytical tools that permit the specific and rapid detection or measurement of antigens and haptens to which antibodies can be produced. Sensitive recognition of the interaction is made possible by labelling the analyte or antibody, mainly with radioisotope (RIA) and enzyme (ELISA). Wide applications of these modern immunoassays to food analysis began about 1980. The paper reviews investigations, where various types of RIA and ELISA were developed for the use in meat product analysis. Detection and determination of various meat species, non-meat proteins, microorganisms and bacterial toxins, drugs, anabolic hormones, pesticides, mycotoxins, and other contaminants in meat and meat products by the means of immunoassays is described. Now, the commercial kits are available for most of these compounds. They make possible to perform analysis in different laboratories under standard conditions. The reason of an enthusiasmic acceptance of this technology is related to its inherent specificity, high sensitivity, and the facility of application. In fact, immunoassays compete with other analytical technics. They have the advantage of economy when screening large numbers of samples. PMID:1922273

  1. Modern procedures for chemical cleaning of corroded carbon steel equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonski, Ileana-Hania; Spiridon, Stefania-Floriana; Robu, Maria; Doman, Carmen; Tudorache, Mariana; Bobu, Mihaela; Mateescu, Emilian; Schneider, Frank

    2000-02-01

    Modern procedures have been elaborated taking into account the laboratory findings and developments of the past two decades concerning the factors increasing the solubility of iron oxides in the cleaning agent and conditioning improving the characteristics of the protective layer, both having in mind the present state of corrosion in romanian power energetic plants. The basic reagent formulae consists in citric acid, hydro-chloric acid, ferrous sulfate as dissolution activator and a corrosion inhibitor, operating at T 80-85 degrees C. The removal of thick corrosion deposits is achieved in a basic step-by-step procedure, the number of steps depending on the layer thickness and on the degree of damage of the underlying base metal. After chemical cleaning, a passive magnetic film will be formed under special conditioning of water with long-chained amines.

  2. Chemical Analysis as Dematerialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Laszlo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis is envisaged as an exemplar of laboratory work. Matter, held at a distance within the probe of instruments, is converted there into electronic signals. Matter serves only as prime material for information production. Chemical analysis converts instrumentalized readings into informational statements. Major chemical thinkers (Auguste Laurent, Justus von Liebig, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and others made this conceptual revolution. In mid-nineteenth century, they built a daring theory of radicals. Since that time, molecular chemistry became a combinatorial art and science of radicals. These, groups of atoms with only at first fictional existence, are analogous to phonemes in speech production.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  4. Chemical analysis experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

  5. Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

  6. Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Gangurde

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analy...

  7. An Analysis of Historical Influences of Modern Chinese Overseas Students in Japan on Education Modernization in Zhili Province

    OpenAIRE

    Guofu Fan

    2012-01-01

    This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chin...

  8. Application of modern time series analysis to high stability oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, B. F.; Mattison, W. M.; Vessot, R. F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of modern time series analysis useful for investigating the characteristics of high-stability oscillators and identifying systematic perturbations are discussed with reference to an experiment in which the frequencies of superconducting cavity-stabilized oscillators and hydrogen masers were compared. The techniques examined include transformation to stationarity, autocorrelation and cross-correlation, superresolution, and transfer function determination.

  9. Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system

  10. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Shibi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%, tin (8.5% and mercury (3.1%. FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the crystalline phases, chemical nature and crystalline dimensions of the sample. The average crystalline size calculated using Debye-Scherrer equation corresponding to different diffraction planes is 37.277 nm. Measurements by DLS technique and SEM analyses were also carried out. The study highlights the appropriate application of modern scientific methods for developing new insights into metal based siddha drugs.

  12. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Slobodan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

  14. Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sirenko, Yuriy K

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

  15. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  16. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  17. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    P?aczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  18. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  19. Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

  20. Modern trends in activation analysis. Vol. 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two volumes contain 164 special papers presented at the international conference on activation analysis, including five plenary lectures which give a general survey of modern trends and possibilities of applications in fields where activation analysis is capable of solving problems which are hitherto unsolved. The emphasis during this meeting is put on applications, though other subjects (e.g. sampling, homogeneity of samples, instrumental development, computer evaluation of gamma spectra, comparisons with other analytical methods) are also dealt with. The proceedings contain lectures on applications in the fields of biology, biomedicine, archaeology, the arts, forensic sciences, environmental research, ecology, materials research, geo- and cosmo-sciences, and other individual applications. (RB)

  1. Complex analysis a modern first course in function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    A thorough introduction to the theory of complex functions emphasizing the beauty, power, and counterintuitive nature of the subject Written with a reader-friendly approach, Complex Analysis: A Modern First Course in Function Theory features a self-contained, concise development of the fundamental principles of complex analysis. After laying groundwork on complex numbers and the calculus and geometric mapping properties of functions of a complex variable, the author uses power series as a unifying theme to define and study the many rich and occasionally surprising properties of analytic fun

  2. Castem 2000: a modern approach of computerized structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early beginning of the computerized structural analysis, many general purpose programs have been developed. Their complexity has increased rapidly and they became difficult to use and to maintain. The needs for an improved user's friendliness and the treatment of complex coupled problems have led to a modern tool: CASTEM 2000. It has profited by the general progress in computers technology and by a twenty years experience in large finite element codes. Its basic principles as well as examples of applications will be presented in this paper

  3. Modern spectrometric methods for the analysis of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proper analysis of chemical compounds should give information about the chemical identity (not only the structure but also enantiomeric form), the chemical purity and chemical composition (e.g. giving information about counter-ions, solvents of crystallization). For labelled compounds information is also needed about isotopic purity (defined as the % of isotope present in the compound), the position/distribution of the isotope in the molecule and degree of labelling/specific activity. In the past ten years the possibilities for spectrometric analyses of labelled compounds have increased enormously and this chapter will give an overview of these methods with the exception of (radio)chromatography that will be dealt with in another chapter. (author)

  4. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  5. Rapid chemical analysis of allanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid chemical analysis of allanite was studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Powdered sample was fused with mixture of sodium carbonate anhydrous and borax (4 : 1 weight) in platinum crucible and sample solution was prepared. SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, MnO and rare earth metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, CaO, MgO and Ce2O3 by titration, ThO2 by colorimetry, and La2O3 by flame photometry respectively. For sample solution treated with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Na2O and K2O were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, TiO2 and P2O5 by colorimetry. Chemical analyses for four samples were carried out and gave consistent results. (author)

  6. Chemical analysis as production guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations

  7. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  8. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  9. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Saraswathy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanga bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation used for various diseases. An attempt was made to analyze it chemically which includes XRF, XRD, EDAX and ICP-MS techniques. Vanga Bhasma drug contained mainly tin as tin oxide. The content of tin was found to be 80 percent. XRF analysis revealed that the bhasma contained 17 elements at different levels of concentration. XRD studies exhibited that the major phase composition is cassiterite tin oxide in tetragonal structure. The crystallite size of the compound calculated from Scherrer’s formula was 52.94 nm. ICP-MS studies revealed the presence of calcium, arsenic, iron, silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and chloride. A combination of XRF, XRD, EDAX-SEM and ICP-MS was very useful in concluding that vanga bhasma is in cassiterite form of tetragonal structure. It is possible that the practical clinical application of the drug may be due to the different trace level elemental spectra besides tin. Data generated in the present study can be considered for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards for Vanga bhasma.

  10. A modern design for ? ? ? active handling facilities for chemical research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study for a modern ??? active handling facility for chemical research and development work is described. The design is intended to achieve the working and environmental conditions that are expected to be acceptable in the nuclear industry at least for the next twenty years. Radiation exposure to operators is reduced to minimum practical limits. Hands-on maintenance and man-entry are avoided for routine operations. The design is flexible to allow modifications and improvements of technique and concept to be incorporated as they become available. Finally decommissioning can be achieved with reversion to a contamination and radiation free site. The primary installation in the design is a suite of five in-line ??? active shielded cells, each capable of handling 1000 MeV Ci ? activity with accompanying high levels of ? and or ? activity. Each cell is fitted with a stainless steel containment box which is remotely removable. Adjacent to the cell line, there is a box handling bay to which boxes are interfaced, serviced and decontaminated. These operations are entirely remote. The box, when decontaminated, is returned through a commissioning area to the cell line for further service. Comprehensive facilities are provided to support the cell line. These include flask and equipment storage, fissile material accounting and interrogation systems, waste handling and transfer systems for the onward transmission of waste for processing and packaging centrally. The problems of manipulation, transfers, contamination control and shielding have been considered and are discussed in the context of the overall design. (author)

  11. Instrumental techniques in environmental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitive instrumental techniques used for environmental monitoring like neutron activation analysis, anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, optical and emission spectrometry, etc. along with their sensitivities are given. In addition to the above instrumental techniques for trace analysis, x-ray fluorescence and some modern developments like fourier transform infrared spectrometry, gas chromatograph-mass spectrograph combination, high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and ion chromatograph are also briefly described. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  13. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    OpenAIRE

    HUI WANG

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  14. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE POSITIVE MEDIAEDUCATION PRACTICE IN MODERN FAMILY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN THROUGH THE NETWORK MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreyva Irina Valerievna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of media education practices in the modern family of preschool children through the network media. The article describes the base of re-search, tasks, process of research, the results and conclusions.

  16. Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quang Liem; Philippe Colomban

    2011-01-01

    This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

  17. Deconstruction and analysis of multiphonic clusters in the modern flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barravecchio, Shauna

    The modern flute has been acoustically analyzed in great detail by many, but only from the point of view of traditional playing techniques. Very little research exists to date on more modem, "extended" technique performance. This paper explores the production of multiphonic note clusters as played on the modern flute. Several clusters as notated in James Pellerite's book on flute fingerings are recorded and analyzed for frequency content. Each one is then compared to the expected frequency content based on John Backus' 1978 paper on woodwind multiphonics. Using this information, the fingering configuration of each cluster can be deconstructed and each component pitch explained in terms of the root frequencies, overtone series, and sideband frequencies.

  18. An Analysis of the Significant Form in Modern Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxing Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “significant form”, suggested by Clive Bell, has a great impact on modern western art and design. China has a long history and splendid culture, and also lots of wonderful thoughts in the aesthetics. This paper analyzes the concept of “significant form”, suggested by Bell, by combining with Chinese traditional aesthetic thought, expecting to find some laws to guide our design practice. Meanwhile, that is a thought for the inheritance and development of Chinese traditional cultures.

  19. Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yaowu; SHANG, HONG; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Michael P. Richards

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur ...

  20. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  1. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  2. Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ???????

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

  3. THE DUALITY DIAGRAM IN DATA ANALYSIS: EXAMPLES OF MODERN APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Omar; Holmes, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Today's data-heavy research environment requires the integration of different sources of information into structured datasets that can not be analyzed as simple matrices. We introduce an old technique, known in the European data analyses circles as the Duality Diagram Approach, put to new uses through the use of a variety of metrics and ways of combining different diagrams together. This issue of the Annals of Applied Statistics contains contemporary examples of how this approach provides solutions to hard problems in data integration. We present here the genesis of the technique and how it can be seen as a precursor of the modern kernel based approaches. PMID:22282721

  4. [Analysis of governmental administration on medical advertisements in modern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sun-Biao; Lin, Nan

    2011-03-01

    The huge medical market in modern China brought about prosperity and then an uncontrolled medical advertising industry. In order to standardize the market, the health institution resorted to laws and regulations. Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau began the work in 1928 and Shanghai Provisional Rules of Banning Obscene Drug Advertising was issued in 1929. In 1930, Provisional Rules of Chinese and Western Medicine Advertising of the Beiping Health Bureau was carried out and then Rules of Chinese and Western Medicine Advertising of Beiping in 1935. From then on, various parts of the country kept on developing and perfecting their own rules on the basis of Rules of Chinese and Western Medicine Advertising of Beiping and the local situation. Among the rules, Provisional Rules of Chinese and Western Medicine Advertising of Shanghai (1936), Rules of Administrating and Correcting Chinese and Western Medicine Advertising of Beiping (1946) and Rules of Medicine Advertising of Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (1947) were representatives. Those rules embodied the modern government's principle on administrating advertising by legal means and restraining excess illegal medicine advertising. There were also some weak points in the supervision of medicine advertising, such as sluggish supervision, ineffective supervision and light punishment. PMID:21624270

  5. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Centeno; Duane A. Rogers; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Florabel G. Mullick; Chapman, Gail D.; Ayodele O. Olabisi; Dean J. Wagner; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

  6. Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

    2013-09-01

    Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

  7. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  8. Sample processor for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which can process numerous samples that must be chemically analyzed by the application of fluids such as liquid reagents, solvents and purge gases, as well as the application of dumps for receiving the applied fluid after they pass across the sample, in a manner that permits numerous samples to be processed in a relatively short time and with minimal manpower. The processor includes a rotor which can hold numerous cartridges containing inert or adsorbent material for holding samples, and a pair of stators on opposite sides of the rotor. The stators form stations spaced along the path of the cartridges which lie in the rotor, and each station can include an aperture in one stator through which a fluid can be applied to a cartridge resting at that station, and an aperture in the other stator which can receive the fluid which has passed through the cartridge. The stators are sealed to the ends of the cartridges lying on the rotor, to thereby isolate the stations from one another.

  9. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  10. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  11. Composição química de cafés árabica de cultivares tradicionais e modernas / Chemical composition of traditional and modern Arabica coffee cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cíntia Sorane Good, Kitzberger; Maria Brígida dos Santos, Scholz; Luiz Filipe Protasio, Pereira; Marta de Toledo, Benassi.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da diversidade genética sobre a composição química de cultivares modernas e tradicionais de café arábica brasileiro. Cultivares tradicionais (Bourbon, Catuaí e Icatu) e modernas (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99 e IPR 103) foram cultivadas nas mesmas condiç [...] ões edafoclimáticas e submetidas a tratamentos pós-colheita padronizados. Determinaram-se os teores de sacarose, açúcares redutores, ácidos orgânicos (quínico, málico e cítrico), compostos fenólicos totais, ácido 5-cafeoilquínico, compostos nitrogenados (proteína, trigonelina e cafeína), lipídeos totais, cafestol e caveol. A diversidade genética confere variabilidade à composição do café e permite a discriminação entre cultivares tradicionais e modernas. As cultivares modernas apresentam maior teor de ácidos málico e 5-cafeoilquínico, lipídeos totais, caveol e trigonelina. Os parâmetros caveol e a relação caveol/cafestol são propostos como discriminadores entre cultivares modernas e tradicionais, uma vez que a introgressão de genes de Coffea canephora aumenta os teores de caveol e os valores da relação caveol/cafestol. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of genetic diversity on the chemical composition of traditional and modern cultivars of Brazilian arabica coffee. Traditional (Bourbon, Catuaí and Icatu) and modern cultivars (Iapar 59, IPR 98, IPR 99, and IPR 103) were subjected to the same e [...] daphoclimatic conditions, and to standardized post-harvest treatments. Contents of sucrose, reducing sugars, organic acids (quinic, malic, and citric), total phenolic compounds, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, nitrogenous compounds (protein, caffeine, and trigonelline), total lipids, cafestol, and kahweol were determined. Genetic diversity provides variability in coffee composition, allowing the discrimination between traditional and modern cultivars. Modern cultivars have higher contents of malic and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, total lipids, kahweol and trigonelline. The parameters kahweol and the kahweol/cafestol ratio are proposed as discriminators between traditional and modern cultivars, since the introgression of genes from Coffea canephora increase the kahweol content and the values of kahweol/cafestol ratio.

  12. Using Multimedia for Teaching Analysis in History of Modern Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Garry

    This paper presents a case for the development and support of a computer-based interactive multimedia program for teaching analysis in community college architecture design programs. Analysis in architecture design is an extremely important strategy for the teaching of higher-order thinking skills, which senior schools of architecture look for in…

  13. Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2013-01-01

    We extend our work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,nu e+)2H, 14N(p,gamma)15O and triple-alpha reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (t_H), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. For the stellar tracks, an increase from Z = 0...

  14. Analysis and Modeling of Traffic in Modern Data Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, G.; Vandalore, B.; Jain, R.

    1998-01-01

    In performance analysis and design of communication netword modeling data traffic is important. With introduction of new applications, the characteristics of the data traffic changes. We present a brief review the different models of data traffic and how they have evolved. We present results of data traffic analysis and simulated traffic, which demonstrates that the packet train model fits the traffic at source destination level and long-memory (self-similar) model fits the ...

  15. Sentiment Analysis For Modern Standard Arabic And Colloquial

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    The rise of social media such as blogs and social networks has fueled interest in sentiment analysis. With the proliferation of reviews, ratings, recommendations and other forms of online expression, online opinion has turned into a kind of virtual currency for businesses looking to market their products, identify new opportunities and manage their reputations, therefore many are now looking to the field of sentiment analysis. In this paper, we present a feature-based senten...

  16. In-Situ Planetary Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Buehler, M. G.; Grannan, S. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Both, the search for evidence of life on Mars and the assessment of the Martian environment in respect to its compatibility with human explorers, will require the ability to measure and understand the aqueous chemistry of the Martian regolith. Direct in-situ chemical analysis is the only method by which chemical biosignatures can be reliably recognized and the toxicity of the regolith accurately assessed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the aqueous ionic constituents and their concentrations is critical in developing kinetic and thermodynamic models that can be used to accurately predict the potential of the past or present Martian geochemical environment to have either generated or still sustain life. In-situ chemical characterization could provide evidence as to whether the chemical composition of the regolith or evaporates in suspected ancient water bodies have been biologically influenced.

  17. A guide to modern statistical analysis of immunological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanbakhsh Maria

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of subjects that can be recruited in immunological studies and the number of immunological parameters that can be measured has increased rapidly over the past decade and is likely to continue to expand. Large and complex immunological datasets can now be used to investigate complex scientific questions, but to make the most of the potential in such data and to get the right answers sophisticated statistical approaches are necessary. Such approaches are used in many other scientific disciplines, but immunological studies on the whole still use simple statistical techniques for data analysis. Results The paper provides an overview of the range of statistical methods that can be used to answer different immunological study questions. We discuss specific aspects of immunological studies and give examples of typical scientific questions related to immunological data. We review classical bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and more advanced methods aimed to explore causal relationships (path analysis/structural equation modelling and illustrate their application to immunological data. We show the main features of each method, the type of study question they can answer, the type of data they can be applied to, the assumptions required for each method and the software that can be used. Conclusion This paper will help the immunologist to choose the correct statistical approach for a particular research question.

  18. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emphasis is placed on the exploitation of the unique FIA-gradient techniques.

  19. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The Lagrangian specificity of the required measurements is assured by the fact that a transducer enclosed within a solid material is necessarily linked in motion to the particles of the material which surround it. This Lagrangian instrumentation is described in the second chapter. The authors are concerned with the techniques considered today to be the most effective. These are, for stress : piezoresistive gauges (50 ? and low impedance) and piezoelectric techniques (PVF2 gauges, quartz transducers) ; and for particle velocity : electromagnetic gauges, VISAR and IDL Doppler laser interferometers. In each case both the physical principles as well as techniques of use are set out in detail. For the most part, the authors use their own experience to describe the calibration of these instrumentation systems and to compare their characteristics : measurement range, response time, accuracy, useful recording time, detection area... These characteristics should be taken into account by the physicist when he has to choose the instrumentation systems best adapted to the Lagrangian analysis he intends to apply to any given material. The discussion at the end of chapter 2 should guide his choice both for plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. The third chapter examines to what extent the accuracy of Lagrangian analysis is affected by the accuracies of the numerical analysis methods and experimental techniques. By means of a discussion of different cases of analysis, the authors want to make the reader aware of the different kinds of sources of errors that may be encountered. This work brings up to date the state of studies on Lagrangian analysis methods based on a wide review of bibliographical sources together with the contribution made to research in this field by the four authors themselves in the course of the last ten years. Le formage des métaux par explosif, la consolidation dynamique des poudres, la balistique terminale, l'abattage des roches par explosif, sont autant d'applications, dans les domaines civil et militaire, qui exigent d'approfondir les connaissances q

  20. Femoral curvature in Neanderthals and modern humans: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-05-01

    Since their discovery, Neanderthals have been described as having a marked degree of anteroposterior curvature of the femoral shaft. Although initially believed to be pathological, subsequent discoveries of Neanderthal remains lead femoral curvature to be considered as a derived Neanderthal feature. A recent study on Neanderthals and middle and early Upper Palaeolithic modern humans found no differences in femoral curvature, but did not consider size-corrected curvature. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use 3D morphometric landmark and semi-landmark analysis to quantify relative femoral curvature in Neanderthals, Upper Palaeolithic and recent modern humans, and to compare adult bone curvature as part of the overall femoral morphology among these populations. Comparisons among populations were made using geometric morphometrics (3D landmarks) and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material involved all available complete femora from Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human, archaeological (Mesolithic, Neolithic, Medieval) and recent human populations representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are significant differences in the anatomy of the femur between Neanderthals and modern humans. Neanderthals have more curved femora than modern humans. Early modern humans are most similar to recent modern humans in their anatomy. Femoral curvature is a good indicator of activity level and habitual loading of the lower limb, indicating higher activity levels in Neanderthals than modern humans. These differences contradict robusticity studies and the archaeological record, and would suggest that femoral morphology, and curvature in particular, in Neanderthals may not be explained by adult behavior alone and could be the result of genetic drift, natural selection or differences in behavior during ontogeny. PMID:21411122

  1. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.

  2. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to prov...

  3. In Search of Meaning: Values in Modern Clinical Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, Jennifer C.; Stewart, Ian; Dahl, Joanne; Lundgren, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Skinner described behavior analysis as the field of values and purpose. However, he defined these concepts in terms of a history of reinforcement and failed to specify whether and how human and nonhuman values might differ. Human values have been seen as theoretically central within a number of nonbehavioral traditions in psychology, including humanism and positive psychology. However, these approaches have failed to provide explanations of the behavior–environment relations involved in valui...

  4. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure conditions in atomic oxygen (ESCA) was performed on an SSL-100/206 Small Spot Spectrometer. All data were taken with the use of a low voltage electron flood gun and a charge neutralization screen to minimize charging effects on the data. The X-ray spot size and electron flood gun voltage used are recorded on the individual spectra as are the instrumental resolutions. Two types of spectra were obtained for each specimen: (1) general surveys, and (2) high resolution spectra. The two types of data reduction performed are: (1) semiquantitative compositional analysis, and (2) peak fitting. The materials analyzed are: (1) kapton 4, 5, and 6, (2) HDPE 19, 20, and 21, and (3) PVDF 4, 5, and 6.

  5. Chemical analysis of the Fornax Dwarf galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Letarte, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Chemical Analysis of the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy”, and it’s main goal is to determine what are the chemical elements present in the stars of this galaxy in order to try and understand it’s evolution. Galaxies are not “static” objects, they move, form stars and can interact with other galaxies. Studying the stars composing a galaxy can in principle, inform us about its past. Some stars can be as old as the galaxy itself, some can be much younger and we ...

  6. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  7. Structure analysis of polymer crystals modernized with quantum beam usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant progresses in the X-ray crystal structure analysis technique is the utilization of a synchrotron high-energy X-ray source which can give us a tremendously large number of reflections, making it possible to find out even the hydrogen atomic positions with high accuracy. The wide-angle neutron diffraction method is also important for the extraction of hydrogen atomic positions as demonstrated in the case study of full-deuterated polyethylene. The so-called X-N (X-ray-neutron) method has been also applied, which successfully clarified the bonded electron density distribution along a polydiacetylene skeletal chain. Detailed crystal structure analysis was performed also to observe the mechanical deformation mechanism of a polymer crystal viewed on the atomic level. Time-dependent rapid X-ray diffraction measurement has made it possible to trace the structural change in a photo-induced solid-state polymerization process. An organized combination of X-ray diffraction methods with others such as infrared spectroscopy has shown to be important for the study of structural evolution processes of polymer crystals. (author)

  8. Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

  9. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  10. A modern ??? active handling facility for chemical and allied research and development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the opportunity arose (? 1980) to build a new remote handling facility a deliberate attempt was made to advance the prevailing technology. The design criteria adopted were critically reviewed and are based on the use of remotely removable containment boxes located within concrete shielded walls. In addition to the high level of containment, this achieves a high degree of flexibility in application and provides means of minimising radiation exposure. This modern facility represents the latest in remote systems technology as applied to post-irradiation examination and to research and development work. (author)

  11. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  12. Cumulative physical uncertainty in modern stellar models. II. The dependence on the chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: We extend our previous work on the effects of the uncertainties on the main input physics for the evolution of low-mass stars. We analyse the dependence of the cumulative physical uncertainty affecting stellar tracks on the chemical composition. Methods: We calculated more than 6000 stellar tracks and isochrones, with metallicity ranging from Z = 0.0001 to 0.02, by changing the following physical inputs within their current range of uncertainty: 1H(p,?e+)2H, 14N(p,?)15O and triple-? reaction rates, radiative and conductive opacities, neutrino energy losses, and microscopic diffusion velocities. The analysis was performed using a latin hypercube sampling design. We examine in a statistical way - for different metallicities - the dependence on the variation of the physical inputs of the turn-off (TO) luminosity, the central hydrogen exhaustion time (tH), the luminosity and the helium core mass at the red-giant branch (RGB) tip, and the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) luminosity in the RR Lyrae region. Results: For the stellar tracks, an increase in the metallicity from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 produces a cumulative physical uncertainty error variation in TO luminosity from 0.028 dex to 0.017 dex, while the global uncertainty on tH increases from 0.42 Gyr to 1.08 Gyr. For the RGB tip, the cumulative uncertainty on the luminosity is almost constant at 0.03 dex, whereas the one on the helium core mass decreases from 0.0055 M? to 0.0035 M?. The dependence of the ZAHB luminosity error is not monotonic with Z, and it varies from a minimum of 0.036 dex at Z = 0.0005 to a maximum of 0.047 dex at Z = 0.0001. Regarding stellar isochrones of 12 Gyr, the cumulative physical uncertainty on the predicted TO luminosity and mass increases respectively from 0.012 dex to 0.014 dex and from 0.0136 M? to 0.0186 M?. Consequently, from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.02 for ages typical of galactic globular clusters, the uncertainty on the age inferred from the TO luminosity increases from 325 Myr to 415 Myr. Tables 1, 3, 6, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Modernized spectrometer for the hydrogen contents analysis in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determination of the concentration profiles of the hydrogen isotopes in various materials is very actual problem now since hydrogen, if presents, rather strongly affects on physical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and other properties. In the INP AS (Uzbekistan) the specific method of hydrogen isotopes profiling (Neutron-induced Elastic Recoil Detection (NERD) method) has been developed. The energy spectrum of H-ions that are knocked out by fast neutrons gives the information on the depth and concentration of hydrogen in a sample. The method allows obtaining of the concentration profiles for all hydrogen isotopes simultaneously and has the analysable depth up to 1.5 mm for 1H. We have improved the analytical characteristics of the method: By sufficient decreasing the background of the charged particles and reduction of the gamma quanta background in the energy spectra of hydrogen recoils; By reduction of quantity of scattered neutrons along the neutron's trajectory to the analyzed sample; By using the fast output (short pulses) of the detector's preamplifier in the character of spectrometric circuit of electronics before the final 'slow' spectrometric amplifier. We have excluded the background of the charged particles using graphite as a constructional material for the box of the detectors' telescope. The background of gamma - quanta was reduced by removing the metallic elements and materials of the radiation protection as far as possible from a telescope of detectors. We have reduced the quantity of the scattered neutrons worsening the energy resolution by reducing up to a minimum the amount of metal between the neutron source and the sample, and using the materials with small cross sections of elastic scattering of neutrons. We have achieved the precise work of electronics with fast signals due to specially developed electronics: change -sensitive preamplifiers and linear gates. The change-sensitive preamplifiers have small signal duration (not more than 380 ns) and the counting rate ?4/5x105 counts/s. The linear gate has switching time ?20 ns and dynamic range not less then 102. Duration of the driving signal can be varied from 300 up to 1000 ns. Due to these improvements we can operate with two-detectors variant of the detecting system instead of the three detectors and simplify essentially the electronics of the spectrometer. Thus we have increased the analyzable depth of a sample. Check of the spectrometer's operation at the neutron flux (En=14 MeV) using the test samples containing hydrogen, deuterium and tritium has shown that the real (full) energy resolution of the spectrometer is equal 400 keV. The energy resolution is determined basically by the geometrical resolution and includes the own resolution of the detectors, energy dispersion of the neutron flux and the effect of scattering of neutrons on small angles before hit on the analyzed sample. This energy resolution results in the following calculated depth resolution:For hydrogen-60 microns. For deuterium-22 microns For tritium- 11 microns. Thus the analyzable depths (for example, in silicon) make: For hydrogen-1200 microns. For deuterium - 500 microns. For tritium - 260 microns. This work was supported by STCU Project no. 3067. (author)

  14. Chemical analysis quality assurance at the ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the chemical analysis quality assurance program at the ICPP which involves records management, analytical methods quality control, analysis procedures and training and qualification. Since 1979, the major portion of the quality assurance program has been implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the system are storage, retrieval, and search capabilities over all general request and sample analysis information, automatic method selection for all process streams, automation of all method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at all analysis levels, with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of all process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre- established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of all analysis data plus all statistical testing to the Production Department

  15. MDTraj: A Modern Open Library for the Analysis of Molecular Dynamics Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, Robert T; Beauchamp, Kyle A; Harrigan, Matthew P; Klein, Christoph; Swails, Jason M; Hernández, Carlos X; Schwantes, Christian R; Wang, Lee-Ping; Lane, Thomas J; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-10-20

    As molecular dynamics (MD) simulations continue to evolve into powerful computational tools for studying complex biomolecular systems, the necessity of flexible and easy-to-use software tools for the analysis of these simulations is growing. We have developed MDTraj, a modern, lightweight, and fast software package for analyzing MD simulations. MDTraj reads and writes trajectory data in a wide variety of commonly used formats. It provides a large number of trajectory analysis capabilities including minimal root-mean-square-deviation calculations, secondary structure assignment, and the extraction of common order parameters. The package has a strong focus on interoperability with the wider scientific Python ecosystem, bridging the gap between MD data and the rapidly growing collection of industry-standard statistical analysis and visualization tools in Python. MDTraj is a powerful and user-friendly software package that simplifies the analysis of MD data and connects these datasets with the modern interactive data science software ecosystem in Python. PMID:26488642

  16. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support activities of chemical analysis division for the year of 1984 are described. A sum of 2445 samples requested from the facilities and laboratories were analyzed with the methods modified and adopted in the laboratory from 1977 to 1983. A study on the separation and determination of the trace amounts of rare earth elements in nuclear materials was carried out, and various experimental conditions were established. (Author)

  17. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  18. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  19. Physico-chemical standardization of Habbe Shifa: A polyherbal Unani formulation with modern techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asira Tarannum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habbe Shifa (HS is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation, which is used in the treatment of Humma (fever, Iya (fatigue, Tashannuje rewi (pulmonary spasm and Zeequn Nafas (asthma and opium deaddiction. Aim: The physico-chemical standards of HS were established in the present study. Materials and Methods: HS was prepared with ingredients of particle size 150 ?m (100 mesh sieve, 5% w/w Gum Acacia mucilage was used as binder, dried at a temperature 90°C for 120 min and finally evaluated for different physico-chemical parameters to develop standards for HS. Results and Conclusion: Physico-chemical standards of HS were observed as characteristic brown colour, spherical shape, hard in texture, odourless and bitter in taste; average weight 242.95 ± 1.53 mg; diameter 7.33 ± 0.16 mm; hardness 3.5 ± 0.00 kg/cm; friability 0.02 ± 0.003%; pH value in 1% and 10% aqueous solution 6.22 ± 0.06 and 5.39 ± 0.008 respectively; percentage loss of weight on drying at 105°C 6.63 ± 0.12%; total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash 5.33 ± 0.16, 0.95 ± 0.05 and 1 ± 0.00% respectively and total alkaloid 0.65 ± 0.01% and R f values in the thin layer chromatography in ethanolic extract in hexane: Acetone (7.6:2.4 solvent system were 0.25, 0.78 and in hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6 solvent system were 0.58, 0.89. The results obtained for the various physico-chemical tests of lab sample of HS may be taken as standard parameter for future reference and help in setting up regulatory limit to assure the quality of Unani medicine.

  20. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  1. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  2. Development of a Modern Control System Analysis Package Using Visual Basic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Shu Khan; Mohd Fua’ad Rahmat

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD) program that furnishes a background necessary for studying modern control theory. The program focuses on state-space analysis which performs conversion of a system from state-space representation to transfer function and via versa. Besides, system transformation on different state coordinates, time domain solution, controller design, observer design and steady state error evaluation with interactive graphresponse are also be...

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment of a modern architecture building: analysis of the original building and retrofitting proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, H; Romão, X.; Varum, H.; Arêde, A.; Costa, A.; Delgado, R

    2008-01-01

    The seismic vulnerability of an existing building representative of modern architecture style is presented herein. To improve its seismic response, a retrofitting solution consisting of an x-bracing system associated to a shear-link dissipater was analysed. The effectiveness of the retrofit was measured by carrying out a seismic fragility analysis, considering a numerical model accounting for the nonlinear behaviour under earthquakes of both RC elements and infill masonry walls. I...

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shibi; G. Shalu; Jagannathan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%), tin (8.5%) and mercury (3.1%). FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the...

  5. Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

  6. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  7. Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

    2014-01-01

    By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

  8. Geometric morphometric study and cluster analysis of late Byzantine and modern human crania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Senem Turan; Ercan, Ilker; Ozkaya, Guven; Cankur, N Simsek; Erdal, Yilmaz Selim

    2010-06-01

    Inter-population variation of cranial morphology, which plays an important role in human evolution studies and biological research, can be studied morphologically and metrically. Geometric morphometry compares body forms using specific landmarks determined by anatomical prominences. The aim of this study was to identify cranial shape differences between the crania of Byzantium period humans and modern humans. Variability in cranial shape was examined using the geometric morphometric technique based on landmark coordinates. Landmark coordinate data were collected from two-dimensional digital photogrammetry and were analyzed using generalized Procrustes analysis, hierarchical clustering and thin-plate spline analysis. PMID:20698122

  9. Definition of conservative conditions for RIA analysis in the modernized RBMK reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade a number of modifications were implemented in the Ignalina NPP reactors cores. A significant reactor core loading change allowed increasing the safety level of the plant. During previously performed safety analyses a question has arisen concerning conservatism of used initial boundary conditions for investigation. The impact of different axial fuel burn-up and power-density profiles in the reactor core on modelling results as well as estimation of conservative conditions for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the modernized RBMK-1500 reactor core were analyzed. The results of the investigations are presented in this paper. Simulation results show that previously used initial boundary conditions for modelling of accidents are changing due to a change of composition and loading in the modernized RBMK reactor core. (orig.)

  10. SALI chemical analysis of provided samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

  12. Chemical analysis of LARC-160 polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a detailed NASA-sponsored study of chemical composition/property sensitivity of the LARC-160 polymerization of monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimide system, a number of liquid chromatographic techniques have been employed. The ester monomers in this system are characterized by a reverse-phase ion-suppression method. Mono, di, and triesters of the 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid ingredient are identified and their isomeric forms resolved. The 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ester (nadic ester) endcapper is detected by low wavelength ultraviolet sensing. A second method, reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, is employed for determining unreacted amines. The extent of resin B-staging is monitored through analysis of the ester/amine oligomers.

  13. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    Washington : SPIE, 2012, 84360C-1-84360C-10. ISBN 978-0-8194-9128-2. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8436). [Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications II. Brussels (BE), 17.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical image * retinal image * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.pdf

  14. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Comparative analysis of modern empirical spectrophotometric atlases with multicolor photometric catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpio, E Yu; Mironov, A V

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the comparative analysis of the most known semi-empirical and empirical spectral atlases that was carried out using the data from the WBVR photometric catalogue. The results show that standard error of synthesized stellar magnitudes calculated with SEDs from best spectral atlases reaches 0.02 mag. It has been also found out that some of modern spectral atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. The agreement for the 5000-10000 A spectral range is rather satisfactory, while there are problems for wavelengths shorter than 4400 A.

  16. Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Sólheimajökull, southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

    2015-02-01

    Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Sólheimajökull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Sólheimajökull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jökulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

  17. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

  18. Study of Modern Human Evolution via Comparative Analysis with the Neanderthal Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musaddeque; Liang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans ...

  19. Modern sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

  20. COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

  1. Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Jacob

    2001-01-01

    Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic) rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allo...

  2. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

  3. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  4. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were di...

  5. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  6. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  7. PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2012-08-01

    This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British Society of Strain Measurement's sponsored Measurements Lecture, which also features as the fourth keynote address of the conference, and is given in 2012 by Dr Cathy Holt of the University of Cardiff. The third and final day of the conference opens with a keynote lecture by Professor Wieslaw M Ostachowicz of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk on another long-standing conference theme, and entitled 'Structural health monitoring by means of elastic wave propagation'. The final keynote lecture takes place in the afternoon of the last day and is given by Professor Jerzy Warminski of the Technical University of Lublin, Poland. The title of the lecture is 'Nonlinear phenomena in mechanical systems dynamics', and is in deliberate juxtaposition to the opening keynote address, emphasising the pervasive nature of modern nonlinear dynamics. I am delighted to welcome authors and delegates to this Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration conference, run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and held at the University of Glasgow. I would like to thank Claire Garland and Dawn Stewart of the Institute of Physics for all their work and assistance, the local organising committee, the scientific committee, and lastly the authors of the papers featured in this conference proceedings. I extend my warmest welcome to all our conference delegates. Matthew Phillip Cartmell Conference Organiser

  8. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

  9. Application of tracer analysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of tracer analyses to the solution of various problems in chemical and related industries are reported. The investigation of mixing and grinding processes, the determination both of drag effects through vaporization of liquids and of losses of solid matter through evaporation in sintering, investigation of the distribution of a liquid phase in solid matter as well as the determination of the conversion ratio in chemical reactions are described. (author)

  10. Chemical properties and methods of analysis of refractory compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, G. V. (editor); Frantsevich, I. N. (editor); Yeremenko, V. N. (editor); Nazarchuk, T. N. (editor); Popova, O. I. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reactions involving refractory metals and the alloys based on them are discussed. Chemical, electrochemical, photometric, spectrophotometric, and X-ray analysis are among the methods described for analyzing the results of the reactions and for determining the chemical properties of these materials.

  11. Post-mission data analysis of Surveyor mission chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A.

    1973-01-01

    Prime data from chemical analysis experiments, of Surveyor 5, 6, and 7 are critically examined and analyzed. This and associated laboratory work has given final chemical composition results for the lunar regolith at three locations. The conclusions made on the basis of the preliminary examinations of the data are confirmed and extended.

  12. Physico-chemical soil analysis of Rudovci region

    OpenAIRE

    Smilja MARKOVI?; Miško MILANOVI?; Miloš NENADOVI?; Ljiljana KLJAJEVI?; Snežana NENADOVI?; Vladimir PAVLOVI?

    2013-01-01

    Laser diffraction and pipette methods were carried out for comparative grain-size analysis of soil samples representing a similar texture classification sampled. A detail physical-chemical analysis of soils, which involves use of XRF, XRD and SEM analysis were done. XRF and XRD analysis were done on the fractions separated by pipette method. On the obtained fraction particle size distribution and SEM analysis were done. The obtained results of these different methods are in good agreement and...

  13. DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

  14. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Reed David L; Smith Vincent S; Hammond Shaless L; Rogers Alan R; Clayton Dale H

    2004-01-01

    Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years). One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and popula...

  15. Modern contraceptive use among women in Uganda: An analysis of trend and patterns (1995-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Andi, Jimmy Ronald; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is an extensive body of literature concerning modern contraceptive use among women in Uganda. A questionable aspect however is whether the impact of factors associated with modern contraceptive use has remained the same in the recent past. Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data of women in the period 1995-2011 was adopted to establish an understanding of this issue. The focus in the investigations was none pregnant sexually active women. Variations in patterns of modern contraceptive use ...

  16. Analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with modern nuclear data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ERANOS libraries are produced based on four modern nuclear data sets. • The MOZART MZA/MZB benchmarks are analyzed with these li- braries. • Results are generally acceptable in an academic context, but for highly accurate applications data adjustment is required. • Some discrepancies between the calculations and the benchmark results remain and cannot be readily explained. • Successful generation of ECCO libraries and covariance data for ERA- NOS. - Abstract: For fast reactor design and analysis, our laboratory uses, amongst others, the ERANOS code system. Unfortunately, the publicly available version of ERANOS does not have the most recent nuclear data. Therefore, it was decided to implement an integrated processing system to generate cross sections libraries for the ECCO cell code, as well as covariance data. Cross sections are generated from the original ENDF files. For our purposes, it is important to ascertain that the ECCO cross section libraries are of adequate quality to allow design and analysis of advanced fast reactors in an academic context. In this paper, we present an analysis of the MZA/MZB benchmarks with nuclear data from JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.2 and ENDF/B-VII.1. Results are that reactivity is generally well predicted, with an uncertainty of about 1% due to covariances of the nuclear data. Reaction rate ratios are satisfactorily calculated, as well as the flux spectrum and reaction rate traverses. Some problems remain: the magnitude of the void effect is not satisfactorily calculated, and reaction rate traverses are not always satisfactorily calculated. On the whole, the ECCO libraries are sufficient for design and analysis tasks in an academic context. For high-precision calculations, such as required for licensing tasks and detailed design calculations, data adjustment is still necessary as the “native” covariance data in the ENDF files is not accurate enough

  17. 40 CFR 761.314 - Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples...b)(3) § 761.314 Chemical analysis of standard wipe test samples. Perform the chemical analysis of standard wipe test...

  18. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moder

  19. Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said GHARBY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

  20. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  1. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  2. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide ?-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of ?-radiation;· low dose rate ?10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature of 350-400C up to 85% of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective applied for purification of polluted water

  3. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

  4. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis—modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L.; Brauer, Jonathan I.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A.; Beech, Iwona B.

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II–Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  5. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  6. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed David L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years. One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

  7. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern econ...

  8. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  9. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Jónsson, Hákon; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Schaefer, Robert; Martin, Michael D; Fernández, Ruth; Kircher, Martin; McCue, Molly; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which lar...

  10. The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

  11. Development of Methods for the Analysis of Chemical Genetic Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis, several approaches to facilitate the analysis of chemical genetic assays have been proposed. An optimal method to retrieve chemical hits from high-throughput assays was introduced, and a target prediction method was developed to predict the drug targets for the hits. Next, an efficient filtering protocol was proposed to remove the promiscuous compounds. Lastly, the integration of the assays was presented as a valuable tool to find relationships between biological activities, to ...

  12. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Yigzaw Binega

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...

  13. Extension on KOLAS accreditation for chemical analysis of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research includes the establishment of analytical target for radioactive mateials and analytical procedures fo ran international accreditatin. The determinatin of confidence level of chemical analysis for the uraniu, radium-226, radon-222, and boron was carried out. The instructions for the analysis of radioactive materials were written in this report. As a result of the research, the KOLAS accreditation was extended to the analysis of uranium innatural water, radon-222 or boron in industrial water, and cesium-137 in agricultural products

  14. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

  15. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (?75 ?L of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  16. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  17. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and...6) § 761.292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and...subpart Q of this part, for chemical extraction of PCBs...

  18. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research ...

  19. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  20. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlati?anin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  1. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

  2. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

  3. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern controller for piezoelectric actuated nanopositioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilza Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanopositioning, Precise control and manipulation of devices and materials at nanoscale is the most important constraint of nanotechnology. Nanopositioning stage consisting of piezoelectric actuator has widespread use in applications requiring positioning with precision at nanoscale. In this paper, open loop characteristics of the non minimum phase nanopositioning system are investigated. To guarantee high precision positioning and improvement in the system characteristics demands different types of feedback controllers. The main aim of the controller is to design a closed loop system with good dynamic characteristics and to maintain the desired stability margins. PID controller is a generic closed loop controller widely used for industrial control applications. This paper presents design of PID controller using Ziegler Nichols tuning method. This paper analyzes time and frequency response of traditional PID controller. Non minimum phase system can be stabilized more effectively by modern controller such as pole placement controller, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR and H infinity controllers. This paper develops a methodology for the design of full state feedback controller using pole placement and LQR control techniques. Step response and frequency responses under variety of conditions are plotted and analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Closed loop system is analyzed in both time and frequency domain for different dynamic characteristics such as rise time, settling time, maximum overshot and stability margins. A comparative assessment based upon the system’s response characteristics of traditional PID controller, pole placement controller and LQR controller is presented. Simulation results for the performance analysis are carried out on MATLAB and demonstrate effectiveness and adaptability of controller for precise control of piezoelectric actuated nanopositioning system.

  4. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  5. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Michael W; Lim, Lek-Heng; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-ferti...

  6. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ROMANIAN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, ASANDEI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the millennium, Romanian trade is in an intermediate stage of a complex process of development, marked by efforts and attempts to modernize the forms of commerce. After 1995 and until now, Romanian retail market has experienced a steady increase due to the entry of international modern retail chains and to changes in the Romanian consumers’ behaviour. Currently, Romanian retail has great development potential, being in a phase of accelerated growth. In this stage, features of modern trade forms are established, competition increases, modern retail networks are reinforced and there are still attractive implantation locations that promise attractive profit margins. Based on the premise that there is a wide range of factors that shape modern retail, this paper analyses the impact of macroeconomic variables on the development of Romanian retail market. The research methodology was based on multifactorial regression and statistical correlation. Study results showed that Romanian retail is influenced by gross domestic product, average monthly net salary, exchange rate of the national currency against the euro, and inflation rate.

  8. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research laboratorium, hospital clinic or at the local doctor, there are high expectations for arrays screening predispositions and following therapy, monitoring the amount of bacteria in food stuff, measuring the small signs from cardiac arrest before it happens, analysing the toxin level in a water sample (preferentially on-line) or deciphering the identity of an infecting bug. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//delta?/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and ?/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  10. Evaluating geographically weighted regression models for environmental chemical risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Jenna; Wheeler, David C; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many correlated chemicals on disease is often of interest. The relationship between correlated environmental chemicals and health effects is not always constant across a study area, as exposure levels may change spatially due to various environmental factors. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has been proposed to model spatially varying effects. However, concerns about collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal (ie, reversal paradox), may limit the applicability of GWR for environmental chemical risk analysis. A penalized version of GWR, the geographically weighted lasso, has been proposed to remediate the collinearity effects in GWR models. Our focus in this study was on assessing through a simulation study the ability of GWR and GWL to correctly identify spatially varying chemical effects for a mixture of correlated chemicals within a study area. Our results showed that GWR suffered from the reversal paradox, while GWL overpenalized the effects for the chemical most strongly related to the outcome. PMID:25983546

  11. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

  13. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food. PMID:23037977

  14. Investigation of meteorite chemical composition by activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons from a microtron for determining the chemical composition of stone and iron meteorites was investigated. Nearly 20 elements have been determined mostly by instrumental photon activation analysis, but instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis has been also applied for determining several elements in the samples. The optimal irradiation regimes and both cooling and measuring times were established. Sensitivity and accuracy of the analysis are presented. During analysis of the samples different types of interference reactions were taken into account. The experimental data were in satisfactory agreement with the results reported in literature

  15. An Empirical Analysis on the Development of Modern Service Industry and Its Countermeasures in Qingdao during Post-WTO Transitional Period

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxue Zhang; Peng Liu

    2010-01-01

    With the end of Post-WTO Transitional Period, Qingdao’s modern services present a picture of unprecedented prosperity. But during the process of development, many sharp problems emerged and it needs to handle seriously. By an empirical analysis on influencing factors of modern services in Qingdao, existing problems are found out and corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  16. Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

  17. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, J. G.; Seals, R. D.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on several Nuclepore filters which were exposed during air pollution studies are presented along with correlative measurements by Neutron Activation Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Samples were exposed during air pollution studies at Norfolk, Virginia and the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It was demonstrated that with the ESCA technique it was possible to identify the chemical (bonding) state of elements contained in the atmospheric particulate matter collected on Nuclepore filters. Sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, chlorine, alkali, and alkaline earth metal species were identified in the Norfolk samples. ESCA binding energy data for aluminum indicated that three chemically different types of aluminum are present in the launch and background samples from NASA-KSC.

  18. METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

  19. Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

  20. Computers for automating thermo-chemical analysis of alkylation substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullayev, I.M.; Agayev, F.G.; Efendiyev, S.T.; Glukhov, V.S.; Sadygov, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines issues related to automated measurement and processing parameters of the alkylation process when thermo-chemical analysis is utilized. It provides results of tests and study of a single class of measuring/calculation unit with the list application.

  1. Analysis of 239Pu in simulated chemical explosion core soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis method of 239Pu in the soil of chemical explosion core is established. The procedure includes HNO3-HF mixed acid soaking, anion-exchanging and preparing source by pulse plating-radioactivity counting. The recovery of the method is 77.6% +- 5.3%

  2. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  3. Chemical Processing and Analysis of 'JACEE' Circumpolar Flight 13 & 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Walter

    1997-01-01

    This informal presentation will address the chemical processing status, the current locations and state of data analysis (including mapping and densitometry of x-ray films, event lists and tracing of events in nuclear emulsions, etc.) of the 12 cosmic ray chambers comprising the JACEE-13 and JACEE-14 South Pole circumnavigational long duration balloon flights.

  4. Constraints on the energy and chemical balances of the modern TAG and ancient Cyprus seafloor sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Susan E.; Cann, Johnson R.

    2000-12-01

    The size, chemical composition, energy flux, and fluid composition of the TAG hydrothermal sulfide deposit at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the size, chemical composition and reaction zone characteristics of the Skouriotissa volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus are used to examine the energy requirements and chemical balances associated with the generation of a large volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit. We conclude that formation of large sulfide deposits from oceanic hydrothermal systems is a geologically rapid process and occurs on timescales of hundreds of years, with episodes of activity as short as a few tens of years separated by thousands of years of inactivity. About 2×1019 J of energy supplied at high temperature is required to form a deposit the size of the TAG mound. Metals (up to 4 times the mass of any element present in the sulfide deposit) are leached out of relatively small reaction zones most likely at the base of the sheeted dikes. Chemical balance can be struck for all elements except sulfur with a reaction zone 1-2 km3 in volume from which a small proportion of iron and large proportions of copper, zinc, and manganese are removed. A sulfur balance requires that a significant fraction of sulfur be derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, as suggested by stable isotope analyses. We argue that the principal source of energy that drives hydrothermal circulation is latent heat of crystallization of magma close to the top of the plutonic section. Furthermore, we speculate that activity of the TAG hydrothermal system is related to periods of more rapid magma supply from the mantle at magma supply rates similar to those observed in volcanoes in Hawaii and Iceland.

  5. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

  6. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  7. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  8. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  9. A comprehensive analysis of long bone curvature in Neanderthals and modern humans using 3D morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    de Groote, I. E. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery Neanderthals were described as having a marked degree of anteroposterior curvature of the femoral shaft. Although initially believed to be pathological, subsequent discoveries of Neanderthal remains made femoral curvature as well as the lateral curvature of the radius to be considered derived Neanderthal features. Femoral curvature has previously been used in racial identification in modern humans but its functional significance is poorly understood. A recent study on Ne...

  10. Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-06-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

  11. Analysis of modernization of tire recycling machine for improvement of environmental sustainability and feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Samarskiy, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this thesis is twofold: first of all to develop utilization processes for used tires and, second, to study and explain the serious ecological problems in the tire recycling and waste utilization sector in Russia. This thesis was commissioned by a recycling firm called Istra Ecologia Company. The thesis presents improvements in a tire recycling machine owned by this company. The owner of the plant has developed a modernized version of the system, and seems to have solved som...

  12. Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are...

  13. The geoglyphs of Nasca : 3-D recording and analysis with modern digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Grün, Armin; Lambers, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    A serious archaeological investigation of the famous geoglyphs of Nasca (Peru) has for a long time been obstructed by the lack of an adequate recording of the ground drawings. In this article we describe photogrammetric mapping procedures employed to record two important geoglyph concentrations at Palpa, to the north of Nasca. The use of digital photogrammetry and other modern tools for measurement and modeling allowed for the first time the complete, highly accurate, and three-dimensional re...

  14. Culture & Education: An Analysis on Schooling of an Ethnic Minority Village in Pre-modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    The study focuses on a Miao village of Southwest China, where the educations both home and community existing in the village are affecting the children. Before the place becomes part of modern society, traditional culture working in their reality life as well as rooting deeply in villagers’ mind. They haven’t recognized the meaning of the schooling education completely yet. The study finds that the point is that there are the different education types between schooling and home & communit...

  15. Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

  16. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  17. NEOCAM: The Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Lowrance, John L.; Carruthers, George R.

    2008-06-01

    The prime measurement objective of the Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission (NEOCAM) is to obtain the ultraviolet spectra of meteors entering the terrestrial atmosphere from ˜125 to 300 nm in meteor showers. All of the spectra will be collected using a slitless ultraviolet spectrometer in Earth orbit. Analysis of these spectra will reveal the degree of chemical diversity in the meteors, as observed in a single meteor shower. Such meteors are traceable to a specific parent body and we know exactly when the meteoroids in a particular shower were released from that parent body (Asher, in: Arlt (ed.) Proc. International Meteor Conference, 2000; Lyytinen and van Flandern, Earth Moon Planets 82-83:149-166, 2000). By observing multiple apparitions of meteor showers we can therefore obtain quasi-stratigraphic information on an individual comet or asteroid. We might also be able to measure systematic effects of chemical weathering in meteoroids from specific parent bodies by looking for correlations in the depletions of the more volatile elements as a function of space exposure (Borovi?ka et al., Icarus 174:15-30, 2005). By observing the relation between meteor entry characteristics (such as the rate of deceleration or breakup) and chemistry we can determine if our meteorite collection is deficient in the most volatile-rich samples. Finally, we can obtain a direct measurement of metal deposition into the terrestrial stratosphere that may act to catalyze atmospheric chemical reactions.

  18. Novel optical nanoprobes for chemical and biological analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lingxin; Fu, Xiuli; Chen, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Chemical and Biological Analysis starts with a brief introduction to several kinds of versatile nanomaterials with novel optical properties, such as gold/silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles and graphene. It mainly focuses on the latest sensor design strategies, which apply the optical properties of nanomaterials to various detection techniques including colorimetry, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). These sensors are attractive owing to their high sensitivity, high specificity, and potential for easy quantificat

  19. OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the design and analysis of a chemical process control system. The design is accomplished to attain the optimality of control operation. The total system is supposed to consist of the suitable controller operated in the closed loop manner with negative feedback path, affording the suitable output to the input. The optimality of the performance for the system is considered to be attained with gain of the (PD) controller [1], so chosen that the integral square error be...

  20. Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, Motomichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Lorenz S. Cederbaum

    2010-01-01

    We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single an...

  1. Dielectric annular core optical fiber for chemical trace analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sola?ík, P.; Burian, Z.; Kašík, Ivan

    Bellingham : SPIE The International Society for Optic al Engineering, 2006 - (Tománek, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Miler, M.; Senderáková, D.), pp.618015.1-618015.5 ISBN 0-8194-6236-5. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 6180). [Photonics Prague 2005. International Conference on Photonics, Devices and Systems /5./. Prague (CZ), 08.06.2005-11.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : fibre optic sensors * capillarity * chemical analysis Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  2. Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Alfaloje, Haedar S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus...

  3. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    OpenAIRE

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-01-01

    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  4. The Extension of Statistical Entropy Analysis to Chemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Rechberger; Alicja P. Soba?tka; Matthias Zessner

    2012-01-01

    Statistical entropy analysis (SEA) quantifies the dilution and concentration of conservative substances (e.g., heavy metals) in a system. In this paper, the SEA concept is extended (eSEA) to make it applicable to systems in which the chemical speciation is of particular importance. The eSEA is applied to a simplified region used for crop farming. The extent to which the region concentrates or dilutes nitrogen compounds is expressed as the change in statistical entropy (DH). A detailed derivat...

  5. Regression analysis of a chemical reaction fouling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously reported mathematical model for the initial chemical reaction fouling of a heated tube is critically examined in the light of the experimental data for which it was developed. A regression analysis of the model with respect to that data shows that the reference point upon which the two adjustable parameters of the model were originally based was well chosen, albeit fortuitously. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  7. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Ding; Wen Zhang; Xiaofeng Hu; Qi Zhang; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail....

  8. Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

  9. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-06-24

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

  10. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and with the correct methodology provide unamibiguous detection of such life forms.

  11. Modern MRI tools for the characterization of acute demyelinating lesions: value of chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute demyelinating lesions occur in various inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Apart from multiple sclerosis, most cases can be attributed to an overshooting immunological response to infectious agents called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM, which is mostly characterized by a monophasic course, has a multiphasic variant (MDEM). The early application of corticosteroids has been shown to be beneficial for the outcome; thus, an early diagnosis is highly desirable. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis ruling out neoplastic disorders may be difficult using conventional MRI alone. The potential diagnostic value of advanced MR techniques such as chemical shift imaging (CSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was investigated in a patient with MDEM, who had a new lesion in continuity with the initial disease manifestation. CSI was performed at 1.5 T with a long echo time of 135 ms for the evaluation of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) and with short TE of 30 ms for macromolecules (mm) and myo-Inositol (mI). DWI was performed using a single-shot isotropic EPI sequence. Whereas acute and chronic areas of demyelination were neither distinguishable on T2- nor on contrast-enhanced T1-weigted images, CSI and DWI revealed different metabolite concentrations and diffusion characteristics within the composite lesion, clearly separating acute from chronic areas of demyelination. In conclusion, the addition of CSI and DWI may add to the diagnostic power of MRI in the setting of demyelinating disorders by identifying areas of acute and chronic demyelination, even in the absence of contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  13. The assessment of acid-base analysis: comparison of the “traditional” and the “modern” approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Todorovi?

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct approaches are currently used in assessing acid-base disorders: the traditional - physiological or bicarbonate-centered approach, the base-excess approach, and the “modern” physicochemical approach proposed by Peter Stewart, which uses the strong ion difference (particularly the sodium chloride difference and the concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (particularly albumin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 as independent variables in the assessment of acid-base status. The traditional approach developed from the pioneering work of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the base-excess are still most widely used in clinical practice, even though there are a number of problems identified with this approach. The approach works well clinically and is recommended for use whenever serum total protein, albumin and phosphate concentrations are normal. Although Stewart’s approach has been largely ignored by physiologists, it is increasingly used by anesthesiologists and intensive care specialists, and is recommended for use whenever serum’s total protein, albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal, as in critically ill patients. Although different in their concepts, the traditional and modern approaches can be seen as complementary, giving in principle, the same information about the acid-base status.

  14. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Materials of 2nd Poznan analytical meeting: Modern methods of sample preparation and trace elements analysis; Materialy 2. Poznanskiego Kowersatorium Analitycznego: Nowoczesne metody przygotowania probek i oznaczania sladowych zawartosci pierwiastkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The modern methods for sample preparation and treatment before analysis have been presented. The neutron activation analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis and other methods have been used for trace element analysis in samples of different origin. The new technical solutions and modern equipment for trace amount analysis have been also performed. During the conference 20 lectures have been presented.

  16. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TL, Campbell; PJ, Lewis; JK, Williams.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We u [...] sed a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  17. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  18. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF â??NERIUM OLEANDERâ? LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhmili Siham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

  19. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 ?C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  20. Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2010-01-01

    We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

  1. ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

  2. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

  3. Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.)

  4. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  5. Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

  6. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  7. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  8. Interlaboratory comparison of chemical analysis of uranium mononitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, E. J.; Davis, W. F.; Halloran, J. T.; Graab, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical methods were established in which the critical variables were controlled, with the result that acceptable interlaboratory agreement was demonstrated for the chemical analysis of uranium mononitride. This was accomplished by using equipment readily available to laboratories performing metallurgical analyses. Agreement among three laboratories was shown to be very good for uranium and nitrogen. Interlaboratory precision of + or - 0.04 percent was achieved for both of these elements. Oxygen was determined to + or - 15 parts per million (ppm) at the 170-ppm level. The carbon determination gave an interlaboratory precision of + or - 46 ppm at the 320-ppm level.

  9. Optical and chemical analysis of iron in Luna 20 plagioclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Review of analytical data on the iron content of Luna 20 anorthitic plagioclase, obtained by a highly sensitive technique for measuring polarized absorption related to crystal-field splittings and by automated electron microprobe analysis of oriented single crystals. The iron content is found to range from a few hundredths to a few tenths of a weight per cent from crystal to crystal. The optical and chemical properties of the iron appear to be caused by postcrystallization migration and exsolution. Postcrystallization effects may obscure evidence of the original oxidation state and iron concentration of these crystals.

  10. Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical-looping hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers of CLH is developed. ? The second law efficiencies of different metal-based CLC and CLH were determined. ? The lower equilibrium temperature of Ni makes it a better candidate for CLH. ? The conversion rate of Ni and Co is more than 80 percentages. - Abstract: Recently, interest in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has grown because it is a technique that could allow cost-effective carbon capture and storage. Recently, the chemical-looping process was also proposed for the production of hydrogen. Chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH) generation, which is a derivation of CLC, is a water-splitting process that involves the reduction–oxidation of a metal oxide. CLC and CLH can reduce the irreversibility and the extent of heat rejection, thereby improving the cycle efficiency. The current paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of CLH to illustrate its potential for improved efficiency. A methodology for selecting oxygen carriers based on their thermodynamic properties is developed, and several candidate materials are reviewed. From a thermodynamic perspective, metals such as Ni and Fe are more suitable for CLH, whereas metals such as Ca and Cd can provide higher efficiency for CLC. Finally, comments on the practical implementations of CLH in power plants are presented

  12. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  13. The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sapon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history political manipulate - The Principles of the building catalogue coalition and The Regional policy aspects and global world.
    Key words: benchmark; manipulate; criterion; politics

    Résumé: À la frontière de différentes époques, les vieilles théories politiques ont montré leur insolvabilité. Le monde est tombé dans la crise politique, liée aux repères politiques et civils globaux. Cette thèse a analysé la situation politique actuelle, tout en évaluant la théorie politique, concernée par la question de la modernisation et de la mondialisation. La thèse est divisée en cinq parties: les libéraux au nouveau démarrage, les institutions intellectuelles- les mythes et la réalité des modèles politiques, l'histoire politique de manipulation, les principes de la coalition et les aspects de la politique régionale et du monde global.
    Mots-Clés: benchmark; manipulation; critères; politiques

  14. Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

  15. Localizing Theory of Communicative Action for an Analysis of the Development and Modernity Process in Iran --- ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ojagh - ???? ???? ????

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical-empirical attempt in which we will try to examine the development status of Iran based on the modified postulates of Habermas’s theory of communicative action. We will also examine the compatibility of this theoretical framework to Iran’s social conditions. The primary findings of this attempt include: first and at the theoretical level, a change in the relationship between on one hand, the dichotomous concepts of rationality and lack of it and, on the other hand, their attribution to the dichotomy of tradition and modern. The second finding relates to the proposition that; a change in life-world in a situation in which tradition is still dominant is possible. The Iranian experience indicates that the belief systems have acted as an indigenous base for the development of communicative action in Iran. These findings indicate that Habermas’s theory of communicative action is capable of being treated as a development theory that can be localized and be used to explain the development process.--- ??? ????? ?? ???? ????-?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ???. ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???.

  16. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  17. Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

  18. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  19. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  20. Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

  1. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  2. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  3. Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

  4. Moderne schriftbeschouwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Trimp

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Wij willen ons konfronteren met enige moderne trends in de theologie op het punt van de schriftbeschouwing. Daarbij concentreren wij ons vooral op het bekende Nederlandse rapport uit 1981: God met ons.

  5. Emergent Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".

  6. Analysis of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To clarify the risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs) after radiotherapy (RT) versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) in the modern era. Methods: The RT cohort consisted of 2120 patients matched on a 1:1 basis with surgical patients according to age and follow-up time. RT techniques consisted of conventional or two-dimensional RT (2DRT, 36%), three-dimensional conformal RT and/or intensity modulated RT (3DCRT/IMRT, 29%), brachytherapy (BT, 16%), and a combination of 2DRT and BT (BT boost, 19%). Results: The overall SPC risk was not significantly different between the matched-pair (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.39), but the risk became significant >5 years or >10 years after RT (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.36-2.55; HR 4.94, 95% CI 2.18-11.2, respectively). The most significant sites of increased risk were bladder, lymphoproliferative, and sarcoma. Of the different RT techniques, only 2DRT was associated with a significantly higher risk (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.32-2.35), but not BT boost (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.50-1.38), 3DCRT/IMRT (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.21), or BT (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01). Conclusions: Radiation-related SPC risk varies depending on the RT technique and may be reduced by using BT, BT boost, or 3DCRT/IMRT.

  7. Modische Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer opulenten Arbeit untersucht Julia Bertschik die Mode als modernes Phänomen oder besser: als Phänomen der Moderne. Für sie ist Mode nicht nur ein vestimentäres Zeichensystem, sondern eine Spiegelung sozialer und politischer Umschwünge. Somit fungiert Kleidung gleichzeitig als individueller Ausdruck des eigenen Geschmacks und als gesellschaftlicher Code. Die Kleidermode „als Indikator kulturellen Wandels“ wird von Bertschik im Hinblick auf vier Epochen untersucht: Goethezeit, Jahrhundertwende, Weimarer Republik und Nationalsozialismus.

  8. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Deri...

  9. THE ROLE AND THE LIMITS OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN MODERN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Ema MASCA

    2005-01-01

    One of Romania’s priorities for the fulfillment of the objectives generated by its accession to theEuropean Union is to improve its business environment. As part of this objective we have presentedthe essential role of the economic and financial analysis that provides the necessary information fordecision-making process. For the purpose of making an objective analysis, at the end of the paper wehave also presented some of the limits of this resourceful and available instrument.

  10. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  11. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  12. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

  13. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

    Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

    Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enri

  14. Is English the key to access the wonders of the modern world? A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in the world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns (Canagarajah, 1999, 2005; Pennycook, 1994a, 1998a, 2000; Phillipson, 1992, 2000 but also of the compliance of the governments associated with the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 1986. Colombia is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government is implementing a National Bilingualism Project (pnb where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of English over all other languages spoken in the country. This article is a critical discourse analysis of the handbook that sets the standards for competences in English. The analysis of data follows Fairclough¿s textual analysis and shows that the authors of the handbook perpetuate mainstream concepts about the symbolic power of English as the one and only necessary tool for academic and economic success.

  15. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  16. Genetic Geostatistical Framework for Spatial Analysis of Fine-Scale Genetic Heterogeneity in Modern Populations: Results from the KORA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lacava, A N; Walier, M; Holler, D; Steffens, M; Gieger, C; Furlanello, C; Lamina, C; Wichmann, H E; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to investigate fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity in modern humans from a geographic perspective, a genetic geostatistical approach framed within a geographic information system is presented. A sample collected for prospective studies in a small area of southern Germany was analyzed. None indication of genetic heterogeneity was detected in previous analysis. Socio-demographic and genotypic data of German citizens were analyzed (212 SNPs; n = 728). Genetic heterogeneity was evaluated with observed heterozygosity (H O ). Best-fitting spatial autoregressive models were identified, using socio-demographic variables as covariates. Spatial analysis included surface interpolation and geostatistics of observed and predicted patterns. Prediction accuracy was quantified. Spatial autocorrelation was detected for both socio-demographic and genetic variables. Augsburg City and eastern suburban areas showed higher H O values. The selected model gave best predictions in suburban areas. Fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity were observed. In accordance to literature, more urbanized areas showed higher levels of admixture. This approach showed efficacy for detecting and analyzing subtle patterns of genetic heterogeneity within small areas. It is scalable in number of loci, even up to whole-genome analysis. It may be suggested that this approach may be applicable to investigate the underlying genetic history that is, at least partially, embedded in geographic data. PMID:26258132

  17. Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

    2003-01-01

    Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

  18. The chemical and isotopic analysis of English forest glass

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Glass is one of several early modern industries where the development from small-scale workshop to large-scale industry offers a valuable insight into wider socio-economic trends. Previously, medieval and early modern forest (wood ash) glass has been studied using a range of analytical techniques. However, characterisations of production centres and exchange systems for forest glasses are difficult to verify, in part because very few examples of raw glass from furnace sites have been investig...

  19. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis with cold neutrons. A challenge for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis today may be concerned with more detailed questions than just average elemental composition, and the same concern may be expressed over the spatial distribution, chemical form, structure, etc. The development of new techiques capable of answering such questions is fundamental for the evolution of analytical chemistry. Nuclear techniques play an important role in the understanding of the structure and composition of matter, thus acting as a link between the pure chemical and the physical approach. An experimental setup for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis is described. First results are reported and the limitations and further developments are discussed. The technique, dealing with both scattering and absorption of neutrons, seems to be very promising in the investigation of compositional and structural problems of natural materials. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Determination of Myoglobin Stability by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Classic and Modern Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Andrew F.; Crawford, Mary A.; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Few laboratory procedures describe the use of circular dichroism (CD) at the undergraduate level. To increase the number of laboratory exercises using CD, a thermal denaturation study of myoglobin using CD is described to assess protein stability. Values obtained from a more classic linear data analysis approach are consistent with data analyzed…

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of cinnamic acid using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra for cinnamic acid have been recorded for the vibrational and spectroscopic analysis. The observed fundamental frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The computed frequencies and optimized parameters have been calculated by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods and the corresponding results are tabulated. On the basis of the comparison between computed and experimental results assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes are examined. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The alternation of the vibration pattern of the pedestal molecule related to the substitutions was analyzed. The 13C and 1H NMR spectra have been recorded and the chemical shifts have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Mulliken charges, UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of have been calculated and reported. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was constructed.

  2. Flow Injection Analysis and Liquid Chromatography for Multifunctional Chemical Analysis (MCA) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ana V.; Loegel, Thomas N.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    The large class sizes of first-year chemistry labs makes it challenging to provide students with hands-on access to instrumentation because the number of students typically far exceeds the number of research-grade instruments available to collect data. Multifunctional chemical analysis (MCA) systems provide a viable alternative for large-scale…

  3. Observed universality of phase transitions in high-dimensional geometry, with implications for modern data analysis and signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, David; Tanner, Jared

    2009-11-13

    We review connections between phase transitions in high-dimensional combinatorial geometry and phase transitions occurring in modern high-dimensional data analysis and signal processing. In data analysis, such transitions arise as abrupt breakdown of linear model selection, robust data fitting or compressed sensing reconstructions, when the complexity of the model or the number of outliers increases beyond a threshold. In combinatorial geometry, these transitions appear as abrupt changes in the properties of face counts of convex polytopes when the dimensions are varied. The thresholds in these very different problems appear in the same critical locations after appropriate calibration of variables. These thresholds are important in each subject area: for linear modelling, they place hard limits on the degree to which the now ubiquitous high-throughput data analysis can be successful; for robustness, they place hard limits on the degree to which standard robust fitting methods can tolerate outliers before breaking down; for compressed sensing, they define the sharp boundary of the undersampling/sparsity trade-off curve in undersampling theorems. Existing derivations of phase transitions in combinatorial geometry assume that the underlying matrices have independent and identically distributed Gaussian elements. In applications, however, it often seems that Gaussianity is not required. We conducted an extensive computational experiment and formal inferential analysis to test the hypothesis that these phase transitions are universal across a range of underlying matrix ensembles. We ran millions of linear programs using random matrices spanning several matrix ensembles and problem sizes; visually, the empirical phase transitions do not depend on the ensemble, and they agree extremely well with the asymptotic theory assuming Gaussianity. Careful statistical analysis reveals discrepancies that can be explained as transient terms, decaying with problem size. The experimental results are thus consistent with an asymptotic large-n universality across matrix ensembles; finite-sample universality can be rejected. PMID:19805445

  4. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  5. Adventures in Modern Time Series Analysis: From the Sun to the Crab Nebula and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    With the generation of long, precise, and finely sampled time series the Age of Digital Astronomy is uncovering and elucidating energetic dynamical processes throughout the Universe. Fulfilling these opportunities requires data effective analysis techniques rapidly and automatically implementing advanced concepts. The Time Series Explorer, under development in collaboration with Tom Loredo, provides tools ranging from simple but optimal histograms to time and frequency domain analysis for arbitrary data modes with any time sampling. Much of this development owes its existence to Joe Bredekamp and the encouragement he provided over several decades. Sample results for solar chromospheric activity, gamma-ray activity in the Crab Nebula, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts will be displayed.

  6. Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Ifan G

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

  7. THE MODERN TOOLKIT IN THE RESEARCH OF MACROECONOMIC DYNAMICS. 3 - THE PHASE ANALYSIS ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????. 3 – ??????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botascheva F. B.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the third article from the series of the works dedi-cated to the tool methods of the research of macroeco-nomic dynamics the phase space, the phase analysis in it and their macroeconomic appendices are described. Phase pictures alongside with a parameter contain its first derivative (tendency, which in the best degree characterizes aspirations of a macroeconomic process. In a phase space, periodic economic processes (sea-sonal prevalence and cyclicity become rather cyclic or “circular” designs, which facilitate the recognition of economic archetypes. The phase analysis has appeared new, more universal, simple, but at the same time thin, intellectual, mathematically exacted tool at the re-search of macroeconomic conjuncture. It has enabled the possibility to analyze, to represent, to visualize and to predict the development of cycles in macroeco-nomic analytically, numerically and in a graphical way

  8. Idioms-Proverbs Lexicon for Modern Standard Arabic and Colloquial Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hossam S.; Abdou, Sherif M; Gheith, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    Although, the fair amount of works in sentiment analysis (SA) and opinion mining (OM) systems in the last decade and with respect to the performance of these systems, but it still not desired performance, especially for morphologically-Rich Language (MRL) such as Arabic, due to the complexities and challenges exist in the nature of the languages itself. One of these challenges is the detection of idioms or proverbs phrases within the writer text or comment. An idiom or prove...

  9. Testing Methods and Analysis of the Main Electrical Properties of Modernized Locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Dragutin Kosti?; Nenad Jevti?; Petar Markovi?

    2011-01-01

    In the Laboratory of Traction and Rolling Stock systematic research into the methods of testing a traction drive, using the real models has been conducted. The aim of this research was to completely define all elements of the system for testing the main electrical and mechanical properties which include the selection of measuring transducers, the selection and implementation of the system for conditioning and transmitting signals to processing methods and analysis by using application softwar...

  10. A modern hydride generation- cryotrapping system for arsenic speciation analysis at sub-ppb level.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, J. M.; Svoboda, Milan; Stýblo, M.; D?dina, Ji?í

    Münster, 2011. FTM 14. [International Symposium on Metallomics /3./. 15.06.2011-18.06.2011, Münster] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * ICP MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.metallomics2011.org/event/Metallomics2011/Scientific_program.html

  11. Standardisation and comparison of quench indicating parameters in modern liquid scintillation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the liquid scintillation analysis, interferences like quenching, chemiluminescence, variations in background, sample volumes and scintillator affect the measurement considerably. To measure the radionuclide concentrations accurately, all these parameters have to be evaluated. This paper describes the validation of Quench Indicating Parameters (QIP) like SIS and SCR (Spectral Index Sample and Sample Channel Ratio) the effects of different volumes of sample and scintillation media and chemiluminescence decay. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

  13. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  14. Avardunud modernism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojt?ch

    Tallin : Eesti Kunstimuuseum Kumu, 2012 - (Pählapuu, L.), s. 84-105 ISBN 978-9949-485-11-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : "diverse" modernity * machinism * trajectories of relationships * Paris * Berlin * Penza * Riga * center * periphery Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

  16. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  17. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwell Marcus D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

  18. Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group they were 48,451.00 and 46,029.00 RUB/QALY, respectively. The NMB for the control group amounted to 10,790,910.00 and 10,815,840.00 RUB without and with discounting, respectively, while for the study group the values were 11,904,500.00 and 11,927,390.00 RUB.ConclusionsThe results of clinical and economic analysis show that treatment of the metabolic syndrome, including pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance, should be prioritized over mere medical advisory and lifestyle modifications.

  19. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, BjØrn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how ‘Europe’ itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for ‘modernity’ but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

  20. The traumatic rupture of the Achilles’ tendon – an analysis of the modern methods of evaluation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Barda?

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The main aim of this article is an analysis of both advantages anddisadvantages of the modern solutions of treatment – percutaneous surgery, incomparison with the classic methods of treatments described in the surgery of Achilles’tendon.Patients and method. The study was conducted on 23 patients admitted to theOrthopedics and Traumatology Clinic of Cluj-Napoca between January 2011-June2012. Nineteen (19 patients were diagnosed with a complete rupture of the Achillestendon and 4 patients with a partial rupture. The diagnosis of traumatic Achilles tendonruptures was usually clinical, the Ultrasound (common or 3D and the MRI confirmedthe lesion and determined its location and extension. We analyzed the diagnosticmethods, the elapsed time before surgery, the treatment options depending on lesion’slocation, technical difficulties, costs, postoperative care, the average healing time,complications.Results. The Ultrasound was performed in 65.2% of the patients (15 patientsfor confirming the extension of the lesion and it served for pre-operative planning. Inmost of the cases, the classical methods of Achilles tendon reconstruction were used(18 cases. The complications rate was about 8%. We diagnosed an iterative Achillestendon rupture (the patient was initially treated using the percutaneous methods anda delay in cicatrisation.Conclusions. The percutaneous surgical techniques are a viable alternative forthe acute ruptures of Achilles tendon, the classic intervention has clear indications inlesions diagnosed late, in the recurrent tendon ruptures.

  1. 75 FR 56538 - Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement...days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment...the DATES section. Analysis of Agreement Containing...from Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (``Air...

  2. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  3. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  4. Applying the crew reliability model for team error analysis in the modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study implemented a crew reliability model (CRM) for analyzing human errors in a modernized main control room of advanced nuclear power plants. Instrumentation and controls systems in the main control room recently have changed most significantly with the digitalization of human-system interfaces. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants is an important driving force of these changes. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is one of the most common methods to respond to these changes. PRA uses human reliability analysis (HRA) to assess human risk. In emergency situation, failure to detect a problem can have significant influences in process control and considerable effort has been invested in attempting to minimize this error through improved interface design, training, and the allocation of responsibilities within a control room team. This study provides a direction related to the crew errors. Furthermore, this study found that implementing the CRM fully considers the influences of team errors on the target system. The proposed model can be applied to specific systems in conjunction with a consideration of critical elements; they are design basis accidents, critical human actions, human error modes, and performance shaping factors. This model can be used to assist human error analysis in the main control room. Advanced technologies can reduce the occurrence of existed human errors from tradition human-system interfaces. However, the highly integrated room may hide some potential human errors that need to be further investigated. Furthermore, the use of a single example in this study is insufficient. Investigation of further examples in a future study would be useful for verification and validation of the proposed model. (author)

  5. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

  6. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 ?m and 1000 ?m were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

  7. Pooled calibrations and retainment of outliers improve chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Alfaloje, Haedar S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical analysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemporary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experiments with several analytical technologies comprising of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. The scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depends on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of pooled calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of levels of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are compared to predictions of the Horwitz formula. It is suggested that this method is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate that the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analytical sciences because they direct researcher's attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than towards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professional laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of analytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method validation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at laboratories.

  8. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  9. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  10. Microplasmas for chemical analysis: analytical tools or research toys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities of the research groups that have been involved in fabrication, development and characterization of microplasmas for chemical analysis over the last few years is presented. Microplasmas covered include: miniature inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs); capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs); microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs); a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); microhollow cathode discharge (MCHD) or microstructure electrode (MSE) discharges, other microglow discharges (such as those formed between 'liquid' electrodes); microplasmas formed in micrometer-diameter capillary tubes for gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applications, and a stabilized capacitive plasma (SCP) for GC applications. Sample introduction into microplasmas, in particular, into a microplasma device (MPD), battery operation of a MPD and of a mini- in-torch vaporization (ITV) microsample introduction system for MPDs, and questions of microplasma portability for use on site (e.g., in the field) are also briefly addressed using examples of current research. To emphasize the significance of sample introduction into microplasmas, some previously unpublished results from the author's laboratory have also been included. And an overall assessment of the state-of-the-art of analytical microplasma research is provided

  11. Modern bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Toye, John

    2006-01-01

    Max Weber believed that bureaucracy could be understood by analysing its ideal-typical characteristics, and that these characteristics would become more pervasive as the modern age advanced. Weber’s horizontal account of bureaucracy can be criticised on various grounds, including its unrealistic notion of bureaucratic rationality. An alternative view is proposed, namely, that the development of state bureaucracies is driven by the trajectory of the highpower politics in which they are nested....

  12. Moderne dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Hvorfor er ”dannelse” igen blevet et vedkommende begreb i aktuelle diskussioner af identitets- og samfundsmæssige problemer? Hvorfor er dannelsesromanen ikke død? Hvad er det, genren kan? Og hvordan kan en dannelsesroman som Goethes Wilhelm Meisters Læreår gøre os klogere på sammenhængen mellem identitets- og formdannelse? Disse spørgsmål forfølges i bogen. Ambitionen er at reaktualisere såvel dannelsesromanen som Læreår og at vise, hvordan de kan bidrage til en ny forståelse af moderne dannelse...

  13. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  14. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the glass...

  15. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE; Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON; Larisa CIUDIN; Maria-Alexandra CRACIUN

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the co...

  16. Evaluating Geographically Weighted Regression Models for Environmental Chemical Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnota, Jenna; Wheeler, David C.; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many correlated chemicals on disease is often of interest. The relationship between correlated environmental chemicals and health effects is not always constant across a study area, as exposure levels may change spatially due to various environmental factors. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has been proposed to model spatially varying effects. However, concerns about collinearity effects, incl...

  17. Chemical analysis of positive and negative plates, a survey. [nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.

    1978-01-01

    Regular arrays of 1 inch discs cut from chemically impregnated positive and negative plates were sent to various contractors and government organizations for chemical analysis in order to determine whether there is consistency in analysis. Techniques used included NASA procedures as specified, variations, wet chemical techniques, and atomic absorption. The weight, thickness of disc, and active material quantity as measured by four respondents are discussed.

  18. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  19. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  20. Methods of modern mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Michael

    1980-01-01

    This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

  1. The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesi? Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  2. Chemical and microbial analysis of a talik in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, B. T.; Onstott, T. C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Freifeld, B. M.; Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost in high latitude regions plays an important role in the global carbon cycle by storing a significant portion of soil carbon and providing a physical barrier to the release of methane trapped within the frozen soil and in subpermafrost water and hydrates. Projected temperature increases will likely lead to the loss of large areas of continuous permafrost and the development of discontinuous zones featuring through taliks, regions of permanently unfrozen ground within permafrost-dominated regions with the ability to form conduits through the normally impermeable permafrost. The development of through taliks may create a pathway for the migration of methane from within and below the permafrost to the atmosphere, reintroducing naturally sequestered carbon back into the global carbon cycle in the form of a greenhouse gas. To this end, the chemical and microbial composition of a talik system is of interest. Here we report the preliminary results of a subsurface sampling campaign in an Arctic system (Kangerlussuaq, Greenland). In July 2009 a borehole was drilled through the permafrost and into a talik below an overlying lake near the edge of Russell glacier. This borehole was fitted with a temperature probe and a U-tube device used to selectively collect water samples from a depth of 141 meters. Water was purged from the system for geochemical and microbial analysis during the end of the summer season in 2009 and 2010. Samples showed low cell density (300 ppm) though the isotopic signature (?34S = 4.33 ± .22‰) does not appear to indicate high levels of sulfate reduction. An understanding of these systems will help to establish potential for feedbacks on methane release within the system (e.g. anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction) and determine what role taliks may play in a warming Arctic.

  3. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  4. Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrei, Terian.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

  5. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  6. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  7. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis and its implementation in deep tissue with a catheter setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhou-xian; Lin, Jian-die D.; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the relative concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. This study validated the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing liver conditions during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also tested.

  8. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

  9. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Jose Sánchez-Soto; Antonio Ruíz-Conde; Eduardo Garzón Garzón

    2012-01-01

    It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100? and 1000?C) wa...

  10. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas; Catalina Bosch Ojeda

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical me...

  11. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

  12. Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Hasna

    2011-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put i...

  13. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mezentsev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

  14. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V. A., Mezentsev.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND [...] METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients) were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

  15. Savremene metode analize ulja u tehni?kim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Peri?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza ulja na osnovu pravilno definisanog programa predstavlja veoma efikasan metod monitoringa stanja tehni?kih sistema koji obezbe?uje rane upozoravaju?e znake potencijalnih problema, koji vode ka otkazu i zastoju tehni?kih sistema. Ova analiza je veoma efikasan alat programa za monitoring stanja tehni?kih sistema. Mnogobrojni ure?aji i testovi za analizu ulja omogu?avaju kvalitetan monitoring i dijagnosticiranje problema koji nastaju u procesu podmazivanja. Koriš?enjem programa za analizu motornih ulja: skra?uje se neplanirano vreme otkaza vozila, poboljšava pouzdanost vozila, produžava radni vek motora, optimizira interval zamene ulja i smanjuju troškovi održavanja vozila. / Different technical systems require an appropriate lubricant to be used at an appropriate place, at appropriate time and in appropriate quantity. Determination of technical systems condition has a very important role in the development of theory and practice of friction, wear and lubrication. Lubricant is, as a contact element of tribomechanical systems, a carrier of information about the state of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. The analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, thus represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Introduction It is not always simple to determine a type of lubricant, frequency of lubrication and the quantity of lubricant to be used. The optimal recommendation would be to follow specifications of technical system manufacturers, experience, lab research or professional recommendation of lubricant suppliers. Rational lubricant consumption can be obtained by timely oil replacement, which then enables a maximum possible period of use as well as high-quality lubrication. Since the primary role of lubricants is to reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result of wear processes, solid particles from the environment, water and products of fuel combustion. D

  16. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available to other analytical instruments for measuring concentrations of substances other than Ca2+.

  17. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  18. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

  19. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  20. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory

  2. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to de...

  3. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way...

  4. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  5. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text?s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  6. The Hippocratic oath: a comparative analysis of the ancient text's relevance to American and Indian modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, Chandrakant I; Jhala, Khushboo N

    2012-01-01

    Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed. PMID:23032817

  7. Calling and volunteering in modern society:How Weber’s analysis of the Protestant ethic may help understand volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Olav Helge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how the concept of "calling" may help shed light on volunteering as a modern, social phenomenon as "calling" is laid out in the Max Weber's essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism an with a side view to philosophical notions of the "good life".

  8. Use of modern contraception increases when more methods become available: analysis of evidence from 1982–2009

    OpenAIRE

    ROSS, JOHN; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    International data over 27 years show that as each additional contraceptive method became available to most of the population, overall modern contraceptive use rose. But in 2009 only 3.5 methods, on average, were available to at least half the population in surveyed countries. Family planning programs should strive to provide widespread access to a range of methods.

  9. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  10. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis

  11. Modern electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bockris, John O'M

    2007-01-01

    about the First Edition: `A superbly written teaching book which should become indispensable to every student of electrochemistry.' Journal of the American Chemical Society `A truly extraordinary achievement ... An enormous body of electrochemical knowledge and a wealth of stunningly penetrating detail.' Journal of the Electrochemical Society `A must.' Nature about the second edition: `These original, stimulating and informative volumes offer an unusual approach and inter alia provide an excellent entrée to the field for the non-specialist.' Emeritus Professor D

  12. Modern power distribution; Moderne Energieverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenen, P.L. [Moeller-Kolleg Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Modern power supply systems work without interruption, i.e. inspections are limited to defined time intervals (usually between Chrismas and New Year). Outages incur costs between 20,000 and 3.5 million DM/h. A German car body maker, e.g., estimated a cost of 500,000 DM/h. [German] Heutige Energieverteilersysteme (EVT) werden im Dauerbetrieb gefahren. D.h. Revisionen koennen nur waehrend eines festdefinierten Zeitfensters (meist zwischen Weihnachten und Neujahr) durchgefuehrt werden. Bezogen auf diesen Ablauf sind Ausfaelle der Anlage gleich zu setzen mit hohen Folgekosten, welche je nach Branche zwischen 20.000 DM/h und 3,5 Mio DM/h liegen koennen. Ein deutscher Automobilkonzern z.B. bezifferte die Ausfallkosten fuer sein Karosseriewerk auf 500.000 DM/h. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  14. ASTP chemical and microbiological analysis of potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Leslie, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project procedures for potable water system servicing and the results of preflight and postflight chemical and microbiological analyses of the water are discussed. Tables show results of the analyses. The effectiveness of the water system is evaluated.

  15. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  16. X-RAY, MICROSCOPE, AND WET CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES: COMPLEMENTARY TEAM FOR DEPOSIT ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly used techniques for the analysis of potable water scale and corrosion deposits do not provide equivalent information about the chemical nature and significance of the deposits. ptical examination, with unaided eye and with microscopes, provides some useful information. -...

  17. Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

  18. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth - Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  19. Development of pure component property models for chemical product-process design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao

    2013-01-01

    Property prediction models based on the group-contribution+ (GC+) approach have been developed to provide reliable predictions of pure component properties together with uncertainties of predicted property values which is much needed information in performing chemical product and process design and analysis of sustainable chemical processes. For developing property models, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is employed. The methodology includes a parameter es...

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu,; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) as a vegetation standard in chemical and radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfalfa (UST-1361) as a single SRM for use in chemical and radiochemical analysis of vegetation has been reported earlier, interest are shown in this paper. They were obtained in an interlaboratory comparison program currently in progress. Of the 22 split samples 15 have been acknowledged by the participants to test parameters of their interest. The chemical analysis is detailed and the procedures used are described

  2. Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

    1980-01-01

    The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the techni...

  3. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  4. Microwave Processing Applications in Chemical Engineering: Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising fossil fuel energy costs and climate change have generated increased interest in alternative drying methods. Microwave processing applications chemical engineering industry is one possible substitute. The advantages of using microwave processing applications in chemical engineering can range from improved quality, reduced wastage; unique characteristics induced by "volumetric" heating and increased production. However, irrespective of benefits that would accrue if the solution is put into effect, the final hurdle for industry adoption can only be made with the achievement of a financial return on investment. This study analyses the costs and benefits for implementing microwave systems and presents results for economic parameters used in cost calculations. The calculations method is outlined using a corrugated board case study. Furthermore in the age of green awakening microwave processing is argued to help improve process efficiency by using green electric supply hence reducing CO2 emissions.

  5. Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, David M

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

  6. Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    1996-08-01

    The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

  7. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-01-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RA...

  8. Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experimen ts with several analytical technologies comprisi ng of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. Th e scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depen ds on type of analyte and type of app...

  9. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin ki...

  10. Chemical analysis of charged Li/SO(sub)2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Lawson, D.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Barnes, J.; Bis, R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial focus of the program was to confirm that charging can indeed result in explosions and constitute a significant safety problem. Results of this initial effort clearly demonstrated that cells do indeed explode on charge and that charging does indeed constitute a real and severe safety problem. The results of the effort to identify the chemical reactions involved in and responsible for the observed behavior are described.

  11. Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

  12. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu? bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu? feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  13. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel–dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that Ba mobility decreased with increasing aridification due to preferential deposition with clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide or barite on the watershed of Lake Albert.

  14. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  15. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  16. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND E. MARCH

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

  17. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojevi? Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980). The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues rai...

  18. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A

    2006-01-02

    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  19. Modern and post-modern patrimonialism

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Nuno

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the Angolan political system after independence. Its haracterisation confronts two interpretative perspectives or what is here called modern and post-modern patrimonialism, each will be exposed.

  20. Modern post-operative radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer may improve local control and survival: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We hypothesized that modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) could decrease local recurrence (LR) and improve overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: To investigate the effect of modern PORT on LR and OS, we identified published phase III trials for PORT and stratified them according to use or non-use of linear accelerators. Non-individual patient data were used to model the potential benefit of modern PORT in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC treated with induction chemotherapy and resection. Results: Of the PORT phase III studies, eleven trials (2387 patients) were included for OS analysis and eight (1677 patients) for LR. PORT decreased LR, whether given with cobalt, cobalt and linear accelerators, or with linear accelerators only. An increase in OS was only seen when PORT was given with linear accelerators, along with the most significant effect on LR (relative risk for LR and OS 0.31 (p = 0.01) and 0.76 (p = 0.02) for PORT vs. controls, respectively). Four trials (357 patients) were suitable to assess LR rates in stage III NSCLC treated with surgery, in most cases after induction chemotherapy. LR as first relapse was 30% (105/357) after 5 years. In the modeling part, PORT with linear accelerators was estimated to reduce LR rates to 10% as first relapse and to increase the absolute 5-year OS by 13%. Conclusions: This modeling study generates the hypothesis that modern PORT may increase both LR and OS in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC even in patients being treated with induction chemotherapy and surgery

  1. Different Models Used to Interpret Chemical Changes: Analysis of a Curriculum and Its Impact on French Students' Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Isabelle; Meheut, Martine

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the new French curriculum on chemical changes describing the underlying models and highlighting their relations to the empirical level. The authors of the curriculum introduced a distinction between the chemical change of a chemical system and the chemical reactions that account for it. We specify the different roles of…

  2. Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolitographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of some Pakistani crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as API gravity. Specific gravity, Pour point, Calorific value, Kinematic viscosity, Flash point, Reid vapour pressure, Copper corrosion. Condradson carbon, Water and sediments, Total sulphur, salt contents, Distillation range, I.B.P., F.B.P., total recovery, residue and metallic contents of some Pakistani crude oils collected from different oil fields of the Punjab and Sindh provinces has been employed to estimate the amounts of metallic elements, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Ni, Si, Na and K and V. Results have been compared with other international crude oils to assess the quality of Pakistani oils. (author)

  4. The epistemology of modern finance

    OpenAIRE

    De Scheemaekere, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates modern finance’s epistemological status with a special emphasis on its most quantitative part: Black-Scholes option pricing model and its extensions. It zeroes on the analysis of mathematical methods in financial economics and their connection to risk and uncertainty. Risk-neutral valuation, a direct consequence of Black-Scholes model, restricts the range of individual and subjective uncertainty by putting a price on replicable risk, thereby conferring to modern financ...

  5. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  6. Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

  7. Chemical analysis and Vickers hardness of orthodontic mini-implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christiane Cavalcante, Feitoza; Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de, Oliveira; Rafael Leonardo Xediek, Consani; Eloisa Marcantonio, Boeck; Karina Eiras Dela Coleta, Pizzol; Nadia, Lunardi.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic mini-implants are used in clinical practice to provide efficient and aesthetically-pleasing anchorage. AIM: To evaluate the hardness Vickers hardness and chemical composition of mini-implant titanium alloys from five commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty self-drilling mini-implants, six eac [...] h from the following commercial brands, were used: Neodent NEO, Morelli MOR, Sin SIN, Conexão CON, and Rocky Mountain RMO. The hardness and chemical composition of the titanium alloys were performed by the Vickers hardness test and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Vickers hardness was significantly higher in SIN implants than in NEO, MOR, and CON implants. Similarly, VH was significantly higher in RMO implants than in MOR and NEO ones. In addition, VH was higher in CON implants than in NEO ones. There were no significant differences in the proportions of titanium and aluminum in the mini-implant alloy of the five commercial brands. Conversely, the proportion of vanadium differed significantly between CON and MOR/NEO implants. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-implants of different brands presented distinct properties of hardness and composition of the alloy.

  8. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Brown, Richard K; Hutchins, Burleigh M; Freire, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Toward this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Because ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities, and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (?60°C) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations where binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this article, we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples. PMID:23994566

  9. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N..; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; DesMarais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  10. A forward-scatter polarimeter for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Photopolarimeter measures two states of orthogonal polarization parallel and perpendicular to scattering plane, defined by directions of incident and scattering light, to determine effective gaseous depolarization factor. Instrument can be used for environmental, spectroscopic, and meteorological analysis.

  11. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by ca. two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 ?g g?1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 ?g g?1. Concentration variations in enamel are partly induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the Hippopotamids which is dominated by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.5. These elements are well correlated with MgO and Na2O in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process. Presuming that the shape of the tooth is established at the end of the secretion process and apatite composition is in equilibrium with the enamel fluid, the maturation process can be modeled by closed system Rayleigh crystallization. Enamel from many Hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores, but the compositions extend well into the levels of plants and carnivores. Within enamel from single specimens these element ratios covary and provide a specific fingerprint of the Hippopotamid habitat. All specimens together, however, define subparallel trends with different Ba/Sr ranging from 0.1 to 3. This ratio varies on spatial and temporal scales and traces provenance signals as well as the fractionation of the elements in the hydrological cycle. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. The provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from about 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water. The most plausible explanation is that with time, Ba mobility decreased relative to that of Sr. This can arise if preferential adsorption of Ba to clay and Fe-oxide-hydroxide is related to increasing aridification. Additionally, weathering solutions and lake water can become increasingly alkaline and barite becomes stable. In this case, Ba will be preferentially deposited on the watershed of Lake Albert and rivers with low Ba/Sr will feed the habitats of the Hippopotamids.

  12. Biologia química: uma estratégia moderna para a pesquisa em produtos naturais / Chemical biology: a modern strategy for the natural products research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Tallarico, Pupo; Margareth Borges Coutinho, Gallo; Paulo Cezar, Vieira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of the Natural Products Research in Brazil in the last five years (2002-2006), and also discusses how some relevant aspects of the Chemical Biology area could create new research opportunities and challenges for the natural product chemists. In addition, some aspects [...] of the scientific policies and their impact on current projects are discussed.

  13. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeren, Sophie; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture.

  14. The stylistic identity of the metapoet: a corpus-based comparative analysis using translations of modern Greek poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pantopoulos, Iraklis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the stylistic identity of four translators of modern Greek poetry into English and to outline each translator’s distinct stylistic profile. In line with views on the subject expressed by Malmkjær (1996) and Baker (2000) a translator’s profile is seen as being composed by consistent patterns that can be identified throughout their work and which leave their personal mark on the text. A corpus-based methodology is used for the identification and exploration o...

  15. Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

    Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

  16. Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-11-01

    The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

  17. Impact of modern evolution of Paphos town to its ancient necropoleis: a multi-temporal GIS and earth observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, V.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Hellenistic and Roman ancient cemeteries are spread all over the territory of the island of Cyprus, consisting one of the major archaeological data sites. Ancient necropoleis due to their tombs "manufacturing" nature, being almost exclusively underground and hewn out of the natural rock, are preserved in a great majority respect to their equivalent domestic and other kinds of architectural remains which are primarily constructed above the ground. Having that in mind, it's understood that their thorough excavation and study could add significantly to recent archaeological research. Unfortunately, being usually neglected and mainly due to lack of economic resources, no planned excavation of tombs is usually undertaken. On the contrary, most of the tombs are to be found accidentally during infrastructural works or other modern development activities, such as roads, sewage systems and others. This reality of course deprives the archaeologists of a scrupulous study since damages are to be done to the tombs in combination to the tight time schedules that usually pushing towards the fast completion of an archaeological project, not permitting the necessary time for fully understanding in context. In this direction, remote sensing techniques are nowadays an extremely useful tool in the hands of archaeologists, for overlapping the above described modern reality. In the present paper will be briefly addressed the use of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the funerary archaeolandscape of Hellenistic and Roman Cyprus in an effort of sustainable planning, leading to its better preservation.

  18. Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility

  19. Synthesis and analysis in studies of chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.; Hobish, M. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Hua, L. L.; Senaratne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the various processes that may have given rise to life on the Earth have demonstrated the appropriateness of an approach that makes use of analysis and synthesis. Analysis of extraterrestrial samples in the form of meteorites has demonstrated the presence of several precursors of biomolecules, most notably a full suite of nucleic acid bases and nucleotides of biological significance. These species were determined after exhaustive extraction of the sample and subsequent analysis using HPLC, GC, MS, and GC-MS. Procedural blanks indicate that these molecules are likely not the result of contamination during the extraction and analysis process. Similar species were found as products of spark discharge experiments in atmospheres thought to mimic primitive Earth conditions. These results indicate that the basic chemistry underlying these syntheses is common, and that life may not be unique to the Earth. Studies underway in the laboratory make use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a probe to assess associations between selected amino acids and any of several nucleotides comprising their genetic code and genetic anticode sequences. These studies demonstrate a clear selectivity by the anticode sequences, thus confirming the hydrophobicity studies performed by Lacey et al. These studies further support the contention that life is likely a natural result of the physics and chemistry of the universe.

  20. Classification of white varietal wines using chemical analysis and sensorial evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Šnuderl, Katja; Mocak, Jan; Brodnjak-Von?ina, Darinka; Sedlá?kova, Bibiana

    2012-01-01

    The ways of application of multivariate data analysis and ANOVA to classification of white varietal wines are here demonstrated. Wine classification was performed using the following classification criteria: winevariety, year of production, wine producer, and wine quality, as found by sensorial testing (bouquet, colour, and taste). Subjective wine evaluation, made by wine experts, is combined with commonly used chemical and physico-chemical properties, measured in analytical laboratory. Impor...

  1. Computer-Aided Modelling of Short-Path Evaporation for Chemical Product Purification, Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    An important stage in the design process for many chemical products is its manufacture where, for a class of chemical products that may be thermally unstable (such as, drugs, insecticides, flavours /fragrances, and so on), the purification step plays a major role. Short-path evaporation is a safe method, suitable for separation and purification of thermally unstable materials whose design and analysis can be efficiently performed through reliable model-based techniques. This paper presents a gen...

  2. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    OpenAIRE

    Nielen, M. W. F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at controlling chemical contaminants in food. Data are given for analysis of pesticides, natural toxins, veterinary drugs, food additives, adulteration, packaging migrants, and for applications of food...

  3. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  4. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

  5. Analysis of chemical reactivity of burnup molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivity of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 and (TRU)Cl3-NaCl (TRU: transuranium elements) molten salts with burnup has been thermodynamically analyzed with a free-energy minimization method. The results on the fluoride salts reproduced the operational experience of an experimental molten salt reactor (MSRE), particularly the distribution of fission products in the primary system and the corrosion of Hastelloy N. A possibility of U-Pd alloy segregation, which has been neglected, was newly identified. The results on the TRU chloride system indicate possibilities of (1) accumulation of PdTe which acts as a chemical potential source to cause the structural alloy corrosion, (2) segregation of Np-Pu-Pd alloys, (3) difficulty in valence control unlike that in the fluoride salts and (4) condensation of ZrCl4 vapor in the off-gas system. It was shown that the understanding of alloy systems Ni-Cr-Fe-Te, Pd-Ag-Te, U(Np)-Zr-Te etc. is important in feasibility studies of nuclear systems based on the molten salts. (author)

  6. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature on the product quality (degree of cure) are examined by means of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The variations in the activation energy as well as the density of the resin are found to have a strong influence on the centerline degree of cure at the exit whereas the other process parameters have smaller influences. Moreover, different MCS options are examined to investigate their effects on the accuracy of the random output parameter.

  7. Electrophysiological analysis of the nasal chemical senses in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouchi, J; Wang, D; Jiang, X C; Kubie, J; Halpern, M

    1993-01-01

    Electroolfactogram and electrovomeronasogram recordings were made from garter snakes stimulated with vapor of amyl acetate, butanol and of earthworm wash. The olfactory epithelium was more sensitive than the vomeronasal epithelium to all three stimuli. Volatiles from prey washes were capable of stimulating the olfactory epithelium when delivered as airstreams. The vomeronasal epithelium was sensitive only to the air delivery of vapor of amyl acetate. Single unit recordings from the mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb of garter snakes were made in response to liquid delivery of a variety of chemical stimuli including classical odorants, amino acids and proteins derived from prey. All three classes of stimuli altered unit firing in the accessory olfactory bulb. Amyl acetate, earthworm wash, goldfish wash and non-volatile amino acids delivered as liquid stimuli to the vomeronasal epithelium produced responses in the accessory olfactory bulb that were more distinct and reliable than the electrovomeronasogram responses to airborne odorants recorded at the periphery. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed in the accessory olfactory bulb of garter snakes. The direction of the response to a given stimulus differed for different neurons. Responses were frequently biphasic and could last longer than 50 seconds. Individual neurons responded to different classes of stimuli suggesting that they are broadly tuned. PMID:8386586

  8. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard. PMID:16602194

  9. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia de Freitas Eduardo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose e "light" (com redução de açúcares e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars and light (low sugar and the standard brands was made.

  11. Achocolatados: análise química / Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mércia de Freitas, Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredient [...] es lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais. Abstract in english Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and [...] whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

  12. Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, F. G.; Bache, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTIT-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M F; Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V

    1978-01-01

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  14. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  15. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data. PMID:25647718

  16. Pooled Calibrations and Retainment of Outliers Improved Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Sattar Hassan Alfaloje, Haedar

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has a large responsibility in society, and credibility and reliability are important concepts associated with chemical ana lysis. Metrology and Quality Assurance (QA) are key areas of interest in contemp orary research. Quality in measurements is illustrated by a series of experimen ts with several analytical technologies comprisi ng of ICP-MS, GC-MS and AAS. Th e scientific methodology relies on the concept of reproducibility that depen ds on type of analyte and type of apparatus. By applying the principle of poo led calibrations it is shown that the performance of the apparatus in terms of leve ls of uncertainty can be tested in a single laboratory. The uncertainties are com pared to predictions of the Horwitz formu la. It is suggested that this m ethod is universally applicable not only to the actual technologies but also to other technologies in other fields of science. The results indicate t hat the procedures outlined in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide are of tremendous value to analyticalsciences because they direct researcher’s attention towards the concept of consensus values rather than tow ards true values. Introduction of certified reference materials (CRM’s) in metrology has provided much new information on working habits in professiona l laboratories and CRM’s may be applied to establish the true level of uncertainty for a given type of ana lytical method. Finally, it is proposed to devise a new procedure of method val idation that facilitates QA in general, thus saving many resources at labora tories.

  17. The SFM/ToF-SIMS combination for advanced chemically-resolved analysis at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) allows the 3D-compositional analysis of samples or devices. Typically, the topographical data obtained by SFM is used to determine the initial sample topography and the absolute depth of the ToF-SIMS analysis. Here ToF-SIMS and SFM data sets obtained on 2 prototypical samples are explored to go beyond conventional 3D-compositional analysis. SFM topographical and material contrast maps are combined with ToF-SIMS retrospective analysis to detect features that would have escaped a conventional ToF-SIMS data analysis. In addition, SFM data is used to extrapolate the chemical information beyond the spatial resolution of ToF-SIMS, allowing the mapping of the chemical composition at the nanoscale

  18. Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

  19. ?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

  20. Chemical analysis of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd.--antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Sybilla M; Graikou, Konstantia; G?owniak, Kazimierz; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-03-01

    A new iridoid glucoside named 10-isovaleroyl-dihydropenstemide (1), along with nine known compounds was isolated from the aerial part of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd. The known compounds include three iridoid glucosides, one phenylpropanoid glucoside, one monoterpene glucoside, one monoterpene lactone and three flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Additionally four phenolic acids as well as a fatty acid were determined through GC-MS analysis. All isolated compounds and the crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against six Gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as against three human pathogenic fungi. PMID:22155592

  1. Analysis of physical and chemical explosions inside a flow pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work in our analytical investigation of explosions inside a flow network, which emphasizes the explosive event itself. A special finite-difference scheme known as Flux-Corrected Transport has been adapted to solve gas-dynamic problems with large flow gradients, including shocks and contact surfaces. The results of this work can be used to supply the source or driving force for our far-field analysis. A sample model of the problem of shock and contact surface propagation is presented

  2. Analysis of Pfizer compounds in EPA's ToxCast chemicals-assay space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Falgun; Greene, Nigel

    2014-01-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the ToxCast program in 2007 with the goal of evaluating high-throughput in vitro assays to prioritize chemicals that need toxicity testing. Their goal was to develop predictive bioactivity signatures for toxic compounds using a set of in vitro assays and/or in silico properties. In 2009, Pfizer joined the ToxCast initiative by contributing 52 compounds with preclinical and clinical data for profiling across the multiple assay platforms available. Here, we describe the initial analysis of the Pfizer subset of compounds within the ToxCast chemical (n = 1814) and in vitro assay (n = 486) space. An analysis of the hit rate of Pfizer compounds in the ToxCast assay panel allowed us to focus our mining of assays potentially most relevant to the attrition of our compounds. We compared the bioactivity profile of Pfizer compounds to other compounds in the ToxCast chemical space to gain insights into common toxicity pathways. Additionally, we explored the similarity in the chemical and biological spaces between drug-like compounds and environmental chemicals in ToxCast and compared the in vivo profiles of a subset of failed pharmaceuticals having high similarity in both spaces. We found differences in the chemical and biological spaces of pharmaceuticals compared to environmental chemicals, which may question the applicability of bioactivity signatures developed exclusively based on the latter to drug-like compounds if used without prior validation with the ToxCast Phase-II chemicals. Finally, our analysis has allowed us to identify novel interactions for our compounds in particular with multiple nuclear receptors that were previously not known. This insight may help us to identify potential liabilities with future novel compounds. PMID:24328225

  3. O direito moderno sob a ótica dos clássicos da sociologia: análises e questionamentos / Le droit moderne dans la perspective des classiques de la sociologie: analyses et questionnements / Modern law under the lens of the classics of sociology: analysis and questions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amílcar Cardoso Vilaça de, Freitas; Elizardo Scarpati, Costa.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se, neste artigo, fazer uma análise acerca do direito moderno a partir das três abordagens clássicas da sociologia - da perspetiva weberiana, durkhemiana e marxiana sobre o campo do direito. Procurar-se-á especificar as diferentes interpretações sociológicas, discutindo-as a partir das rela [...] ções sociais e políticas estabelecidas entre a sociedade civil, o Estado e as ideologias políticas que concretizam a atual configuração do direito. Assim, como se trata de visões fundadoras, interessa-nos tanto o que elas propuseram quanto o que elas não puderam responder, reclamando continuidades da sociologia jurídica contemporânea, com atenção especial para o caso brasileiro. Portanto, pretende-se demonstrar a abertura paradigmática que a sociologia do direito possui desde sua formação e como o direito, como temática sociológica, está presente desde a fundação da disciplina. Abstract in english In this article, we intend to undertake an analysis of modern law, working from three classical, sociological approaches (the Weberian, Durkheimian, and Marxian perspectives) to the field of law. We will seek to specify the different sociological interpretations, discussing them departing from the p [...] olitical and social relations established between civil society, the State and the political ideologies that solidify the current configuration of the law. In this manner, and given that one deals with foundational visions, they interest us as much for what they propose as for what they cannot respond to, claiming a continuity with contemporary, juridical sociology, with a special attention given to the Brazilian case. As such, we intend to demonstrate the paradigmatic place that the sociology of law has possessed since its formation and how the law, as a sociological theme, is present at the foundation of the discipline.

  4. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-03-14

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  5. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  6. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

  7. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevi? Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  8. Technical Note: Anatomic identification of isolated modern human molars: testing Procrustes aligned outlines as a standardization procedure for elliptic fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corny, Julien; Détroit, Florent

    2014-02-01

    The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses ("EFAproc" method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated ("leave one individual out") percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. PMID:24242977

  9. Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This feature is available for PC Windows users and provides simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) features. The productivity gains for both new, and experienced users from this userfriendly interface will be enormous, and the increased user productivity will pay back the developmental costs. RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 has been moderized and restructured in order to enhance the code portability, maintenance capability, readability, and flexibility. User convenience for PC Windows users has been realized by the on-line graphical processing through Windows programming. It should be noted that the code strcuture was fully domesticated, and future improvements could be easily carried out with the restructured version of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2

  10. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. PMID:25710895

  11. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

  12. Analysis of energy use and carbon losses in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P.W. [ECN Energie Efficiency in de Industrie, Petten (Netherlands); Neelis, M.L.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K. [Copernicus Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-12-15

    A preliminary bottom-up analysis of the energy use in the chemical industry has been performed, using a model containing data sets on production processes for 52 of the most important bulk chemicals as well as production volumes for these chemicals. The processes analysed are shown to cover between 70 and 100% of the total energy use in the chemical sector. Energy use and the heat effects of the reactions taking place are separately quantified. The processes are also compared with energetically ideal processes following the stoichiometric reactions. The comparison shows that there is significant room for process improvements, both in the direction of more selective processes and in the direction of further energy savings.

  13. Analysis of energy use and carbon losses in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P.W. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry EEI, Petten (Netherlands); Neelis, M.; Patel, M.; Blok, K. [Copernicus Institute , Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-05-01

    A preliminary bottom-up analysis of the energy use in the chemical industry has been performed, using a model containing datasets on production processes for 52 of the most important bulk chemicals as welt as production volumes for these chemicals. The processes analysed are shown to cover between 70 and 100% of the total energy use in the chemical sector. Energy use and the heat effects of the reactions taking place are separately quantified. The processes are also compared with energetically ideal processes following the stoichiometric reactions. The comparison shows that there is significant room for process improvements, both in the direction of more selective processes and in the direction of further energy savings.

  14. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  15. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands

  17. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

  18. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  19. Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The areas studied during the period of the contract included determinations of cross sections for nuclear reactions, determination of neutron capture cross sections of radionuclides, application of special activation techniques, and x-ray counting, elucidation of synergic solvent extraction mechanisms and development of new solvent extraction techniques, and the development of a PIXE analytical facility. The thermal neutron capture cross section of 22Na was determined, and cross sections and energy levels were determined for 20Ne(n,?)17O, 20Ne(n,P)20F, and 40Ar(n,?)37S. Inelastic scattering with 2 to 3 MeV neutrons followed by counting of the metastable states permits analysis of the following elements: In, Sr, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Bromine can be detected in the presence of a 500-fold excess of Na and/or K by thermal neutron activation and x-ray counting, and as little as 0.3 x 10-9 g of Hg can be detected by this technique. Mediun energy neutrons (10 to 160 MeV) have been used to determine Tl, Pb, and Bi by (n,Xn) and (n,PXn) reactions. The reaction 19F(P,?)76O has been used to determine as little as 50 ?mol of Freon -14. Mechanisms for synergic solvent extractions have been elucidated and a new technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction has been developed in which the neutral complex is rapidly extracted propylene carbonate by raising and lowering the temperature of the system. An external-beam PIXE system has been developed for trace element analyses of a variety of sample types. Various sample preparation techniques have been applied to a diverse range of samples including marine sediment, coral, coal, and blood

  20. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-11-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al). For the majority (five out of six) of the AGB targets, we find that the abundances of both iron and titanium determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O–Na, Al–Mg, and Na–Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for GC stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first-generation stars are expected to lie, similar to what was recently found for the AGB population of NGC 6752. While the sodium and aluminum abundances could be underestimated as a consequence of the NLTE bias affecting iron and titanium, the oxygen line used does not suffer from the same effects, and the lack of O-poor AGB stars therefore is a solid result. We can thus conclude that none of the investigated AGB stars belongs to the second stellar generation of M62. We also find an RGB star with extremely high sodium abundance ([Na/Fe] = +1.08 dex). Based on observations collected at the ESO-VLT (Cerro Paranal, Chile) under program 193.D-0232. Also based on observations (GO10120 and GO11609) with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, C.N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. ?56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ? 0. These near-zero bulk ?56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero ?56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (?56Fe ? -1.5 to -0.5?) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2?. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-?56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  2. Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

  3. Thermodynamics analysis of uranium's chemical species, migration and deposition in groundwater of a certain place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamics analysis system of U migrating by hydrological and geochemical species is got by combining the thermodynamics balance analysis mode and the geochemical condition. The uranium's chemical species and migration species in groundwater of a certain place have been calculated. The results shows: UO2(CO3)22- is 84.1%, UO2(CO3)0 is 8.7% and UO2(CO3)34- is 6.5%

  4. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Angeline Torey; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Chen Yeng; Lachimanan Yoga Latha

    2010-01-01

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform ...

  5. Thermal analysis, correlation between physical and chemical properties of humic acids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?erík, J.; Novák, František; Madronová, L.; Novák, J.

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 71-83 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - (Chemistry Research and Applications) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : humic acids * thermal analysis * physical and chemical properties Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  7. Estimation of Macronutrient Content in Kindergartens Meals: Food Composition Tables or Chemical Analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Konstansa, Lazarevic; Dusica, Stojanovic; Dragan, Bogdanovic

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The nutrition of children in kindergartens has a great significance for proper growth and development of children. In order to save time and money, the control of macronutrients content is performed by calculations using food composition tables instead of performing a chemical analysis.

  8. MUTAGENICITY AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the use of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay to perform bioassay-directed chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires in both a small laboratory study using tires cut into two sizes (CHUNK and SHRED) and a field study of the larg...

  9. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (?g/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  10. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

  11. Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldherr Steffen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point of infeasibility with the chemical master equation. Results In this article, we apply parametric model order reduction techniques in order to construct accurate low-dimensional parametric models of the chemical master equation. These surrogate models can be used in various parametric analysis task such as identifiability analysis, parameter estimation, or sensitivity analysis. As biological examples, we consider two models for gene regulation networks, a bistable switch and a network displaying stochastic oscillations. Conclusions The results show that the parametric model reduction yields efficient models of stochastic biochemical reaction networks, and that these models can be useful for systems biology applications involving parametric analysis problems such as parameter exploration, optimization, estimation or sensitivity analysis.

  12. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to improve control methods (e.g. legal, b

  13. Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Staniek; Gessner, A.; J. Zielnica; W. Ptaszy?ski; A. Myszkowski; O. Ciszak; A. Stoi?

    2012-01-01

    The Finite element method (FEM) was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

  14. Chemical data visualization and analysis with incremental generative topographic mapping: big data challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-01-26

    This paper is devoted to the analysis and visualization in 2-dimensional space of large data sets of millions of compounds using the incremental version of generative topographic mapping (iGTM). The iGTM algorithm implemented in the in-house ISIDA-GTM program was applied to a database of more than 2 million compounds combining data sets of 36 chemicals suppliers and the NCI collection, encoded either by MOE descriptors or by MACCS keys. Taking advantage of the probabilistic nature of GTM, several approaches to data analysis were proposed. The chemical space coverage was evaluated using the normalized Shannon entropy. Different views of the data (property landscapes) were obtained by mapping various physical and chemical properties (molecular weight, aqueous solubility, LogP, etc.) onto the iGTM map. The superposition of these views helped to identify the regions in the chemical space populated by compounds with desirable physicochemical profiles and the suppliers providing them. The data sets similarity in the latent space was assessed by applying several metrics (Euclidean distance, Tanimoto and Bhattacharyya coefficients) to data probability distributions based on cumulated responsibility vectors. As a complementary approach, data sets were compared by considering them as individual objects on a meta-GTM map, built on cumulated responsibility vectors or property landscapes produced with iGTM. We believe that the iGTM methodology described in this article represents a fast and reliable way to analyze and visualize large chemical databases. PMID:25423612

  15. Strategy of modernization of Sonatrach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of modernization of Sonatrach proceeds from an analysis which assumes as fundamentals : technological evolution as a source of competitive advantage, the careful observation of the strategies followed by the main actors of the international oil industry, the evolution of relationship between the State and the state owned enterprise. (Author)

  16. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, T.; Kutzner, C.; Kropp, M.; Brokmann, G.; Lang, W.; Steinke, A.; Kienle, A.; Hauptmann, P.

    2010-10-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected.

  17. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  18. Stratospheric Sampling and In Situ Atmospheric Chemical Element Analysis During Meteor Showers: A Resource Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Resources studies for asteroidal mining evaluation have depended historically on remote sensing analysis for chemical elements. During the November 1998 Leonids meteor shower, a stratospheric balloon and various low-density capture media were used to sample fragments from Comet Tempel-Tuttle debris during a peak Earth crossing. The analysis not only demonstrates how potential sampling strategies may improve the projections for metals or rare elements in astromining, but also benchmarks materials during low temperature (-60 F), high dessication environments as seen during atmospheric exposure. The results indicate high aluminum, magnesium and iron content for various sampled particles recovered, but generalization to the sporadic meteors expected from asteroidal sources will require future improvements in larger sampling volumes before a broad-use strategy for chemical analysis can be described. A repeat of the experimental procedure is planned for the November 1999 Leonids' shower, and various improvements for atmospheric sampling will be discussed.

  19. Modernism / Andrus Kallastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

  20. The first modern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known. PMID:22781582

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  2. Extracting chemical information from plane wave calculations by a 3D 'fuzzy atoms' analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakó, I.; Stirling, A.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mayer, I.

    2013-03-01

    Bond order and valence indices have been calculated by the method of the three-dimensional 'fuzzy atoms' analysis, using the numerical molecular orbitals obtained from plane wave DFT calculations, i.e., without introducing any external atom-centered functions. Weight functions of both Hirshfeld and Becke types have been applied. The results are rather close to the similar 'fuzzy atoms' ones obtained by using atom-centered basis sets and agree well with the chemical expectations, stressing the power of the genuine chemical concepts.

  3. Observations on the morphology and chemical analysis of medullary granules in chinchilla hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of the medullary granules of white and grey chinchilla hair was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis in an attempt to clarify their structure and function. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and amino acid analysis showed them to be composed of melanin. The sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy is discussed. The metal content was qualitatively established by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and quantitatively determined on a Varian Techtron model AAs atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amino acid analysis of the granule, was carried out on a Beckman 121 amino acid analyser. Information is provided on the amino acid composition of the medullary granules as well as its metal content

  4. Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Staniek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finite element method (FEM was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

  5. Late-Modern Symbolism : Continuity and Discontinuity Between the Modern and the Pre-Modern in Durkheim’s Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, BjØrn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part.

  6. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.

  7. Abstracts of the international conference on modern analytical methods and devices in geology and environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on modern analytical methods and devices in geology and environment protection was held on 12-14 October, 1998 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern physical and chemical analytical methods. About 50 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: X-ray spectroscopy and neutron activation methods of analysis, analytical methods based on atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chromatography and the use of various analytical methods in mining including uranium mining. (A.A.D.)

  8. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  9. MODERN ROLE OF THE REPORT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS AND THE FEATURES OF ITS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babackov A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the statement of financial performance in the current conditions. Factor analysis of earnings is studied in detail. The basic principles and steps of constructing a report for RAS and IAS have been revealed

  10. Calibration and validation of EchoMRI™ whole body composition analysis based on chemical analysis of piglets, in comparison with the same for DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Kovner, Israel; Taicher, Gersh Z.; Mitchell, Alva D.

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to appraise a new EchoMRI™ device for body composition analysis (BCA) of infants and to compare it with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using chemical analysis as a reference method.

  11. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  12. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

  13. Low Cost Long Distance Detector for Explosives and Chemical Analysis by IEC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Miley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A radiation source for detecting specific chemicals at several meter distances even behind walls, car doors or other barriers is the application of Million electron Volts (MeV neutrons from nuclear fusion reactions at such low intensities to avoid any danger for human bodies. The chemical analysis consists in the neutron activation of nuclei emitting then gamma radiation of lines very specific for the excited nuclei. The neutron generation by the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC had been developed to a level where very low cost neutron generators in mass production may be developed with a power supply from a normal AC plug-in or a battery. For specific chemicals e.g. the ratio of nitrogen against other elements used in all explosives, the selection of few specific gamma lines for the detectors may be of sufficiently low cost in the case of mass production.

  14. New materials and multidimensional cluster analysis for SAW chemical sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Chuanjing, Xu [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Allred, R.E. [Adherent Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We use six-element arrays of 97-MHz ST-quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices to detect changes in thin-film mass and mechanical properties resulting from sorption of analytes by films representing two new classes of chemical sensor interface: self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and plasma-grafted films (PGFs). While these materials do not display exceptional chemical selectivity, various combinations of the 7 different SAMs and 8 PGFs examined to produce distinct response patterns for each of 13 analytes. The analytes include aliphatic, aromatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons; alcohols; ketones; organophosphonates; and water. Evaluation of the SAW array data using multidimensional cluster analysis techniques show that each chemical species can be correctly identified 100% of the time over the 9%- to 49%-of-saturation range using data from many combinations of four or more films.

  15. Chemical Analysis of Primitive Objects Using a Slitless Ultraviolet Meteor Spectrometer (CAPO-SUMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Wdowiak, T.; Lowrance, J.; Carruthers, G.; Jenniskens, P.; Gerakines, P.

    2003-01-01

    Measure the elemental composition in both random meteors and in the bolides forming specific meteor streams (these are traceable to specific small bodies in the solar system). These will yield the average chemical composition and degree of chemical variability in a statistically significant number of planetesimals. CAPO-SUMS is functionally equivalent to a series of multiple, small-body sample analysis missions, but provides much more analytical capability than is possible on any orbital or flyby mission due to the vaporization, ionization and ultraviolet emission from the ablating bolide as it enters the atmosphere. CAPO-SUMS will provide a chemical context from which the detailed analytical studies provided by a cometary or asteroidal lander mission can be interpreted.

  16. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  17. Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

  18. Modern state and perspectives of polarography with accumulation in analysis of semiconductor materials and high pure substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey gives an exposition of the present state and perspective uses of polarography with accumulation of superconductor materials and superhigh-purity substances in the analysis. The problem of increasing the sensitivity of the polarographic technique is considered. Procedures for determining a number of micro-impurities in superhigh-purity substances (such as Cd, Se, Te) are discussed. Theoretical and experimental evaluations of the resolving power and mutual influence of elements show that by using the polarographic technique with accumulation it is possible to determine the content of 5 to 6 elements from one polarogram. Further a number of examples are presented in the survey illustrating the application of the polarographic technique with accumulation for solving certain problems encountered in the science of semiconductor materials: analysis of reactors and superhigh-purity water, analysis of superhigh-purity metals and alloys (e.g. determination of In and Cd impurities in lead). The application of this technique assumes the employment of such methods as separation and concentration of extraction, ion exchange, distiliation, electrolysis

  19. Analysis of practical use of modern internet technology as a mean of marketing communications in the field of B2B and B2C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Melnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of modern Internet technologies as the tool of marketing communication on the example of B2B and B2C areas of companies. The main objectives are: to explore modern tools and technology of Internet communications; to identify their kinds; to analyze the main features of the Internet communications complex (tools and technologies, using selected companies; to conduct a performance evaluation of the use of Internet communications. The results of the analysis. The Internet marketing communications complex is a specific action plan aimed at achieving the goals of the company through its implementation on the Internet. Internet marketing complex includes traditional communication tools: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, personal selling, sponsorship and modern facilities due to the specifics of the Internet resource (own corporate site, content sites, portals, banners, virtual communities, social networks, forums, message boards, search engines, etc. that are implemented using Internet technology (social media marketing, viral marketing, product placement, lead generation, search engine optimization, targeting, etc.. EFSOL Company’s Internet communications complex has a branded SEO-optimized website, base of dedicated analytical materials, contextual advertising, banner advertising, base of thematic Internet resources (portals, forums, electronic bulletin boards, etc. that helps to accommodate analytical and advertising subject content and personal communication. BASK Company uses the following Internet technologies: functional SEO-optimized site, contextual advertising and sponsorship, social work in social media marketing and personal communication. Conversion was calculated as the ratio of sales to the number of orders as a percentage. The average conversion was 26%. It means that the advertising company targeted on the wrong audience or has not attractive enough material on the site. Net income for the month of EFSOL Company is 2 040 000 monetary units. Total revenue for the month of BASK Company is 3 404 935 monetary units. As a result of evaluating the effectiveness of the advertising budget use it can be concluded that in the field of B2C acquisition cost per customer is much smaller than in B2B. Thus, the rational use of Internet communication marketing complex enables companies to operate successfully and to occupy leading positions in various fields. Conclusions and directions of the future reseaches. Analysis of the efficiency of Internet communications tools usage was conducted by using the Yandex Metrika, Google Analytics and internal social networking services that are used for network and pages analysis. According to the results of the analysis the BASK Company has more income than EFSOL Company. It is because of the acquisition cost per customer in the EFSOL Company more than 10 times larger. Results of research can be the basis of the formation of an expanded classification of tools, forms, appliances and technologies of marketing Internet communications, the method of their selection and evaluation of efficiency as traditional scientific and methodological approaches do not take into account the characteristics of the Internet as a media resource.

  20. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine longterm trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a ‘Matthew’ principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  1. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  2. Chemical ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasivirta, J. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment.

  3. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  4. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  5. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Torey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R2 = 0.8685, rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  6. Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LützhØft, Hans-Christian Holten; Birch, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2000 the European Union implemented the European Water Framework Directive of which the overall aim is to maintain or obtain good ecological and chemical status of European near coastal waters, lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater as well as artificial water bodies as docks and canals (EU, 2000). It is also required to establish inventories of sources to pollution, to design and perform monitoring programs as well as to outline strategies to reduce emissions if the environmental quality standards are exceeded. The aim of this study was to compare chemical analysis performed on urban surface runoff originating from a well defined catchment of Copenhagen (Denmark) with an inventory of potential pollution sources for the same catchment. The selected catchment covers an area with roads, a shopping centre, a parking lot, office buildings, a gymnasium and some restaurants. The literature approach is limited to the range of included PSs and to how and which information is compiled, whereas the analytical chemical approach is limited to the selection of analyzed substances, sensitivity and precision. Comparing the two approaches of chemical analysis with literature study to identify contaminants reveals a discrepancy in the exact identity, though the overall findings are similar.

  7. Comparative analysis of the reference GCFR-PROTEUSMOX lattice with MCNPX-15e and ERANOS-2.0 in conjunction with modern nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, a wide range experimental program (GCFR-PROTEUS) was carried out at PSI's critical facility PROTEUS to study the physics characteristics of gas-cooled fast reactors. This paper presents the results of a series of new calculations based on the analysis of the reference test lattice in these experiments, viz. a regular hexagonal array of steel-clad, 15%-total-Pu PUO2/UO2 rods in air. The current study has been carried out using the deterministic fast-reactor code system ERANOS-2.0, largely employing the cell code ECCO and the Monte Carlo code MCNPX-2.5e, in conjunction with different modern nuclear data libraries. Globally, good agreement is obtained between the different calculations for most of the important reaction rates which were measured at the center of the test lattice (relative to the fission of 239Pu). For these reaction rate ratios, ERANOS-2.0 results obtained in conjunction with adjusted JEF-2.2 data (adjustments primarily made from the analysis of sodium-cooled fast-spectrum systems) have been found to be in good agreement (i.e. within -1?), with both MCNPX-2.5e using the (unadjusted) JEF-2.2 data library and, even more important, with the experimental results. This provides useful indication that existing computational tools show an adequate level of accuracy for design studies of advanced gas-cooled fast reactors using conventional fuel pins. (authors)

  8. Coupling passive sampling with in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis to understand combined effects of bioaccumulative chemicals in blood of marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Escher, Beate I; Limpus, Colin J; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Conventional target analysis of biological samples such as blood limits our ability to understand mixture effects of chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rapid passive sampling technique using the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for exhaustive extraction of mixtures of neutral organic chemicals accumulated in blood of green turtles, in preparation for screening in in vitro bioassays. We designed a PDMS-blood partitioning system based on the partition coefficients of chemicals between PDMS and major blood components. The sampling kinetics of hydrophobic test chemicals (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; PCDDs) from blood into PDMS were reasonably fast reaching steady state in chemicals from 5mL blood into 0.94g PDMS was 62-84%, which is similar to analytical recoveries in conventional solvent extraction methods. The validated method was applied to 15 blood samples from green turtles with known concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides. The quantified chemicals explained most of the dioxin-like activity (69-98%), but less than 0.4% of the oxidative stress response. The results demonstrate the applicability of PDMS-based passive sampling to extract bioaccumulative chemicals from blood as well as the value of in vitro bioassays for capturing the combined effects of unknown and known chemicals. PMID:26091870

  9. Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

  10. THz-Raman: accessing molecular structure with Raman spectroscopy for enhanced chemical identification, analysis, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyler, Randy A.; Carriere, James T. A.; Havermeyer, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Structural analysis via spectroscopic measurement of rotational and vibrational modes is of increasing interest for many applications, since these spectra can reveal unique and important structural and behavioral information about a wide range of materials. However these modes correspond to very low frequency (~5cm-1 - 200cm-1, or 150 GHz-6 THz) emissions, which have been traditionally difficult and/or expensive to access through conventional Raman and Terahertz spectroscopy techniques. We report on a new, inexpensive, and highly efficient approach to gathering ultra-low-frequency Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra (referred to as "THz-Raman") on a broad range of materials, opening potential new applications and analytical tools for chemical and trace detection, identification, and forensics analysis. Results are presented on explosives, pharmaceuticals, and common elements that show strong THz-Raman spectra, leading to clear discrimination of polymorphs, and improved sensitivity and reliability for chemical identification.

  11. Quantitative analysis of abused drugs in physiological fluids by gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for quantitative analysis of commonly abused drugs in physiological fluids using gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The methods are being evaluated in volunteer analytical and toxicological laboratories, and analytical manuals describing the methods are being prepared. The specific drug and metabolites included in this program are: ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, methadone, phencyclidine, methaqualone, morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam, and N-desmethyldiazepam. The current analytical methods utilize relatively conventional instrumentation and procedures, and are capable of measuring drug concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml. Various newer techniques such as sample clean-up by high performance liquid chromatography, separation by glass capillary chromatography, and ionization by negative ion chemical ionization are being investigated with respect to their potential for achieving higher sensitivity and specificity, as well as their ability to facilitate simultaneous analysis of more than one drug and metabolite. (Auth.)

  12. ISS Expeditions 16 Thru 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of the chemical analysis of the potable water supply from the International Space Station (ISS) expeditions 16 thru 20. Both Russian ground water and shuttle-transferred water are available for the use of the ISS crew's requirements. This is supplemented with condensate water and water form the Water Recovery System (WRS). An overview of the condensate H2O recovery system is given and the WRS is described and diagrammed. The water quality requirements, the handling, and analytical methods for the inorganic and organic tests are reviewed. The chemical analysis results for expeditions 16-20 archival water samples collected from the various water sources indicate that all of the ISS potable water supplies were acceptable for crew consumption.

  13. An alpha particle experiment for chemical analysis of the Martian surface and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.; Patterson, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An alpha particle experiment similar to the one performed successfully on the Surveyor lunar missions is described. It is designed to provide a chemical analysis of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Analyses of rocks of known and unknown compositions have been made under simulated Martian conditions. The accuracies attained are generally comparable to those of the Surveyor lunar analyses. Improvements have been achieved in determining carbon and oxygen, so that a few per cent of water or carbonates in rocks can be detected. Some aspects of the integration of such an experiment with the spacecraft, a possible mission profile, and some other problems associated with a soft-landing mission to Mars are discussed. The importance of such a chemical analysis experiment in answering current questions about the nature and history of Martian surface material and its suitability for life processes is presented.

  14. Análise química da biomassa - uma revisão das técnicas e aplicações / Chemical analysis of biomass - a review of techniques and applications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sílvio, Vaz Júnior; Itânia Pinheiro, Soares.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Use of biomass as an alternative to nonrenewable feedstock for energy, materials, and chemicals is currently a prominent theme for industry and R Countries like Brazil, USA, and Germany are spending resources and efforts to promote a green economy based on biomass supply chains. Chemical analysis is [...] an important tool to ensure quality, reliability, and to suggest the best potential use for the biomass, thereby enhancing its economic potential. Analytical techniques can identify chemical components, characterize their properties, and determine their concentration. This article discusses the commonly employed techniques and their application in chemical analysis of biomass and its products.

  15. Assessment of chosen microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of ground water by factor analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ur?ová, Libuše

    Bratislava : Institute of Hydrology SAS, 2003, s. 125-134. ISBN 80-89139-02-7. [Posterový de? s medzinárodnou ú?as?ou a Den otvorených dverí na ÚH SAV /11./. Bratislava (SK), 20.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA3060102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : groundwater * chemical, microbiological and physical qualities * factor analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  16. Quality system of the Chemical Analysis Laboratory to fulfill the requirements with Certification Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work was described the Quality System established in the Chemical Analysis Department to fulfill with the Organization requirements, personnel, measurement equipment, calibration, working procedures, etc. to get official acknowledgment by the National Assurance System for Testing laboratories, dependent of the General Standards Direction. There are described the available resources, the performance and control of each of one principal points of the system. (Author)

  17. Primary reference materials for chemical composition analysis - Proposal for an operational definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässelbarth, W

    1996-01-01

    A metrologically motivated concept of a "Primary reference material (PRM)" for chemical composition analysis is proposed. This concept turns out to be essentially equivalent to that of a "Certified reference material (CRM)", as described in the relevant ISO Guides. Since the majority of actually available CRMs are far from realizing the theoretical concept, it is proposed to re-name and moderately revise the theoretical concept and to give it a new try to be put into practice. PMID:15048445

  18. Development of novel low temperature bonding technologies for microchip chemical analysis applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sayah, A.; Solignac, D.; Cueni, T.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two new low temperature bonding technologies for the assembly of microstructured glass substrates for the realisation of microchannels for miniaturised chemical analysis applications. A first method consists of a proper cleaning of the two glass surfaces, followed by a simple epoxy gluing process at 90°C. In a second method, direct bonding is obtained just by exposing the glass stack to a high pressure (up to 50 MPa) in the 100-200°C temperature range. We obtain bonding strengths...

  19. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope 235U/238U abundance is demonstrated

  20. Direct chemical analysis of frozen ice cores by UV-laser ablation ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Wolfgang; Shelley, J. Michael G.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander

    2011-01-01

    Cryo-cell UV-LA-ICPMS is a new technique for direct chemical analysis of frozen ice cores at high spatial resolution (<300 micrometer). It was tested in a pilot study on NGRIP ice and reveals sea ice/dust records and annual layer signatures at unprecedented spatial/time resolution. Uniquely, the location of cation impurities relative to grain boundaries in recrystallized ice can be assessed.

  1. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Bigler, Matthias; McCormack, T.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas, there is still need for further improvement of the resolution. Here a method for resolution enhancement of CFA data is presented. It is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the resolution of CFA data by...

  2. Chemical analysis of archaeological material underwater by laser-induced breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Guirado, Salvador; Fortes, Francisco Javier; Metzinger, Aniko; Laserna, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important areas of interest in archeology is the characterization of the submersed cultural heritage. Mediterranean Sea is rich in archaeological findings due to storms, accidents and naval battles since prehistoric times. Chemical analysis of submerged materials is an extremely valuable source of information on the origin and precedence of the wrecks, and also the raw materials employed during the manufacturing of the objects found in these sites. Som...

  3. Fourier-Domain Analysis of Hydriding Kinetics Using Pneumato-Chemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Millet, P.; C. Decaux; R. Ngameni; Guymont, M.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of phase transformation processes observed in hydrogen absorbing materials (pure metals, alloys, or compounds) is still a matter of active research. Using pneumato-chemical impedance spectroscopy (PIS), it is now possible to analyze the mechanism of hydriding reactions induced by the gas phase. Experimental impedance diagrams, measured on activated LaNi5 in single- and two-phase domains, are reported in this paper. It is shown that their shape is mostly affected by the slope of the i...

  4. Micro Chemical (Elemental) Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd) Link Employing SEM-EDAX

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara Yashvanth; Satla Shobha Rani; S. S. Madhavendra

    2013-01-01

    The plant, Leucas aspera (Willd) Link is well known for its varied medicinal uses. Present study deals with its micro chemical (elemental) characterization using Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) detector fitted to Scanning Electron Microscope. The plant has very interesting morphology. Crystals of varied shape and inclusions/exudates were noticed within and on the leaf & stem surfaces. Various plant parts analysed were, stem surface, stem sections, stem inclusions, blebs on stem hairs,...

  5. Use of negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the trace analysis of metals.

    OpenAIRE

    Risby, T H

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis of various volatile and thermally stable derivatives of metals ions has permitted the use of conventional mass spectrometry for trace metal analysis. This paper reviews the development of the field using electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectrometry. This latter methodology produces simple mass spectra that enable complex mixtures to be analyzed. In addition the use of negative ion detection has produced selective ionization since many metal chelates contain heteroat...

  6. An Intelligent System for Modelling, Design and Analysis of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    ICAS, Integrated Computer Aided System, is a software that consists of a number of intelligent tools, which are very suitable, among others, for computer aided modelling, sustainable design of chemical and biochemical processes, and design-analysis of product-process monitoring systems. Each of these tools are characterized by a framework that follows an established work-flow and data-flow, developed to guide the user through the many steps of the problem solution process. At each, the specific ...

  7. Extracting chemical information from plane wave calculations by a 3D `fuzzy atoms' analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bako, I; Stirling, A.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mayer, I.

    2013-01-01

    Bond order and valence indices have been calculated by the method of the three-dimensional `fuzzy atoms' analysis, using the numerical molecular orbitals obtained from plane wave DFT calculations, i.e., without introducing any external atom-centered functions. Weight functions of both Hirshfeld and Becke types have been applied. The results are rather close to the similar `fuzzy atoms' ones obtained by using atom-centered basis sets and agree well with the chemical expectations, stressing the...

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, E.C., van

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision-support tool for test selection in a regulatory context such as, for example, the new European chemicals legis...

  9. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans; Amigo, José Manuel; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide, and microcrystalline cellulose together with magnesium stearate as excipients were used as model materials in the compacts. The UV imaging based drug and excipient distribution was in good agreement with hyperspectral...

  10. Decomposition analysis of green chemical technology inventions from 1971 to 2010 in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Shirakawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Green chemistry plays an important role in achieving sustainable development. This study examines the determinant factors for technology invention related to green chemistry in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. Our main findings are that the number of green chemical technologies applied to production processes have increased because of the scale-up of overall research activities and increased priority. Additionally, the number of patent applications f...

  11. Microwave spectra of some sulfur and nitrogen compounds. [for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. The apparatus, software, and experimental procedures are described. Tables of absorption frequencies, peak absorption coefficients, and integrated intensities are included for 13 sulfur compounds, 14 nitrogen compounds, and 1 compound containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The frequency range covered was 26,500 to 40,000 MHz for most compounds and 18,000 to 40,000 MHz for some.

  12. Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

  13. Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Waldherr Steffen; Haasdonk Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point...

  14. Measuring catchment-scale chemical retardation using spectral analysis of reactive and passive chemical tracer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiahong; Kirchner, James W.; Neal, Colin

    2004-06-01

    Catchment-scale chemical transport is jointly controlled by hydrological and chemical processes. Water may take a complex set of flowpaths underground toward the stream, carrying soluble substances with it. Some chemical constituents are non-reactive; these act as passive tracers, moving with the water. Other constituents react with the porous medium; concentrations of these reactive tracers reveal how porewaters chemically interact with the subsurface. Thus, passive and reactive chemical tracers are indispensable tools for understanding hydrological and chemical processes at whole-catchment scale. Transport of reactive chemical species can be quantified by the retardation factor, which measures the transport velocity of a reactive solute relative to the fluid that carries it. Retardation factors are conventionally determined by batch or column experiments involving small volumes of porous media. However, the transport media in typical catchments are highly heterogeneous, so retardation factors measured on small samples cannot be straightforwardly scaled up to model chemical transport at the catchment scale. Here, a novel method for determining whole-catchment retardation factors is presented which compares the power spectra of atmospherically derived passive and reactive tracers in rainfall and stream water. Using this technique, whole-catchment retardation factors of 2.4-2.9 were determined for sodium in four small catchments at Plynlimon, Wales. Because the effective retardation factor of a catchment depends on the degree of bypassing by preferential flow, our method for quantifying whole-catchment chemical retardation is of particular use for studying flowpaths and flow mechanisms at catchment scale.

  15. Finite element analysis of the Girkmann problem using the modern hp-version and the classical h-version

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2011-06-03

    We perform finite element analysis of the so called Girkmann problem in structural mechanics. The problem involves an axially symmetric spherical shell stiffened with a foot ring and is approached (1) by using the axisymmetric formulation of linear elasticity theory and (2) by using a dimensionally reduced shell-ring model. In the first approach the problem is solved with a fully automatic hp-adaptive finite element solver whereas the classical h-version of the finite element method is used in the second approach. We study the convergence behaviour of the different numerical models and show that accurate stress resultants can be obtained with both models by using effective post-processing formulas. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011.

  16. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  17. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants. RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara

    CERN Document Server

    Galan, Cezary; Hinkle, Kenneth H; Schmidt, Miroslaw R; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are the long period, binary systems of strongly interacting stars at the final stages of evolution which can be useful tool to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the formation of stellar populations. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the symbiotic giants is essential to advancing our understanding of these issues but unfortunately reliably determinations exist only in a few cases. We perform a program for detailed chemical composition analysis in over 30 symbiotic giants, based on the high resolution, near-IR spectra, obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. The methods of the standard LTE analysis is used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around iron peak. Here we present results obtained for four objects: RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara. Our analysis revealed a significantly sub-solar metallicity (Me/H ~ -0.75) for RW Hya, a slightly sub-solar metallicities (Me/H ~ 0.2-0.3) in BX Mon and AE Ara, and a near-solar metallicity in SY Mus. 12...

  18. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis system for chemical study of nuclides formed in thorium by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass spectrometric analysis system has been examined to study the chemical and physical behaviour of the nuclides in thorium fuel cycle. The detection limit of the mass analysis system has been examined by measuring the race isotopes contained in natural and depleted uranium. The detection limit for uranium isotopes is evaluated as 3.8 x 10-10 g by Faraday Cup detector and 4.3 x 10-12 g by SEM detector system. The precission of the measurement is evaluated by the measurement of uranium-233 sample purchased from ORNL USA. (author)

  20. Bovine leukemia virus protease: purification, chemical analysis, and in vitro processing of gag precursor polyproteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaka, Y; Katoh, I; Copeland, T D; Smythers, G. W.; Oroszlan, S

    1986-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus protease was purified to homogeneity and assayed by using murine leukemia virus Pr65gag, a polyprotein precursor of the viral core structural proteins, as the substrate. A chemical analysis of the protease, including an amino acid composition and NH2- and COOH-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, revealed that it has an Mr of 14,000 and is encoded by a segment of the viral RNA located between the gag gene and the putative reverse transcriptase gene. As expected from th...