WorldWideScience
 
 
1

The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in international periodicals, to which should be added a couple of dozens monographs plus several hundreds Ph.D. theses. This wealth of publication activity clearly reflects that not only has FIA given birth to numerous ingenious methods and novel applications, but quite a few of them have, in fact, allowed to implement procedures which previously were difficult or, actually, impossible to execute by conventional means. Clever examples are exploitation of bio-or chemiluminescence, methods relying on kinetic discrimination schemes, assay of metastable constituents, or the use of on-line separation and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied by selected examples, emphasis being placed on the determination of trace-level concentrations of metal ions in complex matrices with detection by ETAAS and ICP-MS.

Hansen, Elo Harald Technical University of Denmark,

2

The modern alchemy: The chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

2002-01-01

3

Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The isotopic method of dietary analysis has been extended by using both the organic and inorganic phases of bone with equally good results. Using the reported technique with the inorganic phase, which is more stable in fossil material, dietary analysis of bone over 10,000 years old has been found possible. (U.K.)

1981-07-23

4

Modern Real and Complex Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

Modern Real and Complex Analysis. Thorough, well-written, and encyclopedic in its coverage, this text offers a lucid presentation of all the topics essential to graduate study in analysis. While maintaining the strictest standards of rigor, Professor Gelbaum's approach is designed to appeal to intuition whenever possible. Modern Real and Complex Analysis provides up-to-date treatment of such subjects as the Daniell integration, differentiation, functional analysis and Banach algebras, conformal mapping and Bergman's kernels, defective functions, Riemann surfaces and uniformization, and the rol

Gelbaum, Bernard R

1995-01-01

5

[Information technology of modern NIR spectral analysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main points, flowdiagram and the levels of optimization and building models of modern NIRS analysis are described in this paper. The strategy of how to apply and develop the technology of Near-Infrared spectroscopy analysis in our country is also described. In order to develop the technology of NIRS, the Industrialization and Democratization should combined.

Yan Y; Zhao L; Li J; Zhang L; Min S

2000-12-01

6

The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

Mills, Professor Terence C

2011-01-01

7

XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

2011-01-01

8

Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty elements by EDXRF. This was combined with the information on some gaseous species (SO2 and NO2) together with aerosol mass- and black carbon concentrations. All data were subjected to factor analysis in order to determine the characteristics of the different sources. Vehicle emissions, oil- and bio-mass fired stoves, industrial emissions and long range transported aerosols are believed to contribute to the observed data. Oil combustion was identified as one of the major sources to Ni and V in the urban air.

Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag

9

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

Adam TW; Chirico R; Clairotte M; Elsasser M; Manfredi U; Martini G; Sklorz M; Streibel T; Heringa MF; Decarlo PF; Baltensperger U; De Santi G; Krasenbrink A; Zimmermann R; Prevot AS; Astorga C

2011-01-01

10

Efficient surface analysis as a modern service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining the chemical composition, topography and structure of surfaces and near-surface layers has its price. The necessary equipment, for example, costs between 250,000 and several million D-marks, depending on the type and features. Some companies will find it uninteresting to buy such systems because of the high purchase cost, the unavailability of highly qualified operators and the uncertain capacity utilization; they can exploit the possibilities of surface analysis nevertheless in the form of a service. Although this offering has existed for just a short time, there are already more than 100 suppliers in the Federal Republic of Germany. One of the best known and most efficient is W.C. Heraeus GmbH in Hanau.

Dembowski, J.; Bischoff, A.

1988-04-01

11

An Analysis of Historical Influences of Modern Chinese Overseas Students in Japan on Education Modernization in Zhili Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chinese modern education history.

Guofu Fan

2012-01-01

12

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01

13

Chemical Analysis as Dematerialization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical analysis is envisaged as an exemplar of laboratory work. Matter, held at a distance within the probe of instruments, is converted there into electronic signals. Matter serves only as prime material for information production. Chemical analysis converts instrumentalized readings into informational statements. Major chemical thinkers (Auguste Laurent, Justus von Liebig, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and others) made this conceptual revolution. In mid-nineteenth century, they built a daring theory of radicals. Since that time, molecular chemistry became a combinatorial art and science of radicals. These, groups of atoms with only at first fictional existence, are analogous to phonemes in speech production.

Pierre Laszlo

1998-01-01

14

Conference 'Modern questions of chemistry, chemical technology andmetallurgy' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference purpose was exchange by scientific-technical information,determination of perspective directions, elaboration of collective scientificprograms and establishing of relations between institutes of higher educationon chemistry questions, chemical technology and metallurgy. On conference washeard and discussed reports on four sections: general, inorganic and physicalchemistry; organic chemistry and chemistry of high molecular compounds;metallurgy of ferrous nonferrous metals and alloys; chemical technology ofinorganic and organic matters

2009-06-06

15

Modern Mall’s Promotion Quality Evaluation and Comparison Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern mall’s promotion quality in its wide sense refers to the actual level of consumers’ active purchasing as a result of mall’s promotion that involves convenient, complete, and safe visible facilities as well as friendly and warm invisible service. In the light of the components of modern mall’s promotion quality, the author established a comprehensive quantified evaluation model that can provide a mall with promotion quality evaluation and multi-malls with promotion quality comparison analysis.Key words: Modern mall; Promotion quality; Comprehensive evaluation; Evaluation components; Evaluation model

Deran ZHANG; Jing XIANG; Dongdong ZHANG

2011-01-01

16

ANALYSIS OF BASIC HISTORICAL AND MODERN DEFINITIONS OF "RISK" CONCEPT ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? «????»  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the comparative analysis of basic histori-cal and modern variations of definition of risks is pre-sented in general and from the point of enterprise ac-tivity. The gradual expansion of borders of concept of "risk" and its integral components in their direct inter-relation is investigated and eventually proved. Its modern concept is defined

Perepelitsa V. A.; Popova E. V.; Savinskaya D. N.

2011-01-01

17

Chemical process hazards analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

18

THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MODERN ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opportunities of application of general scientific methods for the analysis of structure of economic systemsin conditions of their transformation are studied. The special attention is given sociocultural to elements as factorwhich determines specificity of all social systems.

Zoya HALUSHKA

2008-01-01

19

Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' safety analysis and proposals for modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety analysis and proposals for modernization of Chernobyl ''Sarcophagus'' are presented, including the following aspects: the state of Unit 4 after the accident; construction of the ''Sarcophagus''; inspections; structure state monitoring; transformation of the facility into a long-term safe system.

1996-01-01

20

Modern robust data analysis methods: measures of central tendency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various statistical methods, developed after 1970, offer the opportunity to substantially improve upon the power and accuracy of the conventional t test and analysis of variance methods for a wide range of commonly occurring situations. The authors briefly review some of the more fundamental problems with conventional methods based on means; provide some indication of why recent advances, based on robust measures of location (or central tendency), have practical value; and describe why modern investigations dealing with nonnormality find practical problems when comparing means, in contrast to earlier studies. Some suggestions are made about how to proceed when using modern methods.

Wilcox RR; Keselman HJ

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT.

Wan JB; Bai X; Cai XJ; Rao Y; Wang YS; Wang YT

2013-09-01

22

Modern data-analysis techniques in noise and vibration problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seventeen papers were presented at the conference. The following topics were discussed: modern data analysis techniques in noise and vibration problems; fluctuating stress fields in continuous media; vibration of structures excited acoustically; fundamental concepts of sound radiation and flow-generated noise; extended sound sources; stochastic excitation of elastic structures; sound radiation by elastic structures; the application of statistical energy analysis to vibration of structures excited acoustically; linear signal processing; nonstationary and nonlinearity in data analysis; parametric methods in signal analysis; vibration transmission and sound radiation; procedures relating the near- to the far-field: imaging techniques; and modal analysis using digital test equipment.

1981-01-01

23

EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer, fabricated by the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, is a modern well-equipped chemical analysis laboratory. This mobile laboratory, sketched in Figure 1, has complete capability for sampling of geothermal fluids and analysis of brine, steam, and noncondensible gases. The objective of the laboratory is to provide accurate onsite chemical analyses in a timely manner that results in preservation of the sample integrity and the efficient implementation of a test program. The laboratory is built on a standard 40-ft truck trailer bed. The trailer chassis has been modified to carry requisite gas cylinders, compressor, and vacuum pump equipment in undercarriage bins, and has been equipped with air-ride shock absorbers to minimize road vibrations.

Eaton, W.S.; Nealy, C.L.; Sudar, S.

1980-12-01

24

Radiometric chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

1962-01-01

25

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Miši?-Vukovi? Milica M.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

2002-01-01

26

Chemical process hazards analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this handbook is to facilitate the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) within DOE as required under the Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM) Rule. It provides basic information for the performan...

1996-01-01

27

Castem 2000: a modern approach of computerized structural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the early beginning of the computerized structural analysis, many general purpose programs have been developed. Their complexity has increased rapidly and they became difficult to use and to maintain. The needs for an improved user's friendliness and the treatment of complex coupled problems have led to a modern tool: CASTEM 2000. It has profited by the general progress in computers technology and by a twenty years experience in large finite element codes. Its basic principles as well as examples of applications will be presented in this paper

1988-01-01

28

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ARUMUGA CHENDOORAM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is aimed at the characterization of the physico-chemical traits of the traditional Indian Siddha medicine, Arumuga Chendooram. The surface area, pHzpc and density of the chendooram sample were analyzed. The ICP-OES analysis revealed that the main metals present in Arumuga Chendooram are iron (20.9%), tin (8.5%) and mercury (3.1%). FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to study the presence of organic substances, if any, in the sample. Powder XRD technique was used to identify the crystalline phases, chemical nature and crystalline dimensions of the sample. The average crystalline size calculated using Debye-Scherrer equation corresponding to different diffraction planes is 37.277 nm. Measurements by DLS technique and SEM analyses were also carried out. The study highlights the appropriate application of modern scientific methods for developing new insights into metal based siddha drugs.

I.G. Shibi; G. Shalu; K. Jagannathan

2012-01-01

29

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

30

Strontium isotope ratios in modern biogenic and chemical marine precipitates from southern Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strontium isotope measurements of marine carbonates and precipitates have proved to be a powerful chrono-stratigraphic tool in dating marine sediments. 87Sr and 86Sr ratios obtained from measurements of 13 classes of modern marine organisms and three chemical marine precipitates from southern Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean are reported. The influence of radiogenic fluvial isotopic strontium on biogenic carbonate was examined and found to be minimal. As theory predicts, the strontium isotopic composition of the oceans was found to be independent of depth and water mass. A marine isotopic strontium (MIS) value of 0.709119 was obtained for southern African waters, comparing well with previously published international data. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

1993-01-01

31

Brief Analysis of the Medieval and Modern European Cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrationality of the medieval culture in the Dark Ages gave birth to the bright modern European culture and the modern European culture had more rational, scientific, secular and individualist characteristics. The progress in the culture meanwhile promoted the progresses in other aspects of politics, economy and social life, etc.

Hongli Shi

2011-01-01

32

Chemical analysis of extraterrestrial materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on the recent development in the chemical analysis of the cited materials with 55 references, covering the period from January, 1979, to the spring of 1982. The methods, which have been used for the analysis of meteorites, include electron probe microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark ion source mass spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis and plasma emission spectroscopy, and their limitations and advantages are discussed. The isotopic analysis of meteorites is also outlined in respect of the abnormality of isotopic composition, the age measurement of solidification, etc. For planets and satellites, on the other hand, the ''remote sensing'' by artificial satellites (e.g. Apollo program) is reviewed, with emphasis on the chemical analysis, such as mass spectroscopy, the use of ?-ray sources, ?-ray spectrometry, etc. (J.P.N.).

1983-01-01

33

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

2008-01-01

34

Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

HUI WANG

2011-01-01

35

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

1983-01-01

36

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes developments in polarography and voltammetry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches. 266 references, 10 figures, 8 tables.

Lee, A.F.

1983-07-20

37

An Analysis of the Significant Form in Modern Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of “significant form”, suggested by Clive Bell, has a great impact on modern western art and design. China has a long history and splendid culture, and also lots of wonderful thoughts in the aesthetics. This paper analyzes the concept of “significant form”, suggested by Bell, by combining with Chinese traditional aesthetic thought, expecting to find some laws to guide our design practice. Meanwhile, that is a thought for the inheritance and development of Chinese traditional cultures.

Zhongxing Yu

2011-01-01

38

Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

2012-07-20

39

Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, ion scattering analysis - modern methods for surface analysis of solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern methods for surface analysis of solids are reviewed taking Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and ion scattering analysis as examples. For each method the basic principles, the experimental techniques, and applications are given.

Blasek, G. (VEB Hochvakuum Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

1981-01-01

40

THE DUALITY DIAGRAM IN DATA ANALYSIS: EXAMPLES OF MODERN APPLICATIONS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Today's data-heavy research environment requires the integration of different sources of information into structured datasets that can not be analyzed as simple matrices. We introduce an old technique, known in the European data analyses circles as the Duality Diagram Approach, put to new uses through the use of a variety of metrics and ways of combining different diagrams together. This issue of the Annals of Applied Statistics contains contemporary examples of how this approach provides solutions to hard problems in data integration. We present here the genesis of the technique and how it can be seen as a precursor of the modern kernel based approaches.

De la Cruz O; Holmes S

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications  

CERN Multimedia

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

42

Modern methods of flow analysis in air conditioning; Moderne Methoden zur Stroemungsanalyse in der Klimatisierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced analysis methods offer new possibilities to increase air flow quality inside the HVAC unit and the passenger cabin of vehicles, both numerically and experimentally. They supplement and extend the conventional, well established methods to improve thermal comfort. In the development process of HVAC units, a combination of unsteady CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) provides further insight into the flow phenomena present in areas like the blower scroll or wheel hitherto not accessible to steady CFD or normal measurement techniques. Applying the non-intrusive stereoscopic and endoscopic PIV methods, boundary conditions for CFD computations can be supplied without influencing the flow field itself by the experimental setup. These methods allow for the validation of the used numerical models. Unsteady CFD can then be utilized to enhance flow characteristics in the most critical parts of the flow field. Nevertheless, the measures taken have to be evaluated inside the passenger cabin. A new experimental method called Particle Streak Tracking (PST) provides the possibility to visualize and measure the air flow in large areas of the cabin simultaneously. Through this, the effect of applied optimizations or new products can more easily be analyzed. Again, comparisons to CFD computations provide an overall view of the flow field. The resulting thermal comfort conditions for the passenger can be obtained experimentally and recently also numerically by MARCO (Method to Access thermal Comfort), a thermal dummy equipped with 21 sensors. Hence, those methods lead to further improved products, providing HVAC units with small package, high mass flow, and even lower noise level. Moreover, new products facilitate sophisticated control of the air flow distribution thus minimizing conditions affecting passenger comfort perception. (orig.)

Lang, M.; Augustin, K.; Riedel, R.; Heinle, D. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-07-01

43

Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system.

2002-01-01

44

Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by ? 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between coral calcification and annual SST, precipitation and insolation (p-values > 0.05).To analyze the variety of coral calcification rate with time variants and future prospect, generalized state space model with local linear trend model was applied by statistic software of R (dlm packages). All unknown variances and unobserved components were estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) using forwards filtering, backward samplings (FFBS). Iteration was 11000 times and burn in first 1000 times. The coral calcification did not have common constant increasing or decreasing trends between three study areas. We will discuss more detail about temperate coral skeletal growth and GCA.

Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

2011-12-01

45

Quantitative chemical analysis by NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy offers several important advantages as a technique for quantitative chemical analysis, including the ease with which multicomponent mixtures can be analyzed, the nondestructive nature of NMR, and the direct proportionality of the integrated resonance intensity (I) and concentration (C) of nuclei giving the resonance: I = kC. With proper attention to experimental conditions, the proportionality constant is the same for all resonances in a spectrum. Thus NMR differs substantially from chromatographic methods and from together spectroscopic methods, which require a predetermined response factor for each compound being determined. Relative concentrations can be obtained directly from relative resonance intensities while absolute concentrations can be obtained by adding a known concentration of another compound as an internal intensity standard

1991-01-01

46

LOOKING OUT CLASICAL TURKISH POEM ACCORDING TO MODERN ANALYSIS METHODS / D?VAN ???R?'NE MODERN MET?N ÇÖZÜMLEME YÖNTEMLER?NDEN BAKMAK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature has a characteristic of following the changes of investigations and technology. The great literal changes ?n 19th century, effected deeply literature studies. After Saussure, the view of the Occident on language and literature changed. This view changed not only structuralism but also linguistic studies, perceiving and utilizing the linguistic existence. In modern terms, all scientific toughts as modernism, structuralism, post-modernism, seemeiology, semantics bring up new points of view to literary texts. The last quarter of 20th century has been the term of understanding Classical Ottoman Poems not only with the view of traditional commentary methods but also modern analysis methods. This paper gives the panorama of all these analysis, methods of Classical Ottoman Poems.

Dr. Dursun Ali TÖKEL

2007-01-01

47

Modern trends in activation analysis. Vols. 1 and 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 170 papers were presented under the following headings: recent developments; sample preparation; information processing and control; activation techniques; light elements; rare earths; ultra trace analysis; quality assurance; comparators; reference materials; counting systems; archaeology; biology; environmental sciences; forensic science; geochemistry; industry; and in vivo analysis. Two papers on coal have been abstracted separately.

1986-01-01

48

Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

Andrei C. COVRIG

2010-01-01

49

ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN STATE OF ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC PROFESSIONAL EDITIONS ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general characteristic of electronic scientific professional editions, requirements to them, the advantage over printed editions are presented in article. The analysis of electronic information environment filling by electronic editions as well of Ukraine as of Russia is presented. The prospect of development of electronic scientific professional editions is described.? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?? ???, ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????.

?.?. ?????????; T.?. O?????????

2010-01-01

50

Femoral curvature in Neanderthals and modern humans: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since their discovery, Neanderthals have been described as having a marked degree of anteroposterior curvature of the femoral shaft. Although initially believed to be pathological, subsequent discoveries of Neanderthal remains lead femoral curvature to be considered as a derived Neanderthal feature. A recent study on Neanderthals and middle and early Upper Palaeolithic modern humans found no differences in femoral curvature, but did not consider size-corrected curvature. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use 3D morphometric landmark and semi-landmark analysis to quantify relative femoral curvature in Neanderthals, Upper Palaeolithic and recent modern humans, and to compare adult bone curvature as part of the overall femoral morphology among these populations. Comparisons among populations were made using geometric morphometrics (3D landmarks) and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material involved all available complete femora from Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human, archaeological (Mesolithic, Neolithic, Medieval) and recent human populations representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are significant differences in the anatomy of the femur between Neanderthals and modern humans. Neanderthals have more curved femora than modern humans. Early modern humans are most similar to recent modern humans in their anatomy. Femoral curvature is a good indicator of activity level and habitual loading of the lower limb, indicating higher activity levels in Neanderthals than modern humans. These differences contradict robusticity studies and the archaeological record, and would suggest that femoral morphology, and curvature in particular, in Neanderthals may not be explained by adult behavior alone and could be the result of genetic drift, natural selection or differences in behavior during ontogeny.

De Groote I

2011-05-01

51

Femoral curvature in Neanderthals and modern humans: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since their discovery, Neanderthals have been described as having a marked degree of anteroposterior curvature of the femoral shaft. Although initially believed to be pathological, subsequent discoveries of Neanderthal remains lead femoral curvature to be considered as a derived Neanderthal feature. A recent study on Neanderthals and middle and early Upper Palaeolithic modern humans found no differences in femoral curvature, but did not consider size-corrected curvature. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use 3D morphometric landmark and semi-landmark analysis to quantify relative femoral curvature in Neanderthals, Upper Palaeolithic and recent modern humans, and to compare adult bone curvature as part of the overall femoral morphology among these populations. Comparisons among populations were made using geometric morphometrics (3D landmarks) and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material involved all available complete femora from Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human, archaeological (Mesolithic, Neolithic, Medieval) and recent human populations representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are significant differences in the anatomy of the femur between Neanderthals and modern humans. Neanderthals have more curved femora than modern humans. Early modern humans are most similar to recent modern humans in their anatomy. Femoral curvature is a good indicator of activity level and habitual loading of the lower limb, indicating higher activity levels in Neanderthals than modern humans. These differences contradict robusticity studies and the archaeological record, and would suggest that femoral morphology, and curvature in particular, in Neanderthals may not be explained by adult behavior alone and could be the result of genetic drift, natural selection or differences in behavior during ontogeny. PMID:21411122

De Groote, Isabelle

2011-03-15

52

Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

2000-12-01

53

A modern approach of large computer codes for structural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past, the development of computer codes for structural analysis has led to large systems, which are often difficult to use and to maintain. The authors discuss how there is a necessity for new codes, which may be used in different ways according to various needs and requirements. These include: development of new possibilities in order to treat new problems; facilities for advanced users, which are familiar with the numerical methods associated with their physical problem and who want either to modify standard methods used in the code or even test new methods; use of the code as a black box, for the treatment of classical problems by basic users; and interactive possibilities which can help users by guiding their answers.

1989-01-01

54

Fuzzy risk analysis of a modern ?-ray industrial irradiator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fuzzy fault tree analyses were used to investigate accident scenarios that involve radiological exposure to operators working in industrial ?-ray irradiation facilities. The HEART method, a first generation human reliability analysis method, was used to evaluate the probability of adverse human error in these analyses. This technique was modified on the basis of fuzzy set theory to more directly take into account the uncertainties in the error-promoting factors on which the methodology is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy radiological exposure risk, expressed in terms of potential annual death, was evaluated. The calculated fuzzy risks for the examined plant were determined to be well below the reference risk suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection.

Castiglia F; Giardina M

2011-06-01

55

Fuzzy risk analysis of a modern ?-ray industrial irradiator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuzzy fault tree analyses were used to investigate accident scenarios that involve radiological exposure to operators working in industrial ?-ray irradiation facilities. The HEART method, a first generation human reliability analysis method, was used to evaluate the probability of adverse human error in these analyses. This technique was modified on the basis of fuzzy set theory to more directly take into account the uncertainties in the error-promoting factors on which the methodology is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy radiological exposure risk, expressed in terms of potential annual death, was evaluated. The calculated fuzzy risks for the examined plant were determined to be well below the reference risk suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:22004931

Castiglia, F; Giardina, M

2011-06-01

56

The Diminutive in Modern Standard Arabic: An Optimality Theoretical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diminutive in Arabic has not received the attention it deserves in the literature. Most of the work done on Arabic morphology has viewed the derivation of Arabic diminutive as a simple process which maps root consonants, according to certain principles, onto well-defined positions of a diminutive pattern. In this paper, I will demonstrate that there is no need to refer to roots in the process of diminutive formation in Arabic. I will also show that under such a view a unified and comprehensive treatment of the diminutive is possible within the framework of Optimality Theory, as developed in Prince and Smolensky (1993). Following Benua (1997) and Ussishkin (1999), the analysis I argue for allows for a correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the bases from which they are derived. However, my analysis goes beyond that presented in Benua (1997) and Ussishkin (1999) in that it assumes a similar correspondence relation between the diminutive forms and the input.Key words: Optimality theory; Diminutive; Root; Base; ConstraintRésumé Le diminutif d’Arabe n’a pas reçu l’attention qu’elle mérite dans la littérature. La plupart du travail effectué sur la morphologie arabe a vu la dérivation de l’arabe comme diminutif d’un processus simple qui associe consonnes radicales, selon certains principes, sur des positions bien définies d’un modèle diminutif. Dans cet article, je vais le démontrer qu’il n’y a pas besoin de se référer aux racines dans le processus de formation diminutif en arabe. Je vais aussi montrer que, sous ce point de vue d'un traitement unifi é et complet du diminutif est possible dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité, telle que développée dans Prince et Smolensky (1993). Après Benua (1997) et Ussishkin (1999), l’analyse que je plaider en faveur d’une relation permet de correspondance entre les formes minuscules et des bases à partir desquelles elles sont dérivées. Cependant, mon analyse va au-delà qui sont présentées dans Benua (1997) et Ussishkin (1999) en ce qu’il suppose une relation de correspondance similaire entre les formes minuscules et l’entrée.Mots clés: Théorie de l’optimalité; Diminutif; Racine; Base; Contrainte

Abujoudeh Maisoun Ismail

2012-01-01

57

Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present...

Saeid Zarghami Hamrah; Parvin Bazghandi

58

Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

Nguyen Quang Liem; Philippe Colomban

2011-01-01

59

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environmen...

Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Miši?-Vukovi? Milica M.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

60

Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods. v.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in the field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B., and translated to farsi language in two volumes. The first volume consist of ten chapters as follow: Radiation Interaction with matter, Radiation Detectors, Radiation Sources. The fourth chapter is about Chemical Analysis by Nuclear Reactions. Radiation Protection is discussed at fifth chapter; Delayed Neutron Activation Analysis is presented at six chapter. Neutron Activation by radiochemistry procedures and Prompt Activation are discussed at seven and eight chapters. Chemical Analysis Radiation Scattering Analysis and radiation Absorption Analysis of Neutron are presented in the 9th chapter and the 10th chapter isdevoted to Charged Particle Activation Analysis.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (UC)

2010-02-08

62

Chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the development of the field of chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. The techniques applied to pyrolysis oil analysis are reviewed including proximate and ultimate analysis, water (moisture) analysis, and chemical component analysis by various forms of chromatography, solvent separations, and spectrophotometric analyses, like infrared and ultraviolet. Advanced analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular beam -- mass spectrometry are also discussed. This paper reviews and compares the methods and the results of the analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the various methods applied are identified. Comparisons derived from the IEA Round Robin are incorporated.

Elliott, D.C.

1994-09-01

63

Chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methods cover the chemical analysis of reactor and commercial columbium having chemical compositions within specified limits. The following analytical procedures are discussed along with apparatus, reagents, photometric practice, safety precautions, sampling, and rounding calculated values: nitrogen, by distillation (photometric) method; molybdenum and tungsten by the dithiol (photometric) method; iron by the 1,10-phenanthroline (photometric) method. (JMT)

1981-01-01

64

Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

2009-01-01

65

Chemical analysis of marker substances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of chemical assay procedures for potential marker substances will depend on, and be determined by, three basic factors: (1) the nature of the substance used, (2) the characteristics of the biological samples obtained, and (3) the varieties of information required. Once these have been delineated, the analytical methodology can be specifically characterized in terms of specificity and sensitivity; accuracy, precision, and reliability; and ease, cost, and safety. The specific details of a method must be based on the three factors mentioned above. Thus, a procedure having an ultimate sensitivity limit of more than a micromole per milliliter will be useless if the maximum expected marker concentration in the sample is less than a micromole per milliliter. Similarly, a procedure utilizing gas-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry costing many thousands of dollars is overkill if only a simple, inexpensive thin-layer chromatography procedure is needed to merely confirm the presence of the marker in a sample of urine or blood. Finally, the potential utility of the marker substance will be constrained by nonscientific factors such as cost, time, and convenience. These factors may depend on the ultimate applications of marker substance use, but they must also be addressed in any assay development program. The overall characteristics of a chemical assay procedure for marker substances will be discussed in terms of a model based on similar procedures for the chemical assay of foreign organic compounds in biological materials.

Maickel RP

1984-12-01

66

Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

2010-01-01

67

Chemical analysis of saliniferous fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proposes rapid laboratory analysis of sodium content in coal samples: 1 g of coal is immersed in 100 ml water, then electric conductivity of the filtrate is measured. A mathematical-statistical study showed that measured conductivity values correlate well with sodium oxide content in coal; the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.98 or 0.99. The proposed analysis is described as simple, accurate and suitable for saliniferous coal used in power plants or in coal beneficiation plants. 10 refs.

Kahnt, G. (Braunkohlenwerk, Regis (Federal Republic of Germany). Zentrales Hauptlaboratorium)

1990-11-01

68

[Chemical analysis of methacrylate plastics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was the object of this study to find quick but exact methods for determining the components of quickly setting methacrylate materials for dentures, dental fillings (PMMA) and for bone surgery. Furthermore, lower-molecular components still being present in the hardened resin were tested. By measuring refraction index and by infrared spectrum and gas-chromatographical analyses the composition of the liquid is obtained. Dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydrochinon and cross-linking agents were determined spectrophotometrically. Filling agents, pigments, plasticizers and soluble components of the powder were determined gravimetrically. The presence of polystyrol is established by infrared analysis, that of benzoyl peroxide by spectroscopic analysis. As to the hardened material, the molecular weight is determined by viscosity measurements and the molecular weight distribution by gel permeability measurements. Residual monomer is found by gas chromatography.

Brauer G

1975-10-01

69

Chemical analysis of aquatic pheromones in fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pheromones are chemicals that pass between members of the same species that have inherent meaning. In the case of fish, pheromones are water-soluble and found in low concentrations. As such, sensitive and selective methods are needed to separate and analyze these pheromones from an environmental matrix that may contain many other chemicals. This chapter describes a generic method used to concentrate and identify these chemicals and two extremely sensitive and selective methods for analysis, namely, mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Stewart M; Baker CF; Sorensen PW

2013-01-01

70

Chemical Analysis Of Beryllium Shells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to understand the level of high-Z impurities in Beryllium shells prepared by sputter coating. The Ignition Point Design Requirements state the following: ''Except for allowed ingredients, as listed in the ablator composition entries, the ablator material in all layers shall contain sufficiently low impurity levels that the sum over all impurities of atom fraction*Z{sup 2} shall be less than or equal to 0.2''. This is a tight specification that requires careful materials analysis. Early in the first quarter of FY06, we undertook a study of Be shell impurities via ICP-MS{sup 2} and determined that the impurity levels in the sputtered shells are very close to the specification.

Gunther, J; Cook, R

2005-11-17

71

Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay.

1998-01-01

72

Development of an automated chemical analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial robots, enhanced with an improved user interface, have been successfully implemented to improve productivity while minimizing worker exposure during chemical analysis of hazardous waste samples. The most significant advantage of the automated system may be the capability of monitoring and recording the steps in a procedure in real time for quality control purposes. This report briefly describes the use of a high-reliability, selectively complaint assembly robot arm used to implement EPA test method 3050. Results from the chemical analysis were compared with results from an EPA certified lab and inter-laboratory round robin. 4 refs.

Bennett, D.W.; Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; McGrail, B.P.; Shorpik, J.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Barich, J.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-11-01

73

Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

2001-01-01

74

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author).

1988-01-01

75

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

Weixia Li; Yuping Tang; Yanyan Chen; Jin-Ao Duan

2012-01-01

76

Comparative analysis of modern empirical spectrophotometric atlases with multicolor photometric catalogues  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of the comparative analysis of the most known semi-empirical and empirical spectral atlases that was carried out using the data from the WBVR photometric catalogue. The results show that standard error of synthesized stellar magnitudes calculated with SEDs from best spectral atlases reaches 0.02 mag. It has been also found out that some of modern spectral atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. The agreement for the 5000-10000 A spectral range is rather satisfactory, while there are problems for wavelengths shorter than 4400 A.

Kilpio, E Yu; Mironov, A V

2012-01-01

77

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Tomas Grigalis; Leonardas Marozas; Lukas Radvilavi?ius

2012-01-01

78

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political) risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses specific features of their application in insuring coal mining projects. It uses the analysis for highlighting key types of insurance, application of which could ensure complex protection of investments into Ukrainian coal mining projects.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????, ? ?????????, ???, ????????? ? ???. ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (????????????) ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????.

Gusak Andrey S.; Kabanov Anatoliy I.

2013-01-01

79

Modern spectral analysis techniques for blood flow velocity and spectral measurements with pulsed Doppler ultrasound.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four spectral analysis techniques were applied to pulsed Doppler ultrasonic quadrature signals to compare the relative merits of each technique for estimation of flow velocity and Doppler spectra. The four techniques were 1) the fast Fourier transform method, 2) the maximum likelihood method, 3) the Burg autoregressive algorithm, and 4) the modified covariance approach to autoregressive modeling. Both simulated signals and signals obtained from an in vitro flow system were studied. Optimal parameter values (e.g., model orders) were determined for each method, and the effects of signal-to-noise ratio and signal bandwidth were investigated. The modern spectral analysis techniques were shown to be superior to Fourier techniques in most circumstances, provided the model order was chosen appropriately. Robustness considerations tended to recommend the maximum likelihood method for both velocity and spectral estimation. Despite the restrictions of steady laminar flow, the results provide important basic information concerning the applicability of modern spectral analysis techniques to Doppler ultrasonic evaluation of arterial disease.

David JY; Jones SA; Giddens DP

1991-06-01

80

Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({micro}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; WONG,CHUNGNIN C.

1999-09-16

 
 
 
 
81

Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Wong, C. Channy

1999-08-02

82

[Genealogical analysis of the diversity of spring barley cultivars released in former Czechoslovakia and modern Czechia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genealogical analysis was employed in studying the time course of changes in genetic diversity of spring barley cultivars released in former Czechoslovakia and the modem Czech Republic. Cultivars from different regions proved to significantly differ in the distribution of dominant ancestor contributions, suggesting a specificity of original ancestors to different cultivation conditions. A comparison of cultivar groups differing in end use showed that the genetic diversity of malting cultivars was significantly lower than that of feed cultivars, although modern malting and feed cultivars of Czechia and Slovakia have virtually the same genetic basis. Temporal analysis showed that diversity tended to increase through decades. While new original ancestors were introduced in pedigrees, especially in the past 30 years, the number of local landraces and old cultivars gradually decreased. The losses accounted for about two-thirds of the local germplasm. Thus, a substantial increase in genetic diversity was accompanied by genetic erosion of the local spring barley gene pool of former Czechoslovakia. A cluster structure was observed for the set of spring barley cultivars released in the postwar period. The coefficient of parentage averaged overall possible pairs of cultivars introduced in the Czech National List was estimated at 0.11. It was concluded that the genetic diversity of modern spring barley cultivars in the Czech Republic is at an acceptable level.

Milotova Ia; Martynov SP; Dobrotvorskaia TV; Vatsulova K

2008-01-01

83

[Genealogical analysis of the diversity of spring barley cultivars released in former Czechoslovakia and modern Czechia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genealogical analysis was employed in studying the time course of changes in genetic diversity of spring barley cultivars released in former Czechoslovakia and the modem Czech Republic. Cultivars from different regions proved to significantly differ in the distribution of dominant ancestor contributions, suggesting a specificity of original ancestors to different cultivation conditions. A comparison of cultivar groups differing in end use showed that the genetic diversity of malting cultivars was significantly lower than that of feed cultivars, although modern malting and feed cultivars of Czechia and Slovakia have virtually the same genetic basis. Temporal analysis showed that diversity tended to increase through decades. While new original ancestors were introduced in pedigrees, especially in the past 30 years, the number of local landraces and old cultivars gradually decreased. The losses accounted for about two-thirds of the local germplasm. Thus, a substantial increase in genetic diversity was accompanied by genetic erosion of the local spring barley gene pool of former Czechoslovakia. A cluster structure was observed for the set of spring barley cultivars released in the postwar period. The coefficient of parentage averaged overall possible pairs of cultivars introduced in the Czech National List was estimated at 0.11. It was concluded that the genetic diversity of modern spring barley cultivars in the Czech Republic is at an acceptable level. PMID:18409388

Milotova, Ia; Martynov, S P; Dobrotvorskaia, T V; Vatsulova, K

2008-01-01

84

Biomechanical analysis of the change in pistol shooting format in modern pentathlon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the importance of the Combined Event to the modern pentathlon competition, little is known about performance in the event. This study aimed to (i) identify the key variables affecting Combined Event shooting performance, and the extent to which these corresponded with those identified for precision shooting and (ii) investigate the impact of changing shooting format, and whether more successful precision shooters were also more successful in the Combined Event. Seven modern pentathletes and three pistol shooters completed precision and Combined Event trials. An opto-electronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movements, whilst force platforms recorded centre of pressure movements 1 s prior to every shot. Intra-individual analysis revealed that the extent of associations between variables was participant-specific, highlighting the need for individual analysis of performance. No participants displayed matching associations between variables for precision and Combined Event shooting, emphasising the difference between performances in the two events. Both groups experienced significantly reduced scores, and increased pistol and body movements for Combined Event shooting (P < 0.05). Despite the pistol shooters' greater precision shooting ability, no significant differences were evident between the groups' Combined Event performances (P > 0.05). This implies that experience in one event does not guarantee success in the other, indicating the importance of event specific training.

Dadswell CE; Payton C; Holmes P; Burden A

2013-01-01

85

Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present study was comparative analysis. Results: The first base was rejection of objective view toward the universe and accepting the â??pre-objective universeâ?. In this regard, it was suggested that information technology should be considered in relation to and as a component of life. The second base was doing away with totality. The necessity of this base was in the rejection of universal approaches and designing for specific situations. The third base was uncertainty. Regarding this base, it was suggested that the educational software provide a text in which the learner confront subjects for questioning and interpreting. The forth base was focusing on the complexities of the phenomena. In this ground, it was especially necessary for the design to be integrational. Conclusion/Recommendations: It seems that postmodernism view has been able to provide the possibility of recreating information technology in education through going beyond the basic assumptions of modernism. At last and in order to escape the metanarrative view toward postmodern ideas, we cannot regard the recommended solutions by postmodernists as the definite, final and general solution for educational issues of present and past times. But, we can look at them for further illumination of technological education condition of the present time.

Saeid Zarghami Hamrah; Parvin Bazghandi

2012-01-01

86

Biomechanical analysis of the change in pistol shooting format in modern pentathlon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance of the Combined Event to the modern pentathlon competition, little is known about performance in the event. This study aimed to (i) identify the key variables affecting Combined Event shooting performance, and the extent to which these corresponded with those identified for precision shooting and (ii) investigate the impact of changing shooting format, and whether more successful precision shooters were also more successful in the Combined Event. Seven modern pentathletes and three pistol shooters completed precision and Combined Event trials. An opto-electronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movements, whilst force platforms recorded centre of pressure movements 1 s prior to every shot. Intra-individual analysis revealed that the extent of associations between variables was participant-specific, highlighting the need for individual analysis of performance. No participants displayed matching associations between variables for precision and Combined Event shooting, emphasising the difference between performances in the two events. Both groups experienced significantly reduced scores, and increased pistol and body movements for Combined Event shooting (P 0.05). This implies that experience in one event does not guarantee success in the other, indicating the importance of event specific training. PMID:23496339

Dadswell, Clare Elizabeth; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

2013-03-15

87

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and identification. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the recent development and trends of separation, identification and quantification for flavonoids by modern chromatographic and spectrophotometric analytical techniques, including gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). The sample preparation before analysis is also briefly summarized.

E-Hu Liu; Lian-Wen Qi; Jun Cao; Ping Li; Chang-Yin Li; Yong-Bo Peng

2008-01-01

88

Equilibrium-kinetic analysis of chemical processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of equilibrium-kinetic analysis of chemical processes has been suggested, which permits to relate thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics on the basis of comparative calculation by means of correlations. Using the approach developed, analysis of the processes of isothermal dissolution of rhenium heptasulfide in sodium hydroxide solution, as well as sorption of perrhenate ions on anion-exchange resin from alkaline solution under dynamic conditions in the temperature range of 296-328 K, have been carried out. It is shown that under experimental conditions both processes are controlled by diffusion kinetics. 101 refs.; 10 figs.; 16 tabs

1990-01-01

89

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-11-15

90

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

2009-01-01

91

Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

Reddy, B. Sudhakara, E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.i [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

2009-11-15

92

Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

1990-01-01

93

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

94

Amalgamation of traditional and modern cooling techniques in a passive solar house: a design analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, different roof and wall designs/treatments are proposed, incorporating modern and ancient features together, for passive cooling. On the basis of their thermal analysis (by solving energy balances of different components of roof and walls, etc.), the variation of living room temperature in different cases has been computed numerically for Jodhpur (India). The climatic conditions of Jodhpur are characterized as hot and dry. It is inferred that (a) evaporative cooling with an air cavity in the roof is the best option to reduce the incoming heat flux through the roof if water is easily available and (b) a thin layer of cow dung slurry inside the wall cavity reduces the incoming heat flux through the walls. It is better than solid walls and air cavity walls. (author)

Kumar, S.; Tiwari, G.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies); Bhagat, N.C. (Bihar Univ., Muzaffarpur (India). Dept. of Physics)

1994-08-01

95

Modeling of the modern houses of Cyprus and energy consumption analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses the TRNSYS computer program for the modeling and simulation of the energy flows of the modern houses of Cyprus followed by an energy consumption analysis. For the calculations, a Typical Meteorological Year for the Nicosia area and a typical model house are used. Initially, the Cyprus energy scene and an analysis of the number of houses employing heating and cooling equipment is presented from which it is observed that the number of systems installed has increased tremendously during the last decade. The results of the simulation show that the inside house temperature, when no air-conditioning is used, varies between 10-20degC for winter and between 30-50degC for summer. The effect on the temperature and the heating and cooling loads that various wall and roof constructions presents is determined. This investigation indicates the importance of the roof insulation, which results in a reduction up to 45.5% of the cooling load and up to 75% of the heating load. The effect of mechanical ventilation, window shading, as well as that of the inclined concrete roof used for aesthetic reasons, is also examined. The life cycle analysis is used for the economic analysis of the various constructions. The results indicate that the wall insulation pays back in a twenty year period with marginal savings, whereas the roof insulation has considerable economic benefit, with life cycle savings up to EUR 22374 depending on the type of construction. (Author)

Florides, G.A.; Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Nicosia (Cyprus); Tassou, S.A.; Wrobel, L.C. [Brunel Uxbridge Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

2000-10-01

96

Thermodynamic analysis of chemically recuperated gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant research effort is currently centred on developing advanced aero-derivative gas turbine systems for electric power generation applications, in particular for intermediate duty operation. Compared to industrial gas turbines, aero-derivatives offer high simple cycle efficiency, a quick and frequent start capability without significant maintenance cost penalty. A key element for high system performance (efficiency and power output) is the development of improved heat recovery systems, leading to advanced cycles such as the STeam Injected Gas Turbine (STIG) cycle, Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle or the Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine (CRGT) cycle. In this paper the chronology of development of this last technology and a detailed description of our research program 'Thermodynamic analysis of chemically recuperated gas turbines' is presented. A comparative study of the performance potentials of CRGT cycles and the other advanced cycles for design and off-design mode is presented. The analysis method accounts for turbine blade cooling requirements, which have a decisive impact on cycle performance. Exergy calculations are included in the analysis method. Research perspectives for this technology are suggested. (authors)

Abdallah, H. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering, DSEE, 44 (France); Harvey, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2001-04-01

97

Apparatus for the chemical analysis of samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for the chemical analysis of a sample ejects neutral and charged particles from the sample by ion bombardment from a primary ion source. An electric diaphragm passes only the ejected neutral particles for ioniziation in a plasma which is separate from the primary ion source and which serves only for the postionization of the neutral particles. The ionized particles are then analyzed by mass spectrometry. Charging of insulating samples by primary ions is prevented by rendering the diaphragm permeable to plasma electrons.

Oechsner, H.

1984-05-08

98

The development of chemical speciation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The knowledge of many metals species on the environmental, its bioaccumulation, quantification and its effect in human body has been studied by a wide researchers groups in the last two decades. The development of speciation analysis has an vertiginous advance close to the developing of novel analytical techniques. Separation and quantification at low level is a problem that's has been afford by a coupling of high resolution chromatographic techniques like HPLC and HRGC with a specific method of detection (ICP-MS or CV-AAS). This methodological approach make possible the success in chemical speciation nowadays

2003-01-01

99

Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (auth

2006-01-01

100

Modernity after Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

Marin Dinu

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Cervical and crown outline analysis of worn Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the general increase in digital techniques for dental morphometric analyses, only a few methods are available to study worn teeth. Moreover, permanent dentitions are studied much more frequently than deciduous teeth. In this study, we address both issues by providing a taxonomic classification of Neanderthal and modern human (MH) lower second deciduous molars (dm(2) s) through the analysis of crown and cervical outlines. Crown and cervical outlines were obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) digital sample of uniformly oriented dm(2) s. Both outlines were centered on the centroid of their area and represented by 16 pseudolandmarks obtained by equiangularly spaced radial vectors out of the centroid. We removed size information from the oriented and centered outlines with a uniform scaling of the pseudolandmark configurations to unit Centroid Size. Group shape variation was evaluated separately for the dm(2) crown and cervical outlines through a shape-space principal component (PC) analysis. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis of a subset of PCs was used to classify the specimens. Our results demonstrate that both outlines successfully separate the two groups. Neanderthals showed a buccodistal expansion and convex lingual outline shape, whilst MHs have buccodistal reduction and straight lingual outline shape. Therefore, we confirmed that the cervical outline represents an effective parameter for distinguishing between the two taxa when dealing with worn or damaged dm(2) s.

Benazzi S; Fornai C; Buti L; Toussaint M; Mallegni F; Ricci S; Gruppioni G; Weber GW; Condemi S; Ronchitelli A

2012-12-01

102

Cervical and crown outline analysis of worn Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the general increase in digital techniques for dental morphometric analyses, only a few methods are available to study worn teeth. Moreover, permanent dentitions are studied much more frequently than deciduous teeth. In this study, we address both issues by providing a taxonomic classification of Neanderthal and modern human (MH) lower second deciduous molars (dm(2) s) through the analysis of crown and cervical outlines. Crown and cervical outlines were obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) digital sample of uniformly oriented dm(2) s. Both outlines were centered on the centroid of their area and represented by 16 pseudolandmarks obtained by equiangularly spaced radial vectors out of the centroid. We removed size information from the oriented and centered outlines with a uniform scaling of the pseudolandmark configurations to unit Centroid Size. Group shape variation was evaluated separately for the dm(2) crown and cervical outlines through a shape-space principal component (PC) analysis. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis of a subset of PCs was used to classify the specimens. Our results demonstrate that both outlines successfully separate the two groups. Neanderthals showed a buccodistal expansion and convex lingual outline shape, whilst MHs have buccodistal reduction and straight lingual outline shape. Therefore, we confirmed that the cervical outline represents an effective parameter for distinguishing between the two taxa when dealing with worn or damaged dm(2) s. PMID:23077004

Benazzi, Stefano; Fornai, Cinzia; Buti, Laura; Toussaint, Michel; Mallegni, Francesco; Ricci, Stefano; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria

2012-10-17

103

Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

C. Sanchez-Lopez; A. Ruiz-Pastor; R. Ochoa-Montiel; M. A. Carrasco-Aguilar

2013-01-01

104

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim. The linkage between lake and river water composition, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relating chemical

G. Brügmann; J. Krause; T. C. Brachert; O. Kullmer; F. Schrenk; I. Ssemmanda; D. F. Mertz

2011-01-01

105

Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

Hoette, Trisha Marie

2012-03-01

106

Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to prioritize such measurements in the face of limited sample availability, or how to render samples safe for handling in the analytical laboratory,) instrumental analysis of biological agents for purposes of sample matching alone is unlikely to present fundamental problems that require extensive research and development investments. The second way that the data generated by instrumental analysis can be useful to an investigation is through inferences that can be drawn regarding the processes used to grow and ''weaponize'' the agent. In contrast to the case of sample matching, there are significant R&D challenges associated with developing a robust capability that will reliably permit such inferential uses of instrumental data. Elaborating these challenges occupies the major portion of this paper.

Velsko, S P

2005-02-15

107

Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years). One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and population genetic data suggest that the other lineage, found only in the New World, has remained isolated from the worldwide lineage for the last 1.18 million years. The ancient divergence between these two lice is contemporaneous with splits among early species of Homo, and cospeciation analyses suggest that the two louse lineages codiverged with a now extinct species of Homo and the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens. If these lice indeed codiverged with their hosts ca. 1.18 million years ago, then a recent host switch from an archaic species of Homo to modern H. sapiens is required to explain the occurrence of both lineages on modern H. sapiens. Such a host switch would require direct physical contact between modern and archaic forms of Homo.

Reed David L; Smith Vincent S; Hammond Shaless L; Rogers Alan R; Clayton Dale H

2004-01-01

108

Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modern human mandibular symphysis differs from those of all other primates in being vertically orientated and possessing a chin, but the functional significance of this unique morphology is not well understood. Some hypotheses propose that it is an adaptation to specific loads occurring during masticatory function. This study uses finite element analysis to examine these symphyseal loads in a model of a modern human mandible. By modifying the symphyseal cross-sectional form, the mechanical significance of the presence of the chin and symphyseal orientation is tested, and modern human and Neanderthal symphyseal cross-sections are compared with regard to their ability to withstand different loads. The results show that changes in symphyseal form have profound effects on the strains. The presence of a chin leads to lower symphyseal strains overall, whereas a vertical orientation of the symphysis results in higher strains under wishboning, but not under vertical bending in the coronal plane and dorsoventral shear. Compared to Neanderthals, the modern human symphysis shows higher strains during dorsoventral shear and wishboning, but is as effective as the Neanderthal symphysis in resisting vertical bending in the coronal plane and the loads resulting from simulated incision and unilateral molar biting. In general, the results of this study corroborate prior hypotheses about the mechanical effects of the human chin and vertical symphyseal orientation and support the idea that the relative importance of wishboning and vertical bending in the coronal plane might have played a role in the evolution of modern human symphyseal morphology.

Gröning F; Liu J; Fagan MJ; O'Higgins P

2011-04-01

109

Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modern human mandibular symphysis differs from those of all other primates in being vertically orientated and possessing a chin, but the functional significance of this unique morphology is not well understood. Some hypotheses propose that it is an adaptation to specific loads occurring during masticatory function. This study uses finite element analysis to examine these symphyseal loads in a model of a modern human mandible. By modifying the symphyseal cross-sectional form, the mechanical significance of the presence of the chin and symphyseal orientation is tested, and modern human and Neanderthal symphyseal cross-sections are compared with regard to their ability to withstand different loads. The results show that changes in symphyseal form have profound effects on the strains. The presence of a chin leads to lower symphyseal strains overall, whereas a vertical orientation of the symphysis results in higher strains under wishboning, but not under vertical bending in the coronal plane and dorsoventral shear. Compared to Neanderthals, the modern human symphysis shows higher strains during dorsoventral shear and wishboning, but is as effective as the Neanderthal symphysis in resisting vertical bending in the coronal plane and the loads resulting from simulated incision and unilateral molar biting. In general, the results of this study corroborate prior hypotheses about the mechanical effects of the human chin and vertical symphyseal orientation and support the idea that the relative importance of wishboning and vertical bending in the coronal plane might have played a role in the evolution of modern human symphyseal morphology. PMID:21404235

Gröning, Flora; Liu, Jia; Fagan, Michael J; O'Higgins, Paul

2010-12-16

110

Analysis of patterns and ecological security trend of modern oasis landscapes in Xinjiang, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological security has become so important that it will affect the national security and social sustainable development. In this paper, a case study on the ecological security indexes of modern oasis landscapes in Beitun Oasis, Xinjiang, was carried out. The spatial neighbouring parameters, such as the contiguous length, measure of area and patch quantity of oasis landscape patches, affected by desert landscape patches were calculated by using GIS-based buffer analysis, the method of calculating ecological security indexes of oasis landscape was developed, and the dynamic changes of patterns and ecological security indexes of the oasis landscapes since recent 30 years were analyzed. The results showed that soil salinization or alkalization and paludification were major factors affecting the ecological security in Beitun Oasis. Therefore, measures should be taken actively to prevent and control secondary salinization and paludification. The ecological security indexes of the oasis landscape in 1972, 1990 and 2005 were 78.91, 82.28 and 83.86, respectively, which showed the degree of security is improving, and the environment was developing harmoniously between human and nature. The methods of evaluating ecological security based on the spatial neighbouring relations between landscape patches can be used to reflect preliminarily the ecological security patterns of landscapes.

Huang J; Wang R; Zhang H

2007-11-01

111

Willingness to pay and benefit-cost analysis of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) and the benefit-cost of modern contraceptives delivered through the public sector in Nigeria. METHODS: Data were collected from 4517 randomly selected households. The WTP for the 6 major contraceptive methods available in the public sector was elicited. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the decision to state a positive WTP amount was valid; Tobit regression was used to test the validity of the elicited WTP amounts. For each contraceptive, 3 BCR values were computed, based on the official unit price, the unit cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), and the average actual expenditure for contraceptives in the month preceding the interview. RESULTS: The mean WTP for the different contraceptives varied by socioeconomic status and geographic (urban versus rural) location (P<0.01). The BCR analysis showed that the benefits of providing contraceptives through the public sector far outweighed the costs, except for female condoms, where the CYP-based BCR was 0.9. CONCLUSION: The benefits of providing contraceptives outweigh the costs, making public sector investment worthwhile. The median WTP amounts, which reflect the ideal upper thresholds for pricing, indicate that cost recovery is feasible for all contraceptives.

Onwujekwe O; Ogbonna C; Ibe O; Uzochukwu B

2013-08-01

112

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-05-01

113

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

1998-01-01

114

C.2 analysis of the environmental effects of the Nuclear Facilities Modernization project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis indicates that the potential impacts associated with the current/projected Mound tritium operations are adequately bounded by the existing environmental impacts analyzed in the FEIS. It also indicates that the incremental impacts of the NFM project will make a positive contribution to the overall impact of current/projected tritium operations. Except for minor and normal temporary conditions during the construction and demolition phases, the NFM project would measurably reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences to the environment. Relocation of the PE/PD laboratory operations from the SW/R Tritium Complex to the T Building will place these operations in a safer, state-of-the-art glovebox systems. Through the utilization of modern laboratory equipment and enhanced containment, the project will reduce the quantity of routine airborne tritium releases and volume of solid tritiated wastes resulting from routine PE/PD laboratory operations. The increased reliance placed on engineered safety aspects and stronger mitigative measures by the project will also reduce the risk associated with these operations by reducing both the probability and consequences of unusual occurrences involving uncontrolled tritium releases.

NONE

1991-04-01

115

The analysis of modern approaches to physical fitness testing of military personnel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of research is to determine modern approaches to the physical fitness testing of service personnel. In the army with modern military experience, marked by a tendency to view the content of tests to determine the level of physical fitness of military personnel. Observed differentiation of unified systems tests to determine the general physical and military training military application. Summary of tests determined the nature of loads and motions of the structure inherent in the military during combat operations.

Glazunov Sergej Ivanovich

2011-01-01

116

Zeeman laser interferometry for detection and chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zeeman interferometry has a number of applications for ultrasensitive detection and chemical analysis, including refractive index detection, micro-thermometry, thermooptic spectroscopy, and light scattering.

Johnston, R.G.

1993-12-01

117

Recent updates of chemically modified electrodes in pharmaceutical analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The review article has gathered different types of electrode modification with a brief introduction has been given to explain several phenomena occurring at chemically modified electrodes and the mechanism of detection, followed by some interesting applications of chemically modified electrodes (CMEs) in pharmaceutical analysis, emphasizing on the biosensors and CNT-based chemical sensors.

Radi AE

2010-09-01

118

Why different countries manage death differently: a comparative analysis of modern urban societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected. PMID:22404392

Walter, Tony

2012-03-01

119

Why different countries manage death differently: a comparative analysis of modern urban societies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sociology of death, dying and bereavement tends to take as its implicit frame either the nation state or a homogenous modernity. Between-nation differences in the management of death and dying are either ignored or untheorized. This article seeks to identify the factors that can explain both similarities and differences in the management of death between different modern western nations. Structural factors which affect all modern nations include urbanization and the division of labour leading to the dominance of professionals, migration, rationality and bureaucracy, information technology and the risk society. How these sociologically familiar structural features are responded to, however, depends on national histories, institutions and cultures. Historically, key transitional periods to modernity, different in different nations, necessitated particular institutional responses in the management of dying and dead bodies. Culturally, key factors include individualism versus collectivism, religion, secularization, boundary regulation, and expressivism. Global flows of death practices depend significantly on subjugated nations' perceptions of colonialism, neo-colonialism and modernity, which can lead to a dominant power's death practices being either imitated or rejected.

Walter T

2012-03-01

120

PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008  

CERN Multimedia

The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

2008-01-01

122

The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

Szlechter, Diego

2007-01-01

123

Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

Ann Göransson Nyberg; Daniela Stricklin; Åke Sellström

2011-01-01

124

Inorganics. [Nature and analysis of chemical species in water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review dealing with methods of chemical analysis of organic compounds in water is presented. The review first presents an overview of nonspecific determination methods, followed by group and compound specific methods of chemical analysis used for detergents, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and herbicides, and process and industrially related compounds. Among the organic chemicals discussed are PCBs, tetraalkyl lead (a gasoline additive), alkylpyridines (by-products of shale oil processing), and other organic chemicals related to energy production and usage activities. (JMT)

Polcyn, D.S.

1982-06-01

125

Neutron activation analysis of some ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Up to 43 glaze and body samples of ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain and other porcelain are chosen and contents of 36 elements for each sample are determined by NAA. The NAA data are then analysed by the fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that although the ancient Jun Porcelain samples span leaped 600 years and are from different kilns and their glaze colors are utterly different, they have a long-term, stable and mainly the same supply of raw material. The relation between ancient Jun Porcelain and ancient Ru Porcelain is also preliminarily analysed. It is found that only few modern Jun Porcelain samples are similar to ancient Jun Porcelain but the majority of them are different from ancient ones

1997-01-01

126

DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (?30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

2013-01-22

127

DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (?30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia.

Fu Q; Meyer M; Gao X; Stenzel U; Burbano HA; Kelso J; Pääbo S

2013-02-01

128

Dealing with uncertainty in chemical risk analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a given chemical there are usually several methods for estimating the risk. Each method is based on different assumptions. Additionally, with advances made in pharmacokinetics, regulatory agencies have come under pressure to re-evaluate their procedures for assigning risk. A tree diagram was generated to describe the combinations of assumptions made by each unit risk method. A subjective weight was assigned to each assumption (branch of the tree) to characterize its validity in estimating the risk. From this a weighted average of risk was calculated. An example involving methylene chloride (DCM) illustrates the decomposition method of estimating chemical risk.

Clement, D.S.; Tatman, J.A.

1990-07-01

129

Automated Analysis and Validation of Chemical Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods to automatically extract and validate data from the chemical literature in legacy formats to machine-understandable forms are examined. The work focuses of three types of data: analytical data reported in articles, computational chemistry output files and crystallographic information files (...

Townsend, Joseph A

130

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

De Greef J; Villani K; Goethals J; Van Belle H; Van Caneghem J; Vandecasteele C

2013-06-01

131

Chemical effects in the pixe analysis of fluorine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectra of X-rays induced by 2 MeV 4He bombardment of 24 samples of different fluorine compounds are presented. Important chemical effects are seen in the spectrum shape. The application of these effects to chemical analysis is demonstrated on samples of fluorine implanted in iron. (author)

132

Analysis of effectiveness of the use of track-and-field start in modern swimming.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modern approach to improvement of track-and-field start by famous swimmers is discussed. In an experiment the students of sporting improvement took part in age 16-20. Data used in this investigation include videotapes of the Ukranian, European, World championships and the Deaflympic games, as well as time sheets on the training lessons of swimming. The results of the investigation demonstrate that in order to improve of track-and-field start it is necessary to draw swimmers attention on accurate and multiple implementation of all phases of start.

Savchenko M.I.; Kovaliov A.O.; Kovaliova Y.A.

2011-01-01

133

Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1) edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2) beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3) artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4) artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090). However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

Said GHARBY; Hicham HARHAR; Badr Kartah; Hanae El MONFALOUTI; Aziza HADDAD; Zoubida CHARROUF

2011-01-01

134

Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species of the genus of Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong in Chinese) are perennial parasite herbs, and are mainly distributed in arid lands and warm deserts. As a superior tonic for the treatment of kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation, Cistanche herbs earned the honor of "Ginseng of the desert". Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Herba Cistanche for its remarkable bioactivities including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and anti-aging. The chemical constituents of Cistanche plants mainly include volatile oils and non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies show that PhGs are the main active components for curing kidney deficiency, antioxidation and neuroprotection; galactitol and oligosaccharides are the representatives for the treatment of senile constipation, while polysaccharides are responsible for improving body immunity. In this paper, the advances on the chemical constituents of Cistanche plants and their corresponding analyses are reviewed.

Jiang Y; Tu PF

2009-03-01

135

Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species of the genus of Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong in Chinese) are perennial parasite herbs, and are mainly distributed in arid lands and warm deserts. As a superior tonic for the treatment of kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation, Cistanche herbs earned the honor of "Ginseng of the desert". Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Herba Cistanche for its remarkable bioactivities including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and anti-aging. The chemical constituents of Cistanche plants mainly include volatile oils and non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies show that PhGs are the main active components for curing kidney deficiency, antioxidation and neuroprotection; galactitol and oligosaccharides are the representatives for the treatment of senile constipation, while polysaccharides are responsible for improving body immunity. In this paper, the advances on the chemical constituents of Cistanche plants and their corresponding analyses are reviewed. PMID:18691718

Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

2008-07-18

136

Chemical analysis for excimer laser systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical methods and procedures used to determine fluorine, krypton, xenon, and argon in fill gases for excimer lasers are described. Fluorine was determined by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and wet chemical (iodine liberation) methods. The noble gases were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and attempts to identify impurities were made using mass spectrometry. Analytical results for 26 gas cylinders are reported. Limitations of the methods are discussed and recommendations for future efforts are presented.

Heaton, R.C.; Hemberger, P.H.; Sandoval, W.F.

1987-09-01

137

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

1982-01-01

138

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

1983-01-01

139

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters.

Ribechini E; Pérez-Arantegui J; Colombini MP

2011-06-01

140

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the chemical characterisation of modern and archaeological figs (Ficus carica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation, and analytical pyrolysis using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) for in situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Pyrolysis-silylation-GC/MS) were used to investigate the hydrolysable and soluble constituents, and the polymerised macromolecules of an archaeological fig (Ficus carica) recovered in Zaragoza (Spain), as well as of modern figs. The main aim was to study the compositional alterations undergone by the fig tissues in a particular archaeological environment: the fig was in a vessel and covered by a layer of a mixture of orpiment and gypsum. A comparison between the GC/MS results from modern and archaeological figs revealed that degradative reactions took place, leading to the disappearance/depletion of reactive (unsaturated fatty acids) and sensitive compounds (phytosterols and triterpenes). Py-silylation-GC/MS data provided evidence of a significant degradation of the saccharide and lipid components of the fig tissue, which left a residue enriched in polyphenols and polyesters. PMID:21570079

Ribechini, Erika; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-04-28

 
 
 
 
141

Chemical considerations in severe accident analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reactor Safety Study presented the first systematic attempt to include fission product physicochemical effects in the determination of expected consequences of hypothetical nuclear reactor power plant accidents. At the time, however, the data base was sparse, and the treatment of fission product behavior was not entirely consistent or accurate. Considerable research has since been performed to identify and understand chemical phenomena that can occur in the course of a nuclear reactor accident, and how these phenomena affect fission product behavior. In this report, the current status of our understanding of the chemistry of fission products in severe core damage accidents is summarized and contrasted with that of the Reactor Safety Study.

Malinauskas, A.P.; Kress, T.S.

1988-01-01

142

Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then c (more) ompared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

Campbell, TL; Lewis, PJ; Williams, JK

2011-02-01

143

Application of modern sup 3 H NMR techniques to analysis of complex isotopic products from a hydrogenation reaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of modern multiple pulse NMR techniques have been applied to tritium for the first time, demonstrating the power of this approach for analysis of complex isotopic mixtures. In particular, double quantum filtering, DEPT, and tritium homodecoupled BB-proton-decoupled one-dimensional spectra have been obtained. In addition, phase sensitive tritium COSY, tritium-proton correlation, and tritium J-resolved two-dimensional experiments are reported. These experiments yield a great deal of information about the isotopic distribution in the subject molecule-n-propylbenzene-produced by the catalytic tritiation of {beta}-methylstyrene. Analysis of these NMR data has allowed us to reach some mechanistic conclusions about hydrogenation reactions. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Williams, P.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1988-11-23

144

Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

1985-01-01

145

Integrating Human Factors into Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inclusion of human factors in the chemical process quantitative risk analysis (CPQRA) is done by use of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques. Therefore, to avoid under or overestimation of the actual risk, human error probability (HEP) estimation must be reasonably accurate. This work was f...

Kariuki, Simon Gitahi

146

MODERN STRATEGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This recent publication by Colin Gray is perhaps the most modern source of information for understanding the realm of strategy, the current as well as the future strategic environment and its complexities. The publication represents three decades of intellectual property of one of the world's leading theorists on strategic theory _ a phenomenon understood by very few decision makers, but in demand of their close and daily attention whilst grappling with its complexities in a demanding world. It is a publication in the words of the author •.... [b]ut this work is neither a strategic history of the 20th century nor a history of strategy in the twentieth century – rather Modern Strategy is principally about characteristically modern expressions of the ageless phenomena of strategy' The publication thus represents an effort to clarify and give enduring substance to the field of strategy as it increasingly becomes engulfed in rising layers of complexity.

Francois Vreÿ

2012-01-01

147

Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

2000-01-01

148

Physico-chemical soil analysis of Rudovci region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser diffraction and pipette methods were carried out for comparative grain-size analysis of soil samples representing a similar texture classification sampled. A detail physical-chemical analysis of soils, which involves use of XRF, XRD and SEM analysis were done. XRF and XRD analysis were done on the fractions separated by pipette method. On the obtained fraction particle size distribution and SEM analysis were done. The obtained results of these different methods are in good agreement and for detailed soil analysis comparison of both methods are recommended.

Snežana NENADOVI?; Ljiljana KLJAJEVI?; Miloš NENADOVI?; Miško MILANOVI?; Smilja MARKOVI?; Vladimir PAVLOVI?

2013-01-01

149

Localizing Theory of Communicative Action for an Analysis of the Development and Modernity Process in Iran --- ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical-empirical attempt in which we will try to examine the development status of Iran based on the modified postulates of Habermas’s theory of communicative action. We will also examine the compatibility of this theoretical framework to Iran’s social conditions. The primary findings of this attempt include: first and at the theoretical level, a change in the relationship between on one hand, the dichotomous concepts of rationality and lack of it and, on the other hand, their attribution to the dichotomy of tradition and modern. The second finding relates to the proposition that; a change in life-world in a situation in which tradition is still dominant is possible. The Iranian experience indicates that the belief systems have acted as an indigenous base for the development of communicative action in Iran. These findings indicate that Habermas’s theory of communicative action is capable of being treated as a development theory that can be localized and be used to explain the development process.--- ??? ????? ?? ???? ????-?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ???. ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???. ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???.

Hamid Abdollahyan, habdolah@ut.ac.ir - ???? ??????????; Seyedeh Zahra Ojagh - ???? ???? ????

2006-01-01

150

The Benchmark Analysis Modern Political Concept on Border of the Ages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On border of the age, old political theories as base manipulate has shown its insolvency. The world fell into the political crisis, connected with global political and civil landmark. This thesis analyzes the current political condition while evaluating the political theory, concerned with the issue of modernization as well as globalization. The thesis is divided into five parts: Liberals on start again, the intellectual institutes - a myths and reality of the political paradigms, the history political manipulate - The Principles of the building catalogue coalition and The Regional policy aspects and global world. Key words: benchmark; manipulate; criterion; politicsRésumé: À la frontière de différentes époques, les vieilles théories politiques ont montré leur insolvabilité. Le monde est tombé dans la crise politique, liée aux repères politiques et civils globaux. Cette thèse a analysé la situation politique actuelle, tout en évaluant la théorie politique, concernée par la question de la modernisation et de la mondialisation. La thèse est divisée en cinq parties: les libéraux au nouveau démarrage, les institutions intellectuelles- les mythes et la réalité des modèles politiques, l'histoire politique de manipulation, les principes de la coalition et les aspects de la politique régionale et du monde global.Mots-Clés: benchmark; manipulation; critères; politiques

Vladimir Sapon

2009-01-01

151

Analysis of Territory Planning Regulations Concerning Modernization of Residential Areas Teritorij? planavimo nuostat? analiz? atnaujinant miest? gyvenamuosius rajonus (kvartalus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Territory planning instructions of residential areas (quarters) are analyzed in this article. In Lithuania there is no validated united normative database for territory planning, which could regulate renovation of residential quarters. Accordingly, it is an actual problem. Modernization of blocks of flats is widely analyzed and it causes a lot of discussions recently. Modernization could be fulfilled more efficiently in quarters or even residential areas. Consequently, territorial spatial planning of areas (quarters) is very important. This article covers analysis of terms of a residential area and a quarter, building intensity and building density, functional zones, regulations of territory management and use, greenery, social infrastructure. Also a quality of life, depreciation of buildings and a priority of renovation of residential areas is examined.Article in LithuanianStraipsnyje nagrin?jamos miest? gyvenam?j? rajon? (kvartal?) teritorij? planavimo nuostatos. Lietuvoje n?ra patvirtintos vienodos normatyvin?s teritorij? planavimo baz?s, reglamentuojan?ios miest? kvartal? atnaujinim?, tod?l tai yra aktuali problema. Pastaruoju metu sprendžiamas ir daug diskusij? kelia daugiabu?i? modernizavimas, kur? efektyviau b?t? atlikti kvartalais, rajonais, taigi yra svarbus gyvenam?j? rajon? (kvartal?) teritorinis-erdvinis planavimas. Šiame straipsnyje analizuojamos gyvenamojo rajono ir kvartalo s?vokos, užstatymo intensyvumas ir tankumas, funkcinis zonavimas, teritorijos tvarkymo ir naudojimo reglamentai, apželdinimas, socialin? infrastrukt?ra. Taip pat nagrin?jama gyvenimo kokyb?, pastat? nusid?v?jimas ir miesto rajon? atnaujinimo prioritetiškumas.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Jurgita Alchimovien?; Neringa Gudien?

2010-01-01

152

Migration & Modernity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this essay is to analyze the challenges caused by today's modern phenomenon of change in our society and to discuss it in relationship to the process of migration. In doing so I focus on questions like, "what does it really mean when a person becomes a migrant and what does it ...

Budathoki, Aakash

153

Modern maths  

CERN Multimedia

Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

Thom,R

1974-01-01

154

The influence of modern, automatic analysis procedures on modifications to appropriate fuel standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of microprocessor-controlled automatic analysis equipment operating on the physical basis is taking on an even wider role in the area of analysis of solid fuels. The possibilities for using automatic analysis devices compared with the classical standardized methods are being examined in Austria in correlation tests. This paper reports on the results and also on the actual status of standardization. (orig.).

Waltl, J.; Maier, H.

1989-06-01

155

Analysis of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To clarify the risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs) after radiotherapy (RT) versus prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) in the modern era. Methods: The RT cohort consisted of 2120 patients matched on a 1:1 basis with surgical patients according to age and follow-up time. RT techniques consisted of conventional or two-dimensional RT (2DRT, 36%), three-dimensional conformal RT and/or intensity modulated RT (3DCRT/IMRT, 29%), brachytherapy (BT, 16%), and a combination of 2DRT and BT (BT boost, 19%). Results: The overall SPC risk was not significantly different between the matched-pair (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.39), but the risk became significant >5 years or >10 years after RT (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.36-2.55; HR 4.94, 95% CI 2.18-11.2, respectively). The most significant sites of increased risk were bladder, lymphoproliferative, and sarcoma. Of the different RT techniques, only 2DRT was associated with a significantly higher risk (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.32-2.35), but not BT boost (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.50-1.38), 3DCRT/IMRT (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.21), or BT (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01). Conclusions: Radiation-related SPC risk varies depending on the RT technique and may be reduced by using BT, BT boost, or 3DCRT/IMRT.

2011-01-01

156

Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

2005-09-23

157

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1). Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

S.T. Ubwa; B.A. Anhwange; J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

158

Chemical analysis on post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This review describes the techniques used in chemical analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. Pretreatment of samples containing UO2 and PuO2 prior to analysis was reviewed. Chemical methods such as 235U depletion, 148Nd monitoring and ?-spectrometry were also reviewed in detail for the burn-up measurement. Various separation procedures of fission products before determination of individual element were fully described. For the fission gas analysis, gas collection system, volume measurement, and methods of determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were also reviewed. Techniques for the determination of 129I by ?-counting method, mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis were thoroughly reviewed. Method for boron-heavy water and tritium analysis were reviewed briefly. (Author)

1985-01-01

159

AN ANALYSIS OF THE NEW TRACTORS DISTRIBUTION LOGISTICS IN THE ASPECT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMMES FOR SUPPORTING AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article contains an analysis of issues concerning logistics of agricultural tractors distribution. Programmes and the level of utilization of means from Structural Funds of the European Union for modernization of equipment of agricultural farms in Poland have been presented. Structure of agricultural tractors market in Poland and the issues on domestic selective distribution of leading producers of agricultural tractors have been characterized. The achieved results of research on the sales level of agricultural tractors have been presented. The research has been carried out at the Trade Department of the authorized distributor of tractors and agricultural machines. The research cycle covered the years 2003-2010. The research results have been statistically prepared using the R programme for Windows (version 2.14.1) and defining trend, random fluctuations and seasonal fluctuations. The time schedules of sales were analysed in the aspect of subsidizing purchases from the Structural Funds of the European Union and the agritechnical procedures calendar.

S?awomir JU?CI?SKI

2012-01-01

160

Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

Li S; Lo CY; Pan MH; Lai CS; Ho CT

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food. PMID:23037977

Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

2012-10-04

162

Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl- on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl- and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

1981-01-01

163

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations – are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ?1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11) than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4), which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36), which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granites and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22). Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed, the observed element distribution can only be explained by equilibration of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. It appears the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and Na2O-rich, but Cl-poor bioapatite near the EDJ and MgO- and Na2O-poor, but Cl-rich bioapatite at the outer enamel rim. The linkage between lake and river water compositions, bioavailability of elements for plants, animal nutrition and tooth formation is complex and multifaceted. The quality and limits of the MgO/Na2O and other proxies have to be established with systematic investigations relat

G. Brügmann; J. Krause; T. C. Brachert; O. Kullmer; F. Schrenk; I. Ssemmanda; D. F. Mertz

2012-01-01

164

An analysis of cost improvement in chemical process technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost improvement -- sometimes called the learning curve or progress curve -- plays a crucial role in the competitiveness of the US chemical industry. More rapid cost improvement for a product results in expanding market share and larger profits. Expectations of rapid cost improvement motivate companies to invest heavily in the development and introduction of new chemical products and processes, even if production from the first pioneer facility is economically marginal. The slope of the learning curve can also indicate whether government support of new chemical processes such as synthetic fuels can be expected to have large social benefits or to simply represent a net loss to the public treasury. Despite the importance of the slope of the learning curve in the chemical process industries (CPI), little analytical investigation has been made into the factors that accelerate or retard cost improvement. This study develops such a model for the CPI. Using information from ten in-depth case studies and a database consisting of year-by-year market histories of 44 chemical products, including organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, synthetic fibers, and primary metals, the analysis explores the relationships among the rate of learning and characteristics of the technologies, the nature of markets, and management approaches. 78 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

Merrow, E.W.

1989-05-01

165

Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

2013-06-01

166

THE ROLE AND THE LIMITS OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN MODERN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of Romania’s priorities for the fulfillment of the objectives generated by its accession to theEuropean Union is to improve its business environment. As part of this objective we have presentedthe essential role of the economic and financial analysis that provides the necessary information fordecision-making process. For the purpose of making an objective analysis, at the end of the paper wehave also presented some of the limits of this resourceful and available instrument.

Ema MASCA

2005-01-01

167

Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2006-07-18

168

ICBM modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that to counter Soviet nuclear advances, a long-standing U.S. national defense goal has been intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) modernization. One such modernization initiative is the Small ICBM program, which rests on the belief that a small ICBM would provide greater flexibility in developing basing concepts to enhance ICBM survivability. The Defense Department's plans for deploying the system are uncertain at this time and unresolved issues remain concerning the system configuration, acquisition costs, and deployment milestones. Until DOD provides updated direction, program funding needs are uncertain. Questions also remain concerning the missile's ability to effectively damage hardened facilities and cover the designated target base and the visibility of the missile design and the availability of parts of several missile components and the warhead. While the Air Force is confident of meeting these needs, it is not providing enough information in its reports to Congress to permit meaningful oversight.

1991-09-01

169

Modern biooxidation  

CERN Multimedia

Filling a gap in the literature, leading expert editors and top international authors present the field of biooxidation from an academic and industrial point of view, taking many examples from modern pharmaceutical research. Topics range from the application of different monooxygenases to applications in the pharmaceutical industry, making this volume of high interest not only for those working in biotechnology but also for organic synthetic chemists, among others.

Schmid, Rolf D

2007-01-01

170

Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

1997-05-01

171

Investigation of meteorite chemical composition by activation analysis with microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Application of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons from a microtron for determining the chemical composition of stone and iron meteorites was investigated. Nearly 20 elements have been determined mostly by instrumental photon activation analysis, but instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis has been also applied for determining several elements in the samples. The optimal irradiation regimes and both cooling and measuring times were established. Sensitivity and accuracy of the analysis are presented. During analysis of the samples different types of interference reactions were taken into account. The experimental data were in satisfactory agreement with the results reported in literature

1983-01-01

172

METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

173

Rethinking the history of artists' pigments through chemical analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

Berrie BH

2012-01-01

174

Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

1981-07-10

175

Determination of Myoglobin Stability by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Classic and Modern Data Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Few laboratory procedures describe the use of circular dichroism (CD) at the undergraduate level. To increase the number of laboratory exercises using CD, a thermal denaturation study of myoglobin using CD is described to assess protein stability. Values obtained from a more classic linear data analysis approach are consistent with data analyzed…

Mehl, Andrew F.; Crawford, Mary A.; Zhang, Lei

2009-01-01

176

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

CERN Document Server

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

2003-01-01

177

THE MODERN TOOLKIT IN THE RESEARCH OF MACROECONOMIC DYNAMICS. 3 - THE PHASE ANALYSIS ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????. 3 – ??????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the third article from the series of the works dedi-cated to the tool methods of the research of macroeco-nomic dynamics the phase space, the phase analysis in it and their macroeconomic appendices are described. Phase pictures alongside with a parameter contain its first derivative (tendency), which in the best degree characterizes aspirations of a macroeconomic process. In a phase space, periodic economic processes (sea-sonal prevalence and cyclicity) become rather cyclic or “circular” designs, which facilitate the recognition of economic archetypes. The phase analysis has appeared new, more universal, simple, but at the same time thin, intellectual, mathematically exacted tool at the re-search of macroeconomic conjuncture. It has enabled the possibility to analyze, to represent, to visualize and to predict the development of cycles in macroeco-nomic analytically, numerically and in a graphical way

Botascheva F. B.

2012-01-01

178

Modern analytical techniques for fault surface seal analysis: A Gulf Coast case history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today`s exploration methods, with a major reliance on mapping with 3-D seismic data, generate a great deal of potential information about prospective reservoirs. Effective prospect evaluation requires consideration of the sealing characteristics of faults, and techniques have been developed to improve fault surface analysis. {open_quotes}Allan{close_quotes} fault surface profiles permit assessment of sand juxtaposition across the fault, and can be prepared by manual mapping methods if adequate structural maps are available from 3-D seismic interpretation. Commercial software is available to perform similar analysis directly from the 3-D data. Marthon`s Vermilion Block 331 field was selected for a pilot study. The field consists of a low relief anticline, downthrown to a regional growth fault. Numerous small faults cross the crest of the anticline and compartmentalize reservoir sands of Trimosina A (Pleistocene), Angulogerina B (Pleistocene), and Lenticulina (Miocene) age. Faulted reservoirs with multiple, stacked sands are particularly prone to loss of hydrocarbons by leakage across fault surfaces, so that this field was considered ideal for testing the effectiveness of fault surface analysis. Seal risk was evaluated by means of fault surface profiles along seven of the crestal faults, to determine the limits of trapping potential and paths for vertical migration. Actual hydrocarbon distribution was compared with the predictions made from fault surface analysis. The role of faults in permitting up-fault migration along the fracture surface or in providing shale smear barriers to cross-fault migration along the fracture surface or in providing shale smear barriers to cross-fault migration from sand to sand may confound interpretations based only on fault surface profile geometries. For this reason, smear gouge ratios were also determined and used in assessing trapping potentials.

Broussard, M.J. [Marathon Oil Co., Lafayette, LA (United States); Lock, B.E. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

179

Testing Methods and Analysis of the Main Electrical Properties of Modernized Locomotives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Laboratory of Traction and Rolling Stock systematic research into the methods of testing a traction drive, using the real models has been conducted. The aim of this research was to completely define all elements of the system for testing the main electrical and mechanical properties which include the selection of measuring transducers, the selection and implementation of the system for conditioning and transmitting signals to processing methods and analysis by using application software. This kind of approach has made it possible for a target test of an electric locomotive on the field to be performed in a reliable manner and without failure.

Dragutin Kosti?; Nenad Jevti?; Petar Markovi?

2011-01-01

180

Modern estimation of the parameters of the Weibull wind speed distribution for wind energy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three methods for calculating the parameters of the Weibull wind speed distribution for wind energy analysis are presented: the maximum likelihood method, the proposed modified maximum likelihood method, and the commonly used graphical method. The application of each method is demonstrated using a sample wind speed data set, and a comparison of the accuracy of each method is also performed. The maximum likelihood method is recommended for use with time series wind data, and the modified maximum likelihood method is recommended for use with wind data in frequency distribution format.

Seguro, J.V.; Lambert, T.W. [T.W. Lambert Consulting Inc., Calgary (Canada)

2000-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

Kan, C. W.; Lam, Y. L.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Luximon, A.; Lau, K. W.; Chen, K. S.

2013-06-01

182

Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5-40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7-19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws.

Wellens HL; Kuijpers-Jagtman AM; Halazonetis DJ

2013-04-01

183

All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

2000-01-01

184

Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath.

Hrubesh LW; Droege MW

2013-09-01

185

ACCELERATORS: Nonlinear optimization of the modern synchrotron radiation storage ring based on frequency map analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a rule to improve the nonlinear solution with frequency map analysis (FMA), and without frequently revisiting the optimization algorithm. Two aspects of FMA are emphasized. The first one is the tune shift with amplitude, which can be used to improve the solution of harmonic sextupoles, and thus obtain a large dynamic aperture. The second one is the tune diffusion rate, which can be used to select a quiet tune. Application of these ideas is carried out in the storage ring of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and the detailed processes, as well as better solutions, are presented in this paper. Discussions about the nonlinear behaviors of off-momentum particles are also presented.

Tian, Shun-Qiang; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Hou, Jie; Chen, Guang-Ling; Wan, Cheng-Lan

2009-02-01

186

Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

2004-01-01

187

Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath. PMID:23774191

Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

2013-06-18

188

Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

2010-01-01

189

A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports that almost all elements in the periodic table are found in petroleum products, varying from percent levels for C-H-S to parts per million and parts per billion levels for transition metals. The presence of elements in crude oil is ascribed to its marine animal and vegetative origin. Compared with two other fossil fuels coal and oil shale petroleum is a lesser source of environmental pollution. Extensive data on crude oils composition are available. Determination of S, N, V, Ni, and Fe form an integral part of crude assay analysis of oils carried out by all oil companies. Generally it is agreed that V, Ni, and Fe occur as metallo-porphyrins; Hg, Sb, and As as organometallic compounds; Mo and Ge as carboxylic acid salts; and silica and NaCl as colloidal minerals. The significance of metals either naturally present in crude and gasoline or purposely added to petroleum products is described. Trace metals in used lubricating oils indicate the wear performance of an engine, and can be used as a preventive maintenance check. A number of sample preparation schemes are necessary depending on the analytical technique to be used. This can vary from procedures as simple as dilution for XRF of AAS, to more involved procedures such as oxygen bomb combustion for ion chromatography, or wet ashing for AAS or ICPAES. Frequently, robots are used to speed sample dilution for XRF or ICPAES

1991-01-01

190

Diagnostic laparoscopy in the era of modern imaging-retrospective analysis from a single center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: A retrospective analysis of utility and outcomes of diagnostic laparoscopy at our center in the last 5 years was done. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the last 5 years, we subjected 90 patients to diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) when final diagnosis could not be achieved after all necessary imaging methods and serological, cytological, and microbiological investigations. DL was performed under sedation and local anesthesia, and patients were discharged within 24 h. Video documentation along with guided biopsies/collection of the samples for culture and other tests was performed. RESULTS: The commonest indication was ascites (46/90), followed by diffuse liver disease (15), focal liver disease (9), intraabdominal malignancies (10), and miscellaneous (10). Overall accuracy of DL was 91 %. In 64 % of patients, laparoscopy confirmed the clinical diagnosis, and in 27 % of patients, laparoscopy was useful in correcting the diagnosis. DL was performed in 46 patients with low-serum ascitic fluid albumin gradient ascites and ascites of mixed etiology. DL confirmed the suspected diagnosis in 48 %, corrected in 38 %, and yielded unsuspected diagnosis in 15 % patients. In 6 % of patients, laparoscopy was inconclusive. In three patients, there were extensive intraperitoneal adhesions, and adequate examination was not possible. No serious complications were encountered. Minor complications of pain at the port site, ascitic fluid leakage, and port site infection were seen in three, two, and one patient, respectively. CONCLUSION: DL is useful in patients when diagnosis and extent of the disease were unclear especially in ascites of undetermined etiology.

Amarapurkar D; Bhatt N; Patel N; Amarapurkar P; Amarapurkar A

2013-09-01

191

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/:SiO/sub 2/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/:SiO/sub 2/, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO/sub 2/ films.

Tallant, D.R.; Taylor, E.L.

1980-05-01

192

On-site chemical analysis support: The modular laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various activities benefit from on-site chemical analysis, which reduces the time required for sample analysis and avoids the problems associated with transporting samples to an off-site laboratory. A primary example of required on-site analysis is provided by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), where increasing emphasis has been placed on performing on-site analysis during CWC inspections. On-site analysis requires that a laboratory be transported to the inspection site. However, a laboratory consists of more than analytical instruments Support equipment such as electrical generators, pumps and gases are often essential. A series of transportable modules have been developed to support on-site analytical requirements. These modules contain an analytical instrument (gas chromatograph with dual flame photometric and mass selective detectors), support equipment for that instrument (for example, gas generators), and the supplies needed to maintain the instrument. The modules can be transported by most transport systems (including passenger aircraft) and are designed to minimize connections and on-site laboratory set-up time. The modules also provide work platforms for the instrument in situations where bench space is not available. These modules have been tested under field conditions and have also been nationally and internationally transported. It is envisioned that a complete modular system can be developed in which self-contained modules would provide everything needed for sampling and analysis.

Riggs, P.J. [EAI Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States); Heyl, M.; Farlow, P. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

193

Modern applied energy conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents an energy conservation methodology for a wide range of commercial, industrial, and public sector applications. It presents step-by-step analysis of typical energy conservations problems and their solutions, incorporating recently-developed energy technologies with modern operational research. Investment strategies, design considerations, project control, and resource allocation are addressed, backed up by a series of case studies from European and North American energy management situations. The authors describe microcomputer spreadsheet methods to aid in analysis.

Jacques, J.K.; Lesourd, J.B.

1988-01-01

194

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is completed, studies on metabolism, sources, environmental exposure and atmospheric chemistry can be undertaken. The principles and methodologies for bioassay directed chemical analysis are presented and illustrated in this paper. Most of this work has been directed toward the characterization of ambient air and diesel particulates, which are used as examples in this report to illustrate the analytical logic used for identifying the bio-active components of complex mixtures.

Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

1986-01-01

195

Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Desenvolvimento de Processos; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Gerencia de Descomissionamento

2011-07-01

196

Regression analysis of a chemical reaction fouling model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A previously reported mathematical model for the initial chemical reaction fouling of a heated tube is critically examined in the light of the experimental data for which it was developed. A regression analysis of the model with respect to that data shows that the reference point upon which the two adjustable parameters of the model were originally based was well chosen, albeit fortuitously. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

1996-01-01

197

Design of modern steel railway bridges  

CERN Document Server

Focuses on the modern methods and technology used in the analysis and design of new steel superstructures for modern railway bridges. The author provides introductory and general information and then examines topics including load development, structural analysis, and the detailed design of modern steel railway bridge superstructures.

Unsworth, John F

2010-01-01

198

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

Andrzej Banaszek; Radovan Petrovi?; Bartlomiej Zylinski

2011-01-01

199

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for improved chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress achieved over the past five years in the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) for improved chemical analysis program. Our initial efforts yielded significantly lower detection limits for trace elemental analysis by the use of both cw and pulsed laser excitations. New methods of LIFS were developed that were shown to overcome many of the traditional limitations to LIFS techniques. LIFS methods have been applied to yield fundamental scientific data that further the understanding of forces between atoms and other atoms and molecules. In recent work, two-photon ionization was combined with LIFS and applied, for the first time, to the study of energy transfer in ions.

Gelbwachs, J.A.

1983-09-01

200

Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and with the correct methodology provide unamibiguous detection of such life forms.

Kounaves SP

2003-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly different material fractions ('Vegetable food' and 'Shoes, leather, etc.'). Statistical analysis showed for the 'Vegetable food' that the variance could not be attributed to a single step in the procedure, whereas in the case of 'Shoes, leather, etc.', the first coarse shredding was the main source of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions. $CPY 2007 Taylor & Francis.

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.

2007-01-01

202

QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

203

Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

CERN Multimedia

We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

2010-01-01

204

Is external cervical orthotic bracing necessary after posterior atlantoaxial fusion with modern instrumentation: meta-analysis and review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: No guidelines exist regarding external cervical orthoses (ECO) after atlantoaxial fusion. We reviewed published series describing C1-2 posterior instrumented fusions with screw-rod constructs (SRC) or transarticular screws (TAS) and compared rates of fusion with and without postoperative ECO. METHODS: Online databases were searched for English-language articles between 1986 and April 2011 describing ECO use after posterior atlantoaxial instrumentation with SRC or TAS. Eighteen studies describing 947 patients who had SRC (± ECO: 254 of 693 patients), and 33 studies describing 1424 patients with TAS (± ECO: 525 of 899 patients) met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis techniques were applied to estimate rates of fusion with and without ECO use. RESULTS: All studies provided class III evidence, and no studies directly compared outcomes with or without ECO use. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients who achieved successful fusion between patients treated with ECO and without ECO for SRC or TAS patients. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for rates of fusion ± ECO were 97.4% (CI: 95.2% to 98.6%) versus 97.9% (CI: 93.6% to 99.3%) for SRC and 93.6% (CI: 90.7% to 95.6%) versus 95.3% (CI: 90.8% to 97.7%) for TAS. There was no correlation between duration of ECO treatment and fusion (dose effect). CONCLUSIONS: After C1-2 fusion with modern instrumentation, ECO may be unnecessary (class III). Some centers recommend ECO use with patients with softer bone quality (class IV). Prospective, randomized studies with validated radiographic and clinical outcome metrics are necessary to determine the utility of ECO after C1-2 fusion and its impact on patient comfort and cost.

Elliott RE; Tanweer O; Boah A; Morsi A; Ma T; Frempong-Boadu A; Smith ML

2013-02-01

205

Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of upper first molar (M(1) ) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M(1) features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. PMID:23914934

Martinón-Torres, María; Sp?vá?ková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

2013-08-05

206

Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies of upper first molar (M(1) ) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M(1) features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s.

Martinón-Torres M; Sp?vá?ková P; Gracia-Téllez A; Martínez I; Bruner E; Arsuaga JL; Bermúdez de Castro JM

2013-10-01

207

Emission reduction by modern burner constructions; Emissionsminderung durch moderne Brennerkonstruktionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All pollutants are the result of substance and energy conversion processes which are inevitable due to physical and chemical laws. Restricting these pollutants to a minimum is the aim of modern burner technology. The present report describes the technical conversion of emission reduction measures as an example of the optimisation of combustion processes by means of a combined natural gas-hydrogen burner. (orig.)

Balgar, G. [Kueppersbusch Grosskuechentechnik GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Waermetechnik

2004-08-01

208

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

209

Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

2008-01-01

210

Structural cluster analysis of chemical reactions in solution  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a simple and general approach to the problem of clustering structures from atomic trajectories of chemical reactions in solution. By considering distance metrics which are invariant under permutation of identical atoms or molecules, we demonstrate that it is possible to automatically resolve as distinct structural clusters the configurations corresponding to reactants, products, and transition states, even in presence of atom-exchanges and of hundreds of solvent molecules. Our approach strongly simplifies the analysis of large trajectories and it opens the way to the construction of kinetic network models of activated processes in solution employing the available efficient schemes developed for proteins conformational ensembles.

Gallet, Grégoire A.; Pietrucci, Fabio

2013-08-01

211

Gene expression analysis reveals chemical-specific profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The articles highlighted in this issue are "Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Chemical-Specific Profiles" by Hisham K. Hamadeh, Pierre R. Bushel, Supriya Jayadev, Karla Martin, Olimpia DiSorbo, Stella Sieber, Lee Bennett, Raymond Tennant, Raymond Stoll, J. Carl Barrett, Kerry Blanchard, Richard S. Paules, and Cynthia A. Afshari (pp. 219-231) and "Prediction of Compound Signature Using High Density Gene Expression Profiling" by Hisham K. Hamadeh, Pierre R. Bushel, Supriya Jayadev, Olimpia DiSorbo, Leping Li, Raymond Tennant, Raymond Stoll, J. Carl Barrett, Richard S. Paules, Kerry Blanchard, and Cynthia A. Afshari (pp. 232-240).

Morgan KT

2002-06-01

212

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

2009-01-01

213

Chemical analysis of solid-state irradiated human insulin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To study the chemical modifications induced upon irradiation of solid human insulin at radiosterilization doses and investigate the influence of the absorbed dose on radiolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volatile radiolytic products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and non-volatile products by two different high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods: the formation of higher molecular weight proteins was assessed by size exclusion liquid chromatography whereas assays for related compounds and chemical potency tests were carried out using reverse-phase HPLC-UV. Conformational changes were investigated by measurements of circular dichroism. RESULTS: After gamma irradiation at 10 kGy, the recovery of insulin was 96.8%; higher molecular weight proteins accounted for 0.35% (relative peak area) and other related compounds (including A21 desamido insulin) represented 1.29%. No major structural changes and no volatile radiolytic compounds were detected. CONCLUSION: Human insulin samples irradiated in the solid-state at 10 kGy (gamma rays) and 14 kGy (electron-beam) meet the European Pharmacopoeia requirements and can be considered as quite stable towards radiation from a chemical analysis viewpoint.

Terryn H; Vanhelleputte JP; Maquille A; Tilquin B

2006-09-01

214

[Rationality of commercial specification of rhubarb based on chemical analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The differences of 34 rhubarb samples collected on the market and at producing area were investigated by chemical analysis on the contents of anthraquinones and chromatographic fingerprints, in order to assess the rationality of the commercial specification of rhubarb. The results indicated that the commercial specification of rhubarb was not correlated to the contents of anthraquinones as well as the price. The chromatographic fingerprints of rhubarb samples from different producing area were dissimilar, while the commercial specifications were difficult to be separated. Generally, the rhubarb samples produced in famous-region contained more anthraquinones. This demonstrated rationality on the traditional records of the famous-region of rhubarb from a chemical view. In this study, it was firstly reported that rhubarb could be categorized into two types, chrysophanol-type and rhein-type, based on the proportion of the two constituents in the total anthraquinones after acid hydrohysis. It was found that the rhubarb samples of rhein-type were mostly produced in famous-regions, such as Qinghai, Xizang, West Sichuan and Gansu. The literatures reported that rhein was superior to chrysophanol at many pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties. Hence, we primarily considered that rhein-type rhubarb might be high-quality. These results were helpful to improve the commercial specification of rhubarb from a view of chemical information.

Wang J; Zhang X; Xiao X; Chu X; Zhou C; Jin C; Yan D

2010-02-01

215

[Rationality of commercial specification of rhubarb based on chemical analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The differences of 34 rhubarb samples collected on the market and at producing area were investigated by chemical analysis on the contents of anthraquinones and chromatographic fingerprints, in order to assess the rationality of the commercial specification of rhubarb. The results indicated that the commercial specification of rhubarb was not correlated to the contents of anthraquinones as well as the price. The chromatographic fingerprints of rhubarb samples from different producing area were dissimilar, while the commercial specifications were difficult to be separated. Generally, the rhubarb samples produced in famous-region contained more anthraquinones. This demonstrated rationality on the traditional records of the famous-region of rhubarb from a chemical view. In this study, it was firstly reported that rhubarb could be categorized into two types, chrysophanol-type and rhein-type, based on the proportion of the two constituents in the total anthraquinones after acid hydrohysis. It was found that the rhubarb samples of rhein-type were mostly produced in famous-regions, such as Qinghai, Xizang, West Sichuan and Gansu. The literatures reported that rhein was superior to chrysophanol at many pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties. Hence, we primarily considered that rhein-type rhubarb might be high-quality. These results were helpful to improve the commercial specification of rhubarb from a view of chemical information. PMID:20450046

Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Xueru; Xiao, Xiaohe; Chu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Canping; Jin, Cheng; Yan, Dan

2010-02-01

216

Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Agaricus brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the chemical composition of A. blasiliensis and the chemical structural properties of an immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. The amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids by HPLC and fatty acids by GC were analyzed. The immuno-stimulating substance from A. blasiliensis was extracted with hot water and purified by ethanol precipitation. It underwent ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Toyopearl HW 65F. Through GP-HPLC, the substance was found to be homogeneous. Its chemical structure was determined by (13)C-NMR. Fatty acids, organic acids, and sugar alcohol composition consisted exclusively of linoleic acid, fumaric acid and mannitol, respectively. The amino acids were mainly glutamic acid, glycine, and arginine. By (13)C-NMR analysis, the immuno-stimulating substance was identified as ?-(1?3) (1?6)-glucan, composed of a backbone with (1?3)-linked D-glucopyranosyl residues branching a (1?6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl residue. The ?-glucan from A. blasiliensis showed pronounced immuno-stimulating activity on the antibody-production ability of B-lymphocytes by the hemolytic suspension assay. In these results, A. blasiliensis was estimated to have potent pharmacological properties and potential nutritional values.

Cho SM; Jang KY; Park HJ; Park JS

2008-03-01

217

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented analysis and Recursive Design methods as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method. (author)

1996-01-01

218

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented analysis and Recursive Design methods as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method. (author)

Kozlowski, Thomas; Carey, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Maguire, Charles F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Whitehouse, David; Witzig, Chris [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Div. of Physics; Sorensen, Soren [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-07-01

219

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

220

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A Comparative Analysis of Chemical Abundances in Exoplanetary Atmospheres  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comparative analysis of atmospheric chemical abundances of several transiting extrasolar planets, as inferred from observations with HST, Spitzer, and ground-based facilities. We used a bayesian exoplanet atmosphere retrieval method to determine statistical limits on the chemical compositions as required by the data. Our method facilitates calculating error contours in the space of chemical composition, the 1-D averaged temperature structure, and the day-night energy redistribution in the planetary atmosphere, given photometric and/or spectroscopic observations. The statistical treatment involves large-scale computation of millions of 1D atmospheric models spanning the large model parameter space. We report constraints on the elemental and molecular abundances of transiting exoplanets over a wide range in atmospheric properties, with temperatures ranging from 750 K to over 3000 K, and sizes ranging from hot Neptunes to the largest of hot-Jupiters. We present limits on equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry imposed by the observed atmospheric chemical compositions. We show that some of the systems in our sample, including GJ 436b, show distinct deviations from atmospheric chemistry based on thermochemical equilibrium and solar abundances, and have important consequences for planetary formation and evolution. On the other hand, some observations are much less constraining and can be explained by equilibrium chemistry with solar abundances, for a wide range of temperature structures. We discuss future observations that might be able to constrain the latter systems. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA, which provided support for this work.

Madhusudhan, Nikku; UCF Exoplanet Team; WASP Consortium

2010-10-01

222

Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En este trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilida (more) d con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work, surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These mo (more) difications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

Rangel-Vázquez, Norma Aurea; Leal-García, Timoteo

2010-12-01

223

Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

2005-01-01

224

Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients) were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

V. A. Mezentsev

2009-01-01

225

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2009-07-01

226

Chemical analysis of dentin surfaces after Carisolv treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was done to characterize the surface chemistry after caries excavation with burs and Carisolv 2, by analyzing the relative amounts of organic and inorganic content, and also to analyze the penetration of the adhesive after etching and bonding using Micro Raman spectroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty extracted molars with caries were distributed into the following groups and treated accordingly. Group 1-excavation with bur (10 teeth), and Group 2-excavation using Carisolv 2 (10 teeth). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Spectroscopic analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the chemical composition of the tooth between the groups after excavation (P > 0.05) either with bur or with Carisolv. The penetration of the dentin bonding resin in all samples of the Carisolv group was up to 15mum, whereas, in the bur group it was upto 10mum in few samples. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed the surfaces of the Carisolv-treated dentin to be free of the smear layer, with open tubules, whereas, the dentin surfaces of the bur group showed surfaces covered with a smear layer. In the Carislov group the resin tags were found comparatively deeper than in the bur excavation group. In both the groups the integrity of the remaining dentin surfaces were maintained chemically and morphologically.

Pai VS; Nadig RR; Jagadeesh T; Usha G; Karthik J; Sridhara K

2009-07-01

227

Chemical analysis of dentin surfaces after Carisolv treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : This study was done to characterize the surface chemistry after caries excavation with burs and Carisolv 2, by analyzing the relative amounts of organic and inorganic content, and also to analyze the penetration of the adhesive after etching and bonding using Micro Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods : Twenty extracted molars with caries were distributed into the following groups and treated accordingly. Group 1-excavation with bur (10 teeth), and Group 2-excavation using Carisolv 2 (10 teeth). Results and Conclusion : Spectroscopic analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the chemical composition of the tooth between the groups after excavation ( P > 0.05) either with bur or with Carisolv. The penetration of the dentin bonding resin in all samples of the Carisolv group was up to 15?m, whereas, in the bur group it was upto 10?m in few samples. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed the surfaces of the Carisolv-treated dentin to be free of the smear layer, with open tubules, whereas, the dentin surfaces of the bur group showed surfaces covered with a smear layer. In the Carislov group the resin tags were found comparatively deeper than in the bur excavation group. In both the groups the integrity of the remaining dentin surfaces were maintained chemically and morphologically.

Pai Veena; Nadig Roopa; Jagadeesh T; Usha G; Karthik J; Sridhara K

2009-01-01

228

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

2009-10-02

229

The Hippocratic oath: a comparative analysis of the ancient text's relevance to American and Indian modern medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

Jhala CI; Jhala KN

2012-07-01

230

Chemical landscape analysis with the OpenTox framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) landscape and activity cliffs concepts have their origins in medicinal chemistry and receptor-ligand interactions modelling. While intuitive, the definition of an activity cliff as a "pair of structurally similar compounds with large differences in potency" is commonly recognized as ambiguous. This paper proposes a new and efficient method for identifying activity cliffs and visualization of activity landscapes. The activity cliffs definition could be improved to reflect not the cliff steepness alone, but also the rate of the change of the steepness. The method requires explicitly setting similarity and activity difference thresholds, but provides means to explore multiple thresholds and to visualize in a single map how the thresholds affect the activity cliff identification. The identification of the activity cliffs is addressed by reformulating the problem as a statistical one, by introducing a probabilistic measure, namely, calculating the likelihood of a compound having large activity difference compared to other compounds, while being highly similar to them. The likelihood is effectively a quantification of a SAS Map with defined thresholds. Calculating the likelihood relies on four counts only, and does not require the pairwise matrix storage. This is a significant advantage, especially when processing large datasets. The method generates a list of individual compounds, ranked according to the likelihood of their involvement in the formation of activity cliffs, and goes beyond characterizing cliffs by structure pairs only. The visualisation is implemented by considering the activity plane fixed and analysing the irregularities of the similarity itself. It provides a convenient analogy to a topographic map and may help identifying the most appropriate similarity representation for each specific SAR space. The proposed method has been applied to several datasets, representing different biological activities. Finally, the method is implemented as part of an existing open source Ambit package and could be accessed via an OpenTox API compliant web service and via an interactive application, running within a modern, JavaScript enabled web browser. Combined with the functionalities already offered by the OpenTox framework, like data sharing and remote calculations, it could be a useful tool for exploring chemical landscapes online.

Jeliazkova N; Jeliazkov V

2012-01-01

231

Real-time chemical analysis of aerosol particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important aspect of environmental atmospheric monitoring requires the characterization of airborne microparticles and aerosols. Unfortunately, traditional sample collection and handling techniques are prone to contamination and interference effects that can render an analysis invalid. These problems can be avoided by using real-time atmospheric sampling techniques followed by immediate mass spectrometric analysis. The former is achieved in these experiments via a two state differential pumping scheme that is attached directly to a commercially available quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer. Particles produced by an external particle generator enter the apparatus and immediately pass through two cw laser/fiberoptic based detectors positioned two centimeters apart. Timing electronics measure the time between detection events, estimate the particles arrival in the center of the ion trap and control the firing of a YAG laser. Ions produced when the UV laser light ablates the particle`s surface are stored by the ion trap for mass analysis. Ion trap mass spectrometers have several advantages over conventional time-of-flight instruments. First, they are capable of MS/MS analysis by the collisional dissociation of a stored species, This permits complete chemical characterization of airborne samples. Second, ion traps are small and lend themselves to portable, field oriented applications.

Yang, M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

1995-04-01

232

Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF).

1983-01-01

233

Applications of deactivated GC columns for analysis of nitrogen-containing chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrogen-containing chemicals are one of the important families of compounds relevant to the purposes of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Several applications, using various injection modes, of new deactivated columns specially designed for basic compounds are presented. These columns prove remarkably well-suited to the gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the chemicals of interest, even to underivatized amino-alcohols, whose analysis on conventional GC columns is often difficult and hindered by poor resolution and high detection limits. Such a deactivated phase can even replace the typical GC phases used for CWC verification purposes.

Le Moullec S; Juillet Y; Bégos A; Bellier B

2006-03-01

234

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. RESULTS: The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. CONCLUSIONS: Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

Hanwell MD; Curtis DE; Lonie DC; Vandermeersch T; Zurek E; Hutchison GR

2012-01-01

235

The Extension of Statistical Entropy Analysis to Chemical Compounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical entropy analysis (SEA) quantifies the dilution and concentration of conservative substances (e.g., heavy metals) in a system. In this paper, the SEA concept is extended (eSEA) to make it applicable to systems in which the chemical speciation is of particular importance. The eSEA is applied to a simplified region used for crop farming. The extent to which the region concentrates or dilutes nitrogen compounds is expressed as the change in statistical entropy (DH). A detailed derivation for the calculation of DH is provided. The results are discussed for four variations of the crop farming system, showing that the efficiency of crop farming can be expressed by eSEA.

Alicja P. Soba?tka; Matthias Zessner; Helmut Rechberger

2012-01-01

236

The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

Asa Auta; Samuel B Banwat

2011-01-01

237

An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

2012-05-01

238

ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL MODERNIZERS NETWORK FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM PROCESS FROM ROMANIA* 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform), the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, ?nancial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simpli?cation.

Alina PROFIROIU (corresponding author); Tudorel ANDREI; Marian NICA; Elena Daniela ?TEF?NESCU

2010-01-01

239

ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL MODERNIZERS NETWORK FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM PROCESS FROM ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004-2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform), the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network.For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process.Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

Alina PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Marian NICA; Elena Daniela ?TEF?NESCU

2010-01-01

240

Analysis Of Samples From Tank 6F Chemical Cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2010-02-02

242

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD 207561  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD 207561. During a survey programme to search for new rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz (P ˜ 6 min). However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD 207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated H? line profile to the observed one yields an effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) of 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (v sin i) for HD 207561 is 74 km s-1, indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD 207561 in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram implies that this is slightly evolved from the main-sequence and located well within the ?-Scuti instability strip. The abundance analysis indicates the star has slight underabundances of Ca and Sc and mild overabundances of iron-peak elements. The spectropolarimetric study of HD 207561 shows that the effective magnetic field is within the observational error of 100 G. The spectroscopic analysis revealed that the star has most of the characteristics similar to an Am star, rather than an Ap star, and that it lies in the ?-Scuti instability strip; hence roAp pulsations are not expected in HD 207561, but low-overtone modes might be excited. The present work is based on the analysis of data collected with the Russian 6-m telescope BTA operated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS).

Joshi, S.; Semenko, E.; Martinez, P.; Sachkov, M.; Joshi, Y. C.; Seetha, S.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mary, D. L.; Girish, V.; Ashoka, B. N.

2012-08-01

243

Biologia química: uma estratégia moderna para a pesquisa em produtos naturais Chemical biology: a modern strategy for the natural products research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Natural Products Research in Brazil in the last five years (2002-2006), and also discusses how some relevant aspects of the Chemical Biology area could create new research opportunities and challenges for the natural product chemists. In addition, some aspects of the scientific policies and their impact on current projects are discussed.

Mônica Tallarico Pupo; Margareth Borges Coutinho Gallo; Paulo Cezar Vieira

2007-01-01

244

Modern electricity tariffs. Moderne Stromtarife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electricity tariffs in the FRG are for quite a while subject of committed discussions. In commissions and committees public utility companies have dealt with this subject in detail. Recommendations were worked out and new tariffs were tested in some regions. Many utilities have already reformed the tariff system in their supply area. In spite of this the discussion goes on undiminished. From different sides new statements on the tariff problem are made, behind these different starting points and targets become apparent. The IZE wants to give a factual basis for a sound analysis of this complex subject with this extensive volume of Strom Diskussion. Controversial positions are given in order to encourage factual dialogues. (orig./UA)

1994-01-01

245

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

2001-01-01

246

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

2001-07-01

247

Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine method for detection of early events in lipid oxidation in milk to predict shelf-life. PMID:16428618

Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, J H; Frøst, M B; Ostdal, H; Hermansen, J E; Kröger-Ohlsen, M; Skibsted, L H

2006-02-01

248

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

Hanwell Marcus D; Curtis Donald E; Lonie David C; Vandermeersch Tim; Zurek Eva; Hutchison Geoffrey R

2012-01-01

249

Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980). The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984).

Blagojevi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

250

Network technology for depot modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

Hostick, C.J.

1990-12-01

251

Outcomes of surgical endodontic treatment performed by a modern technique: an updated meta-analysis of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies on outcomes of surgical endodontic treatment have been published to date. However, study designs, treatment protocols, follow-up periods, and inclusion and exclusion criteria have been extremely heterogeneous. Thus, inconsistent and confounding results have been reported. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to assess the outcomes of surgical endodontic treatment performed using a modern technique, and to evaluate factors potentially influencing the outcome. METHODS: Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were adopted in order to identify randomized clinical trials, controlled trials, and prospective case series that studied surgical endodontic treatments. Treatment success rates were pooled, and the effect of various factors on treatment outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: In a follow-up of 1 year postoperatively, a successful outcome was achieved in 89.0% of patients. The outcomes obtained in studies using an operative microscope versus an endoscope were not significantly different, but both magnification devices were associated with significantly better outcomes than loupes. The use of MTA and of an operative microscope was associated with better outcomes compared with other retrofilling materials or magnification devices, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical endodontic treatment performed in a modern technique is a viable treatment option. The type of retrofilling material and magnification device may affect the outcome. Additional large-scale prospective clinical studies are needed to further evaluate possible predictors of success and failure.

Tsesis I; Rosen E; Taschieri S; Telishevsky Strauss Y; Ceresoli V; Del Fabbro M

2013-03-01

252

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

2012-01-01

253

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 ?m and 1000 ?m were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

2003-01-01

254

Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

1962-01-01

255

Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China) and 1.58% (Thailand). Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained ?-pinene 3.59, ?-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, ?-pinene 0.74, ?-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains ?-pinene 0.305, ?-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, ?-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, ?-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%).

Misbah Sultan; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Zafar Iqbal

2005-01-01

256

Modern Trends of Physics Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinguished experts in modern research are as in physics from over 35 institutions representing 15 countries were among the participants at the conference. The diverse program began with a keynote address from Noble Laureate Professor Ahmed Zewail, exploring the frontiers of physics research and its interdisciplinary relations with other fields of science. Topics included are: Part I - Atomic, Molecular, and Condensed Matter Physics; Part II - Chemical Physics, Lasers, and Electronics; and Part III - Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, and Astrophysics.

El Nadi, Lotfia M.

257

Methodology for national risk analysis and prioritization of toxic industrial chemicals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of chemicals that pose the greatest threat to human health from incidental releases is a cornerstone in public health preparedness for chemical threats. The present study developed and applied a methodology for the risk analysis and prioritization of industrial chemicals to identify the most significant chemicals that pose a threat to public health in Finland. The prioritization criteria included acute and chronic health hazards, physicochemical and environmental hazards, national production and use quantities, the physicochemical properties of the substances, and the history of substance-related incidents. The presented methodology enabled a systematic review and prioritization of industrial chemicals for the purpose of national public health preparedness for chemical incidents.

Taxell P; Engström K; Tuovila J; Söderström M; Kiljunen H; Vanninen P; Santonen T

2013-04-01

258

Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide with coated and uncoated spark-discharge soot aerosol particles was found to proceed via competitive adsorption of O3 and NO2, and the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene on soot particles was faster with O3 and NO2 than only with O3. Additional experiments and the development of a formal mechanistic description of the investigated processes are currently under way.

Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

259

A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.  

Science.gov (United States)

GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary in order to accurately reconstruct an environmental signature when these taxa are found in the fossil record. PMID:23170221

Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

2012-10-16

260

Institutions and Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European) and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences).Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption). In this situation, it is imperative not only to improve control methods (e.g. legal), b

Witold Morawski

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

1995-11-01

262

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

1995-01-01

263

Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning OA (BBOA) component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact index correlates well with the observed BBOA, CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 ppt, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m?3 (two-thirds of its average concentration), which does not appear to be related to BB sources. We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and predicted fire impacts. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA) does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB), resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC) and 30% total carbon (TC) are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA. Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/?CH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

A. C. Aiken; B. de Foy; C. Wiedinmyer; P. F. DeCarlo; I. M. Ulbrich; M. N. Wehrli; S. Szidat; A. S. H. Prevot; J. Noda; L. Wacker; R. Volkamer; E. Fortner; J. Wang; A. Laskin; V. Shutthanandan; J. Zheng; R. Zhang; G. Paredes-Miranda; W. P. Arnott; L. T. Molina; G. Sosa; X. Querol; J. L. Jimenez

2009-01-01

264

Comparative chemical analysis of Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari by HPLC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari, two famous traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), were considered to possess the same efficacy in TCM traditionally. However, modern pharmacological and phytochemical investigations showed that they were different in efficacy and chemical constituents to some degree. In this study, the principal constituents of the two drugs, isoflavonoids and saponins, were comparatively analysed using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ELSD methods. The results showed that there were some common compounds, especially flavonoids, in both drugs, while the differences in the types and contents of their chemical constituents, especially in saponins, were also obvious. The similarities and differences of the chemicals may be responsible, at least partially, for the similarities and differences in their efficacies or bioactivities.

Liu Y; Zhang X; Zhao Y; Chen H; Wang B; Zhang Q

2012-01-01

265

Origins of Modern Data Analysis Linked to the Beginnings and Early Development of Computer Science and Information Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation...

Murtagh, Fionn

266

Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The DNA sugar-phosphate backbone has a substantial influence on the DNA structural dynamics. Structural biology and bioinformatics studies revealed that the DNA backbone in experimental structures samples a wide range of distinct conformational substates, known as rotameric DNA backbone conformational families. Their correct description is essential for methods used to model nucleic acids and is known to be the Achilles heel of force field computations. In this study we report the benchmark database of MP2 calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set of atomic orbitals with aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets, MP2(T,Q), augmented by ?CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ corrections. The calculations are performed in the gas phase as well as using a COSMO solvent model. This study includes a complete set of 18 established and biochemically most important families of DNA backbone conformations and several other salient conformations that we identified in experimental structures. We utilize an electronically sufficiently complete DNA sugar-phosphate-sugar (SPS) backbone model system truncated to prevent undesired intramolecular interactions. The calculations are then compared with other QM methods. The BLYP and TPSS functionals supplemented with Grimme's D3(BJ) dispersion term provide the best tradeoff between computational demands and accuracy and can be recommended for preliminary conformational searches as well as calculations on large model systems. Among the tested methods, the best agreement with the benchmark database has been obtained for the double-hybrid DSD-BLYP functional in combination with a quadruple-? basis set, which is, however, computationally very demanding. The new hybrid density functionals PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 yield outstanding results and even slightly outperform the computationally more demanding PWPB95 double-hybrid functional. B3LYP-D3 is somewhat less accurate compared to the other hybrids. Extrapolated MP2(D,T) calculations are not as accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data.

Mládek A; Krepl M; Svozil D; Cech P; Otyepka M; BanᚠP; Zgarbová M; Jure?ka P; Sponer J

2013-05-01

267

Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA sugar-phosphate backbone has a substantial influence on the DNA structural dynamics. Structural biology and bioinformatics studies revealed that the DNA backbone in experimental structures samples a wide range of distinct conformational substates, known as rotameric DNA backbone conformational families. Their correct description is essential for methods used to model nucleic acids and is known to be the Achilles heel of force field computations. In this study we report the benchmark database of MP2 calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set of atomic orbitals with aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets, MP2(T,Q), augmented by ?CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ corrections. The calculations are performed in the gas phase as well as using a COSMO solvent model. This study includes a complete set of 18 established and biochemically most important families of DNA backbone conformations and several other salient conformations that we identified in experimental structures. We utilize an electronically sufficiently complete DNA sugar-phosphate-sugar (SPS) backbone model system truncated to prevent undesired intramolecular interactions. The calculations are then compared with other QM methods. The BLYP and TPSS functionals supplemented with Grimme's D3(BJ) dispersion term provide the best tradeoff between computational demands and accuracy and can be recommended for preliminary conformational searches as well as calculations on large model systems. Among the tested methods, the best agreement with the benchmark database has been obtained for the double-hybrid DSD-BLYP functional in combination with a quadruple-? basis set, which is, however, computationally very demanding. The new hybrid density functionals PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 yield outstanding results and even slightly outperform the computationally more demanding PWPB95 double-hybrid functional. B3LYP-D3 is somewhat less accurate compared to the other hybrids. Extrapolated MP2(D,T) calculations are not as accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data. PMID:23575975

Mládek, Arnošt; Krepl, Miroslav; Svozil, Daniel; Cech, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel; Zgarbová, Marie; Jure?ka, Petr; Sponer, Ji?í

2013-05-21

268

[Modern analytical methods in forensic chemistry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of modern chemical and physical methods in forensic chemistry and crime investigation is steadily increasing and gaining in importance. For forensic purpose special modifications of the procedures are generally required in order to give results which are acceptable to legal authorities as proof of some specific points. The chemical toxicology can also help in cases of acute intoxications or in environmental problems.

Bäumer J

1977-01-01

269

Performance and modernity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis shows that the initial awareness, the first signs of reaction towards performatives and performances in life lies in late modern Europe, i.e. in the 19th century. Besides being the age of late modernity, this is also the age when modernism as an aesthetic development started to appear in...

Markovska,Jasminka

270

X-ray texture analysis of paper coating pigments and the correlation with chemical composition analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research experiments the applicability of x-ray texture analysis in investigating the properties of paper coatings. The preferred orientations of kaolin, talc, ground calcium carbonate, and precipitated calcium carbonate particles used in four different paper coatings were determined qualitatively based on the measured crystal orientation data. The extent of the orientation, namely, the degree of the texture of each pigment, was characterized quantitatively using a single parameter. As a result, the effect of paper calendering is clearly seen as an increase on the degree of texture of the coating pigments. The effect of calendering on the preferred orientation of kaolin was also evident in an independent energy dispersive spectrometer analysis on micrometer scale and an electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis on nanometer scale. Thus, the present work proves x-ray texture analysis to be a potential research tool for characterizing the properties of paper coating layers.

Roine, J.; Tenho, M.; Murtomaa, M.; Lehto, V.-P.; Kansanaho, R.

2007-10-01

271

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

272

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

273

The first modern Europeans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.

Benazzi S

2012-01-01

274

Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This feature is available for PC Windows users and provides simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) features. The productivity gains for both new, and experienced users from this userfriendly interface will be enormous, and the increased user productivity will pay back the developmental costs. RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 has been moderized and restructured in order to enhance the code portability, maintenance capability, readability, and flexibility. User convenience for PC Windows users has been realized by the on-line graphical processing through Windows programming. It should be noted that the code strcuture was fully domesticated, and future improvements could be easily carried out with the restructured version of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2

1998-01-01

275

PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.  

Science.gov (United States)

PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

276

Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

2013-01-01

277

A Survey of Some Dicotyledonous Plants; Bioassay and Chemical Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, aqueous and 95% ethanol extracts of both temperate and tropical flora were administered to mice to determine any possible pharmacological action and were analyzed chemically for the presence or absence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and f...

E. G. Worthley C. D. Schott

1967-01-01

278

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

279

[Injury profile in modern competitive karate--analysis of 1999 WKC-Karate World Championship Games in Bochum  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competitions in Karate are either carried out as Shobu sanbon (with fist padding) or Shobu Ippon (without fist padding). Aim of this study was to gain current data on injuries in modern competitive Karate and to compare the two different competitive systems. During the WKC-Karate-World-Championships held from June 12-13 1999 at Bochum, 392 bouts were carried out. Every injury that was seen by the tournament doctor was registered. 142 competitors sustained 168 injuries: 141 mostly minor contusions of the head and throat, 12 facial lacerations, 3 knock-outs (mild brain injury), 3 thoracal contusions, 1 midfoot fracture and 9 other blunt injuries. We saw more injuries in Shobu Sanbon (146/302 bouts) than in Shobu Ippon (23/90). Most of the injuries (152) were caused by punches. In Shobu Sanbon, kicking techniques led to 17 injuries only. The injury pattern shown here is comparable to earlier studies. Severe injuries in competitive Karate are rare. The higher number of injuries in Shobu sanbon may be due to the longer fighting time and higher scoring. Fist pads used in Shobu Sanbon might also lead to a loss of control. Therefore, prophylactic fist padding to avoid injuries in competitive Karate has to be seen critically.

Müller-Rath R; Bolte S; Petersen P; Mommsen U

2000-03-01

280

[An ultrastructural analysis of dentin treated with chemical agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental last generation bonding systems require the total removal of smear layer and smear plug by chemical solutions. Intermediate fluid resin can penetrate the dentinal tubes obtaining a better anchorage to the dental structures. The department of Operative dentistry of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" has carried research observing by means of the SEM the ultrastructural aspect of smear layer and the effect of dentin treatment with five different chemical agents.

Goracci G; Mori G; Casa de' Martinis L; Bazzucchi M

1993-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01

282

Personality disorders and modern culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

Francisco Martín Murcia

2009-01-01

283

IDEOLOGY OF MODERN COSSACK MOVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to consider the main ideas of the Cossack movement which have defined a place and a role of the modern Cossacks in the Russian society. Methodology: methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: some substantial directions of development of ideology of modern Cossack movement are revealed: use of traditions of Cossack democracy at formation of civil society, strengthening of an orthodox component of Cossack culture, manipulation idea «Cossack ethnos», attempts of creation of political party and active participation in political life of the country. Practical implications: results of research can be interesting to the experts who are taking up the problems of development of the modern Cossacks.

Matsievsky German Olegovitch

2012-01-01

284

Strategic Management in Modern Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The defining marks of the thesis regard the creation of new scientific premises, that shouldstructure the approached issue – strategic management in modern organizational structures – relatedto its implementation stages. The suggested approach has the purpose of establishing the elementswhich characterize modern organizations and management, inclusively from the perspective ofinducing strategic changes in an organizational structure, related to the dynamics of the environment,in order to achieve the objectives. In the effort of organizing such a scientifically background, wehave tried to realize clear, concise delimitations, by the research method – the study and analysis ofthe organizations and management activities (components, functionality, specificities, implementingstages). Initially, we have pointed out the constitutive elements of the modern organizationalstructures, characteristic processes and their functionality, as well as a series of important factors andtheir consequences regarding knowledge foundation. Subsequently, we have disclosed the coordinatesof the management activity, its functions, as well as the strategic management implementation stages.

Cristian - Sorin Prun?

2008-01-01

285

Evaluating Chemical Persistence in a Multimedia Environment: ACART Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Persistent chemicals are difficult to remove if adverse health or ecological effects are later discovered. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as ''persistent'' or ''non-persistent'' based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

1999-02-01

286

Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

A.A. Dizaji; E. Valizadeh; H.M. Alishah; A. Shaddel; N. Maheri Sis

2008-01-01

287

Process system analysis of renewables-based chemicals production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is considerable interest in producing chemicals from renewable resources. An efficient method to classify products and processes as to their potential for near or long-term application was developed and is used to aid in the identification of promising opportunities for research and commercialization.

NONE

1995-11-01

288

siRNA function in RNAi: A chemical modification analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various chemical modifications were created in short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to determine the biochemical properties required for RNA interference (RNAi). Remarkably, modifications at the 2?-position of pentose sugars in siRNAs showed the 2?-OHs were not required for RNAi, indicating that RNAi mac...

CHIU, YA-LIN; RANA, TARIQ M.

289

Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl...

Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, A.N.T., van; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Westin, M.

290

Analysis of chemical bonding and aromaticity from electronic delocalization descriptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between electrons determine the structure and properties of matter from molecules to solids. Therefore, the understanding of the electronic structure of molecules will enable us to extract relevant chemical information. In the first part of this thesis, we focus our attention on the ana...

Feixas Geronès, Ferran

291

Koopmans' analysis of chemical hardness with spectral-like resolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable "observational" effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the "frozen spin-orbitals" approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates.

Putz MV

2013-01-01

292

Development of automated imaging and analysis for zebrafish chemical screens.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate the application of image-based high-content screening (HCS) methodology to identify small molecules that can modulate the FGF/RAS/MAPK pathway in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish embryo is an ideal system for in vivo high-content chemical screens. The 1-day old embryo is approximately...

Vogt, Andreas; Codore, Hiba; Day, Billy W.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Tsang, Michael

293

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be...

BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

294

Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

Noy, A

2006-01-02

295

Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory

1996-01-01

296

Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory.

Koskelo, A.; Figg, D.; Mahan, C.; Wayne, D.; Thornton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-09-01

297

DERIVING VP-NEG QUESTIONS IN MODERN CHINESE: A UNIFIED ANALYSIS OF A-NOT-A SYNTAX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a unified analysis of various subtypes of A-not-A questions, including VP-neg questions. It is proposed that all A-not-A subtypes are derived from a simplex VP source via morphological reduplication, with certain subtypes undergoing a further process of anaphoric ellipsis. Under this proposal, VP-neg questions are formed by deleting the second VP of a reduplicated VP-not-VP structure. It is argued that the analysis of VP-neg as an A-not-A variant is more desirable than the analysis of VP-neg as being on a par with a particle question (Cheng et al. 1996), because a number of parallelisms are shown to exist between VP-neg and other subtypes of A-not-A questions, but not between VP-neg and typical particle questions.

Rui-heng Ray Huang

2008-01-01

298

GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001). Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

MARÍA GISELA ESCOBAR; LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

2007-01-01

299

Low Cost Long Distance Detector for Explosives and Chemical Analysis by IEC Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A radiation source for detecting specific chemicals at several meter distances even behind walls, car doors or other barriers is the application of Million electron Volts (MeV) neutrons from nuclear fusion reactions at such low intensities to avoid any danger for human bodies. The chemical analysis ...

George H. Miley; Heinrich Hora; Frederick Osman; Yang Yang; Linchun Wu; Hiromo Momota; Xing Zhong Li

300

Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper).

Turkevich AL; Franzgrote EJ; Patterson JH

1968-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Chemical diagnosis of DLC by ESR spectral analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with four precursor gases such as methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene in gas phase. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra showed that dangling-bond sites (DBSs) observed in all films were characterized by an isotropic broad single line. The DLC film with unsaturated precursor gases had the higher film growth rate and the higher DBS accumulative rate. Although the DBS in DLC films were quite stable at room temperature under anaerobic conditions, the DBS decayed rapidly to level off toward a limiting value when exposed to air. The stability and reactivity of the DBS in DLC film were assumed to depend on chemical structure of organic gas used as precursor. The detailed-ESR study on DBS of the DLC films could be one of the powerful tools for diagnosing the micro-structural properties and the quality of films.

Yamauchi, Yukinori [Department of Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578 (Japan); Sasai, Yasushi; Kondo, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-Higashi, Gifu 502-8585 (Japan); Kuzuya, Masayuki, E-mail: mkuzuya@cc.matsuyama-u.ac.j [Department of Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578 (Japan)

2010-04-30

302

CFD ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN HUMAN NOSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to simulate the chemical transport of ammonia vapor with density ? = 0.6894 kg/m3 and coefficient of viscosity ? = 1.015e-05 kg/m-s inside the healthy Indian nose by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique and to analyze the olfactory sensitivity. The computed tomographic images of a healthy adultwith normal nasal structure and function was used to built a physically realistic model with the help of Mimics software. Navier-Stokes and continuity equations were solved numerically for steady and unsteady state conditions by finite volume method to determine laminar flow patterns. CFD simulation was performed using Gambit and Fluent software to visualize implications for olfaction. The graphs indicate that only part of the inspired chemical passes through the olfactory airway. The total olfactory uptake for the odorant increased as inlet velocity increased.

M.V.SHYLA; K.B. NAIDU

2013-01-01

303

Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration  

CERN Multimedia

Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

Rogers, David M

2009-01-01

304

Seed ontogeny and endosperm chemical analysis in Smilax polyantha (Smilacaceae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Smilax polyantha Grisebach is a species native to the Brazilian Cerrado biome and is known as sarsaparilla in folk medicine. Despite its popular use, little is known about the propagation of this species, which is still actively illegally exploited. The present study aims to analyse the seed ontogeny and perform endosperm chemical analyses in S. polyantha to elucidate the structural and chemical factors that could be associated with the low germination rates and structural organisation of the seed. The ovules are orthotropic and bitegmic, have short funicles, single collateral vascular bundles that end in the chalaza, and a hypostasis that is composed of chalazal and nucellar cells. The seed covering is non-multiplicative. In mature seeds, the cellularised endosperm has thick-walled cells, the embryo is small and the tegmen comprises two layers of periclinal elongated cells with a red–orange content, which are covered by a cuticle. Histochemical tests detected the presence of lipids, proteins and polysaccharides in the cellular content of mature seeds. Chemical analyses indicated 46.7% hemicellulose per total weight, 67.3% glucose, 30.7% mannose, 1.9% galactose and an absence of fucose, arabinose and rhamnose. In conclusion, the delayed seed germination in S. polyantha is associated with the seed endosperm cell walls.

Martins AR; Carmello-Guerreiro SM; Buckeridge MS; Silva CO; Appezzato-da-Glória B

2012-01-01

305

Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites.

Stochniol G; Broel S; Naoumidis A; Nickel H

1996-06-01

306

Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

2013-01-01

307

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01

308

Chemical Analysis and Sampling Techniques for Geothermal Fluids and Gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes. (ERA citation 12:...

P. E. Trujillo D. Counce C. O. Grigsby F. Goff L. Shevenell

1987-01-01

309

Modern surgical results of lung cancer involving neighboring structures: a retrospective analysis of 531 pT3 cases in a Japanese Lung Cancer Registry Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the modern surgical results of pathologic T3 lung cancer and to examine the heterogeneity of this group from the nationwide database. METHODS: The registered data of 11,663 cases from the Japanese Joint Committee of Lung Cancer Registry conducted in 2010 were analyzed, which included patients with resected lung cancer during 2004. Of these patients, 531 with invasive T3 lung cancer constituted the study population. RESULTS: Of the 531 patients, 466 were men and 65 women, with a mean age of 65.9 years. The 3- and 5-year survival rates and median survival time was 54.0%, 44.9%, and 46 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed incomplete resection, N2 disease, and no adjuvant therapy were independent prognostic factors of a poor outcome. However, pneumonectomy and N1 disease were not significantly associated with the prognosis. In terms of each involved structure, we detected 407 patients with T3 tumors involving the chest wall, 56 involving the mediastinal pleura, 45 with involvement of the bronchus within 2 cm of the carina, 31 involving the diaphragm, and 20 involving the pericardium. The corresponding 5-year survival rates were 43.2%, 40.1%, 55.2%, 42.6%, and 54.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The modern 5-year survival rates of patients with T3 lung cancer involving any neighboring structures have been 40% to 55%, and the current pT3 group was proved to have a relatively uniform prognosis.

Kawaguchi K; Miyaoka E; Asamura H; Nomori H; Okumura M; Fujii Y; Nakanishi Y; Eguchi K; Mori M; Sawabata N; Yokoi K

2012-08-01

310

XPS analysis of combustion aerosols for chemical composition, surface chemistry, and carbon chemical state.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbonaceous aerosols can vary in elemental content, surface chemistry, and carbon nano-structure. Each of these properties is related to the details of soot formation. Fuel source, combustion process (affecting formation and growth conditions), and postcombustion exhaust where oxidation occurs all contribute to the physical structure and surface chemistry of soot. Traditionally such physical and chemical parameters have been measured separately by various techniques. Presented here is the unified measurement of these characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present study, XPS is applied to combustion soot collected from a diesel engine (running biodiesel and pump-grade fuels); jet engine; and institutional, plant, and residential oil-fired boilers. Elemental composition is mapped by a survey scan over a broad energy range. Surface chemistry and carbon nanostructure are quantified by deconvolution of high-resolution scans over the C1s region. This combination of parameters forms a distinct matrix of identifiers for the soots from these sources.

Vander Wal RL; Bryg VM; Hays MD

2011-03-01

311

Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

Mityagin A. Yu.; Altukhov A. ?.; Mityagina A. B.

2009-01-01

312

Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (Cl) technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

TATJANA M. VASILJEVIC; MILA D. LAUSEVIC; RAYMOND E. MARCH

2000-01-01

313

Standardization of process parameters for a chemical reaction using neutron activation analysis technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical process to convert polyepichlorohydrin (PECH) into a glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) has been standardized by measuring the relative concentrations of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen with the fast neutron activation analysis technique. For comparison PECH and GAP samples were also analysed by IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that, for standardization of the present chemical process, the fast neutron activation analysis technique is superior to IR spectroscopy. In this paper the techniques used to analyse the samples are described in detail but the information on the actual chemical process adopted is provided in brief.

Dokhale, P. A.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

1996-08-01

314

A Modern Approach to the Authentication and Quality Assessment of Thyme Using UV Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Recently, the fields of chemometrics and multivariate analysis have been widely implemented in the quality control of herbal drugs to produce precise results, which is crucial in the field of medicine. Thyme represents an essential medicinal herb that is constantly adulterated due to its resemblance to many other plants with similar organoleptic properties. OBJECTIVE: To establish a simple model for the quality assessment of Thymus species using UV spectroscopy together with known chemometric techniques. The success of this model may also serve as a technique for the quality control of other herbal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model was constructed using 30 samples of authenticated Thymus vulgaris and challenged with 20 samples of different botanical origins. The methanolic extracts of all samples were assessed using UV spectroscopy together with chemometric techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). RESULTS: The model was able to discriminate T. vulgaris from other Thymus, Satureja, Origanum, Plectranthus and Eriocephalus species, all traded in the Egyptian market as different types of thyme. The model was also able to classify closely related species in clusters using PCA and HCA. The model was finally used to classify 12 commercial thyme varieties into clusters of species incorporated in the model as thyme or non-thyme. CONCLUSION: The model constructed is highly recommended as a simple and efficient method for distinguishing T. vulgaris from other related species as well as the classification of marketed herbs as thyme or non-thyme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gad HA; El-Ahmady SH; Abou-Shoer MI; Al-Azizi MM

2013-03-01

315

A Modern Approach to the Authentication and Quality Assessment of Thyme Using UV Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION: Recently, the fields of chemometrics and multivariate analysis have been widely implemented in the quality control of herbal drugs to produce precise results, which is crucial in the field of medicine. Thyme represents an essential medicinal herb that is constantly adulterated due to its resemblance to many other plants with similar organoleptic properties. OBJECTIVE: To establish a simple model for the quality assessment of Thymus species using UV spectroscopy together with known chemometric techniques. The success of this model may also serve as a technique for the quality control of other herbal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model was constructed using 30 samples of authenticated Thymus vulgaris and challenged with 20 samples of different botanical origins. The methanolic extracts of all samples were assessed using UV spectroscopy together with chemometric techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). RESULTS: The model was able to discriminate T. vulgaris from other Thymus, Satureja, Origanum, Plectranthus and Eriocephalus species, all traded in the Egyptian market as different types of thyme. The model was also able to classify closely related species in clusters using PCA and HCA. The model was finally used to classify 12 commercial thyme varieties into clusters of species incorporated in the model as thyme or non-thyme. CONCLUSION: The model constructed is highly recommended as a simple and efficient method for distinguishing T. vulgaris from other related species as well as the classification of marketed herbs as thyme or non-thyme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23483607

Gad, Haidy A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Abou-Shoer, Mohamed I; Al-Azizi, Mohamed M

2013-03-10

316

Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolithographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

317

Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolitographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

318

Analysis of the CSP Reduction Method for Chemical Kinetics  

CERN Multimedia

This article is concerned with the asymptotic accuracy of the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) method developed by Lam and Goussis to reduce the dimensionality of a system of chemical kinetics equations. The method exploits the presence of disparate time scales to model the dynamics by an evolution equation on a lower-dimensional slow manifold. In this article it is shown that the successive applications of the CSP algorithm generate, order by order, the asymptotic expansion of a slow manifold. The results are illustrated on the Michaelis-Menten-Henri equations of enzyme kinetics.

Zagaris, A; Kaper, T J; Kaper, Tasso J.

2003-01-01

319

SAFEGAS - the Queensland answer to modern mine environment monitoring (SIMTARS automated fire and explosive gas analysis system)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SAFEGAS mine atmosphere monitoring system is described. It is multi layered to allow the average miner to be able to understand the data presented by the system and be fully informed before entering the pit, while still giving management the best possible controls and system flexibility. SAFEGAS incorporates the SPLUS for Windows interpretative package which provides a sophisticated trending and analysis capability. SAFEGAS is currently in use in a wide selection of Queensland and New South Wales coal mines. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Bell, S.; Glaum, F.; Hamilton, J. [Safety in Mines Testing and Research Station, Redbank, Qld. (Australia)

1997-12-31

320

Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

Pilgård A; Treu A; van Zeeland AN; Gosselink RJ; Westin M

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be PMID:20821648

Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

2010-09-01

322

Ligand Binding Analysis and Screening by Chemical Denaturation Shift.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Towards this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Since ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (60°C or higher) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations in which binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this paper we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples.

Schön A; Brown RK; Hutchins BM; Freire E

2013-08-01

323

Exposure monitoring and chemical analysis of welding fume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Standardized and quality assured sampling and analysis procedures for welding fumes are essential in efforts to demonstrate causality between occupational exposures and possible health effects. Three important but frequently overlooked sources of significant errors are: Loss of reactive species during collection and storage. Losses due to incomplete digestion of refractory matricies. Changes in species (solubility, oxidation state) during analysis. This ample evidence that monitoring and analysis dependent effects can lead to severe underreporting of exposures to toxic species such as Cr(VI) suggest the need for establishing standardized and appropriate protocols for use with welding fumes.

Thomsen, E.; Stern, R.M.; Pedersen, B.

1985-01-01

324

Chemical analysis of interplanetary dust particles with synchrotron radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two 10-microns interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere have been analyzed with X-ray fluorescence excited by white synchrotron radiation (synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis SYXFA). The measured abundances of the minor and trace elements with Z values between 16 and 76 are in good agreement with abundances determined by PIXE analysis of the same particles. The results demonstrate the SYXFA is indeed a powerful nondestructive technique for multielement analysis of micron-sized samples. Moreover, it was found that the combined application of two such techniques, SYXFA and PIXE, to the same valuable particle lends high credibility to the results.

Antz, Ch.; Jessberger, E. K.; Wallenwein, R.; Bavdaz, M.; Knoechel, A.

325

Consequences of Modern Energy Use: A Remote Sensing analysis of the gulf oil spill using ArcGIS software.  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory activity takes place in a computer lab that is equipped with ArcGIS (we are currently using ArcGIS 9.3). Students will go to NASA's oil spill gallery website and download the full size image of the Deepwater Horizon oil slick from July 14th, 2010 taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite at 1:55 p.m. Central Daylight Time. Their task is to to analyze the satellite imagery as an RGB composite and to experiment with reclassification techniques to subdivide the continuous raster dataset into user-defined numbers of ranges that will help visualize the oil spill. The activity introduces students to GIS software, remote sensing analysis, and sets up questions on spatial patterns and consequences of energy use.

Beeton, Jared

326

A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-09-01

327

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...limit, the measurement system is not performing properly for that compound. In...8-isomers are not resolved, the GC is not performing properly. In this event, adjust...again, the analysis system is not performing properly for the...

2009-07-01

328

Modern strategies in waste incineration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern integrated waste management concepts combine avoidance, utilization, and recycling strategies with a final thermal treatment step prior to disposal of the residual waste stream. It is not so much the intent of the present paper to criticize the existing technology with respect to its capability of meeting all legislative standards, rather the main focus is to point out how this may be accomplished by simple and inexpensive technical measures. This presumes on in-depth clarification of the major chemical reactions inside an incinerator and of the physico-chemical properties which characterize high quality residues. On the basis of this knowledge, strategies will be pointed out that pave the way for a low pollutant as well as low cost waste incineration. (author). 26 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Kim, H.M.; Jung, J.S. [Global Environmental Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vehlow, Jurgen [Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1997-11-01

329

Analysis for chemical agent breakdown products: Avoiding IMPA false positives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cleanup of DOD sites where chemical warfare agents have been used or stored presents a number of unique problems. Isopropylmethylphosphonic Acid (IMPA), a degradation product of Sarin (GB), is one important contaminant to be monitored at many such sites. IMPA has historically been determined by Army Environmental Center (AEC) method UT02, an ion chromatography method. This method is prone to serious interference problems which can lead an inexperienced analyst to report false positive results. A study of interferences present in groundwater samples taken from a US military installation was undertaken. The interference problems were identified, and techniques were developed which minimize the problem in most samples. These techniques have been used by the authors in several large studies at DOD sites, and have virtually eliminated false positive problems.

Ives, K.M.; Markowitz, V. [GP Environmental Services, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

330

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.)

Bach, P. (SODERN, 94 Limeil Brevannes (France)); Ma, J.L. (SODERN, 94 Limeil Brevannes (France)); Froment, D. (DRET / ETCA / CEB, 91 Vert le Petit (France)); Jaureguy, J.C. (DRET / ETCA / CEB, 91 Vert le Petit (France))

1993-06-01

331

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.).

1993-01-01

332

Construction of a ?-X fluorescence gauge for chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author has made a theoretical and experimental study of phenomena occurring when beta radiation from a radioactive source causes X-fluorescence in the atoms of a sample. A semi-empirical equation is put forward for calculating the intensity of the photo-electric peaks caused by the elements which are being determined. The set-up proposed has a much better performance than that of previous ?-X equipment. It is now possible to apply this new method both to chemical determinations and to layer-thickness measurements. The process has proved to be slightly more satisfactory than that using tritium-on-zirconium sources for producing X excitation. An extension of this work is proposed for the case where the matrix effects are taken into account for determining the contents. (author)

1966-01-01

333

Theory and analysis of ?+ spin polarization in chemical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A theoretical model is developed for the description of the time evolution of spin polarization of positive muons stopped in liquid systems of chemical interest. The formalism is applicable to reaction schemes describing formation and reaction of muonium and muonic radicals in both consecutive and competitive steps. Explicit analytical solutions are derived and these, or numerical solutions, may be used to simulate and analyse the results of transverse and longitudinal field ?SR experiments. Reanalysis of earlier experimental results shows an ambiguity in the determination of two rate constants. Direct rate measurements are thus strongly recommended over inference of rate constants from residual polarization and phase. Finally experiments are proposed to settle the qestion of whether or not muon-electron spin correlation is disturbed during the reaction of muonium to form a muonic radical. (Auth.)

1976-08-01

334

Experimental analysis of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale chemical oxygen-iodine laser is described. The maximum extracted cw laser power is 4 W. Water vapor and molecular iodine concentration measurements are presented in addition to the more usual fluorescence measurements. The effects of water vapor on the extracted laser power, on the dissociation of iodine, and on the quenching of the O/sub 2/ /sup 1/..delta..--I /sup 2/P/sub 1//sub ///sub 2/ system, are observed. It is shown that a relatively large amount of water vapor can be tolerated. An interesting practical consequence is the possibility of lasing at the same power level with less dangerous 30% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ instead of the highly concentrated H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ used in previous studies.

Bonnet, J.; David, D.; Georges, E.; Leporcq, B.; Pigache, D.; Verdier, C.

1984-11-15

335

Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of solid oxide cells (SOCs) is highly dependent on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). Therefore, detailed TPB characterization is crucial for their further development. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare a similar to 50 nm thick transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical composition of nanoscale impurity phases at the TPBs has been obtained with a few nanometers lateral resolution. (c) 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.

2008-01-01

336

Modern I and C systems; Moderne Leitsysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most important innovation stages of electronic I and C systems are summarized. The TELEPERM XS serves as the example to demonstrate the design of modern I and C systems as well as the use of computer-based tools. The paper explains the conditions of use of these tools during future system operation. By a comparative evaluation it is shown that the modernization of I and C systems brings not only increased reliability but also essential simplifications in operation as well as cost savings. Typical applications of the TELEPERM XS are in safety systems for reactor protection, and in the Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System. This is why, in conclusion, the author briefly refers to the design-based protection against systematic failures, which is a requirement of the nuclear safety engineering codes. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die wichtigsten Innovationsschritte elektronischer Leitsysteme werden zusammenfassend beschrieben. Am Beispiel TELEPERM XS wird die Auslegung moderner Leitsysteme sowie der Einsatz rechnergestuetzter Werkzeuge demonstriert. Es wird erlaeutert, wie diese Werkzeuge beim spaeteren Betrieb der Systeme genutzt werden. Im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Bewertung wird gezeigt, dass durch die Verjuengung von Leitsystemen nicht nur die Zuverlaessigkeit erhoeht wird, sondern dass sich darueber hinaus wesentliche Vereinfachungen fuer den Betrieb sowie Kostenvorteile ergeben. Typisches Einsatzgebiet von TELEPERM XS sind sicherheitskritische Anwendungen im Reaktorschutz sowie im Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System. Daher wird abschliessend kurz auf die nach kerntechnischem Regelwerk geforderte Auslegung gegen den systematischen Fehler eingegangen. (orig./DG)

Graf, A. [Siemens AG (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)

1997-11-01

337

Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

1995-12-31

338

Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

1998-03-01

339

Oncogene activation in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors: implications for risk analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The validity of rodent tumor end points in assessing the potential hazards of chemical exposure to humans is a somewhat controversial but very important issue since most chemicals are classified as potentially hazardous to humans on the basis of long-term carcinogenesis studies in rodents. The ability to distinguish between genotoxic, cytotoxic, or receptor-mediated promotion effects of chemical treatment would aid in the interpretation of rodent carcinogenesis data. Activated oncogenes in spontaneously occurring and chemically induced rodent tumors were examined and compared as one approach to determine the mechanism by which chemical treatment caused an increased incidence of rodent tumors. Different patterns of activated oncogenes were found not only in spontaneous versus chemically induced mouse liver tumors but also in a variety of spontaneous rat tumors versus chemically induced rat lung tumors. In the absence of cytotoxic effects, it could be argued that the chemicals in question activated protooncogenes by a direct genotoxic mechanism. These results provided a basis for the analysis of activated oncogenes in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors to provide information at a molecular level to aid in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to human risk assessment.

Reynolds, S.H.; Stowers, S.J.; Patterson, R.M.; Maronpot, R.R.; Anderson, M.W.

1988-06-01

340

A new approach to understanding multiple-source groundwater contamination: factor analysis and chemical mass balances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technique for identifying the possible source of groundwater contamination using instrumental neutron activation analysis together with principal component factor analysis and chemical mass balances has been developed. The technique has been applied to apportion the relative contributions from each source of contamination at the site of a coal-fired plant in the Ridge Valley, Pennsylvania, USA.

Olmez, I.; Beal, J.W.; Villaume, J.F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior.

Bosco, Filippo; Bache, M.

2012-01-01

342

Chemical analysis applied to the radiation sterilization of solid ketoprofen  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of radiation sterilization of ketoprofen from a chemical point of view. Although irradiated ketoprofen has already been studied in the literature [Katusin-Razem et al., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73 111-116 (2005)], new results, on the basis of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and the use of hyphenated techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS), are obtained. The ESR spectra of irradiated ketoprofen consists of four unresolved resonance peaks and the mean G-value of ketoprofen is found to be 4 +/- 0.9 nmoles/J, which is very small. HPLC-UV analyses indicate that no significant loss of ketoprofen is detected after irradiation. LC-MS-MS analyses show that the structures of the non-volatile final products are similar to ketoprofen. Benzaldehyde is detected in the irradiated samples after dynamic-extraction GC-MS. The analyses show that ketoprofen is radioresistant and therefore might be radiosterilized.

Colak, S.; Maquille, A.; Tilquin, B.

2006-01-01

343

Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

2004-01-01

344

Trace chemical analysis and molecular dynamics utilising ultraintense femtosecond lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This thesis is presented for the award of a Ph.D in laser and chemical physics. The principal doctrine of the work seeks to investigate the dynamical response of a variety of small molecules (CS2, CO2, N2O, CH3I, etc.) in an intense (typically 1016 W cm-2) femtosecond (10-15 s) linearly polarised laser pulse. The resulting ions are detected in a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The polarisation vector of the laser light is rotated with respect to the TOF spectrometer axis and the ion yield measured. In this way the preferred direction of ejection of fragment ions can be determined and the mechanisms responsible can be deduced. The other experimental investigation concerns using short-pulse (femtosecond duration) intense laser pulses to sensitively and unambiguously detect molecules of interest (dangerous and environmentally sensitive species). By increasing both the intensity and reducing the duration of the laser light the method, termed femtosecond laser mass spectrometry (FLMS), is shown to be a universal and powerful analytical tool. The sensitivity is achieved via complete ionisation of all species within the ionisation region of the laser pulse and unambiguous identification is achieved via rapid by-passing of dissociative states of the parent species. (author)

2000-01-01

345

ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT FLOW IN THE IMPELLER OF A CHEMICAL PUMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the phenomena of two-phase flow with salt crystallising in the chemical pump, the 3-D turbulent flow in the impeller of chemical pump was simulated at the condition of rinsing. The internal flow between the impellers of 1H65 chemical pump is investigated. Based on the Reynolds-averaging N-S equations and the standard k-? two equations turbulent model, the simulations of turbulent flow between the impellers are performed using the flow computing software Fluent under different operating conditions. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data by particle image velocimetery (PIV). Based on the analysis of the calculated results of velocity and pressure profiles in the chemical pump and experimentally observed phenomenon of flow impact, secondary flow and recirculation, some design improvements are proposed, which give suggestions on the optimal design and internal two-phase flow study of the chemical pump.

MIN-GUAN YANG; DONG LIU; XIANG DONG

2007-01-01

346

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) signatures analysis. Final report, 4 Jan-15 Aug 91  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project was to research, compile, and assess data on the various signatures that may be applicable to potential treaty limited items (TLIs) or the production of a TLI as it pertains to the Chemical Weapons Treaty. As directed by the Technical Instruction (TI), this effort focuses on the identification of signatures for schedule 1 and 2 chemicals as defined by the draft treaty. The definitive signatures of treaty-limited chemicals are the chemical compounds themselves. In limited cases, depending on the agent, situation, and environmental conditions present, degradation and decomposition products and precursors might be signatures. In addition to chemical signatures, observables that serve as indicators of possible treaty-limited activity have also been identified. Analysis of the Pine Bluff, Arkansas, DC plant provided a range of distances where a perimeter could be located and environmental samples collected.

Sanches, M.L.; Randolph, C.L.; Barden, J.D.; Bradley, S.; Laughlin, L.L.

1991-08-01

347

Turbine maintenance and modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

1998-12-31

348

Modern Trends in Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent trends in construction become indispensiblein the coming years to emphasize on sustainable development.The paper discusses the significance and scope of modern trendsin construction techniques as foundations, foundation inproblematic soil, walls, doors, windows, lintel and shelves, dampproofing, water proofing, floors, roofs. The paper emphasizes onusing different types of materials in modern trends and foreffectiveness in infrastructure building for rapid economicgrowth and development of a nation using recent advancementsin the field of construction technology.

Er. Naveen Hooda; Er. Parveen Singh; Er. Bhupinder Singh; Er. Vivek Verma

2013-01-01

349

Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how agent composition relates to media composition. After these baseline analyses are performed, the data should be assessed to determine the potential forensic utility of elemental analyses. If promising, validation studies using bulk or NanoSIMS analysis would be necessary.

Weber, P; Holt, J

2008-07-28

350

Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide from Cristaria plicata (Leach).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A polysaccharide (MPS) isolated from Cristaria plicata (Leach) consisted of d-glucose. Its structural characteristics were investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), infrared analysis, gas chromatography-MS, total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation. The results indicated that the polysaccharide of C. plicata (Leach) has the weight-average molecular weight of about 2.97 × 10? Da. The structure of the polysaccharide was composed of glucose with ?-(1 ? 4)-linkages with short exterior chains. The fundamental information obtained from this work is beneficial to the interpretation in the relationship of the polysaccharide structure and its biological functions, and suggests that the polysaccharide from mussel may contribute to be used as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics.

Zhu ZY; Liu N; Liu Y; Si CL; Liu RQ; Chen J; Liu CJ; Liu AJ; Zhang YM

2012-06-01

351

Theta pinch discharges for solids vaporization and elemental chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of the locally designed echelle spectrometer was completed by completing software to convert charge-coupled device detected spectra into useful information. For analysis of mixed powdered oxides of Al, Mn, Mg, and Ti, the theta pinch is better than a dc arc, but not yet commerically competitive. The question of whether the pinch can sample bulk solids in a matrix-independent manner, is addressed.

Scheeline, A.

1993-01-01

352

Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

1978-01-01

353

Software for analysis of chemical mixtures--composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity of chemical mixtures in the environment are research concerns of the U.S. Geological Survey and others. The presence of specific chemical mixtures may serve as indicators of natural phenomena or human-caused events. Chemical mixtures may also have ecological, industrial, geochemical, or toxicological effects. Chemical-mixture occurrences vary by analyte composition and concentration. Four related computer programs have been developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey for research of chemical-mixture compositions, occurrences, distributions, and possible toxicities. The compositions and occurrences are identified for the user-supplied data, and therefore the resultant counts are constrained by the user’s choices for the selection of chemicals, reporting limits for the analytical methods, spatial coverage, and time span for the data supplied. The distribution of chemical mixtures may be spatial, temporal, and (or) related to some other variable, such as chemical usage. Possible toxicities optionally are estimated from user-supplied benchmark data. The software for the analysis of chemical mixtures described in this report is designed to work with chemical-analysis data files retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System but can also be used with appropriately formatted data from other sources. Installation and usage of the mixture software are documented. This mixture software was designed to function with minimal changes on a variety of computer-operating systems. To obtain the software described herein and other U.S. Geological Survey software, visit http://water.usgs.gov/software/.

Scott, Jonathon C.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

2013-01-01

354

Toxicogenomic evaluation of chemically induced chromosomal imbalance using DNA image analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of carcinogenic potential of a variety of chemical agents such as food additives and drugs of abuse via the application of various in vitro methodologies constitutes the first step for the evaluation of their toxicogenomic profile. Considering the chromosomal theories of carcinogenesis, where it is stated that aneuploidy and chromosomal imbalance (instability) are among the main causes of carcinogenesis, chemicals capable to induce such changes in the cells could be considered as potential carcinogens. Chromosomal imbalance and aneuploidy directly affect the overall DNA content of the exposed cell as well as other cellular morpho- and densitometric features. These features can be measured by means of computerized DNA image analysis technologies and include DNA content (DNA Index), Proliferation Index, Ploidy Balance, Degree of Aneuploidy, Skewness and Kurtosis. Considering the enormous number of untested chemicals and drugs of abuse that follow non-genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis, the establishment of a reliable technology for the estimation of chemically induced chromosomal imbalance is of particular importance in toxicogenomic studies. In the present article and based on our previously published work, we highlight the advantages of the applications of DNA image analysis technology in an easy-to-use experimental model for the evaluation of the potential risk of various chemicals. The use of this technology for the detection of chemically induced chromosomal instability will contribute to the development of safer regulatory directives concerning the use of chemicals in food and pharmaceutical industry, as well as in the clarification of mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse.

Hatzi VI; Terzoudi GI; Spiliopoulou CA; Stefanidou ME

2013-06-01

355

Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

Fildes BN; Vulcan AP; Lenard J

1992-06-01

356

A Modern Dunciad A Modern Dunciad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "Push-button war demands a woman's touch!" shrills Nason's twentieth century goddess Dullness, (in his book length poetic plagiarism of Pope's mock epic Dunciad), as she reestablishes her Empire in the modern New World by masking, cancelling, and attacking Progress and Liberty in a lustful attempt to destroy the Moral and Emotional content of poetry. She sluttishly breeds and fosters the Dunces of the literary kingdom of today, (Pope's Dunces were the poet Laureates of his day), and sallies brazenly everywhere in the company of her muses Self-Service, Smuggnes, sadism, and "sweet Anality", so light and fair,/ Enlaced with tender plaits her public hair".

Anita Flanders Rebelo

2008-01-01

357

?-irradiated crystalline sugars and amino acids: A chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline sugars and amino acids were irradiated at room temperature in a 60Co ?-source at a dose rate ranging from 2 to 3x1019 eV/g per hour. The investigation has geen performed to broaden the knowledge about what happens to food at irradiation preservation. The total degradation and the role of the glycosidic bond were investigated in some carbonhydrates. Transfer reactions of tritium constitute another specific problem which has been treated. Several components are formed in the crystalline amino acids, and a new gas chromatographic method was developed for analysis of amines in degraded material. (K.K)

1975-01-01

358

Chemical analysis of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd.--antimicrobial activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new iridoid glucoside named 10-isovaleroyl-dihydropenstemide (1), along with nine known compounds was isolated from the aerial part of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd. The known compounds include three iridoid glucosides, one phenylpropanoid glucoside, one monoterpene glucoside, one monoterpene lactone and three flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Additionally four phenolic acids as well as a fatty acid were determined through GC-MS analysis. All isolated compounds and the crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against six Gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as against three human pathogenic fungi. PMID:22155592

Zajdel, Sybilla M; Graikou, Konstantia; G?owniak, Kazimierz; Chinou, Ioanna

2011-12-04

359

Chemical analysis of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd.--antimicrobial activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new iridoid glucoside named 10-isovaleroyl-dihydropenstemide (1), along with nine known compounds was isolated from the aerial part of Penstemon campanulatus (Cav.) Willd. The known compounds include three iridoid glucosides, one phenylpropanoid glucoside, one monoterpene glucoside, one monoterpene lactone and three flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Additionally four phenolic acids as well as a fatty acid were determined through GC-MS analysis. All isolated compounds and the crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against six Gram positive and negative bacteria, as well as against three human pathogenic fungi.

Zajdel SM; Graikou K; G?owniak K; Chinou I

2012-03-01

360

Grain boundary chemical analysis using intense electron beams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX) linescans and mapping have been used to examine the large angle grain boundary chemistry of Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al both with and without boron. The results show that the Al content is reduced while the Ni content is unchanged at the grain boundaries in all these alloys, with the percentage of reduction of Al at the grain boundaries decreasing as boron concentration increases. This is ascribed to differential surface sputtering of the lighter Al atoms.

Shang, P.; Keyse, R.; Jones, I.P.; Smallman, R.E.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

[The chemical and structural analysis of Tibetan medicine Fanshi].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The element and microstructure of Tibetan medicine Fanshi were investigated, in order to explore the material basis of Fanshi. X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the Fanshi samples from different Tibetan regions. XRF and ICP-OES analysis showthat the main elements in Fanshi are Ca, O and C, but also contain some kinds of minor elements, such as Mg, Al, Na, Si, K, Ag, Ba, Fe, Mn, S, Sr, Zn and so on. XRD analysis shows that the main material structures in Fanshi are (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))CO3 (rhombohedral, R-3c) and CaCO3 (rhombohedral, R-3c), but also exists a small quantity of CaCO3 (orthorhombic, Pmcn), SiO2 (hexagonal, P3221), etc. The data of element and structure in Tibetan medicine Fanshi have been acquired by XRD, ICP-OES and XRD, and that is beneficial to exploring the material basis of Fanshi.

Li C; Lengbencairang; Sanglao; Gongbudongzhi; Du YZ; Wei LX

2012-01-01

362

Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation

2005-09-30

363

Efficient parametric analysis of the chemical master equation through model order reduction  

CERN Multimedia

Background: Stochastic biochemical reaction networks are commonly modelled by the chemical master equation, and can be simulated as first order linear differential equations through a finite state projection. Due to the very high state space dimension of these equations, numerical simulations are computationally expensive. This is a particular problem for analysis tasks requiring repeated simulations for different parameter values. Such tasks are computationally expensive to the point of infeasibility with the chemical master equation. Results: In this article, we apply parametric model order reduction techniques in order to construct accurate low-dimensional parametric models of the chemical master equation. These surrogate models can be used in various parametric analysis task such as parameter identificiation or sensitivity analysis. As biological examples, we consider two models for gene regulation networks, a bistable switch and a network displaying stochastic oscillations. Conclusions: The results show ...

Waldherr, Steffen

2012-01-01

364

Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing demand for robust, reliable, low cost, and easy to use sensor systems that feature multiparameter analysis in many application areas ranging from safety and security to point of care and medical diagnostics. Here, we highlight the theory and show first experimental results on a novel approach targeting the realization of massively multiplexed sensor arrays. The presented sensor platform is based on arrays of frequency-modulated integrated optical microring resonators (MRR) fed by a single bus waveguide combined with lock-in detection to filter out in a reliable and simple manner their individual response to external stimuli. The working principle is exemplified on an array of four thermo-optically modulated MRR. It is shown that with this technique tracking of individual resonances is possible even in case of strong spectral overlap.

Lützow P; Pergande D; Heidrich H

2011-07-01

365

Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (? 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ? 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

2002-01-01

366

Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-14

367

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

2000-01-01

368

Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

2000-08-01

369

Electromembrane extraction--a novel extraction technique for pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromembrane extraction (EME) is a novel sample preparation technique in pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis. This technique uses electromigration across artificial liquid membranes for selective extraction of analytes and sample enrichment from complex matrices. This review focuses on the setup, general procedure and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of EME. An overview of innovations in EME (on-chip EME, low voltage EME, drop-to-drop EME, pulsed EME and EME followed by low-density solvent based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction) is also presented in this article and attention is focused on the use of EME for pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis. PMID:23595685

Krishna Marothu, Vamsi; Gorrepati, Madhavi; Vusa, Ramanasri

2013-04-17

370

Electromembrane extraction--a novel extraction technique for pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electromembrane extraction (EME) is a novel sample preparation technique in pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis. This technique uses electromigration across artificial liquid membranes for selective extraction of analytes and sample enrichment from complex matrices. This review focuses on the setup, general procedure and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of EME. An overview of innovations in EME (on-chip EME, low voltage EME, drop-to-drop EME, pulsed EME and EME followed by low-density solvent based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction) is also presented in this article and attention is focused on the use of EME for pharmaceutical, chemical, clinical and environmental analysis.

Krishna Marothu V; Gorrepati M; Vusa R

2013-08-01

371

Modernity and the Belgian Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This article will explore the intellectual context in which French-Belgian colonial writing developed from the turn of the twentieth century to the late 1930s. This period is marked by a gradual shift from evolutionism to cultural relativism. The analysis will first focus on the Tervuren colonial exhibition of 1897 and the progressive emergence of Belgian africanism in the early twentieth century. Secondly, it will account for the ways in which this overall context bore w (more) itness to new and somewhat less Eurocentric conditions of possibility. Subsequently, the article will attempt to draw parallels between these more inclusive and seemingly less orientalising anthropological paradigms and the advent, first in France and then in Belgium, of a rejuvenated brand of colonial literature (or indigenous realism) which, for all its openness and eagerness to embrace modernity, did not result in radical rejections of colonialism on the part of its promoters. Finally, two Belgian novels in French - M. L. Delhaise-Arnould's Amedra (1926) and H. Drum's Luéji (1932) - will be analysed to appraise whether or not their authors' objective to reconstitute Congolese indigeneity is a strategy to oppose Belgian modernity against Congolese supposed pre-modernity.

Fraiture, Pierre-Philippe

2009-01-01

372

Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way chemical data are stored in the databases plays a major role in the recovery process but differences in coverage, sometimes major, are still found. No single database records all publications about a substance. Inspection of individual titles is necessary when performing a complete count of references. Special care is taken in order to make data from the different databases comparable using the same journals and time periods (2000-2009). A number of nomenclature as well as problems related to the chemical structure and function, often inherent in quantitative or qualitative bibliographic studies of chemicals, are discussed. The practical implications for registration of chemicals in different databases are demonstrated.

Ellegaard O; Wallin JA

2013-12-01

373

Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

Pakkanen, T.A.

1995-12-31

374

Analysis of a Middle Eastern soil sample for chemical-warfare agents. Memorandum report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A soil sample originating from a Middle Eastern area of chemical warfare activity was subjected to chemical and biochemical analysis. Sarin and several related compounds were confirmed in the soil by capillary column GC-MS, however, the binding of these compounds to the soil hindered quantitation. The chemical results were then compared to those obtained by biochemical means in primary cultures of chick embryo forebrain neurons. By comparing the sample's anticholinesterase activity against those of purified standard nerve agents in chick embryo neuron cultures, a reasonable agreement was found between the chemical and biochemical quantitative estimates of sarin content in the soil extract. Furthermore, the in vitro system appears to offer sensitive technique for the estimation of sarin remaining bound to the soil following solvent extraction.

Sawyer, T.W.; Weiss, M.T.; D' Agostino, P.A.; Provost, L.R.; Hancock, J.R.

1990-06-01

375

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for Mg2+, PO4(3-), NH4+ and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for Ca2+ often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity

1985-01-01

376

Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

Rodgers, A.L.

1985-01-01

377

MODERNITY, NIHILISM AND LOVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Raimond Gaita’s idea that love is the foundation for human rights is both plausible and startling. This paper aims at arguing this point of view (the double nature of the previous stated claim) by defining the concept of human rights in a philosophical key. Following an investigation on the foundations of human rights in modernity we reach the conclusion that human rights can have no solid, universal foundation within the modern ethos. This doesn’t mean that human rights are illegitimate: it’s exactly the struggle for human rights, the struggle against a conclusion which seems unacceptable what is the most important feature of our dignity.

Serena Parekh

2010-01-01

378

THE MODERN TEENAGERS’ LANGUAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modern teenagers’ language is studied in the connection with such notions as ‘language, individual, culture’. Being the property of an individual a language reflects person’s knowledge of concrete social experience kept in a language. Moreover, a person can be characterized through the language means which he/she uses. Our study of teenagers’ language means shows their wish to transform them. As a result of this tendency the question naturally arisen is: if a modern young generation would be able to achieve the dialogue between cultures in the nearest future.

Ondrina Elena Igorevna; Popova Elmira Ibragimovna

2011-01-01

379

Modern recording techniques  

CERN Document Server

As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

Huber, David Miles

2013-01-01

380

Modern CMOS circuits manual  

CERN Multimedia

This Circuits Manual examines operating principles and practical applications of modern medium-speed and 'fast' CMOS digital ICs. 470 carefully selected circuits, diagrams, graphs and tables are supported by the informative 'how to' text and by detailed descriptions of more than 120 modern CMOS ICs and their practical applications. Although ideal for practical design engineers and technicians, this book will doubtless also be of great interest to hobbyists and students of electronics.Using clear and comprehensive language, each chapter begins with an explanation of the basic princi

MARSTON, R M

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Modern physics for engineers  

CERN Multimedia

Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

Singh, Jasprit

1999-01-01

382

Modern thermodynamics with statistical mechanics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental prerequisites supply students with helpful reinforcement and practice with key concepts. (orig.)

Helrich, Carl S. [Goshen Coll., Goshen, IN (United States)

2009-07-01

383

Evaluation of C60 secondary ion mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis and imaging of fingerprints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feasibility of using C60(+) cluster primary ion bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60(+) SIMS) for the analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is evaluated. It was found that C60(+) SIMS could be used to detect and image the spatial localization of a number of sebaceous and eccrine components in fingerprints. These analyses were also found to not be hindered by the use of common latent print powder development techniques. Finally, the ability to monitor the depth distribution of fingerprint constituents was found to be possible - a capability which has not been shown using other chemical imaging techniques. This paper illustrates a number of strengths and potential weaknesses of C60(+) SIMS as an additional or complimentary technique for the chemical analysis of fingerprints.

Sisco E; Demoranville LT; Gillen G

2013-09-01

384

Evaluation of C60 secondary ion mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis and imaging of fingerprints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using C60(+) cluster primary ion bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60(+) SIMS) for the analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is evaluated. It was found that C60(+) SIMS could be used to detect and image the spatial localization of a number of sebaceous and eccrine components in fingerprints. These analyses were also found to not be hindered by the use of common latent print powder development techniques. Finally, the ability to monitor the depth distribution of fingerprint constituents was found to be possible - a capability which has not been shown using other chemical imaging techniques. This paper illustrates a number of strengths and potential weaknesses of C60(+) SIMS as an additional or complimentary technique for the chemical analysis of fingerprints. PMID:23890648

Sisco, Edward; Demoranville, Leonard T; Gillen, Greg

2013-07-02

385

SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

Arslan O; Er ID

2008-06-01

386

SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation. PMID:18093731

Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

2007-11-09

387

Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

Catalina Bosch Ojeda; Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

2006-01-01

388

LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

1996-12-31

389

The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis microscopy beamline data acquisition system at ELETTRA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) microscopy data acquisition system enables the user to control the imaging and spectroscopy modes of operation of the beamline ESCA microscopy at ELETTRA. It allows the user to integrate all experiment, beamline and machine operations in one single environment. The system also provides simple data analysis for both spectra and images data to guide further data acquisition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Gariazzo, C. [Eniricerche, via E. Ramarini 32, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo Roma (Italy); Krempaska, R. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Padriciano 99, 32014 Trieste (Italy); Morrison, G.R. [Department of Physics, King`s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R2LS (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

390

Exergy analysis and cumulative exergy consumption of complex chemical processes: the industrial chlor-alkali processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory and methodology for the exergy analysis of complex chemical processes are summarized and applied to the two major industrial processes of production of caustic soda and chlorine as an example. Exergy analysis permits determination of the cumulative exergy consumption and cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) of the processes; the CDP of the chlor-alkali processes is in the range 8-10%. The locations and magnitudes of exergy losses within the processes are determined. (author).

Morris, D.R. (New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-01-01

391

Rapid and precise method of chemical analysis of cast iron by means of atomic absorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of chemical analysis of cast iron by atomic absorption is described in detail. It allows determination of manganese up to 1.5%, silicon-3%, chromium-25%, nickel-20%, molybdenum-4%, copper-8%, aluminium-8%, magnesium-0.10%, titanium-1%, vanadium-0.5%. The method's accuracy was tested and is equal to 0.32-3.16%.

Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

1980-01-01

392

Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01

393

Simplified Routines for Sample Preparation and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis describes the development of new and improved methods for analyzing degradation markers from organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs). Paper I and II describes an innovative and significantly improved method for the enrichment, derivatization (trimethysilylation) and GC-MS analysis...

Subramaniam, Raja

394

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Analysis of Saudi Hassawi Rice Oryza sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparison of the chemical and fatty acid composition between cvs. Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Hassa No. 2 was made. Although other parameters of proximate analysis were not significantly modified, content of crude protein in cv. Hassa No. 2 decreased from 10.68% to 9.24%, wherea...

Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

395

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

396

Modern Physics Resource Packet  

Science.gov (United States)

This website contains a collection of computational resources for use in a modern physics class. Maple, Mathematica, and Excel files are provided to introduce students to scientific computation and can be downloaded from this page. This collection includes suggested problems for use with the CUPS software. Topics covered include blackbody radiation, scattering, atomic orbitals, tunneling, uncertainty, and relativity.

Moloney, Mike; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Joenathan, Charles; Western, Arthur; Mcinerney, Michael

2005-07-25

397

Modern Reduction Methods  

CERN Document Server

With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

Andersson, Pher G

2008-01-01

398

CAIRO MODERN: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Author Naguib Mahfouz is the Arab world's only Nobel Prize winner in literature. In Cairo Modern (New Cairo), first published in 1945 and translated by William M. Hutchins, Mahfouz presents to the world Egyptian society of the 1930s.

WILLIAM M. HUTCHINS

2013-01-01

399

Facility Modernization Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

Robinson, D; Ackley, R

2007-05-10

400

A Modern Periodic Table.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Introduction: Early Modern Horror  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every confrontation with horror is, in essence, a confrontation with the unknown. Bringing together an abiding concern for what Noel Carroll defined as art-horror, what Slavoj Zizek referred to as the enjoyment of non-meaning, this course will explore the way early modern audiences grappled with unk...

LOH M,

402

International Terrorism: Modern War  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current article is about the modern issues in the Globe, main participants of the global affairs and the relations between these countries. Among the main issues of civilizations today, the issue of terrorism as the clash of civilizations seems the most urgent

Roza F. Rokhvadze

2013-01-01

403

Transition and modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fall of the communist orders introduced a problem of the development of these societies and initiated a new wave of modernization theories. At the same time, the ideological proclamation of the victory of neo-liberalism resulted in the inauguration of the neo-liberal development model as the mode of modernization that will include the post-communist countries in the process of globalization. In this context, the World Bank study of the ten-year development of the transitional countries has been analyzed. With the example of Slovenia, as the economically most successful transitional country, it is shown that the study encounters the problem of constructing a general model of the development, which could be applied to all transitional countries. Additionally, it is shown that the World Bank model, as well as classic modernization theories, cannot predict how certain country will react to economic reform. Therefore, an issue of reform support arises as a significant one. Controversy of the neo-liberal modernization model indicates a need for articulating alternative modes of development.

Krištofi? Branimir

2002-01-01

404

Modernization and re-habilitation of hydroelectric power plants: a methodology of technical-economic analysis; Modernizacao e reabilitacao de usinas hidreletricas: uma metodologia de analise tecnico-economica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work discusses the modernization and re-habilitation of hydroelectric power plants, focusing the increase of installed power, improvement of performance and availability of the equipment. Such type of procedure, however, must be subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. Thus, this work presents criteria for the technical evaluation of existing hydroelectric power plants and therefore provide ways for the technical-economical evaluation 4 refs., 1 fig.

Penteado Junior, Aderbal de Arruda; Caselato, Djalma [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

1995-12-31

405