WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Modern spectro-chemical methods of analysis for environmental pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of metal ions is a major requirement in environmental analysis. The toxicity to the ecosystem is generally through the use of these materials in industry. Among the metals, the so-called heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and chromium are especially important in view of their toxicity, even at very low concentration levels. Hence their analysis is needed at various concentration levels. This article gives an overview of the spectro-analytical techniques, employed in environmental analysis

2008-01-28

2

Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

3

The modern alchemy: The chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

2002-06-01

4

Carbon isotope analysis of separate chemical phases in modern and fossil bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The isotopic method of dietary analysis has been extended by using both the organic and inorganic phases of bone with equally good results. Using the reported technique with the inorganic phase, which is more stable in fossil material, dietary analysis of bone over 10,000 years old has been found possible. (U.K.)

1981-07-23

5

Complete chemical analysis of water used in oil field recovery by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in production waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

1996-03-17

6

XIII symposium. Modern chemical physics. Theses of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials of the thirteenth symposium on modern chemical physics are presented. They represent different directions of development of this field of knowledge, such as synthesis, structure, properties of metal-polymer compositions, radiation-chemical investigations in nanotechnology, problems of supercritical chemistry, calculations of kinetic parameters of catalytic systems

2001-10-06

7

Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate product properties in a continuous manner as well as apply the methods of inferential control. By real plant application of the soft sensors, considerable savings could be expected, as well as compliance with strict legal regulations for product quality specifications and emissions.

N. Bolf

2011-04-01

8

Fundamental concepts in modern analysis  

CERN Document Server

Many advanced mathematical disciplines, such as dynamical systems, calculus of variations, differential geometry and the theory of Lie groups, have a common foundation in general topology and calculus in normed vector spaces. In this book, mathematically inclined engineering students are offered an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view but also occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics a

Hansen, VL

1999-01-01

9

Real analysis modern techniques and their applications  

CERN Document Server

An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

Folland, Gerald B

1999-01-01

10

Modern methodologies and tools for human hazard assessment of chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific report provides a review of modern methodologies and tools to depict toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes and their application for the human hazard assessment of chemicals. The application of these methods is illustrated with examples drawn from the literature and international efforts in the field. First, the concepts of mode of action/adverse outcome pathway are discussed together with their associated terminology and recent international developments dealing with human hazard assessment of chemicals. Then modern methodologies and tools are presented including in vitro systems, physiologically-based models, in silico tools and OMICs technologies at the level of DNA/RNA (transcriptomics, proteins (proteomics and the whole metabolome (metabolomics. Future perspectives for the potential applications of these modern methodologies and tools in the context of prioritisation of chemicals, integrated test strategies and the future of risk assessment are discussed. The report concludes with recommendations for future work and research formulated from consultations of EFSA staff, expert Panels and other international organisations.

European Food Safety Authority

2014-04-01

11

Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

DuPlessis, Robert S.

1988-01-01

12

Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

Malik, Muhammad Yasir

2012-01-01

13

ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse te?hnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse te?hno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

Arhun, Sch.

2013-01-01

14

XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index

2011-09-25

15

Modern physico-chemical analysis techniques for characterization of high temperature resistant materials and structural ceramics in high temperature reactor and fusion reactor plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study concentrates on the objectives and development status of high temperature materials for use in advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) and the technological aspects of Tokamak fusion reactor plants. A number of physico-chemical methods of analysis are developed and applied to the characterization of the coated particles, the graphitic fuel element matrix and the complete fuel elements. Spectrochemical methods are used to determine impurities in graphite as well as to identify trace elements in irradiated fuel elements. Impurities un high purity reactor graphite are quantitatively determined at a high detection efficiency by electric arc excitation in argon inert gas using homogeneous magnetic field with NaF and (C2F4)n as thermochemical additives. The heat extracting, highly stressed, metallic components such as the steam reformer and the intermediate He/He heat exchanger are discussed. These components operate in temperature range between 550 o and 1000 o, where the structural alloys exhibit time-dependent properties (creep and fatigue behaviour). Hence, after long time use at high temperatures, high temperature alloys undergo structural changes and new phases are precipitated. As far as the mechanical properties of new phases are different the analytical determination of phases is of great importance. Two methods are used - 1) interference layer metallography and 2) time-temperature precipitation diagrams after long time exposure prepared after chemical isolation and identification of the structural constituents. Applying different nondestructive methods for surface analysis, the corrosion properties of alloys in HTR helium are investigated. The problems concerning technical feasibility of fusion reactors, such as magnet technology, materials problems, tritium and blanket technology, problems of energy extraction and plasma-wall interaction are discussed. The main emphasis is on plasma-wall interaction in TEXTOR (Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research) device operating in KFA Juelich. Plasma induced damage of materials is also considered. 1 tabs, 8 figs, 20 refs

1989-07-02

16

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

2011-01-01

17

Coping with the information explosion provided by modern chemical instrumentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern chemical instrumentation is capable of generating enormous amounts of data in very short periods of time. It is clear that a major task of scientists for the near future is to develop techniques to utilize more effectively this capability, in order to avoid the typical dilemma of being buried in data with little or no perspective of the information content. Thus, there are three key developments that must be pursued: definition of information content; identification of methods to correlate instrumental parameters with information content; and development of tools for the instrumental enhancement of information content and the efficient extraction of information from data. These developments should allow the evolution of smart instruments, perhaps guided by artificial intelligence principles. This paper will describe some of the principles and tools that have already been developed, and will identify the areas where work needs to be done.

Perone, S.P.

1984-01-01

18

Modern Education In India: A Sociological Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract:Since Second World War many sociologists devoted their energies to the study of educational problems from sociological perspective. In India, the Five Year Plans were organized with specific social and economic objectives. One of their objectives was the transformation of Indian society from traditional and agrarian pattern to modern industrial one. Education was rightly considered to be the most important instrument to bring about a social change. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of modern education on Indian society.

Santosh Gangurde

2013-09-01

19

An Analysis of Historical Influences of Modern Chinese Overseas Students in Japan on Education Modernization in Zhili Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chinese modern education history.

Guofu Fan

2012-01-01

20

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

1995-01-01

22

Chemical Analysis as Dematerialization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical analysis is envisaged as an exemplar of laboratory work. Matter, held at a distance within the probe of instruments, is converted there into electronic signals. Matter serves only as prime material for information production. Chemical analysis converts instrumentalized readings into informational statements. Major chemical thinkers (Auguste Laurent, Justus von Liebig, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and others made this conceptual revolution. In mid-nineteenth century, they built a daring theory of radicals. Since that time, molecular chemistry became a combinatorial art and science of radicals. These, groups of atoms with only at first fictional existence, are analogous to phonemes in speech production.

Pierre Laszlo

1998-05-01

23

Conference 'Modern questions of chemistry, chemical technology andmetallurgy' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference purpose was exchange by scientific-technical information,determination of perspective directions, elaboration of collective scientificprograms and establishing of relations between institutes of higher educationon chemistry questions, chemical technology and metallurgy. On conference washeard and discussed reports on four sections: general, inorganic and physicalchemistry; organic chemistry and chemistry of high molecular compounds;metallurgy of ferrous nonferrous metals and alloys; chemical technology ofinorganic and organic matters

2009-06-06

24

Modern Mall’s Promotion Quality Evaluation and Comparison Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Modern mall’s promotion quality in its wide sense refers to the actual level of consumers’ active purchasing as a result of mall’s promotion that involves convenient, complete, and safe visible facilities as well as friendly and warm invisible service. In the light of the components of modern mall’s promotion quality, the author established a comprehensive quantified evaluation model that can provide a mall with promotion quality evaluation and multi-malls with promotion quality comparison analysis.

Key words: Modern mall; Promotion quality; Comprehensive evaluation; Evaluation components; Evaluation model

Deran ZHANG

2011-09-01

25

Chemical and mechanical theories of digestion in early modern medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to survey the iatrochemists' and iatromechanists' explanations of digestion, from the sixteenth to the early decades of the eighteenth century. The iatrochemists substituted the Galenic thermal digestion with a series of chemical processes, the same as those produced in the laboratory. Jean Baptiste van Helmont marked a turning point in the chemical understanding of digestion, indicating the acid ferment in the stomach as the digestive agent. In the wake of van Helmont, an increasing number of physicians rejected the traditional Galenic theory of digestion, turning to the chemical reactions taking place in the ventricles. The iatrochemists saw nutrition as the outcome of the separation of an active invisible substance, i.e., spirits, from a thick inert covering. The emergence of the mechanical physiology, with its emphasis on the shape, size and motion of parts, did not bring about a decline of the chemical investigations of digestion. Descartes ruled out chemistry in the study of physiology, while a number of physiologists-notably in England-adopted a compromise between iatrochemical and mechanical theories. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the view of acid as an agent of gastric digestion became popular among physiologists. Late in the century, the acid-alkali doctrine spurred further investigations on digestion and nutrition. PMID:22520182

Clericuzio, Antonio

2012-06-01

26

Microfluidic chemical analysis systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of microfluidics has exploded in the past decade, particularly in the area of chemical and biochemical analysis systems. Borrowing technology from the solid-state electronics industry and the production of microprocessor chips, researchers working with glass, silicon, and polymer substrates have fabricated macroscale laboratory components in miniaturized formats. These devices pump nanoliter volumes of liquid through micrometer-scale channels and perform complex chemical reactions and separations. The detection of reaction products is typically done fluorescently with off-chip optical components, and the analysis time from start to finish can be significantly shorter than that of conventional techniques. In this review we describe these microfluidic analysis systems, from the original continuous flow systems relying on electroosmotic pumping for liquid motion to the large diversity of microarray chips currently in use to the newer droplet-based devices and segmented flow systems. Although not currently widespread, microfluidic systems have the potential to become ubiquitous. PMID:22432622

Livak-Dahl, Eric; Sinn, Irene; Burns, Mark

2011-01-01

27

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharm...

Petrovi? Slobodan D.; Miši?-Vukovi? Milica M.; Z?, Mijin Dus?an

2002-01-01

28

Chemical analysis experiment method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

Mun, Seoung Myeong

1995-11-15

29

Chemical analysis experiment method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book arranges chemical analysis experiment methods. It lists experiments in Korean alphabetical order, which includes how to use a gas burner, drying machine, wide-mouth bottle, cooling device, desiccator, crucible, litmus paper, mess cylinder, mini timer, burner, a burette, a gravimeter, soda line, a water-jet pump, test tube, silica gel, adapter, a filter bed, calcium chloride, a glass tube and glass bottle, plastic device, a paper wiper, a vacuum gauge, color tape, tweezers and activated carbon.

1995-01-01

30

Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-09-01

31

Chemical and Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Work during the past three years has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) for pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-Ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted changes in the molecular weight distribution and the increased crosslinking of the Coflon material using Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. We investigated a plethora of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. Pressurized tests were performed on powdered PVDF in a modified Fluid A, which we will call A-2. In this case the ethylene diamine concentration was increased to 3 percent in methanol. Coflon pipe sections and powdered Coflon were exposed in pressure cells at 1700 psi at three separate test temperatures.

Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

1997-01-01

32

Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals are discussed such as phase-transfer catalysis, biocatalysis asymmetric catalysis and, generally, solid-phase chemistry.

Petrovi? Slobodan D.

2002-01-01

33

Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena  

CERN Document Server

Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

Sirenko, Yuriy K

2010-01-01

34

Modern trends in activation analysis. Vol. 1, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two volumes contain 164 special papers presented at the international conference on activation analysis, including five plenary lectures which give a general survey of modern trends and possibilities of applications in fields where activation analysis is capable of solving problems which are hitherto unsolved. The emphasis during this meeting is put on applications, though other subjects (e.g. sampling, homogeneity of samples, instrumental development, computer evaluation of gamma spectra, comparisons with other analytical methods) are also dealt with. The proceedings contain lectures on applications in the fields of biology, biomedicine, archaeology, the arts, forensic sciences, environmental research, ecology, materials research, geo- and cosmo-sciences, and other individual applications. (RB)

1976-09-13

35

Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

Panda, Binayak

2009-01-01

36

Castem 2000: a modern approach of computerized structural analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early beginning of the computerized structural analysis, many general purpose programs have been developed. Their complexity has increased rapidly and they became difficult to use and to maintain. The needs for an improved user's friendliness and the treatment of complex coupled problems have led to a modern tool: CASTEM 2000. It has profited by the general progress in computers technology and by a twenty years experience in large finite element codes. Its basic principles as well as examples of applications will be presented in this paper

1988-11-08

37

Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

Nataliia Valinkevych

2013-05-01

38

Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

1979-09-20

39

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs

1990-06-27

40

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

 
 
 
 
41

Chemical analysis of extraterrestrial materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on the recent development in the chemical analysis of the cited materials with 55 references, covering the period from January, 1979, to the spring of 1982. The methods, which have been used for the analysis of meteorites, include electron probe microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark ion source mass spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis and plasma emission spectroscopy, and their limitations and advantages are discussed. The isotopic analysis of meteorites is also outlined in respect of the abnormality of isotopic composition, the age measurement of solidification, etc. For planets and satellites, on the other hand, the ''remote sensing'' by artificial satellites (e.g. Apollo program) is reviewed, with emphasis on the chemical analysis, such as mass spectroscopy, the use of ?-ray sources, ?-ray spectrometry, etc. (J.P.N.)

1983-01-01

42

Chemical Analysis for Nuclear Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main objective of this project is to maintain chemical hot cell facility and essential chemical analysis instruments of Nuclear Chemistry Research Division(NCRD) in KAERI and is to support other nuclear R and D groups and nuclear industries providing precise data from the samples and specimens with these facility and instruments. The main items of chemical analysis were the determination of burn-up and fission gas of PWR high burn up UO2 fuels and hydrogen in cladding material. Other Chemical analyses (element analysis by using ICP-AES, AA and EPMA; radio nuclide analysis by ???-spectrometer; isotope analysis by TI-MS, ICP-MS and Quadrupole MS; surface analysis by XRD, SEM; H,C,O analysis etc.) were carried out through this project from January 1st to December 31th of 2007 for the 7,263 cases from the nuclear R and D projects, from the facilities of nuclear fuel cycle examination and from the domestic nuclear industries such as nuclear power plants(KEPCO), fuel producing company(KNFC). Experiments related to the development of chemical analysis methods, A gas chromatography analysis method was established for a slightly negative pressure fission gas sample and thus the results were compared to and reviewed with those obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometer which already had been developed for the routine gas analysis support of the same sample. With using a packed molecular column and optimum temperature condition of oven, the fission gas compositions, nitrogen, krypton and xenon, could be separated clearly within 7 minute. According to the analysis results for the same fission gas samples, gas chromatograph and quadrupole mass spectrometer, the krypton analysis results of fission gases by the former was 2.65 % higher than those by the later. However analysis results of xenon by both methods were agreed well within 1 decimal point.Simultaneous multi-sample treatment system was developed to promote efficiency of chemical analysis methods and the burnup measurement in irradiated fuel rods

2008-01-01

43

Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in ?13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This remineralization corresponds to a minimum pH of around 6.8 and a decrease in the saturation state of the water with respect to aragonite and calcite from -0.2 to -0.4 and -0.05 to -0.2, respectively. Similar, but more muted changes occur in Mermaid Pond, a blue hole on Rum Cay with a larger diameter and greater depth than Ink Well Blue Hole. Water from both blue holes is more undersaturated at high tide than at low tide because the flood tide forces water from the blue hole into the matrix porosity. While stored in the aquifer, the water dissolves aquifer minerals, lessening its undersaturation. This reacted water then flows back to the blue hole during the ebb tide. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the matrix porosity and conduits control the locations of water exchange that drives dissolution reactions within these aquifers and thus the distribution of secondary porosity, elevated permeability and water resources.

Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

2011-12-01

44

A modern design for ? ? ? active handling facilities for chemical research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study for a modern ??? active handling facility for chemical research and development work is described. The design is intended to achieve the working and environmental conditions that are expected to be acceptable in the nuclear industry at least for the next twenty years. Radiation exposure to operators is reduced to minimum practical limits. Hands-on maintenance and man-entry are avoided for routine operations. The design is flexible to allow modifications and improvements of technique and concept to be incorporated as they become available. Finally decommissioning can be achieved with reversion to a contamination and radiation free site. The primary installation in the design is a suite of five in-line ??? active shielded cells, each capable of handling 1000 MeV Ci ? activity with accompanying high levels of ? and or ? activity. Each cell is fitted with a stainless steel containment box which is remotely removable. Adjacent to the cell line, there is a box handling bay to which boxes are interfaced, serviced and decontaminated. These operations are entirely remote. The box, when decontaminated, is returned through a commissioning area to the cell line for further service. Comprehensive facilities are provided to support the cell line. These include flask and equipment storage, fissile material accounting and interrogation systems, waste handling and transfer systems for the onward transmission of waste for processing and packaging centrally. The problems of manipulation, transfers, contamination control and shielding have been considered and are discussed in the context of the overall design. (author)

45

Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

1983-01-01

46

Analysis of skeletal trauma in modern skeletal collections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When archaeological skeletons are assessed, the incidence of trauma forms an integral part of the investigation. The number of fractures observed is interpreted in order to gain insight into the occurrence of interpersonal violence, workload, living conditions, etc. However, the question remains of how these results should be interpreted – i.e., what constitutes high or low levels of trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of trauma in a population of modern Greeks l...

2008-01-01

47

An Analysis of the Significant Form in Modern Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of “significant form”, suggested by Clive Bell, has a great impact on modern western art and design. China has a long history and splendid culture, and also lots of wonderful thoughts in the aesthetics. This paper analyzes the concept of “significant form”, suggested by Bell, by combining with Chinese traditional aesthetic thought, expecting to find some laws to guide our design practice. Meanwhile, that is a thought for the inheritance and development of Chinese tradition...

Zhongxing Yu

2011-01-01

48

An Analysis of the Significant Form in Modern Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of “significant form”, suggested by Clive Bell, has a great impact on modern western art and design. China has a long history and splendid culture, and also lots of wonderful thoughts in the aesthetics. This paper analyzes the concept of “significant form”, suggested by Bell, by combining with Chinese traditional aesthetic thought, expecting to find some laws to guide our design practice. Meanwhile, that is a thought for the inheritance and development of Chinese traditional cultures.

Zhongxing Yu

2011-02-01

49

Analysis on Modern Anomie Situation of Chinese Traditional Festivals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facing tremendous social changes in modern times, Chinese traditional festival as an important carrier of Chinese traditional culture, is encountering unprecedented development plights and survival crisis. In recent years, with the general concerns and widespread attention from the Chinese government and all sectors of the society, the traditional festivals have shown gradual revival from the declining trend. However, it should be noted that lack of core modern values, loss of emotional experience identity, missing of traditional folk arts, mess of the application of festival symbols, and popularity of western festivals culture are important representations of the anomie situation of Chinese traditional festivals in modern society, and also the crucial reason for it failed to overcome the difficulties. Globalization and the rapid development of information technology, the advancement of industrialization and urbanization have changed the social structure and people's lifestyles, rhythm, and also interpersonal relationships to a considerable extent, thus social environment for the survival of the traditional festivals related to agricultural society increasingly becomes narrow, and its impact and charm naturally bleak. Therefore, it is imperative to re-understanding and reconstructing traditional festivals, with new representations to restore the cultural connotations of traditional festivals, making it back into ordinary people's lives.

Jinxia Wang

2014-04-01

50

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vanga bhasma is an Ayurvedic formulation used for various diseases. An attempt was made to analyze it chemically which includes XRF, XRD, EDAX and ICP-MS techniques. Vanga Bhasma drug contained mainly tin as tin oxide. The content of tin was found to be 80 percent. XRF analysis revealed that the bhasma contained 17 elements at different levels of concentration. XRD studies exhibited that the major phase composition is cassiterite tin oxide in tetragonal structure. The crystallite size of the ...

2013-01-01

51

Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

2012-07-20

52

An extended chemical analysis of gallstone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble prot...

Chandran, P.; Kuchhal, N. K.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

2007-01-01

53

Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

54

Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to ?40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfu...

2009-01-01

55

Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, ion scattering analysis - modern methods for surface analysis of solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern methods for surface analysis of solids are reviewed taking Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and ion scattering analysis as examples. For each method the basic principles, the experimental techniques, and applications are given.

Blasek, G. (VEB Hochvakuum Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

1981-01-01

56

Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here on the isotopic analysis of the diet of one of the oldest modern humans found in Eurasia, the Tianyuan 1 early modern human dating to approximately 40,000 calendar years ago from Tianyuan Cave (Tianyuandong) in the Zhoukoudian region of China. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of the human and associated faunal remains indicate a diet high in animal protein, and the high nitrogen isotope values suggest the consumption of freshwater fish. To confirm this inference, we measured the sulfur isotope values of terrestrial and freshwater animals around the Zhoukoudian area and of the Tianyuan 1 human, which also support the interpretation of a substantial portion of the diet from freshwater fish. This analysis provides the direct evidence for the consumption of aquatic resources by early modern humans in China and has implications for early modern human subsistence and demography. PMID:19581579

Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Hong; Tong, Haowen; Nehlich, Olaf; Liu, Wu; Zhao, Chaohong; Yu, Jincheng; Wang, Changsui; Trinkaus, Erik; Richards, Michael P

2009-07-01

57

Chemical analysis as production guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations

1975-01-01

58

Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by ? 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between coral calcification and annual SST, precipitation and insolation (p-values > 0.05).To analyze the variety of coral calcification rate with time variants and future prospect, generalized state space model with local linear trend model was applied by statistic software of R (dlm packages). All unknown variances and unobserved components were estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) using forwards filtering, backward samplings (FFBS). Iteration was 11000 times and burn in first 1000 times. The coral calcification did not have common constant increasing or decreasing trends between three study areas. We will discuss more detail about temperate coral skeletal growth and GCA.

Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

2011-12-01

59

An Analysis and Overview of Modern Digital Watermarking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the growth of computer networks. The computer network diminished the entire global in a nutshell, via the internet and the intranet capabilities. Approach: In the recent year, communicating information within authenticated groups in the text, image and video formats are highly unavoidable one. And in the same manner, there are more possibility that the communicated information to be hacked by the anonymous hacker. Results: The hacker may be passive or active; it is highly risk for many engineering applications like military network. Hence, digital watermarking is merged to rectify the above pitfalls. Conclusion: Watermarking techniques developed for images are mainly classified into visible and invisible approaches. The study further analyses the modern digital watermarking system.

Y. A. Raj

2012-01-01

60

Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department

1985-07-21

62

Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

2000-04-12

63

Modern trends in activation analysis. Vols. 1 and 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 170 papers were presented under the following headings: recent developments; sample preparation; information processing and control; activation techniques; light elements; rare earths; ultra trace analysis; quality assurance; comparators; reference materials; counting systems; archaeology; biology; environmental sciences; forensic science; geochemistry; industry; and in vivo analysis. Two papers on coal have been abstracted separately.

1986-01-01

64

Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

Andrei C. COVRIG

2010-08-01

65

ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN STATE OF ELECTRONIC SCIENTIFIC PROFESSIONAL EDITIONS ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general characteristic of electronic scientific professional editions, requirements to them, the advantage over printed editions are presented in article. The analysis of electronic information environment filling by electronic editions as well of Ukraine as of Russia is presented. The prospect of development of electronic scientific professional editions is described.? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??...

?????????, ?. ?.; O?????????, T. ?.

2010-01-01

66

Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

2008-01-01

67

Modern tasks of probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One dwells upon a more comprehensive approach to ensure the probabilistic safety analysis of the commercial nuclear power plants. The efforts undertaken earlier and under way now aim to demonstrate that the probability of severe accidents at a commercial facility is within the prescribed values. The described approach envisages coordination of the probabilistic analysis results in the form of the probabilities of accidents and the anticipated effects with the scale of the public and the environmental damage provided that the mentioned damage should be compensated by the facility owner. On the basis of the mentioned factor one analyzes various costs to ensure safety of a facility and presents the algorithm to investigate ways to optimize the total costs. One considers the insurance system role in the damage compensation procedure. One studies the optimal procedure conditions to ensure the safety of the decommissioned commercial nuclear power plants

2008-02-01

68

From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

Burnett, J. N.

1986-01-01

69

Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

2008-01-01

70

Fuzzy risk analysis of a modern ?-ray industrial irradiator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuzzy fault tree analyses were used to investigate accident scenarios that involve radiological exposure to operators working in industrial ?-ray irradiation facilities. The HEART method, a first generation human reliability analysis method, was used to evaluate the probability of adverse human error in these analyses. This technique was modified on the basis of fuzzy set theory to more directly take into account the uncertainties in the error-promoting factors on which the methodology is based. Moreover, with regard to some identified accident scenarios, fuzzy radiological exposure risk, expressed in terms of potential annual death, was evaluated. The calculated fuzzy risks for the examined plant were determined to be well below the reference risk suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:22004931

Castiglia, F; Giardina, M

2011-06-01

71

Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

2000-11-01

72

Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

telemedicineKód oboru RIV: JD - Využití po?íta??, robotika a její aplikace http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-image analysis in modern ophthalmology from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine.pdf

Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

73

From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

Burnett, J. Nicholas

1986-01-01

74

Implemented modernization of buildings of scientific research institutions: case study of institutes of chemical research ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????-????????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers the problems of modernization of buildings of research institutions and, in particular, the future use of existing buildings, that is, their restructuring and adjustment to new objectives, or demolition and construction of new buildings instead of demolished ones. The authors highlight functional, technological, structural and compositional constituents of this problem. The authors provide examples of buildings restructured both in Russia through the involvement of the authors, and worldwide. Their conclusions represent a list of major issues that need to be resolved as part of the decision-making process concerning the future use of buildings:availability of layout plans of the building to accommodate the proposed functional processes as well as flexibility in terms of any future changes;assessment of potential improvement of the architectural environment in terms of reduction of functional connections, provision of formal and informal communications, and improvement of visual connections;the load bearing capacity of building structures, including floors and ceilings slabs;sufficiency of the floor height;suitability of existing technical rooms and shafts and possibility of their extension to assure a flexible layout;assessment of the working capacity and service life of structural elements of the building;selection of the applicable technology and sequence of works to ensure a minimal impact produced on the operation of an enterprise; the need for temporary facilities and the cost of relocation of existing services and business units.?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????, ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ? ????? ?????????????.

Bantserova Ol’ga Leonidovna

2013-01-01

75

Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

2008-02-19

76

Interferometry of chemically peculiar stars: theoretical predictions vs. modern observing facilities  

CERN Document Server

By means of numerical experiments we explore the application of interferometry to the detection and characterization of abundance spots in chemically peculiar (CP) stars using the brightest star eps~Uma as a case study. We find that the best spectral regions to search for spots and stellar rotation signatures are in the visual domain. The spots can clearly be detected already at a first visibility lobe and their signatures can be uniquely disentangled from that of rotation. The spots and rotation signatures can also be detected in NIR at low spectral resolution but baselines longer than 180~m are needed for all potential CP candidates. According to our simulations, an instrument like VEGA (or its successor e.g., FRIEND) should be able to detect, in the visual, the effect of spots and spots+rotation, provided that the instrument is able to measure $V^2\\approx10^{-3}$, and/or closure phase. In infrared, an instrument like AMBER but with longer baselines than the ones available so far would be able to measure ro...

Shulyak, D; Causi, G Li; Perraut, K; Kochukhov, O

2014-01-01

77

Radioisotope XRF spectrometers for quick chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different portable systems for chemical analysis by Radioisotope X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) are summarized. Its advantages and limitations referred to a fixed conventional installation of XRF are described along with the advantages of combining these two equipments: the high sensitivity of the fixed installation being applied to the preparation of reference samples and the mobility of the portable installation to carrying out quick in-situ analysis with a high frequency. This simple portable system is intended to be used with the development of a methodology of simple analysis to the chemical control of wastes constituted by solid and liquid. (Author) 27 refs

1994-01-01

78

Modern sonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

2000-01-01

79

Quantitative Chemical Analysis Online Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a site with materials related to a chemistry textbook. It is not as general as some sites but the material is of high pedagogical value. Short tutorial sections are available for many topics with extensive web linkages. "Living" graphs and Excel files illustrate important material such as pH fractional composition and statistical analysis. Students can take practice quizzes on material from the text. Full Powerpoint slideshows include nearly all of the figures contained in the text. A full set of laboratory experiments are available. Users must register to view much of the site's content; registration is free.

Harris, Daniel C., 1948-

2011-02-07

80

Spreadsheet analysis of chemical hydrographs  

Science.gov (United States)

Students download a comma-delimited data set that is a time series of stream discharge measurements and the concentration of a trace element in the stream. Given the concentration of this element in the precipitation and in the groundwater, the students analyze the data using spreadsheet software to separate the hydrograph into baseflow and quickflow components. Students produce a graph of their results. To do the analysis, students must derive an appropriate equation based on other equations presented in the text (Eqs. 1.2 and 1.3).

 
 
 
 
81

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to serve as a template for other utilities’ projects for control room modernization.

Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

2013-09-01

82

Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is hyposaline (8.5-10 g l-1 ) and alkaline (pH 8.9-9.1 and alkalinity of 37 meq l-1 ) with sodium and chloride being the dominant ions but also with bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These conditions are favorable for active carbonate deposition that results in the formation of distinctive stromatolite structures in the littoral region of the lake. These structures generate extended submerged carbonaceous platforms down to a depth of 15 m that slope steeply to the bottom of the lake where soft sediments prevail (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998). The lake is populated by 18 species of cyanobacteria (Tavera and Komárek, 1996) which are the primary producers in the food web a of the lake fixing not only carbon (Escobar-Briones et al., 1998) but also nitrogen (Falcón eto al, 2002). The stromatolite samples were freeze-dried and then were finely grounded with an agate mor-tar mill for analyses. The mineral composition of the sample is essentially hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3 )4 (OH)2 , 4 H2 O)) with traces of quartz (SiO2 ) as determined by X-rays diffraction. This is also consistent with differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry of the sample. Analysis of the sample by TV-mass spectrometry (MS) using the Phoenix Lander Protocol (Navarro-González et al., 2009) indicates that the major volatile released is carbon dioxide a from 350 C to 1000° C with broad peaks centered at 400° C and 600° C. Organics are also re-° leased from 380° C to 750° C as monitored by a characteristic organic fragment with m/z=41 and that is attributed to the allyl cation: [CH2 CHCH2 ]+ . Analysis of the sample by TV-gas chromatography (GC)-MS using the Viking Lander Protocol but at 750° C (Navarro-González a et al., 2009) demonstrates that a complex suite of organics are released such as 1,3-butadiene, furan, propanal, 2-propenenitrile, 1,3 cyclopentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, propanenitrile, methylfuran, butanal, benzene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, 1-H-pyrrole, pyridine, methylbenzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, 4-methylpyridine, ethylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, styrene, methylbenze-n

Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

83

Radiation method of chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method is described of the radiation analysis of materials using the scattering of accelerated charged particle beams. The material to be analyzed placed on a rotating and/or vibrating target support is exposed at a pressure of 10"-"1 to 10"-"6 torr and cooled to a temperature of down to -250 degC to a beam of accelerated particles applied from a medium at a pressure of 10"-"5 to 10"-"8 torr. The composition of the target material may be determined from the energy spectra or the momentum of the outcoming particles. The method is also suitable for organic substances or organometallic substances subject to pyrolysis. (L.K.)

1973-01-01

84

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

1988-01-01

85

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

Jin-Ao Duan

2012-09-01

86

Advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of chuanxiong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX's use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. PMID:22955453

Li, Weixia; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao

2012-01-01

87

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...involved in the chemical analysis. Additional...thoroughly rinsed with methanol, followed by...handling of the chemicals specified in...involved in the chemical analysis. Additional...dissolved in methanol or ethanol...

2009-07-01

88

Analysis of the Influence of Burst-Mode Laser Ablation by Modern Quality Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of lasers in terms of pulse length and ablation quality has made wider the perspective of material processing. Ablation using picosecond lasers offers an almost “cold material removal”, which causes minimal heat affected zones and enables sublimation without melt formation. Moreover, burst-mode intensifies these effects by the partition of pulses into groups of micro-pulses. Therefore, removal rate and surface quality are improved with an appropriate combination of burst-mode and other relevant process parameters. Nevertheless, parameter identification can be costly and time demanding. Thus, analysis of parameter impact offered by modern quality tools represents a convenient approach to accelerate ablation process improvements.

Emmelmann, Claus; Urbina, Juan Pablo Calderón

89

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses specific features of their application in insuring coal mining projects. It uses the analysis for highlighting key types of insurance, application of which could ensure complex protection of investments into Ukrainian coal mining projects.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????, ? ?????????, ???, ????????? ? ???. ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????.

Gusak Andrey S.

2013-03-01

90

Requirements for X-ray structure analysis with modern synchrotron light sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray diffraction methods, including macromolecular crystallography, small-angle scattering from partly or noncrystalline systems, fiber and surface diffraction, are in the forefront of interest of a broad synchrotron user community from biomedical and technological fields. The main impact comes from the unsurpassed X-ray flux and brilliance of modern third-generation sources, facilitating on the one hand, a dramatic enhancement in sample throughput, and on the other hand, the transformation of X-ray diffraction analysis from a static to a cinematographic technique. In the present article some of the requirements for further development are being discussed

2000-11-01

91

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Tomas Grigalis

2012-04-01

92

Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

Lukas Radvilavi?ius

2012-01-01

93

Entropy generation reduction through chemical pinch analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pinch analysis (PA) concept emerged, late '80s, as one of the methods to address the energy management in the new era of sustainable development. It was derived from combined first and second law analysis, as a technique ensuring a better thermal integration, aiming the minimization of entropy production or, equivalently, exergy destruction by heat exchanger networks (HEN). Although its ascendance from the second law analysis is questionable, the PA reveals as a widespread tool, nowadays, helping in energy savings mostly through a more rational use of utilities. Unfortunately, as principal downside, one should be aware that the global minimum entropy production is seldom attained, since the PA does not tackle the whole plant letting aside the chemical reactors or separation trains. The chemical reactor network (CRN) is responsible for large amounts of entropy generation (exergy losses), mainly due to the combined composition and temperature change. The chemical pinch analysis (CPA) concept focuses on, simultaneously, the entropy generation reduction of both CRN and HEN, while keeping the state and working parameters of the plant in the range of industrial interest. The fundamental idea of CPA is to include the CRN (through the chemical reaction heat developed in reactors) into the HEN and to submit this extended system to the PA. This is accomplished by replacing the chemical reactor with a virtual heat exchanger system producing the same amount of entropy. For an endothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the (stepwise infinitesimal) supply heat ?q flows from a source (an external/internal heater) to the stream undergoing the chemical transformation through the reactor, which in turn releases the heat of reaction ?HR to a virtual cold stream flowing through a virtual cooler. For an exothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the replacement is likewise, but the heat flows oppositely. Thus, in the practice of designing or retrofitting a flowsheet, in order to minimize the entropy production, the chemical reactor should be viewed as a group of two or three virtual heaters/coolers destroying the same amount of exergy. As a result of PA, new operating conditions could be revealed for some or all of the chemical reactors, ensuring a further reduction of the global entropy production of the plant. In this paper, the simple case of the methanol synthesis heat integrated reactor will be analyzed, proving the benefits of the CPA

2003-10-01

94

Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) program is responsible for the destruction of the chemical weapons stored in Pueblo, CO and Blue Grass, KY. In June 2010, the Program Manager (PM) for the ACWA program notified...

C. L. O'Connell J. S. Byun P. F. Bronson

2011-01-01

95

Comparative Analysis of Postmodern Design for Information Technology in Education in Relation to Modernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of present study is a comparative analysis of the philosophical bases of postmodernism in relation to modernism and suggesting the necessities of each base in the designing information technology in education. Approach: The research method for the present study was comparative analysis. Results: The first base was rejection of objective view toward the universe and accepting the â??pre-objective universeâ?. In this regard, it was suggested that information technology should be considered in relation to and as a component of life. The second base was doing away with totality. The necessity of this base was in the rejection of universal approaches and designing for specific situations. The third base was uncertainty. Regarding this base, it was suggested that the educational software provide a text in which the learner confront subjects for questioning and interpreting. The forth base was focusing on the complexities of the phenomena. In this ground, it was especially necessary for the design to be integrational. Conclusion/Recommendations: It seems that postmodernism view has been able to provide the possibility of recreating information technology in education through going beyond the basic assumptions of modernism. At last and in order to escape the metanarrative view toward postmodern ideas, we cannot regard the recommended solutions by postmodernists as the definite, final and general solution for educational issues of present and past times. But, we can look at them for further illumination of technological education condition of the present time.

Saeid Zarghami Hamrah

2012-01-01

96

Modern biostatistical methods for assessing in vitro/in vivo correlation of severely eye irritating chemicals in a validation study of in vitro alternatives to the Draize eye test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HET-CAM test and 3T3 cell neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay were evaluated in a national German validation project to replace the Draize eye test for classifying severely eye irritating chemicals, which have to be labelled 'R-41' according to EU regulations. As testing of 200 chemicals in the two in vitro assays did not sufficiently allow severely eye irritating chemicals to be identified and since the scoring system of the HET-CAM assay has been derived empirically, it was investigated whether modern biostatistical methods, for example discriminant analysis, would improve the selection of predictive endpoints of the HET-CAM assay. Comparison of HET-CAM data with adverse reactions observed in different tissues of the rabbit's eye proved that complex regression models are better describing in vitro /in vivo correlations than simple linear models. Discriminant analysis revealed that among the nine endpoints routinely determined in the HET-CAM test, coagulation was the only acceptable endpoint to classify severely irritating chemicals 'R-41' according to EU regulations. To identify R-41 chemicals the reaction time of appearance of coagulation of a 10% solution was the best discriminating factor and coagulation of the undiluted chemical for the less water-soluble ones. The results suggest that only R-41 chemicals are inducing coagulation of the CAM within 50 sec, and can therefore be classified without further testing in vivo. Stepwise discriminant analysis allowed an in vitro testing strategy to be developed to identify R-41 chemicals by combining coagulation data of the HET-CAM assay with cytotoxicity data. Validity of the model for future data sets was assessed by cross-validation. The results obtained with 200 chemicals under blind conditions suggest that this approach will provide an acceptable sensitivity, predictivity and percentage of false positive data for severely eye irritating chemicals. PMID:20650127

Spielmann, H; Liebsch, M; Moldenhauer, F; Holzhutter, H G; de Silva, O

1995-08-01

97

Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Wong, C. Channy

1999-08-02

98

Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({micro}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HELLER,EDWIN J.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; WONG,CHUNGNIN C.

1999-09-16

99

The agulhas current during the late pleistocene: analysis of modern faunal analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of micropaleontologic evidence in a deep-sea core in the south-west Indian Ocean indicates that the Agulhas Current was not a dominant feature of this region during glacial intervals. Interpretation of the fossil record, based on the analysis of modern faunal analogs, indicates that during glacial intervals the Agulhas Current was not the strong, year-round current that it is today. Evidence shows that during summer months a weak tropical current was present. During winter months the current was replaced by cool, high-salinity waters. This interpretation suggests that seasonal changes in circulation may have been more pronounced in the southwest Indian Ocean during glacial intervals than today. PMID:17730815

Hutson, W H

1980-01-01

100

The Making of the Modern Subject: A Cross-Cultural Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The postmodern critique of modernity has focused on the construction of the modern subject and the self-disciplining and self-cancellation tendencies within it. This critique, however, fails to consider what happens during the early years of children's development--the period during which the modern subject is made, and the one in which the…

Zhao, Guoping

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Service activities of chemical analysis division  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The support activities of chemical analysis division for the year of 1984 are described. A sum of 2445 samples requested from the facilities and laboratories were analyzed with the methods modified and adopted in the laboratory from 1977 to 1983. A study on the separation and determination of the trace amounts of rare earth elements in nuclear materials was carried out, and various experimental conditions were established. (Author)

1985-01-01

102

Modeling of the modern houses of Cyprus and energy consumption analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses the TRNSYS computer program for the modeling and simulation of the energy flows of the modern houses of Cyprus followed by an energy consumption analysis. For the calculations, a Typical Meteorological Year for the Nicosia area and a typical model house are used. Initially, the Cyprus energy scene and an analysis of the number of houses employing heating and cooling equipment is presented from which it is observed that the number of systems installed has increased tremendously during the last decade. The results of the simulation show that the inside house temperature, when no air-conditioning is used, varies between 10-20degC for winter and between 30-50degC for summer. The effect on the temperature and the heating and cooling loads that various wall and roof constructions presents is determined. This investigation indicates the importance of the roof insulation, which results in a reduction up to 45.5% of the cooling load and up to 75% of the heating load. The effect of mechanical ventilation, window shading, as well as that of the inclined concrete roof used for aesthetic reasons, is also examined. The life cycle analysis is used for the economic analysis of the various constructions. The results indicate that the wall insulation pays back in a twenty year period with marginal savings, whereas the roof insulation has considerable economic benefit, with life cycle savings up to EUR 22374 depending on the type of construction. (Author)

Florides, G.A.; Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Nicosia (Cyprus); Tassou, S.A.; Wrobel, L.C. [Brunel Uxbridge Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

2000-10-01

103

Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

2005-01-01

104

Modernity after Modernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the key to understand both the context and the trends?

Marin Dinu

2007-08-01

105

Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

1990-01-01

106

Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

1990-06-01

107

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600/4-79-020...Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600...tissue at 85% removal of the corn oil and 85% collection...from the column. The residue content of the...

2009-07-01

108

The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This proces...

2007-01-01

109

Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parasites can be used as unique markers to investigate host evolutionary history, independent of host data. Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of magnitude (ca. 1.18 million years). One of the two louse lineages has a worldwide distribution and appears to have undergone a population bottleneck ca. 100,000 years ago along with its modern H. sapiens host. Phylogenetic and popula...

Reed, David L.; Smith, Vincent S.; Hammond, Shaless L.; Rogers, Alan R.; Clayton, Dale H.

2004-01-01

110

Earthquake Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams : Review and Modernization of Two Analysis Procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A two-stage procedure has been proposed for the elastic analysis phase of seismic design and safety evaluation of concrete gravity dams: (1) response spectrum analysis (RSA) in which the peak value of response is estimated directly from the earthquake design spectrum; and (2) response history analysis (RHA) of a finite element idealization of the dam monolith. Both analysis procedures include the effects of dam-water foundation interaction, known to be important in the earthquake response of ...

Løkke, Arnkjell

2013-01-01

111

Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org.C-Emissionen) entstehen, und den Feinstaubemissionen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass moder

Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

2012-12-15

112

Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, ??i?i=0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and ??i?i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ?i and ?i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)

2006-01-01

113

Recent advances in the instrumental techniques for the analysis of modern materials (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS a logical development of equally established sister technique of ICP-AEA discussed in part-1 of this series of article on modern analytical techniques. The rapid adaptation of argon plasma as ion source for time of flight quadrupole mass analyser has led to the development of truly integrated instrumental technique for analysis of solutions and slurries. The powerful combination with laser ablation device has made the direct analysis of geological, geochemical and other complex conducting and non conducting samples possible in days rather months at sub ppm levels. Parallel development in computer hardware and software has made the instrumental optimization easy enabling the generation of meaningful analytical data a matter of routine. The limitations imposed by spectroscopic and non restricted the variety of matrices and materials covered by ICP-MS of LA-ICP-MS. The technique has provided it formidable analytical power in wide areas of industrial environmental, social, biological and break through advanced materials used in space mass communication, transportation and general areas of advanced analytical chemistry. It is expected that in combination with other instrumental methods as HPLC, ETC, ion chromatography. ICP-MS shall continue to dominate well into the 21st century. (author)

1990-01-01

114

DYNAMICS OF THE IMPERIOUS RELATIONS IN MODERN SOCIETY: A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????: ??????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of dynamics of development of power mechanisms in the modern world. Globalization and modern means of communication changed the power structure and its methods. Power is hidden under the imaginary freedom. Totalitarian trends are hidden under the freedom of choice. However, new types of relations are developing, beyond the boundaries of hierarchical relationships

Vasiljeva A. S.

2013-06-01

115

Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

Jeyaraj, Joseph

2009-01-01

116

Analysis on the Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Modern Physical Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the artificial intelligence and modern technology of physical education have researched and discussed which in order to provide the ideal theoretical basis for the modern technology of physical construction and development. As we all know, artificial intelligence belongs to a strong frontier disciplines which is developing but also one of the main direction of the computer and its related technologies interdisciplinary research, influencing the entire teaching progress. Artificial intelligence has many advantages in the application of teaching technology. At first, this study expounds the concept and category of artificial intelligence and then in-depth discuss and analyze the artificial intelligence application in the modern physical education technology vision and potential development, at the same time, it described the artificial intelligence encountered in modern sports educational technology applications problems and put forward the main strategy of artificial intelligence in the modern sports educational technology applications.

Yipai Jiang

2014-01-01

117

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a temperature of 350-400 degrees up to 85 percent of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Presence of oxygen at relations of I-circumflex2 / RH 0.5 accelerates purification process up to 20 percent. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective technology applied for purification of polluted water

2006-11-01

118

Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electro plasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide ?-installations have following advantages:· for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment);· high penetrability of ?-radiation;· low dose rate ?10Gy/s. These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: · to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits,it is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron- beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: ·to decrease concentration to harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; ·to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; ·to produce purification without using of additional ingredients; The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are: · simultaneous on all water parameters; · absence of consumed materials; · multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; · affection of microorganisms of all types; · flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rate.In present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose 2-3 kGy at a temperature of 350-400C up to 85% of heptanes is decomposed in gas hydrocarbons. Thus, as seen from literature review on purification technology of polluted water, radiation-chemical purification is one of perspective applied for purification of polluted water

2006-11-01

119

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization

1998-01-01

120

Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Modern methods of analysis for the post-investigation of sodium-corroded materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following methods are used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the surface zones of Na-exposed materials: The concentration course of various alloy elements in the diffusion zones starting at a depth of about 0.3 ?m is spectroanalytically determined using a luminous discharge lamp. To investigate the composition of the above ?m layers, Anger electron spectroscopy profile analysis is used and to determine the metal and non-metal compounds present in this surface zone, secondary ion mass spectrometry is applied. These methods are briefly described and the results given. (GSC)

1976-01-01

122

SALI chemical analysis of provided samples  

Science.gov (United States)

SRI has completed the chemical analysis of all the samples supplied by NASA. The final batch of four samples consisted of: one inch diameter MgF2 mirror, control 1200-ID-FL3; one inch diameter neat resin, PMR-15, AO171-IV-55, half exposed and half unexposed; one inch diameter chromic acid anodized, EOIM-3 120-47 aluminum disc; and AO-exposed and unexposed samples of fullerene extract material in powdered form, pressed into In foil for analysis. Chemical analyses of the surfaces were performed by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The analyses emphasize surface contamination or general organic composition. SALI uses nonselective photoionization of sputtered or desorbed atoms and molecules above but close (approximately one mm) to the surface, followed by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. In these studies, we used laser-induced desorption by 5-ns pulse-width 355-nm light (10-100 mJ/sq cm) and single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118-nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/sq cm). SPI was chosen primarily for its ability to obtain molecular information, whereas multiphoton ionization (not used in the present studies) is intended primarily for elemental and small molecule information. In addition to these four samples, the Au mirror (EOIM-3 200-11, sample four) was depth profiled again. Argon ion sputtering was used together with photoionization with intense 355-nm radiation (35-ps pulsewidths). Depth profiles are similar to those reported earlier, showing reproducibility. No chromium was found in the sample above noise level; its presence could at most be at the trace level. Somewhat more Ni appears to be present in the Au layer in the unexposed side, indicating thermal diffusion without chemical enhancement. The result of the presence of oxygen is apparently to tie-up/draw out the Ni as an oxide at the surface. The exposed region has a brownish tint appearance to the naked eye.

Becker, Christopher H.

1993-01-01

123

Logistics Modernization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modernization of a logistics system is discussed. New equipments and techniques which improve the effectiveness and efficiency of our logistics operations are described. Several features of modern weapon systems which have an important impact on the struc...

C. J. Zwick

1964-01-01

124

Energy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book consists of the following chapters: The exergy concept and exergy losses; Calculation of exergy; Physical and chemical exergy of typical substances; Exergy analysis of typical thermal and chemical processes; Cumulative exergy consumption and cumulative degree of perfection; Reduction of external exergy losses; Exergy analysis of major thermal and chemical processes; Thermoeconomic applications of exergy; and Ecological applications of exergy.

Szargut, J.; Morris, D.R.; Steward, F.R.

1988-01-01

125

Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics. ku. dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, whic...

2014-01-01

126

Analysis of software re-engineering methods for modernization of information system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis covers re-engineering methods of legacy systems. Legacy system is an old system, which is hardly compliant with modern technologies and used only because it has become an integral part of organization business process support during the long period of its maintenance. These systems are large, monolithic and difficult to modify, and cost and risk of their replacement are difficult to predict. The science of software engineering offers an incremental modernization of informat...

2004-01-01

127

Advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese, is a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine. In 2006, we wrote a review for discussing the markers and analytical methods in quality control of Cordyceps (J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 41 (2006) 1571-1584). Since then this review has been cited by others for more than 60 times, which suggested that scientists have great interest in this special herbal material. Actually, the number of publications related to Cordyceps after 2006 is about 2-fold of that in two decades before 2006 according to the data from Web of Science. Therefore, it is necessary to review and discuss the advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps since then. PMID:23688494

Zhao, J; Xie, J; Wang, L Y; Li, S P

2014-01-01

128

Collection and chemical analysis of lichens for biomonitoring. Book chapter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis that are required for a successful biomonitoring program using chemical analysis are emphasized. The advantages and disadvantages of common analytical methods suitable for chemical analysis of lichens are briefly discussed. Aspects of a quality assurance program and final contract reports are highlighted. In addition, some examples of studies using chemical analysis of lichens are discussed.

Jackson, L.L.; Ford, J.; Schwartzman, D.

1991-01-01

129

PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters was invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 23) at Adelaide, South Australia. The prize was awarded to Pierre Burdet of the EM Group of the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy of the University of Cambridge (UK), for the poster entitled: ''3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: advantages of a low take-off angle''. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 8 of the invited plenary lectures and of 13 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2014 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Fernanda Guimarães and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The Workshop also included a commercial exhibition where many leading instrument suppliers were represented. Several companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop. - Ametek GmbH, Edax Business Unit- IZASA Group Werfen - Bruker Nano GmbH- Jeol (Europe) SAS - Cameca SA- Porto Gran Cruz - Câmara Municipal do Porto- Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd. - European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)- Probe Software, Inc. - FEI Company- Tescan, a.s. Michael B Matthews EMAS President

Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

2014-03-01

130

PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral presentation of their work in three dedicated sessions. The prize for the best poster was an invitation to participate in the 22nd Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM 22) at Perth, Western Australia. The prize was awarded to G Samardzija of the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, for the poster entitled: 'EPMA-WDS quantitative compositional analysis of barium titanate ceramics doped with cerium'. This proceedings volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 23 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2012 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to François Brisset and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. The technical exhibition, which occupied 130 sq.m of floor space, was outstanding. It was very encouraging to see new instruments on display, including a FEG electron microprobe as a first worldwide presentation. Moreover, almost all the companies that exhibited provided financial support, either by sponsoring an event or by advertising. Below, in alphabetical order, is a list of exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH, Edax Business UnitGN-MEBA Bruker Nano GmbHJeol (Europe) SAS CamecaL'Oréal, Direction Générale Recherche et Innovation Carl Zeiss NTSNanoMEGAS sprl Commissariat à l'Energie AtomiqueOxford Instruments SAS European Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)Probe Software, Inc. ElexienceSAMx FEI CompanyTarget-Messtechnik Fondis Electronic SAThermo Fisher Scientific Gatan (France) Clive T. Walker EMAS President

Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

2012-03-01

131

AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ROMANIAN RETAIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the millennium, Romanian trade is in an intermediate stage of a complex process of development, marked by efforts and attempts to modernize the forms of commerce. After 1995 and until now, Romanian retail market has experienced a steady increase due to the entry of international modern retail chains and to changes in the Romanian consumers’ behaviour. Currently, Romanian retail has great development potential, being in a phase of accelerated growth. In this stage, features of modern trade forms are established, competition increases, modern retail networks are reinforced and there are still attractive implantation locations that promise attractive profit margins. Based on the premise that there is a wide range of factors that shape modern retail, this paper analyses the impact of macroeconomic variables on the development of Romanian retail market. The research methodology was based on multifactorial regression and statistical correlation. Study results showed that Romanian retail is influenced by gross domestic product, average monthly net salary, exchange rate of the national currency against the euro, and inflation rate.

Mihaela, ASANDEI

2014-03-01

132

Chemical fingerprinting and chemical analysis of galactic halo substructure  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now known that the halo of the Milky Way was formed from the accretion of dwarf galaxies, which have left behind long-lived, dynamical halo substructure. One can investigate these substructures through "Galactic archaeology" to learn the nature of these accreted subhalo fragments. In particular, the chemistry of halo substructure allows us to glean insights into the metallicities and star formation histories of the absorbed progenitors, and to identify distinct Galactic stellar populations with specific accreted bodies. In this thesis we present an investigation of the chemical abundance patterns of halo substructures using high-resolution spectroscopic measurements. In particular, we study the abundances of the alpha-like element titanium (Ti) and the s-process elements yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) for M giant candidates of (a) the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) + tidal tail system, (b) the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS), also known as the Monoceros Ring, and (c) the Triangulum- Andromeda (TriAnd) Star Cloud. Targets are pre-selected to be likely members of each of these systems on the basis of both three-dimensional position and radial velocity. As expected, the majority of the Sgr stars show peculiar abundance patterns compared to those of nominal Milky Way stars, but as a group the stars form a coherent picture of chemical enrichment of the Sgr dSph from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to solar abundance. The overall [Ti/Fe], [Y/Fe], [La/Fe] and [La/Y] patterns with [Fe/H] of the Sgr stream plus Sgr core do, for the most part, resemble those seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and other current Milky Way satellites, only shifted by Delta[Fe/H]˜+0.4 from the LMC and by ˜+1 dex from Milky Way dSph satellites; these relative shifts reflect the faster and/or more efficient chemical evolution of Sgr compared to the other satellites, and show that Sgr has had an enrichment history more like the LMC than the dSph satellites. By tracking the evolution of the abundance patterns along the Sgr stream we can follow the time variation of the chemical make-up of dSph stars donated to the Galactic halo by Sgr. This evolution demonstrates that while the bulk of the stars currently in the Sgr dSph are quite unlike those of the Galactic halo, an increasing number of stars farther along the Sgr stream have abundances like Milky Way halo stars, a trend that shows clearly how the Galactic halo could have been contributed by present day satellite galaxies even if the present chemistry of those satellites is now different from typical halo field stars. We also analyze the chemical abundances of a moving group of M giants among the Sgr leading arm stars at the North Galactic Cap, but having radial velocities unlike the infalling Sgr leading arm debris there. Through use of "chemical fingerprinting", we conclude that these mostly receding northern hemisphere M giants also are Sgr stars, likely trailing arm debris overlapping the Sgr leading arm in the north. We also apply "chemical fingerprinting" to the GASS/Monoceros Ring and TriAnd Star Cloud, to explore the origins of the two systems and the hypothesized connections between them. GASS has been debated either to originate from the Galactic accretion of a satellite creating a tidal stream, or as a part of the disk, dynamically induced through warping or resonances, etc. Our exploration shows that GASS is indeed made of stars from a dSph, and that it is distinct in chemistry from outer disk stars. And whereas the TriAnd Star Cloud has been assumed to come from the tidal disruption of the same accreted Milky Way satellite as the GASS/Monoceros Ring, our comparison of the abundance patterns in Monoceros and TriAnd M giants suggests that the TriAnd Star Cloud is likely an independent halo substructure unrelated to Monoceros.

Chou, Mei-Yin

133

Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of ?-hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

Zlati?anin Biljana V.

2002-01-01

134

9. Nuclear chemical analysis in pharmaceutical research and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear methods are described of chemical analysis, such as the isotope dilution analysis, radioimmunoassay, radiometric titrations, radio-release technique, activation analysis, radiation absorption analysis, radiation scattering analysis, radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The applications of the methods in pharmacy and the principles of experimental techniques are discussed. (Ha)

1981-01-01

135

COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

136

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

137

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political) risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses s...

Gusak Andrey S.; Kabanov Anatoliy I.

2013-01-01

138

Big Data Analysis Using Modern Statistical and Machine Learning Methods in Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease.

Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-01-01

139

Big data analysis using modern statistical and machine learning methods in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger and more complicated. Thus, in medicine, we also need to be aware of this trend and understand the statistical tools that are available to analyze these datasets. Many statistical analyses that are aimed to analyze such big datasets have been introduced recently. However, given many different types of clinical, genomic, and environmental data, it is rather uncommon to see statistical methods that combine knowledge resulting from those different data types. To this extent, we will introduce big data in terms of clinical data, single nucleotide polymorphism and gene expression studies and their interactions with environment. In this article, we will introduce the concept of well-known regression analyses such as linear and logistic regressions that has been widely used in clinical data analyses and modern statistical models such as Bayesian networks that has been introduced to analyze more complicated data. Also we will discuss how to represent the interaction among clinical, genomic, and environmental data in using modern statistical models. We conclude this article with a promising modern statistical method called Bayesian networks that is suitable in analyzing big data sets that consists with different type of large data from clinical, genomic, and environmental data. Such statistical model form big data will provide us with more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and disease. PMID:24987556

Yoo, Changwon; Ramirez, Luis; Liuzzi, Juan

2014-06-01

140

DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hominins with morphology similar to present-day humans appear in the fossil record across Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 y ago. The genetic relationships between these early modern humans and present-day human populations have not been established. We have extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China. Using a highly scalable hybridization enrichment strategy, we determined the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genome, the entire nonrepetitive portion of chromosome 21 (?30 Mbp), and over 3,000 polymorphic sites across the nuclear genome of this individual. The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans. They also show that this individual carried proportions of DNA variants derived from archaic humans similar to present-day people in mainland Asia. PMID:23341637

Fu, Qiaomei; Meyer, Matthias; Gao, Xing; Stenzel, Udo; Burbano, Hernán A; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record.

Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

2014-01-01

142

XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 3. Actual problems of chemical industry, estimation of technical risks. Physicochemical basis of rational use of natural and technogenic resources. Chemical aspects of modern energetics. Petrochemistry, petroleum processing and catalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports, lectures and stand information on achievements and prospects of chemical science in such areas as chemical industry, physicochemical basis of rational use of natural and technogenic raw materials, chemical aspects of modern energetics, petrochemistry, petroleum processing and catalysis

2007-09-23

143

Component analysis of MTDQ, a chemical radiosensitizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of the main components of the chemical radiosensitizer MTDQ, a mixture obtained by reacting 2,2,4-trimethyl-2,3-dihydroquinoline with formaldehyde was elucidated with the aid of the NMR and mass spectroscopy. (author)

1982-01-01

144

Analysis and Synthesis. Interdependent Operations in Chemical Language and Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical symbolism provides the linguistic representations for experimental research. It is based on an empirical set of formal (syntactic rules that allows operations on formulas and reaction equations. The semantic interpretation of formulas and reaction equations links these operations to experimental analysis and synthesis. These syntactic and semantic aspects of chemical symbolism guide as well as limit chemical research. A better understanding of these aspects of chemical language allows chemists to rationalize novel approaches to chemical research (e.g. combinatorial chemistry and possibly exploit the vast area of 'surprise discoveries'.

Claus Jacob

2001-03-01

145

Radiochemical neutron activation analysis: Status in chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining numerous trace elements in a large variety of samples. The main advantages of NAA are (a) multielement character, (b) low level of determination for a sizeable number of elements, (c) virtual freedom of a blank, (d) generally good selectivity, and (e) absence of interferences due to differences in physical or chemical state. In addition to instrumental NAA, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) is often employed for improvement of the determination limit, accuracy, and/or precision. Radiochemical separations may be performed in various degrees of radiochemical purity, depending of the problem at hand. Since germanium detectors with large active volumes have become available as well as germanium well-type detectors with high geometric efficiency, a noticeable development has progressed in the direction of a combination of minimal post-irradiation chemical efforts with the potentials of germanium gamma spectrometry and computerized data handling, at least in cases in which no ultimate sensitivity is required. Automation has been frequently advocated as an attractive way to solve problems of lengthy and complex radiochemical procedures. In general, it can be said that, whereas instrumental NAA has a strong point in respect to costs and multielement character, RNAA scores high in analytical quality as the main feature. Areas where RNAA remains to play a role in the foreseeable future discussed.

de Goeij, J.J.M.

1988-01-01

146

Nostradamus Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems  

CERN Document Server

This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio

2013-01-01

147

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

148

Theory, Image Simulation, and Data Analysis of Chemical Release Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The final phase of Grant NAG6-1 involved analysis of physics of chemical releases in the upper atmosphere and analysis of data obtained on previous NASA sponsored chemical release rocket experiments. Several lines of investigation of past chemical release experiments and computer simulations have been proceeding in parallel. This report summarizes the work performed and the resulting publications. The following topics are addressed: analysis of the 1987 Greenland rocket experiments; calculation of emission rates for barium, strontium, and calcium; the CRIT 1 and 2 experiments (Collisional Ionization Cross Section experiments); image calibration using background stars; rapid ray motions in ionospheric plasma clouds; and the NOONCUSP rocket experiments.

Wescott, Eugene M.

1994-01-01

149

Chemical and sensory analysis of argan oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure argan oil quality, a combination of physico-chemical and sensory methods is necessary. Utility and importance of these methods in the Moroccan norm for argan oil are presented. Our demonstration is based on four types of argan oil 1 edible argan oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels, 2 beauty oil that is prepared from mechanically pressed non-roasted kernels, 3 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing and 4 artisanally prepared argan oil extracted by manual pressing of goat-digested kernels. Fresh, each kind if oil was classified as « extra virgin » according to the moroccan norm (NM 08.05.090. However, only edible argan oil prepared from mechanically pressed roasted kernels displayed the best physico-chemical and sensorial profile.

Said GHARBY

2011-01-01

150

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

1983-01-01

151

Influence of sanding in spectrometric chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyse the influence of sample preparation in X-ray fluorescence and optical emission spectrometry. Carbon steel, low alloy steel, stainless steel and manganese steel samples, prepared using circular sanding with 40, 60, 150 and 400 granulometry, were studied. This work concludes that depending upon the analytical technique and for certain chemical elements, sanding influence exists and some elements remain without definite trend, and other elements becoming independent of sanding granulometry

1993-10-04

152

Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

1982-11-12

153

Multiphase chemical analysis of terpene oxidation products  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technique was developed for multiphase monitoring of organic species in the gasphase and on aerosols with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) as the detector. An advantage of the soft ionization technique of the PTRMS, is that it is possible to see the ozonolysis products with little fragmentation. When fragmentation does occur, it is limited to the loss of water from a hydroxyl or carboxyl group, thus facilitating identification. This new system gives detailed information on the chemical composition of organic aerosols, and allows the chemical evolution of condensed organics to be monitored. With this new system it is possible to identify specific chemical compounds in both gas and aerosol phases, instead of the "total organics" which have been reported previously. A series of reactions of ozone with terpenes, beta-caryophyllene and isoprene were preformed in a smog chamber. The secondary organic aerosol and VOCs in the gas phase were measured. Due to the high aerosol concentrations in the smog chamber experiments, air samples could be collected at high time resolution, and it is possible to observe the aging of the aerosol and the gas phase.

Herrmann, F.; Williams, J.; Röckmann, T.; Winterhalter, R.; Holzinger, R.

2009-04-01

154

Exergy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This important new text demonstrates exergy applications in ecology, economics, and industry. In fact, it constitutes the very first presentation of the vast possibilities of important ecological applications of exergy analysis. The book provides an original and precise formulation of the chemical exergy calculation problem, and features tables of standard chemical exergy of many elements and chemical compounds. Other material covers general balance, steady and non-steady states, and both movable and immovable systems. This volume also includes an original method of calculating the chemical exergy of technical fuels, illustrative examples of exergy balances based on measurements of real industrial installations, cumulative exergy consumption and cumulative exergetic efficiency.

Szargut, J.; Morris, D.R.; Steward, F.R.

1987-01-01

155

Microstructures for Chemical Analysis : Design, Fabrication and Characterisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interest for miniaturisation in chemical and biological analysis has increased in recent years. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterisation of tools for microanalysis have been studied. The focus is set on polymer microchips for applications in chemical analysis. The work consists of three parts: design and fabrication of paraffin microactuators, design and fabrication of polymer microchips as interfaces in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and characteris...

Svedberg, Malin

2005-01-01

156

Analysis of chemical bonding and aromaticity from electronic delocalization descriptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between electrons determine the structure and properties of matter from molecules to solids. Therefore, the understanding of the electronic structure of molecules will enable us to extract relevant chemical information. In the first part of this thesis, we focus our attention on the analysis of chemical bonding by means of the Electron Localization Function (ELF) and the Domain-Averaged Fermi Hole analysis (DAFH). In the second part, we assess the performance of some indicators o...

Feixas Gerone?s, Ferran

2011-01-01

157

Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We u [...] sed a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus's environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

TL, Campbell; PJ, Lewis; JK, Williams.

158

Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

2007-01-01

159

Error analysis of chemically synthesized polynucleotides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two single-stranded polynucleotide constructs, 123 and 126 nucleotides in length, were chemically synthesized using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Clonable, double-stranded DNA fragments about 100-bp long were prepared from the polynucleotides by primer extension with a DNA polymerase and end-trimming with two restriction endonucleases, then the fragments were ligated into separate plasmids. Errors in individual insert copies were determined by dideoxy sequencing after in vivo amplification of plasmids. Five of the ten inserts sequenced contained errors, including seven single-base-pair deletions, one four-base-pair deletion and one G-->C transversion. The origins of the latter two errors are unclear, but single-base deletions are inconsistent with errors of polymerases; thus, the most common sequence errors of chemical synthesis are deletion mutations. Deletions are most likely to result from incomplete capping or de-tritylation. The observed error rate can became a significant limiting factor in applications that depend on the correctness of a polynucleotide sequence in individual insert clones. PMID:9494726

Hecker, K H; Rill, R L

1998-02-01

160

Modern maths  

CERN Multimedia

Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

Thom,R

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Medium-term analysis of modern ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in THA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of different bearing surfaces have been used to avoid osteolysis following hip replacement. We report a retrospective review of medium-term results of a modern ceramic-ceramic bearing (Biolox, CeramTec, Plochingen, Germany) and uncemented components (Alpha Cera Fit Alphanorm, Lassnitzhohe, Austria) in 107 hip arthroplasties. The clinical outcome based on serial radiographs and scoring was assessed with a minimum follow-up of 7 years (mean, 7, 6 years; range, 7, 1-8, 3 years). The average age of the patients at surgery was 64, 6 + 11, 7 years (range: 21-88 years). The mean Harris hip score was 90, 4 (range, 84, 7-99, 2). Three patients with an extra long femoral neck experienced fracture of the ceramic femoral head, resulting in cessation of use of this combination. Radiological evaluation did not reveal any signs of lysis or loosening. Massive heterotopic ossification was seen in three patients. Medium-term follow-up showed excellent clinical and radiological results. Continued follow-up will be required to determine if this ceramic-on-ceramic bearing is associated with extended survivorship. PMID:19455500

Aldrian, Silke; Nau, Thomas; Gillesberger, Felix; Petras, Nina; Ehall, Reinhard

2009-01-01

162

Analysis of Fragility of Chinese Stock Exchanges and Its Causes in Modern Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operation of Chinese stock exchanges was generally unstable and those stock exchanges were short-lived in modern. The short business life of Chinese Stock Exchange was mainly due to its shaky foundation, lack of a self-regulatory mechanism, high moral hazard, un-economy of the scale and the scope, fragility of stock exchanges increased by security futures speculation, the speculation and vulnerability of Chinese stock exchanges exacerbated by the mixed management of financial industries, the lack of Government's supervision of Chinese stock exchanges, Chinese stock exchanges degenerating into policy-oriented market. Now China has become the world's second largest economy, further development of Chinese economy need to steadily promote the development of internationalization of Chinese stock exchanges. And the development of internationalization of stock exchanges will also increase the risk of stock market in China, therefore the supervision of stock exchanges should be strengthened. Restructuring of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges can be taken to strengthen their self-regulatory functions and oversight of brokers, reduce or avoid the Government's administrative intervention on stock exchanges, weaken the policies influence on stock exchange.

Jianhua sun

2013-12-01

163

Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

2014-01-01

164

Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

Heercules, David M.

2004-01-01

165

Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

1984-10-02

166

Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (?75 ?L of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

2009-12-10

167

Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

2008-01-01

168

Physico-chemical soil analysis of Rudovci region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser diffraction and pipette methods were carried out for comparative grain-size analysis of soil samples representing a similar texture classification sampled. A detail physical-chemical analysis of soils, which involves use of XRF, XRD and SEM analysis were done. XRF and XRD analysis were done on the fractions separated by pipette method. On the obtained fraction particle size distribution and SEM analysis were done. The obtained results of these different methods are in good agreement and for detailed soil analysis comparison of both methods are recommended.

Smilja MARKOVI?

2013-09-01

169

Sorption preconcentration of microcomponents for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on the methodology of sorption preconcentration are surveyed and the key concepts and quantitative parameters are given. The approaches to the preconcentration are considered, and various sorbents are characterised. Examples of using cellulose, styrene-divinylbenzene sorbents with grafted complexing groups, polyurethane foams and non-covalently modified silica gels, including those prepared by the sol-gel strategy, for preconcentration of inorganic and organic substances and development of combined and hybrid methods of analysis are given.

Zolotov, Yurii A; Tsysin, Grigory I; Morosanova, Elena I; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-01-31

170

Chemical analysis of rare earth elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

1994-07-01

171

AN ANALYSIS OF THE NEW TRACTORS DISTRIBUTION LOGISTICS IN THE ASPECT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMMES FOR SUPPORTING AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION  

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Full Text Available The present article contains an analysis of issues concerning logistics of agricultural tractors distribution. Programmes and the level of utilization of means from Structural Funds of the European Union for modernization of equipment of agricultural farms in Poland have been presented. Structure of agricultural tractors market in Poland and the issues on domestic selective distribution of leading producers of agricultural tractors have been characterized. The achieved results of research on the sales level of agricultural tractors have been presented. The research has been carried out at the Trade Department of the authorized distributor of tractors and agricultural machines. The research cycle covered the years 2003-2010. The research results have been statistically prepared using the R programme for Windows (version 2.14.1 and defining trend, random fluctuations and seasonal fluctuations. The time schedules of sales were analysed in the aspect of subsidizing purchases from the Structural Funds of the European Union and the agritechnical procedures calendar.

S?awomir JU?CI?SKI

2012-12-01

172

Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

Aptekar Saveliy S.

2013-03-01

173

Comparative analysis of modern multilingual online dictionaries, evidence from Multitran and ABBYY Lingvo Online dictionaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the main characteristics of Multitran and ABBYY Lingvo Online multilingual online dictionaries, comparative analysis of the said dictionaries is undertaken, and the conclusions concerning their applicability are drawn.

Maxim Marus

2014-01-01

174

Outlines of risk analysis systematics for chemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a practical, systematic approach to risk analysis, which has been applied successfully to cases in the fine chemicals industry. The knowledge of the behaviour of the raw-materials, reaction masses and technical elements is of utmost importance for such an analysis. The present methods utilized to pin point weak spots and systems errors are described. A meaningful risk analysis calls for the participation of specialists out of various disciplines.

Huber, J.; Brueschweiler, C.

1981-01-01

175

THE ROLE AND THE LIMITS OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN MODERN ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of Romania’s priorities for the fulfillment of the objectives generated by its accession to theEuropean Union is to improve its business environment. As part of this objective we have presentedthe essential role of the economic and financial analysis that provides the necessary information fordecision-making process. For the purpose of making an objective analysis, at the end of the paper wehave also presented some of the limits of this resourceful and available instrument.

Ema MASCA

2005-01-01

176

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation.

Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granite and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation.

Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed the observed element distribution can only be explained by recrystallization of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. Perhaps the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enri

G. Brügmann

2011-05-01

177

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 1: Major and minor element variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations – are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ?1%. Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2?0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300% across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O ratio (?1.11 than those from the Neogene fossils of Lake Albert (MgO/Na2O?0.4, which was a large fresh water lake like those in the western Branch of the East African Rift System today. Similarly, the MgO/Na2O ratio in modern enamel from the White Nile River (?0.36, which has a Precambrian catchment of dominantly granites and gneisses and passes through several saline zones, is higher than that from the Blue Nile River, whose catchment is the Neogene volcanic Ethiopian Highland (MgO/Na2O?0.22. Thus, particularly MgO/Na2O might be a sensitive fingerprint for environments where river and lake water have suffered strong evaporation. Enamel formation in mammals takes place at successive mineralization fronts within a confined chamber where ion and molecule transport is controlled by the surrounding enamel organ. During the secretion and maturation phases the epithelium generates different fluid composition, which in principle, should determine the final composition of enamel apatite. This is supported by co-linear relationships between MgO, Cl and Na2O which can be interpreted as binary mixing lines. However, if maturation starts after secretion is completed, the observed element distribution can only be explained by equilibration of existing and addition of new apatite during maturation. It appears the initial enamel crystallites precipitating during secretion and the newly formed bioapatite crystals during maturation equilibrate with a continuously evolving fluid. During crystallization of bioapatite the enamel fluid becomes continuously depleted in MgO and Na2O, but enriched in Cl which results in the formation of MgO, and N

G. Brügmann

2012-01-01

178

Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

2005-09-23

179

Statistics and mathematical modelling; A major recent modern tool in biotechnology and bioinformatics data analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistics and Mathematical models can be in many forms, including differentialequations, or theoretic models. Lack of correlation between theoreticalmathematical models and experimental measurements sometime leads todevelopment of better theories in the area of biology. The mathematical designfinds wide application in nutrient media optimization for microbial enzymeproduction. On the other hand these mathematical tools in the field of statisticsplay an important role with data analysis of proteomics and genomics studies. Forthe MS/MS spectroscopic data, micro array, RT-PCR data analysis, linkage study,gene-gene interaction studies are very difficult to interpret, but the statistical toolsmade it very easier from the conventional method of data analysis in bothBiotechnology and Bioinformatics.

Suneetha V.

2013-01-01

180

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1. Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl"- on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl"- and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

1981-01-01

182

Determination of Myoglobin Stability by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Classic and Modern Data Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Few laboratory procedures describe the use of circular dichroism (CD) at the undergraduate level. To increase the number of laboratory exercises using CD, a thermal denaturation study of myoglobin using CD is described to assess protein stability. Values obtained from a more classic linear data analysis approach are consistent with data analyzed…

Mehl, Andrew F.; Crawford, Mary A.; Zhang, Lei

2009-01-01

183

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

CERN Multimedia

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the north-western Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 deg S, 66 deg W) with an age of 30,000 14C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The simila...

Marwan, N; Vuille, M; Kurths, J; Belsky, Andrei; Esnouf, St\\'{e}phane; Garnov, Serguei V.; Geoffroy, Ghita; Guizard, St\\'{e}phane; Klimentov, Serguei M.; Martin, Patrick; Olevano, Valerio; Petite, Guillaume; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; ccsd-00004091, ccsd

2003-01-01

184

Comparing modern and Pleistocene ENSO-like influences in NW Argentina using nonlinear time series analysis methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Higher variability in rainfall and river discharge could be of major importance in landslide generation in the northwestern Argentine Andes. Annual layered (varved) deposits of a landslide dammed lake in the Santa Maria Basin (26 S, 66 W) with an age of 30,000 {sup 14}C years provide an archive of precipitation variability during this time. The comparison of these data with present-day rainfall observations tests the hypothesis that increased rainfall variability played a major role in landslide generation. A potential cause of such variability is the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The causal link between ENSO and local rainfall is quantified by using a new method of nonlinear data analysis, the quantitative analysis of cross recurrence plots (CRP). This method seeks similarities in the dynamics of two different processes, such as an ocean-atmosphere oscillation and local rainfall. Our analysis reveals significant similarities in the statistics of both modern and palaeo-precipitation data. The similarities in the data suggest that an ENSO-like influence on local rainfall was present at around 30,000 {sup 14}C years ago. Increased rainfall, which was inferred from a lake balance modeling in a previous study, together with ENSO-like cyclicities could help to explain the clustering of landslides at around 30,000 {sup 14}C years ago. (orig.)

Marwan, N.; Kurths, J. [Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, Potsdam 14415 (Germany); Trauth, M.H. [Institute of of Earth Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam 14415 (Germany); Vuille, M. [Climate System Research Center, Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)

2003-09-01

185

The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as we...

Asa Auta; Banwat, Samuel B.

2011-01-01

186

Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

2013-06-01

187

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calcula...

2011-01-01

188

An analysis of cost improvement in chemical process technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost improvement -- sometimes called the learning curve or progress curve -- plays a crucial role in the competitiveness of the US chemical industry. More rapid cost improvement for a product results in expanding market share and larger profits. Expectations of rapid cost improvement motivate companies to invest heavily in the development and introduction of new chemical products and processes, even if production from the first pioneer facility is economically marginal. The slope of the learning curve can also indicate whether government support of new chemical processes such as synthetic fuels can be expected to have large social benefits or to simply represent a net loss to the public treasury. Despite the importance of the slope of the learning curve in the chemical process industries (CPI), little analytical investigation has been made into the factors that accelerate or retard cost improvement. This study develops such a model for the CPI. Using information from ten in-depth case studies and a database consisting of year-by-year market histories of 44 chemical products, including organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, synthetic fibers, and primary metals, the analysis explores the relationships among the rate of learning and characteristics of the technologies, the nature of markets, and management approaches. 78 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

Merrow, E.W.

1989-05-01

189

Measurements and their uncertainties a practical guide to modern error analysis  

CERN Document Server

This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....

Hughes, Ifan G

2010-01-01

190

Immigration in prime time spanish television. Pathways towards inferring modern racism from content analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the analysis of the image of immigration in television fiction based on both Cultivation Theory and previous studies about the representation of ethnic and immigrant minorities in television fiction (Greenberg, Mastro & Brand, 2002). Empirical probe has contrasted that the media exercise a meaningful effect in perceiving one's social world. On the field of television and through Cultivation Theory, George Gerbner and his collaborators have laid the foundations for a line o...

Igartua, Juan-jose?; Barrios, Isabel; Ortega, Felix; Camarero, Emma

2013-01-01

191

Difference and equality: A critical theorist analysis of post-modern philosophy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following paper is a critical theorist analysis of post-structuralist philosophy. It examines the omission of an economic critique in post-structuralism and describes this omission as the result of a particular flaw in Nietzsche's epistemological work, an error which has persisted all the way down through deconstruction, post-colonialism, and cultural studies. The paper seeks to reintroduce an economic critique of capitalism back into the social critique of post-structuralism, with the pr...

Wettlaufer, Matthew Francis

2007-01-01

192

Advances of Modern Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods in Separation and Analysis of Flavonoids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flavonoids, one of the largest groups of secondary metabolites, are widespread in vegetable crops such as herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds and derived foods such as juices, wines, oils, etc. They receive considerable attention due to their biological and physiological importance. Hundreds of publications on the analysis of flavonoids have appeared over the past decade. Traditional and more advanced techniques have come to prominence for sample preparation, separation, detection, and i...

E-Hu Liu; Lian-Wen Qi; Jun Cao; Ping Li; Chang-Yin Li; Yong-Bo Peng

2008-01-01

193

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-03-07

194

Modern Cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and velocity biases, dark-matter halos of galaxies, etc. In short, the book has substantial content of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models as well as from the basics to development. I would recommend this book to those who are working on and interested in this subject. (book review; Ian D. Lawry ISBN: 0-7503-0604-1)

2002-06-21

195

Microfabricated devices for performing chemical and biochemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing interest in microfabricated devices that perform chemical and biochemical analysis. The general goal is to use microfabrication tools to construct miniature devices that can perform a complete analysis starting with an unprocessed sample. Such devices have been referred to as lab-on-a-chip devices. Initial efforts on microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip devices focused on chemical separations. There are many potential applications of these fluidic microchip devices. Some applications such as chemical process control or environmental monitoring would require that a chip be used over an extended period of time or for many analyses. Other applications such as forensics, clinical diagnostics, and genetic diagnostics would employ the chip devices as single use disposable devices.

Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.; Foote, R.S.

1997-05-01

196

Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two or...

Bru?gmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

2012-01-01

197

Testing Methods and Analysis of the Main Electrical Properties of Modernized Locomotives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Laboratory of Traction and Rolling Stock systematic research into the methods of testing a traction drive, using the real models has been conducted. The aim of this research was to completely define all elements of the system for testing the main electrical and mechanical properties which include the selection of measuring transducers, the selection and implementation of the system for conditioning and transmitting signals to processing methods and analysis by using application software. This kind of approach has made it possible for a target test of an electric locomotive on the field to be performed in a reliable manner and without failure.

Dragutin Kosti?

2011-06-01

198

Chemical analysis of UF4 obtained in a wet process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical analysis of hydrated uranium tetrafluoride is described. This product was obtained in a wet process. Several methods were taken into account and applied to this product. In the case of uranium the following techniques were employed: isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, volumetric measurements, spectrophotometry, Volkov's method, natural radioactivity measurements using the 185 keV 235U peak and neutron activation analysis. In the case of fluoride determination, four methods gave good results. An explanation is given for a discrepancy appearing in one case. Free water in the product was determined in the classical way at 105 deg C, with the Karl Fischer reagent and by thermogravimetric analysis. Hydration water was also estimated from thermogravimetric determinations in nitrogen to avoid product oxidation. Thus the formula UF42x2H2O was found. Other impurities were determined by emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, neutron activation and chemical analysis. (author)

1979-01-01

199

Investigation of meteorite chemical composition by activation analysis with microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons from a microtron for determining the chemical composition of stone and iron meteorites was investigated. Nearly 20 elements have been determined mostly by instrumental photon activation analysis, but instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis has been also applied for determining several elements in the samples. The optimal irradiation regimes and both cooling and measuring times were established. Sensitivity and accuracy of the analysis are presented. During analysis of the samples different types of interference reactions were taken into account. The experimental data were in satisfactory agreement with the results reported in literature

1983-01-01

200

LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE  

Science.gov (United States)

LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis which provides the relationships between the predictions of a kinetics model and the input parameters of the problem. LSENS provides for efficient and accurate chemical kinetics computations and includes sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal conditions. LSENS replaces the previous NASA general chemical kinetics codes GCKP and GCKP84. LSENS is designed for flexibility, convenience and computational efficiency. A variety of chemical reaction models can be considered. The models include static system, steady one-dimensional inviscid flow, reaction behind an incident shock wave including boundary layer correction, and the perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, computations of equilibrium properties can be performed for the following assigned states, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static problems LSENS computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rates coefficient parameters of each chemical reaction. To integrate the ODEs describing chemical kinetics problems, LSENS uses the packaged code LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, because it has been shown to be the most efficient and accurate code for solving such problems. The sensitivity analysis computations use the decoupled direct method, as implemented by Dunker and modified by Radhakrishnan. This method has shown greater efficiency and stability with equal or better accuracy than other methods of sensitivity analysis. LSENS is written in FORTRAN 77 with the exception of the NAMELIST extensions used for input. While this makes the code fairly machine independent, execution times on IBM PC compatibles would be unacceptable to most users. LSENS has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS and a DEC VAX running VMS. With minor modifications, it should also be easily implemented on other platforms with FORTRAN compilers which support NAMELIST input. LSENS required 4Mb of RAM under Sun

Bittker, D. A.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

McIDAS III: A Modern Interactive Data Access and Analysis System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A powerful facility for meteorological analysis called the Man Computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) was designed and implemented in the early 1970's at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Hardware and software experience gained via extensive use of that facility and its derivatives have led to a newer implementation of McIDAS on a larger computer with significant enhancements to the supporting McIDAS software. McIDAS allows remote and local access to a wide range of data from satellites and conventional observations, time lapse displays of imagery data, overlaid graphics. and current and past meteorological data. Available software allows one to perform analysis of a wide range of digital images as well as temperature and moisture sounding data obtained from satellites. McIDAS can generate multicolor composites of conventional and satellite weather data, radar and forecast data in a wide variety of two- and three-dimensional displays as well as time lapse movies of these analyses. These and other capabilities are described in this paper.

Suomi, V. E.; Fox, R.; Limaye, S. S.; Smith, W. L.

1983-05-01

202

An Introduction to Signal Processing in Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This 26-page illustrated introduction to digital signal processing in chemical analysis covers signal arithmetic, signals and noise, smoothing, differentiation, resolution enhancement, harmonic analysis, convolution, deconvolution, Fourier filter, integration and peak area measurement, and curve fitting. It is accompanied by signal processing software for Macintosh with reference manual and tutorial (available for free download), video demonstrations, and Matlab signal processing modules for Mac, PC, and Unix.

O'Haver, Professor T.

203

Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author)

1981-07-10

204

METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

205

Approach and content of upgraded safety analysis for Kozloduy NPP modernization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last 10 years a large scope of modifications were implemented at KNPP Units 3 and 4 and 5/6. This demanded the elaboration of upgraded SARs for each new system and for the units as a whole. The content of USAR (Upgraded Safety Analysis Report) for Units 5 and 6 follows the requirements of PNAEG-036-95. At the same time the requirements and recommendations of other international documents - IAEA and USA NRC, were applied for elaboration of USAR and mainly for Chapter 15. Thus the approach used for the elaboration the content of Chapter 15 of the USAR for Units 5 and 6 is different form the one, used during elaboration of SAR for Units 3 and 4 of KNPP. This presentation includes the list of initiating events and their categorization as well as some of the main aspects of the methodology - definition of the acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and models. (authors)

2004-06-02

206

Use of Blood-Glucose Test Strips for Introducing Enzyme Electrodes and Modern Biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroanalytical experiments in teaching laboratories have traditionally relied on introducing classical polarography to the instrumental analysis laboratory. More modern experiments have been proposed to introduce advanced techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry or stripping analysis. Little attention, however, is given to the field of chemical sensors, despite the growing importance of these devices in real-life applications. In this article we introduce students to modern biosensor technology, and in paticular to disposable screen-printed glucose strips.

Wang, Joseph; Macca, Carlo

1996-08-01

207

Using modern time series analysis techniques to predict ENSO events from the SOI time series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the monthly 1866-2000 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI data to determine: 1 whether the SOI data are sufficiently noise-free that useful predictions can be made from them, and 2 in particular, whether future ENSO events can be predicted from the SOI data.  The "Hilbert-EMD" technique is used to aid the analysis. This new frequency-time algorithm, based on the Hilbert transform, may be applied to time series for which the conventional assumptions of linearity and stationarity may not apply.With the aid of the EMD procedure, a cleaner representation of ENSO dynamics is obtained from the SOI data. A polynomial function is then used to predict SOI values. Using only the data from January 1866 through December 1996, this prediction correctly indicated a warm event in 1997-1998 and a cold event in 1999. Using all the data (through December 2000, this prediction shows no strong ENSO events (positive or negative during the time period January 2001 through December 2004.

J. I. Salisbury

2002-01-01

208

Areal distribution of sedimentary facies determined from seismic facies analysis and models of modern depositional systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic facies analysis was applied to 3.5-kHz single-channel analog reflection profiles of the sediment fill within Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, southeast Alaska. Nine sedimentary facies have been interpreted from seven seismic facies identified on the profiles. The interpretations are based on reflection characteristics and structural features of the seismic facies. The following reflection characteristics and structural features are used: reflector spacing, amplitude and continuity of reflections, internal reflection configurations, attitude of reflection terminations at a facies boundary, body geometry of a facies, and the architectural associations of seismic facies within each basin. The depositional systems are reconstructed by determining the paleotopography, bedding patterns, sedimentary facies, and modes of deposition within the basin. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord for which successive glacier terminus positions and consequent rates of glacial retreat are known. In this environment the depositional processes and sediment characteristics vary with distance from a glacier terminus, such that during a retreat a record of these variations is preserved in the aggrading sediment fill. Sedimentary facies within the basins of lower Muir Inlet are correlated with observed depositional processes near the present glacier terminus in the upper inlet. The areal distribution of sedimentary facies within the basins is interpreted using the seismic facies architecture and inferences from known sediment characteristics proximal to present glacier termini.

Seramur, K.C.; Powell, R.D.; Carpenter, P.J.

1988-02-01

209

Areal distribution of sedimentary facies determined from seismic facies analysis and models of modern depositional systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic facies analysis was applied to 3.5-kHz single-channel analog reflection profiles of the sediment fill within Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, southeast Alaska. Nine sedimentary facies have been interpreted from seven seismic facies identified on the profiles. The interpretations are based on reflection characteristics and structural features of the seismic facies. The following reflection characteristics and structural features are used: reflector spacing, amplitude and continuity of reflections, internal reflection configurations, attitude of reflection terminations at a facies boundary, body geometry of a facies, and the architectural associations of seismic facies within each basin. The depositional systems are reconstructed by determining the paleotopography, bedding patterns, sedimentary facies, and modes of deposition within the basin. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord for which successive glacier terminus positions and consequent rates of glacial retreat are known. In this environment the depositional processes and sediment characteristics vary with distance from a glacier terminus, such that during a retreat a record of these variations is preserved in the aggrading sediment fill. Sedimentary facies within the basins of lower Muir Inlet are correlated with observed depositional processes near the present glacier terminus in the upper inlet.

Seramur, K.C.; Powell, R.D.; Carpenter, P.J.

1988-01-01

210

The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars  

CERN Multimedia

Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the "normal" A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. We wish to stablish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and pi Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled ...

Fossati, L; Bagnulo, S; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J; Kochukhov, O; Wade, G

2009-01-01

211

Activation and chemical analysis of drinking water from shallow aquifers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most of the Indian cities drinking water is drawn from shallow aqiufers with the help of hand pumps. These shallow aquifers get easilyl polluted. In the present work we have measured 20 trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and 8 chemical parameters using standard chemical methods of drinking water drawn from Rajpura city. It was found that almost all water samples are highly polluted. We attribute this to unplaned disposal of industrial and domestic waste over a period of many decades. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

1991-01-01

212

Phase transitions modern applications  

CERN Document Server

This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

Gitterman, Moshe

2014-01-01

213

Methods of modern mathematical physics  

CERN Multimedia

This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

Reed, Michael

1980-01-01

214

Chemical analysis of superconductor material by Rietveld method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the main superconducting systems, the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is extremely important because it presents two stages of high superconducting critical temperature. To manufacture samples of the superconducting phase (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) were used oxides and carbonates of high purity. The mixture was calcined and sintered for 100-200h in air. To characterize the material we used X-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and measurement of critical temperature (Tc). The Rietveld method was used for structure refinement, and quantification of phases and to estimate the chemical composition of samples in order to obtain greater control of chemical composition using only the data of X-ray diffraction. The results were compared with the refinement results of X-ray fluorescence and was observed a discrepancy of about 8%. This result indicates that the Rietveld method can be an interesting alternative to perform chemical analysis. (author)

2010-11-21

215

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

Bartlomiej Zylinski

2011-01-01

216

Economic analysis and comparison of chemical heat pump systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last years great interest has been shown in chemical heat pump systems. Chemical heat pumps represent a new technology with great potential to reduce the energy consumption in very different sectors. They can provide the ability to capture the rejected low-grade heat and to reuse it at increased temperature levels in various industrial processes. Heat can be removed from a heat source at low-temperature by an endothermic reaction and can be boosted to a heat sink at high-temperature by an exothermic reaction. Since chemical heat pumps can operate without compression, with less electrical power and at higher temperature levels compared to conventional heat pumps, they can afford high performance advantages. As an additional advantage, energy storage can also be accomplished so that intermittent energy sources can be utilized in a chemical heat pump system. The objective of this work was to study methanol-formaldehyde-hydrogen, ethanol-acetaldehyde-hydrogen, i-propanol-acetone-hydrogen and n-butanol-butyraldehyde-hydrogen chemical heat pump systems based on catalytic dehydrogenation of alcohols at low-temperature and hydrogenation of aldehydes and a ketone at high-temperature. On the base of economic analysis, the quantity of waste-heat that must be supplied to produce the benefits of the process heat and also the improvement in the net gain reached were determined and compared. (author)

Karaca, F.; Bolat, E. [Ylldlz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering; Klncay, O. [Ylldlz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2002-11-01

217

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

1980-01-01

218

Modern solids control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of modern solids-control system for drilling rigs is introduced and experimentally investigated. The system incorporates a conventional solids-control arrangement followed by a diversion of part of the drilling mud for chemical conditioning and configuration. The dewatering effluent is returned to the mud system makeup-water storage. The dewatered colloidal solids are then stabilized by being mixed with the shaker discharge and the surrounding soils. The system can provide an effective control of colloidal-solids concentration in drilling muds. In can also minimize the volume of drilling waste. The new process was examined in full-scale experiments to evaluate process efficiency and to identify the effects of field installation, operational variables, solids classification before dewatering, dilution, and the stability of the dewatering and its sensitivity to chemical dosage. In the chemical destabilization tests, a successful treatment was found for flowline samples of five different drilling-mud systems. The conceptual design of the modern solids-control system is presented and discussed. This process is also related to conventional solids-control and wastewater treatments.

Wojtanowicz, A.K. (Louisiana State Univ., LA (US))

1988-09-01

219

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis in environmental research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of short-term bioassay tests in conjunction with analytical measurements, constitute a powerful tool for identifying important environmental contaminants. The authors have coined the terminology bioassay directed chemical analysis to best describe this marriage of analytical chemistry and biology. The objective of this methodology is to identify key compounds in various types of air-pollutant samples. Once that task is completed, studies on metabolism, sources, environmental exposure and atmospheric chemistry can be undertaken. The principles and methodologies for bioassay directed chemical analysis are presented and illustrated in this paper. Most of this work has been directed toward the characterization of ambient air and diesel particulates, which are used as examples in this report to illustrate the analytical logic used for identifying the bio-active components of complex mixtures.

Schuetzle, D.; Lewtas, J.

1986-01-01

220

Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

2011-10-24

 
 
 
 
221

The Multiple Modernities of Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept â??multiple modernitiesâ?? has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to question certain eurocentric assumptions about modernity and has also reignited the question of European particularity in a world historical perspective. This paper will discuss how â??Europeâ?? itself can be considered a result of (at least) two different modernities, as proposed by the political theorist, Eric Voegelin. Eric Voegelin talked of two spatio-temporal specific modernities, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. In short, for Voegelin the Atlantic modernity with its breakthroughs in the 17th and 18th centuries was a specific figuration that should not be mistaken for â??modernityâ?? but should instead be seen as one specific and highly problematic development. It is exactly the fact that this peculiar figuration was institutionalised that tends to blindfold us from not recognising a Mediterranean modernity as an alternative rather than a predecessor to the Atlantic modernity. The main aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelinâ??s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe.

Thomassen, Bjørn

222

Modern aid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper explains how remedial stimulation treatment technology helps sustain CBM production. Last year coalbed methane production was increased by 40% in a 50-well effort at CBM operations in the Drunkard's Wash field in the Uinta Basin, Utah as a result of a chemical remedial stimulation treatment (RST) which breaks up fines blocking the flow paths towards the wellbore and carries them to the extremes of the fracture. 3 figs., 1 photo.

Blauch, M.; Curtice, R.; Mullen, M. [Haliburton (US)

2005-06-01

223

Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

Egidi, Giovanni; Rooij, Nicolas F.

2004-01-01

224

Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols. In the commercially important Ginkgo extracts some of these compound classes are no longer present. Many publications d...

Beek, T. A.

2002-01-01

225

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only ...

2006-01-01

226

Quantum chemical analysis of hydrogen isotopes in lithium oxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to clarify the existing states and the diffusion process of hydrogen isotopes in Li{sub 2}O, the quantum chemical analysis has been conducted especially emphasising interaction with charged defects such as F-centers. Using two calculation codes based on different theories, treatment of charged defects was discussed. From the comparison with FT-IR or diffusion model studies, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with defects was explained taking electron transfer between them into consideration.

Tanigawa, Hisashi E-mail: hisashi@flanker.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Satoru

2002-11-01

227

Quantum chemical analysis of hydrogen isotopes in lithium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to clarify the existing states and the diffusion process of hydrogen isotopes in Li2O, the quantum chemical analysis has been conducted especially emphasising interaction with charged defects such as F-centers. Using two calculation codes based on different theories, treatment of charged defects was discussed. From the comparison with FT-IR or diffusion model studies, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with defects was explained taking electron transfer between them into consideration

2002-11-01

228

Global analysis of large-scale chemical and biological experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research in the life sciences is increasingly dominated by high-throughput data collection methods that benefit from a global approach to data analysis. Recent innovations that facilitate such comprehensive analyses are highlighted. Several developments enable the study of the relationships between newly derived experimental information, such as biological activity in chemical screens or gene expression studies, and prior information, such as physical descriptors for small molecules or functi...

Root, David E.; Kelley, Brian P.; Stockwell, Brent R.

2002-01-01

229

Identification of Chemical Processes Using :Principal Component Analysis ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Principal component an alysis (PCA) is useful technique for interpreting commonly collected groundwater quality data and relating the data to specific hydrochemical proc esses . Thus. multi variate analysis in hydrochemistry allows avoidance limitations that are associated with classical methods. such as Durov's and trilinear diagrams. Six components which represent different chemical processes were identified and their relative a real impact determined. Comparisons made among the results pre...

MAHMOUD ALYAMANI; TIM ATKINSON

1993-01-01

230

Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

Gonos Efstathios

2011-06-01

231

Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and with the correct methodology provide unamibiguous detection of such life forms.

Kounaves, Samuel P.

2003-01-01

232

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chemistry Laboratories,'' American Chemical Society Publication, Committee...Chemistry Laboratories,'' American Chemical Society Publication, Committee...Chemistry Laboratories,'' American Chemical Society Publication,...

2009-07-01

233

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF â??NERIUM OLEANDERâ? LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

Lakhmili Siham

2014-01-01

234

Modern stochastics and applications  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents an extensive overview of all major modern trends in applications of probability and stochastic analysis. It will be a  great source of inspiration for designing new algorithms, modeling procedures, and experiments. Accessible to researchers, practitioners, as well as graduate and postgraduate students, this volume presents a variety of new tools, ideas, and methodologies in the fields of optimization, physics, finance, probability, hydrodynamics, reliability, decision making, mathematical finance, mathematical physics, and economics. Contributions to this Work include those of selected speakers from the international conference entitled “Modern Stochastics: Theory and Applications III,”  held on September 10 –14, 2012 at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine. The conference covered the following areas of research in probability theory and its applications: stochastic analysis, stochastic processes and fields, random matrices, optimization methods in probability, st...

Limnios, Nikolaos; Mishura, Yuliya; Sakhno, Lyudmyla; Shevchenko, Georgiy

2014-01-01

235

Faces of modernity in romanian literature: a conceptual analysis / Faces da modernidade na literatura romena: uma análise conceitual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo analisa o modo com o qual a crítica romena decidiu definir e delinear o perfil da modernidade literária. Desse ponto de vista, sublinhei uma série de deficiências em tais esforços, dentre as quais a visão redutora do modernismo, que é limitada, seja a um sentido estritamente formal [...] (como técnica literária), seja a um sentido substancial (como atitude ideológica), bem como o surgimento de um conceito não-diferenciado de modernismo, que tende a abraçar qualquer efeito secundário, ou pelo contrário, de um anti-modernismo genérico, independente do nível ou direção na qual se opõe ao modernismo. Consequentemente, o artigo propõe uma nova classificação da modernidade literária romena, que inclui, além do modernismo, uma direção anti-modernista bem como uma outra ultra-modernista. Abstract in english This study analyses the manner in which Romanian criticism chose to define and outline literary modernity. From this point of view, I have highlighted a series of deficiencies in the aforementioned endeavors, among which the reductive vision on modernism, which is limited either to a strictly formal [...] meaning (as literary technique) or to a substantial one (as ideological attitude), the emergence of a non-differentiated concept of modernism, which tends to embrace any secondary effects or, on the contrary, of a generic anti-modernism, irrespective of the level or the direction in which it opposes modernism. Therefore, the present study sets forth a new classification of Romanian literary modernity, which includes, besides modernism, an anti-modernist direction and an ultra-modernist one also.

Terian, Andrei.

236

Chemical analysis with a low energy particle accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low energy particle accelerator at Brooklyn College is being applied to chemical analysis by studies of: charged particle induced nuclear reaction, proton induced X-ray emission, and inelastic neutron scattering. A great advantage in sensitivity and resolution (i.e., freedom from interferences) is attained when it is possible to observe the nuclear reactions per se. The prompt products may be gamma-rays, neutrons, and/or emergent charged particles such as protons, alphas, and even heavier ions. Chemical analysis by direct observation of the prompt phenomenon offers these advantages: the analysis does not depend upon the half life of the product nuclide; the sensitivity is increased by as much as several orders of magnitude; there is a greater selectivity due to the characteristic energy requirements; and the prompt methods lend themselves more readily for absolute rather than relative determinations. Fluorine-containing gaseous compounds in the atmosphere and fluorine in airborne particulates will be determined by detection of the prompt gamma-rays and/or alpha particles emitted in the reaction 19F(p, ?)16O. The PIXE technique is being applied to analysis of a variety of environmental samples, and activation by inelastic neutron scattering is being investigated for elements which are not amenable to thermal neutron activation. (T.G.)

1978-01-01

237

Emission reduction by modern burner constructions; Emissionsminderung durch moderne Brennerkonstruktionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All pollutants are the result of substance and energy conversion processes which are inevitable due to physical and chemical laws. Restricting these pollutants to a minimum is the aim of modern burner technology. The present report describes the technical conversion of emission reduction measures as an example of the optimisation of combustion processes by means of a combined natural gas-hydrogen burner. (orig.)

Balgar, G. [Kueppersbusch Grosskuechentechnik GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Waermetechnik

2004-08-01

238

The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

Vesi? Ivana

2012-01-01

239

Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For reconstructing environmental change in terrestrial realms the geochemistry of fossil bioapatite in bones and teeth is among the most promising applications. This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of Hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry. The studied specimens are molar teeth from Hippopotamids found in modern and fossil lacustrine settings of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lak...

Bru?gmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

2012-01-01

240

Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

José A. Centeno

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Molecular double core-hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

CERN Multimedia

We explore the potential of double core hole electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in terms of x-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS). The creation of deep single and double core vacancies induces significant reorganization of valence electrons. The corresponding relaxation energies and the interatomic relaxation energies are evaluated by CASSCF calculations. We propose a method how to experimentally extract these quantities by the measurement of single and double core-hole ionization potentials (IPs and DIPs). The influence of the chemical environment on these DIPs is also discussed for states with two holes at the same atomic site and states with two holes at two different atomic sites. Electron density difference between the ground and double core-hole states clearly shows the relaxations accompanying the double core-hole ionization. The effect is also compared with the sensitivity of single core hole ionization potentials (IPs) arising in single core hole electron spectroscopy. We have ...

Tashiro, Motomichi; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Buth, Christian; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

2010-01-01

242

ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water  

Science.gov (United States)

During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

2009-01-01

243

Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. T...

2011-01-01

244

Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented analysis and Recursive Design methods as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method. (author)

1995-09-18

245

Meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs vs. opioids for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: Clinical studies produce conflicting results on pain relief for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL powered by an electromagnetic generator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed and all randomized controlled trials comparing NSAIDs and opioids in pain relief for SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters were included in the analysis. Data from 3 trials (244 patients were pooled. The primary outcome measure was adequate analgesia, defined as "if no additional pain relief was used". The difference in the proportion of patients with adequate anesthesia was compared between the NSAIDs and opioids groups as an odds ratio and odds ratio were pooled across the 3 trials with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between using NSAIDs and opioids for pain relief during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters (odds ratio 0.886, 95% CI 0.446-1,760, p = 0.730. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that in relieving pain during SWL using modern electromagnetic lithotripters NSAIDs are as effective as opioids.

V. A. Mezentsev

2009-06-01

246

Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

2009-11-01

247

Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Derived sensitivities and general applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers possible applications of sensitivity analysis to kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. At the outset it is assumed that elementary sensitivity functional densities deltau/sub i//delta?/sub j/ are available, where u/sub i/ is the ith chemical species concentration and ?/sub j/ is the jth system parameter function. Emphasis is placed on the use of functional calculus to manipulate the elementary sensitivities for addressing a variety of physical questions. In this fashion, a family of derived sensitivities are generated from the elementary set. An extensive list of sensitivity applications is presented along with a discussion as an aid to future work

1981-08-15

248

Rapid on-site methods of chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adressed is the problem of monitoring contaminated land for the presence of hazardous and/or toxic materials. This chapter is primarily concerned with methods of chemical analysis that can be readily applied in the field, can provide real time data and be cost effective. The study has been restricted to a user survey rather than an extensive literature search. The survey supplies information on available techniques and provides recommendations regarding their proper application. Topics discussed include sampling, sampling design, sample matrices, compatibility testing, air monitoring equipment, soil monitoring techniques, specialized screening techniques and mobile analytical laboratories

1985-01-01

249

Sneak circuit analysis of chemical and volume control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the chemical and volume control system (RCV) of nuclear power plant pipelines are very complex, there are many valve control nodes. These make the probabilistic risk of unexpected situation rather high in design and running. In order to increase the reliability and safety of the system in design and running, the sneak circuit analysis technology is applied in gas and liquid pipelines of RCV to find latent path and temporal sequence in design and running. Improvements and advices are given to avoid these latent risks in design and running. (authors)

2010-11-01

250

Calling and volunteering in modern society:How Weber’s analysis of the Protestant ethic may help understand volunteering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the article is to show how the concept of "calling" may help shed light on volunteering as a modern, social phenomenon as "calling" is laid out in the Max Weber's essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism an with a side view to philosophical notions of the "good life".

2010-01-01

251

American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility  

Science.gov (United States)

The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has three parts. There will be an overview of the MERRA system, the validation of the system and the native data format. Second, Instructors will provide examples of weather and climate data analysis using various software packages (primarily GrADS) as well as the online access tools for subsetting and download, as well as visualization (e.g. Giovanni and Google Earth). This will also include examples on changing the data format to fit user's preferences and also to regrid the data for comparisons to other reanalyses and observational data. Lastly, there will he time set aside for participants to have hands on access to the data and software while interacting with the instructors and other developers. The course convener is Dr. Michael Bosilovich, NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). He will be joined by several GMAO, Goddard Earth Science Data and information Services Center (GES DISC) and Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) staff.

daSilva, Arlindo

2009-01-01

252

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range

2003-05-01

253

Fast analysis of narcotic drugs by optical chemical imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technique is proposed for fast detection, identification and imaging of narcotic drugs in their solid phase. This technique, which requires only a tiny sample of a few microns, is based on microscopic chemical imaging. Minor sample preparation is required, and results are obtained within seconds. As far as we know, this is the most sensitive detection system available today for solid drugs. The technique can be applied for fast analysis of minute drug residues, and therefore is of considerable importance for forensic applications. It is shown that identification of drug traces in realistic matrixes is possible. Two main methods were applied in this study for detection of drugs and drug derivatives. The first method was based on direct detection and chemical imaging of the auto-fluorescence of the analyzed drugs. This method is applicable when the analyzed drug emits fluorescence under the experiment conditions, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (known as LSD). The second method was used for obtaining chemical imaging of drugs that do not fluoresce under the experiment conditions. In these cases fluorescent labeling dyes were applied to the examined samples (including the drug and the matrix). Both methods are simple and rapid, and require minor or no sample preparation at all. Detection limits are very low in the picogram range.

Fisher, Michal; Bulatov, Vallery; Schechter, Israel E-mail: israel@techunix.technion.ac.il

2003-05-01

254

Fixation and chemical analysis of single fog and rain droplets  

Science.gov (United States)

Last decade, the importance of global environmental problems has been recognized worldwide. Acid rain is one of the most important global environmental problems as well as the global warming. The grasp of physical and chemical properties of fog and rain droplets is essential to make clear the physical and chemical processes of acid rain and also their effects on forests, materials and ecosystems. We examined the physical and chemical properties of single fog and raindrops by applying fixation technique. The sampling method and treatment procedure to fix the liquid droplets as a solid particle were investigated. Small liquid particles like fog droplet could be easily fixed within few minutes by exposure to cyanoacrylate vapor. The large liquid particles like raindrops were also fixed successively, but some of them were not perfect. Freezing method was applied to fix the large raindrops. Frozen liquid particles existed stably by exposure to cyanoacrylate vapor after freezing. The particle size measurement and the elemental analysis of the fixed particle were performed in individual base using microscope, and SEX-EDX, particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and micro-PIXE analyses, respectively. The concentration in raindrops was dependent upon the droplet size and the elapsed time from the beginning of rainfall.

Kasahara, M.; Akashi, S.; Ma, C.-J.; Tohno, S.

255

Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper. ((orig.))

1994-12-30

256

The chemical and isotopic analysis of English forest glass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glass is one of several early modern industries where the development from small-scale workshop to large-scale industry offers a valuable insight into wider socio-economic trends. Previously, medieval and early modern forest (wood ash) glass has been studied using a range of analytical techniques. However, characterisations of production centres and exchange systems for forest glasses are difficult to verify, in part because very few examples of raw glass from furnace sites have been investig...

2011-01-01

257

A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

1994-01-01

258

Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

1987-03-01

259

Spectroscopy Analysis of Chemical Modification of Cellulose Fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de nuevos compuestos fibrosos con propiedades específicas ha atraído un interés grande en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías. Uno de los problemas más grandes en esta área es la mejora de la interface fibra/matriz para incrementar las propiedades mecánicas en el composito final. En es [...] te trabajo, la modificación química de la superficie de la cáscara del arroz (derivado de la industria del arroz) se llevó a cabo para lograr una mejor compatibilidad con matrices de diferentes polímeros. Estas modificaciones incluyen, el uso de tres diferentes silanos: 3-(trimetoxisilil) propil metacrilato (TMS), diclorodimetilsilano (DDS) así como, triclorovinilsilano (TVS). Las fibras naturales y los cambios después de cada tratamiento fueron estudiados experimentalmente mediante, Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo por Transformadas de Fourier (FTIR). Esta información experimental espectroscópica fue comparada con un análisis teórico de las vibraciones moleculares que se emplearon a través del software Hyperchem Release 7, herramienta de modelación molecular. El resultado de esta comparación confirmó la modificación química efectuada. Los datos de las vibraciones moleculares coincidieron con aquellos calculados por análisis teórico, los cuales comprobaron la modificación química de la superficie de fibra de arroz-cáscara. La síntesis de la celulosa con los silanos fueron confirmados por RMN. Abstract in english The development of new fibrous composites with specific properties has attracted a big interest in the development of new technologies. One of the biggest problems in this area is the improvement of the fiber/matrix interface to increase the mechanical properties in the final composite. In this work [...] , surface chemical modifications of the rice husk (by-product of the rice industry) were carried out to achieve a better compatibility with diverse polymeric matrices. These modifications include the use of three different silanes: 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMS), dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and trichlorovinylsilane (TVS). The natural fibers and their changes after each treatment were studied experimentally by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This experimental spectroscopic information was compared with a theoretical analysis of molecular vibrations using the Hyperchem Release 7 software as molecular modeling tool. The result of this comparison confirmed the chemical modification. It was concluded that the chemical modification was carried out and after an experimental spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) the molecular vibrations data were agree with those calculated by theoretical analysis being verified in this way the chemical modification of the rice-husk fiber surface. The successes of the synthesis of the cellulose with different silanes were confirmed with NMR.

Norma Aurea, Rangel-Vázquez; Timoteo, Leal-García.

260

Chemical analysis of dentin surfaces after Carisolv treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : This study was done to characterize the surface chemistry after caries excavation with burs and Carisolv 2, by analyzing the relative amounts of organic and inorganic content, and also to analyze the penetration of the adhesive after etching and bonding using Micro Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods : Twenty extracted molars with caries were distributed into the following groups and treated accordingly. Group 1-excavation with bur (10 teeth, and Group 2-excavation using Carisolv 2 (10 teeth. Results and Conclusion : Spectroscopic analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the chemical composition of the tooth between the groups after excavation ( P > 0.05 either with bur or with Carisolv. The penetration of the dentin bonding resin in all samples of the Carisolv group was up to 15?m, whereas, in the bur group it was upto 10?m in few samples. Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis showed the surfaces of the Carisolv-treated dentin to be free of the smear layer, with open tubules, whereas, the dentin surfaces of the bur group showed surfaces covered with a smear layer. In the Carislov group the resin tags were found comparatively deeper than in the bur excavation group. In both the groups the integrity of the remaining dentin surfaces were maintained chemically and morphologically.

Pai Veena

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Elementary reaction analysis on sodium-water chemical reaction field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using an elementary reaction analysis. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. The analysis contains 25 elementary reactions, which consist of 17 H2-O2 and 8 Na-H2O reactions. Temperature and species concentrations in the counter-flow reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as LIF and CARS. The main reaction in the experimental conditions is Na+H2O ? NaOH+H, and OH is produced by H2O+H ? H2+OH. It was demonstrated that the reaction model in this study well explains the structure of the sodium-water counter-flow diffusion flame. (author)

2011-06-23

262

Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000?g.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

2009-10-02

263

Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine— Ginseng (II): Collected Chemical Entities, Modern Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications Emanated from Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review, a sequel to part 1 in the series, collects about 107 chemical entities separated from the roots, leaves and flower buds of Panax ginseng, quinquefolius and notoginseng, and categorizes these entities into about 18 groups based on their structural similarity. The bioactivities of these chemical entities are described. The ‘Yin and Yang’ theory and the fundamentals of the ‘five elements’ applied to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are concisely introduced to help read...

Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing; Liang, Xing-jie

2009-01-01

264

A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Goals of this study were to: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent m...

Campbell, Timothy L.; Lewis, Patrick J.; Thies, Monte L.; Williams, Justin K.

2012-01-01

265

Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

Justas Braži?nas

2011-04-01

266

The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

Asa Auta

2011-07-01

267

An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

2012-05-01

268

Comparative economic analysis of chemicals and synthetic fuels from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass offers a significant potential for reducing national dependence on imported fossil fuels through the conversion of a renewable energy source to useful liquid and gaseous fuels, electric power, process steam, and chemicals. Several previous studies have indicated that feasible national goals could be the production of about 5 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy by the year 2000 and 10 quads of energy by the year 2020. The results of these studies indicate that these are realistic and achievable goals provided Federal funding levels for biomass development are increased and Federal incentives are successfully applied to increase biomass feedstock availability. The study summarized in this paper involved the identification of over 1,100 possible missions (specific conversion routes from biomass feedstock to useful fuel and chemical products to end-use markets) prior to the selection of 15 missions for detailed analysis. Based only on market penetration projections, processes that appear to offer minor future contributions include marine crops, catalytic liquefaction, and fermentation to produce ethanol. Missions that appear to have greater near-term commercialization potential include: (1) Gasification of wood and low moisture plants to produce LBG, IBG, SNG, and ammonia. (2) Pyrolysis of wood and low-moisture plants to produce SNG, fuel oil and char. (3) Combustion of wood and low-moisture terrestrial crops to produce IBG and SNG.

Schooley, F.A.; Dickenson, R.L.; Kohan, S.M.; Jones, J.L.; Meagher, P.C.; Ernest, K.R.; Crooks, G.; Miller, K.A.; Fong, W.S.

1981-01-01

269

Modern Ferrite Technology  

CERN Multimedia

Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

Goldman, Alex

2006-01-01

270

The Extension of Statistical Entropy Analysis to Chemical Compounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical entropy analysis (SEA quantifies the dilution and concentration of conservative substances (e.g., heavy metals in a system. In this paper, the SEA concept is extended (eSEA to make it applicable to systems in which the chemical speciation is of particular importance. The eSEA is applied to a simplified region used for crop farming. The extent to which the region concentrates or dilutes nitrogen compounds is expressed as the change in statistical entropy (DH. A detailed derivation for the calculation of DH is provided. The results are discussed for four variations of the crop farming system, showing that the efficiency of crop farming can be expressed by eSEA.

Helmut Rechberger

2012-11-01

271

Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

Tautvaišien? G.

2012-02-01

272

Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

1983-01-01

273

Bacterial mixture analysis with Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman chemical imaging microspectroscopy (RCIM) is being evaluated as a technology for waterborne pathogen detection. Binary and ternary mixtures including combinations of polystyrene beads, Grampositive Bacillus anthracis and B. atrophaeus spores, B. cereus vegetative cells, and Gram-negative E. coli cells were investigated by RCIM for differentiation and characterization purposes. We have demonstrated the ability of RCIM, in combination with Pearson's cross correlation and multivariate principal components analysis data reduction techniques, to differentiate these components in the same field of view (FOV). Conventional applications of RCIM consist of differentiating relatively broad areas in a FOV. Here, RCIM is expanded in its capabilities to differentiate and distinguish between different micron size species in single particles and clusters of mixed species.

Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Emge, Darren K.; Jensen, Janet L.; Snyder, A. Peter

2009-05-01

274

Complete chemical analysis of aerosol particles in real-time  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real-time mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles using an ion trap mass spectrometer is described. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation ionization at the center of the ion trap. The produced ions are analyzed by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Ions of interest are selected and dissociated through collision with buffer gas atoms for further fragmentation analysis. Real-time chemical analyses of inorganic, organic, and bacterial aerosol articles have been demonstrated. It has been confirmed that the velocity and the size of the incoming particles highly correlate to each other. The performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are discussed.

Yang, Mo; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

1996-12-31

275

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2010-02-02

276

Analysis Of Samples From Tank 6F Chemical Cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank walls. The Acid Spray Wash was followed by a Water Spray Wash to remove oxalic acid from the tank internals. SRR conducted the Spray Wash as follows. Personnel added 4,802 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F through the spray mast installed in Riser 2, added 4,875 gallons of oxalic acid through Riser 7, added 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 2, and 5,000 gallons of deionized water into the tank via Riser 7. Following the Spray Wash, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 22,430 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Following the Spray Wash and transfer, Savannah River Site (SRS) added 113,935 gallons of well water to Tank 6F. They mixed the tank contents with a single SMP and transferred 112,699 gallons from Tank 6F to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,488 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the Water Wash, SRR personnel collected a solid sample and submitted it to SRNL for analysis to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning and to provide a preliminary indication of the composition of the material remaining in the tank.

2010-01-01

277

Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

Blagojevi? Ljiljana

2011-01-01

278

Network technology for depot modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

Hostick, C.J.

1990-12-01

279

Seasonality and season of birth of modern and late Neolithic sheep from South-Eastern France using tooth enamel ?18O analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stable oxygen isotopic analysis of tooth enamel was used to investigate seasonality and season of birth in sheep. Analyses were performed on the teeth of eight modern sheep bred at the Carmejane farm in south-eastern France and born in different periods of the year. This reference data set confirms that oxygen isotopic records in the second and third molars can be used to differentiate between sheep born in late winter and those born in early autumn. The results show that inter-individual var...

Blaise, Emilie; Balasse, Marie

2011-01-01

280

Seasonality and season of birth of modern and late Neolithic sheep from south-eastern France using tooth enamel delta O-18 analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stable oxygen isotopic analysis of tooth enamel was used to investigate seasonality and season of birth in sheep. Analyses were performed on the teeth of eight modern sheep bred at the Carmejane farm in south-eastern France and born in different periods of the year. This reference data set confirms that oxygen isotopic records in the second and third molars can be used to differentiate between sheep born in late winter and those born in early autumn. The results show that inter-individual var...

Blaise, Emilie; Balasse, Marie

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater  

Science.gov (United States)

...handling of the chemicals specified...involved in the chemical analysis. Additional...dissolved in methanol or ethanol...dissolved in methanol or ethanol...Laboratory Chemical Management for...Multimedia Analysis of...

2010-07-01

282

Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

2001-07-01

283

ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

2014-06-05

284

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful plugin mechanism to support new features in organic chemistry, inorganic complexes, drug design, materials, biomolecules, and simulations. Avogadro is freely available under an open-source license from http://avogadro.openmolecules.net.

Hanwell Marcus D

2012-08-01

285

Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine method for detection of early events in lipid oxidation in milk to predict shelf-life. PMID:16428618

Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, J H; Frøst, M B; Ostdal, H; Hermansen, J E; Kröger-Ohlsen, M; Skibsted, L H

2006-02-01

286

Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine method for detection of early events in lipid oxidation in milk to predict shelf-life.

Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Kristensen, D.

2006-01-01

287

Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure for the characterization of the dissimilar metal welds and the analysis of results by using 3D APT in order to get a clear understanding of structure and chemistry in the fundamental scale of weld interfaces

2012-05-01

288

A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.  

Science.gov (United States)

GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary in order to accurately reconstruct an environmental signature when these taxa are found in the fossil record. PMID:23170221

Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

2012-11-01

289

Modernity and parenting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on interviews with four parents from Copenhagen, this study seeks to shed light on how modernity’s flexible capitalism affects the individual’s approach to work and reflections on the upbringing of their own children. Based on especially Richard Sennett’s theory on The Corrosion of Character, it will be shown that modernity has an effect on the way modern individuals feel towards values and characteristics in both work and family life.

2012-01-01

290

Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement "stag jump" within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the "stag jump". Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Material and Methods Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male and a female. The study consisted in recording the values of ground reaction and body motion, and then determining and analyzing kinematic parameters of performed movements. Results The results of measurement of joint angles in the landing lower limb, pelvis, and foot position in relation to the ground, as well as the level of vertical components of ground reaction, provided insight into the loading response phase of the "stag jump". The measurements and obtained results show differences between the man and woman in ground reactions and kinematic quantities. Conclusions The results obtained during the research may be used in the development and teaching of dancing movements. Training sessions, carried out in the biomechanical laboratory, with active participation of dancing teachers, could form a basis for a prevention model of injuries and physical overloads occurring within this occupational group. Primary differences in the "stag jump" performance technique probably result from the different educational path the man and the woman went through. PMID:24971626

Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechos?aw B; Michnik, Robert; Jurkoj?, Jacek

2014-01-01

291

Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX...

Weixia Li; Yuping Tang; Yanyan Chen; Jin-Ao Duan

2012-01-01

292

Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads. The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 μm and 1000 μm were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.

Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil

2003-01-01

293

Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was undertaken to evaluate the quality of ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand, on the basis of their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil of two ginger rhizomes imported from China and Thailand was extracted by hydro distillation. Essential oil content was found to be 0.98 (China and 1.58% (Thailand. Chemical analysis of essential oil was carried out by GC-FID. Essential oil of Thailand ginger sample contained ?-pinene 3.59, ?-phallendrene 2.84, myrecene 4.58, ?-pinene 0.74, ?-terpinene 2.49, 1, 8-cineol 3.87, citral 5.39 and zingibrene 30.81%. Essential oil of China ginger sample contains ?-pinene 0.305, ?-phallendrene 1.02, myrecene 4.82, ?-terpinene 2.88, 1, 8-cineol 2.4, ?-terpinene 6.5, citral 4.5 and zingibrene 8.0%. Ginger sample from Thailand was found to be better in quality due to higher percentage of essential oil (60%.

Misbah Sultan

2005-01-01

294

Studies on Chemical Analysis of Mungbean (Vigna Radiata (L. Wilczek  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine commercially grown varieties of mung bean were subjected to chemical analysis to determine total protein contents, amino acids, lipids, ash, crude fiber, moisture and calories. All varieties differed significantly in their total protein contents (22.88 - 24.65%; total amino acids (20.98 - 25.61% and lipids (1.53 - 2.63% whereas the differences in the ash contents (3.20 - 3.87%, crude fiber (4.30 - 4.80%, moisture (10.13 - 10.77% and total calories (341 - 371 were non-significant. Higher values were recorded for amino acids such as Lysine (1.54 - 1.97%, aspartic acid (2.73 - 3.48% and glutamic acid (4.29 - 5.24% whereas the sulpher containing amino acids were limiting. The new varieties compared favourably with the native cultivar in their nutritional status. Variety NIAB Mung - 92 was found to be superior among all the varieties studied for seed protein and sulpher containing amino acids contents.

B.Saleem

1998-01-01

295

A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

2012-01-01

296

Polycyclic Aromatic Aerosol Components: Chemical Analysis and Reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants in the atmosphere and originate primarily from incomplete combustion of organic matter and fossil fuels. Their main sources are anthropogenic (e.g. vehicle emissions, domes- tic heating or tobacco smoke), and PAHs consisting of more than four fused aromatic rings reside mostly on combustion aerosol particles, where they can react with atmo- spheric trace gases like O3, NOx or OH radicals leading to a wide variety of partially oxidized and nitrated derivatives. Such chemical transformations can strongly affect the activity of the aerosol particles as condensation nuclei, their atmospheric residence times, and consequently their direct and indirect climatic effects. Moreover some poly- cyclic aromatic compounds (PACs = PAHs + derivatives) are known to have a high carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic potential, and are thus of major importance in air pollution control. Furthermore PACs can be used as well defined soot model sub- stances, since the basic structure of soot can be regarded as an agglomerate of highly polymerized PAC-layers. For the chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic aerosol components a new analyti- cal method based on LC-APCI-MS has been developed, and a data base comprising PAHs, Oxy-PAHs and Nitro-PAHs has been established. Together with a GC-HRMS method it will be applied to identify and quantify PAHs and Nitro-PAHs in atmo- spheric aerosol samples, diesel exhaust particle samples and model soot samples from laboratory reaction kinetics and product studies. As reported before, the adsorption and surface reaction rate of ozone on soot and PAH-like particle surfaces is reduced by competitive adsorption of water vapor at low relative humidity (< 25 %). Recent results at higher relative humidities (ca. 50 %), however, indicate re-enhanced gas phase ozone loss, which may be due to absorbtion of ozone into an aqueous surface layer. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide with coated and uncoated spark-discharge soot aerosol particles was found to proceed via competitive adsorption of O3 and NO2, and the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene on soot particles was faster with O3 and NO2 than only with O3. Additional experiments and the development of a formal mechanistic description of the investigated processes are currently under way.

Schauer, C.; Niessner, R.; Pöschl, U.

297

Using space syntax analysis in detecting privacy: a comparative study of traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract The aim of this paper is, firstly, to examine the parameters which have a role in achieving privacy in using the interior domestic spaces and to what extent it influences on the way of distribution of these spaces; secondly, to investigate the relationship between house layout morphology and the privacy of inhabitants.  In this paper, space syntax theory is used to examine the spatial morphology of both types (traditional and modern house layouts in Erbil city, in order to detect the level of privacy in their configurations, through an analytical comparative approach. After a sample of house layouts has been analyzed morphologically, it has been researched as to whether the house layout pattern affects the level of privacy and to what degree. The results shows that the traditional house layouts offer better design solutions in terms of privacy because it carries a higher value of (RRA with a higher tendency towards asymmetry structure comparing with modern house layouts. It is believed that the data that is collected will be valuable in the design process of the future house layouts at least in the city of Erbil.

FARIS ALI MUSTAFA

2010-07-01

298

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

1995-11-01

299

Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

1995-01-01

300

Strategy of modernization of Sonatrach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of modernization of Sonatrach proceeds from an analysis which assumes as fundamentals : technological evolution as a source of competitive advantage, the careful observation of the strategies followed by the main actors of the international oil industry, the evolution of relationship between the State and the state owned enterprise. (Author)

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Analysis of retted and non retted flax fibres by chemical and enzymatic means  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flax fibres (Linum usitatissimum L.) were subjected to chemical and enzymatic analysis in order to determine the compositional changes brought about by the retting process and also to determine the accessibility of the fibre polymers to enzymatic treatment. Chemical analysis involved subjecting both retted and non retted fibres to a series of sequential chemical extractions with 1% ammonium oxalate, 0.05 M KOH, 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH. Retting was shown to cause minimal weight loss from the fibre...

Mooney, C.; Stolle-smits, T.; Schols, H. A.; Jong, E. J.

2001-01-01

302

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

303

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

304

Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

1986-01-01

305

Strategic Management in Modern Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The defining marks of the thesis regard the creation of new scientific premises, that shouldstructure the approached issue – strategic management in modern organizational structures – relatedto its implementation stages. The suggested approach has the purpose of establishing the elementswhich characterize modern organizations and management, inclusively from the perspective ofinducing strategic changes in an organizational structure, related to the dynamics of the environment,in order to achieve the objectives. In the effort of organizing such a scientifically background, wehave tried to realize clear, concise delimitations, by the research method – the study and analysis ofthe organizations and management activities (components, functionality, specificities, implementingstages. Initially, we have pointed out the constitutive elements of the modern organizationalstructures, characteristic processes and their functionality, as well as a series of important factors andtheir consequences regarding knowledge foundation. Subsequently, we have disclosed the coordinatesof the management activity, its functions, as well as the strategic management implementation stages.

Cristian - Sorin Prun?

2008-06-01

306

Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, 32P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using 85Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of activity changes from records of changes of a digital counter and a timer which were continuously and photographically recorded, in spite of the fact that the residence time was only several seconds. The diffusion constant was then obtained from the concentration-time curve. (author)

1967-06-01

307

Technical Note: Anatomic identification of isolated modern human molars: testing Procrustes aligned outlines as a standardization procedure for elliptic fourier analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The determination of the precise position of permanent first and second modern human molars, following standard tooth identification criteria, is often difficult because of their morphological similarities. Here, we proposed to evaluate the suitability of two-dimensional crown contour shape analysis in achieving this objective. The method was tested separately on 180 first and second maxillary molars (UM) and 180 first and second mandibular molars (LM) securely identified (in anatomical position in their sockets). Generalized Procrustes superimposition is used to normalize the outlines prior to applying elliptic Fourier analyses ("EFAproc" method). Reliability and effectiveness of this morphometric procedure was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for the same dataset with four other morphometric methods of contour analysis. Cross-validated ("leave one individual out") percentages of misclassification yielded by linear discriminant analyses were used for determining the anatomic position of modern human molars. The percentages of misclassifications obtained from every method of contour analysis were low (1.67% to 3.33% for the UM, 5.56% to 6.67% for the LM) indicating the high suitability of crown contour analyses in correctly identifying molars. A reliable protocol, based on predictive linear discriminant analyses, was then proposed for identification of isolated molars. In addition, our results confirmed that the EFAproc method is suitable for normalizing outlines prior to undertaking elliptic Fourier analyses, especially in the case of nearly circular outlines: it obtained better classification than the classic method of normalization of Fourier descriptors for UM and provided also some advantages over the three landmarks-based methods tested here. PMID:24242977

Corny, Julien; Détroit, Florent

2014-02-01

308

Spectral analysis of four meteors. [chemical compositions and spectral emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Four meteor spectra are analyzed for chemical composition and radiative processes. The chemical compositions of the Taurid, Geminid, and Perseid meteors were found to be similar to that of a typical stony meteorite. The chemical composition of the sporadic meteor was found to be similar to that of a nickel iron meteorite. The radiation from optical meteors was found to be similar to that of a low temperature gas, except that strong, anomalous ionic radiation is superposed on the neutral radiation in bright, fast meteors.

Harvey, G. A.

1973-01-01

309

SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

2012-01-01

310

Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

2013-01-01

311

Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with the use of electric fields for evaluation and control of chemical systems. An electric field can result in the flow of charge across an interface between a metal and a solution, by means of chemical reactions. This interplay between electricity and chemistry, i.e. electrochemistry, is a field of crucial importance both within research and industry. Applications based on electrochemical principles encompass such diverse areas as batteries and fuel cells, pH electrodes, a...

Ulrich, Christian

2008-01-01

312

Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-p...

2008-01-01

313

THE NON-LINEAR METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN MODERN DESIGNING (BY THE EXAMPLE OF GEOTECHNICS FACILITIES AND BRIDGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement. Non-linear solutions are widely used within the framework of solution of the problems of development of the areas which were earlier unsuitable for construction (wetlands, slope areas; bases consisting of weak overwet soils.Results and conclusions. Design models and examples of practical implementa-tion of two groups of non-linear analysis in design of construction objects are considered. These are spatial deformation analysis of reinforced concrete decks of road bridges and elastoplastic numerical analysis of the bases, soil structures and structures interacting with soil structures.

N. N. Melnichuk

2010-10-01

314

Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1993-12-01

315

PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a young scientist for her talk entitled Application of focussed ion beam technique for TEM multilayer materials examination. This volume contains the full texts of 5 of the invited plenary lectures and of 24 papers on related topics originating from the posters presented at the workshop. All the papers have been subjected to peer review by a least two referees. January 2009 Acknowledgements On behalf of the European Microbeam Analysis Society I would like to thank all the invited speakers, session chairs and members of the discussion panels for making the meeting such a great success. Special thanks go to Michal Zelechower and Luc Van't dack who directed the organisation of the workshop giving freely of their time and talents. As was the case for previous workshops, the EMAS board in corpore was responsible for the scientific programme. I am particularly grateful to the exhibiting companies and sustaining members for their generous support of the workshop. In this context I would like particularly to mention: Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Gdansk University of Technology Polish Society for Microscopy (PTMi), Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Materials Science Committee, Warsaw Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow Polish Academy of Sciences - Institute of Physics, Warsaw AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Warsaw University of Technology Below is a combined list of the exhibiting companies and sponsors of the workshop: Ametek GmbH (Germany) Blackwell Publishing Ltd (UK) Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH (Germany) Cameca SA (France) Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH (Germany) COMEF Aparatura Naukowo-Badawcza (Poland) EU-JRC: Inst. for Transuranium Elements (Germany) FEI Company (The Netherlands) IfG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH (Germany) Jeol (Europe) SAS (France) John Wiley & Sons (UK) Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH (Germany) Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis Ltd (UK) Probe Software, Inc. (USA) Roenalytic GmbH (Germany) Target-Messtechnik (Germany) Thermo Fisher Scientific BV (The Netherlands

2010-07-01

316

Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available to other analytical instruments for measuring concentrations of substances other than Ca2+.

Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

2011-01-01

317

????????? ? ?????????????? = modernism and rationality / ??????? ??????????  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Ajakirja "Project Baltia" korraldatud näitus "Leningradi modernism. Tagasivaade 21. sajandist" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 8. juulist 15. augustini 2010. Esitletakse Leningradis 1960-1980. aastatel ehitatud hooneid, kuraator Vladimir Frolov

??????????, ???????

2010-01-01

318

International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

1996-01-01

319

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100? and 1000?C) w...

2012-01-01

320

DERIVING VP-NEG QUESTIONS IN MODERN CHINESE: A UNIFIED ANALYSIS OF A-NOT-A SYNTAX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a unified analysis of various subtypes of A-not-A questions, including VP-neg questions. It is proposed that all A-not-A subtypes are derived from a simplex VP source via morphological reduplication, with certain subtypes undergoing a further process of anaphoric ellipsis. Under this proposal, VP-neg questions are formed by deleting the second VP of a reduplicated VP-not-VP structure. It is argued that the analysis of VP-neg as an A-not-A variant is more desirable than the analysis of VP-neg as being on a par with a particle question (Cheng et al. 1996, because a number of parallelisms are shown to exist between VP-neg and other subtypes of A-not-A questions, but not between VP-neg and typical particle questions.

Rui-heng Ray Huang

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Stress and displacement analysis of a modern design lathe body by the fi nite element method (FEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Finite element method (FEM was used in this study for the analysis of the strain and stress of a turning machine body. The fi nal design decisions were made on the basis of stress and displacement fi eld analysis of various design versions related to the structure of the considered machine tool. The results presented in this paper will be helpful for practical static and dynamic strength evaluation as well as for the appropriate design of machine tools using the FEM.

R. Staniek

2012-01-01

322

Chemical Composition Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Iranian Propolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propolis is a substance made by the honeybee that provides protection against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis. One hundred forty compounds were identified by gas chromatography. Important chemical compositions in these propolises are: Flavonoids, Esters, Aliphatic acids, Aromatic acids, Sugars and sugar alcohols. All samples propolis ethanol extract Practice killed gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

2008-01-01

323

Chemical Analysis of Ordinary Portland Cement of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the quality of different brands of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC available in Bangladesh. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, insoluble residue (IR, free lime and loss on ignition (LOI were determined in accordance with British Standard (BS Specifications. All the results are presented to provide both quantitative and qualitative notion of several locally produced ordinary Compositions of most of this constituents as determined experimentally were within the range of the standard values. The possible reasons for variation in chemical compositions and their consequences have been discussed.

MS Ali

2008-12-01

324

Application of network methods for second law analysis and optimisation of chemical and thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of the thermodynamic method for analysis and optimisation is an efficient and promising approach to the task of reducing the consumption of energy resources in chemical industry. To that end, mathematical tools are necessary suitable for description of real chemical plant processes. The present work aims at studying the possibility of applying certain contemporary methods of parallel data processing to the problem of thermodynamic analysis and optimisation of energy-intensive chemical processes and systems as well as energy conversion subsystems in energy-integrated chemical plants. In the presented examples the Generalized Nets are used for simulation of a chemical and an energy conversion process and a back propagation neural network is used for real data processing from an existing chemical plant. 14 refs, 7 figs

Kirova-Yordanova, Z. [Univ. of Chemical Technology, Bourgas (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Technology; Atanassov, K.; Nikolov, N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). CLBME; Nikolova, N. [Technical Univ., Sofia (Bulgaria)

1996-11-01

325

Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure for the characterization of the dissimilar metal welds and the analysis of results by using 3D APT in order to get a clear understanding of structure and chemistry in the fundamental scale of weld interfaces

Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

326

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...handled for years without injury in analytical and biological...Techniques used in handling radioactive and infectious...thoroughly familiar with handling and cautionary procedures and the associated risks. 5.1.2 It is recommended...regulations regarding the safe handling of the chemicals...

2009-07-01

327

ASTP chemical and microbiological analysis of potable water  

Science.gov (United States)

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project procedures for potable water system servicing and the results of preflight and postflight chemical and microbiological analyses of the water are discussed. Tables show results of the analyses. The effectiveness of the water system is evaluated.

Sauer, R. L.; Leslie, S. A.

1976-01-01

328

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...This chemical is highly toxic. 6.11...known or suspected, human or mammalian...water which has been purified by filtration...reference sample of human adipose tissue containing...glassware associated with highly contaminated samples...known or suspected human or mammalian...

2009-07-01

329

Astronomy in Modern Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

2013-01-01

330

Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The ...

Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A.

2013-01-01

331

The Matthew Effect in Environmental Science Publication: A Bibliometric Analysis of Chemical Substances in Journal Articles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods: In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title search...

Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L.; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A.

2011-01-01

332

Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory

1996-01-08

333

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

Powell, C.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Surface and Microanalysis Science Division

1999-12-01

334

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...Gas Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis; Some...Gas Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis; Some Practical...drinking water or other samples containing low solids, smaller disks may be used....

2009-07-01

335

Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis

Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

2012-01-01

336

A comparative investigation of modern feature selection and classification approaches for the analysis of mass spectrometry data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many analytical approaches such as mass spectrometry generate large amounts of data (input variables) per sample analysed, and not all of these variables are important or related to the target output of interest. The selection of a smaller number of variables prior to sample classification is a widespread task in many research studies, where attempts are made to seek the lowest possible set of variables that are still able to achieve a high level of prediction accuracy; in other words, there is a need to generate the most parsimonious solution when the number of input variables is huge but the number of samples/objects are smaller. Here, we compare several different variable selection approaches in order to ascertain which of these are ideally suited to achieve this goal. All variable selection approaches were applied to the analysis of a common set of metabolomics data generated by Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry (Py-MS), where the goal of the study was to classify the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus. These approaches include stepwise forward variable selection, used for linear discriminant analysis (LDA); variable importance for projection (VIP) coefficient, employed in partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); support vector machines-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE); as well as the mean decrease in accuracy and mean decrease in Gini, provided by random forests (RF). Finally, a double cross-validation procedure was applied to minimize the consequence of overfitting. The results revealed that RF with its variable selection techniques and SVM combined with SVM-RFE as a variable selection method, displayed the best results in comparison to other approaches. PMID:24856395

Gromski, Piotr S; Xu, Yun; Correa, Elon; Ellis, David I; Turner, Michael L; Goodacre, Royston

2014-06-01

337

Application of modern Aperture Integration (AI) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques for analysis of large reflector antennas  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of aperture integration (AI) and geometrical theory of diffraction (GTO) techniques to analyze large reflector antennas is outlined. The following techniques were used: computer modeling, validation of analysis and computer codes, computer aided design modifications, limitation on the conventional aperture integration (AIC) method, extended aperture integration (AIE) method, the AIE method for feed scattering calculations, near field probing predictions for 15 meter model, limitation on AIC for surface tolerance effects, aperture integration on the surface (AIS) method, and AIC and GTD calculations for compact range reflector.

Rudduck, R. C.

1985-01-01

338

Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration  

CERN Document Server

Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by means of a hard-sphere condition. Small conditioning radii, even well inside the first maximum of the ion-water(oxygen) radial distribution function, result in Gaussian behavior for the long-ranged contribution that dominates the ion hydration free energy. The spatial partitioning allows for a mean-field treatment of the long-ranged contribution, leading to a natural division into first-order electrostatic, induction, and van der Waals terms. The induction piece exhibits the strongest ion polarizability dependence, while...

Rogers, David M

2009-01-01

339

McIDAS III - A modern interactive data access and analysis system. [Man computer Interactive Data Access System  

Science.gov (United States)

A powerful facility for meteorological analysis called the Man Computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) was designed and implemented in the early 1970's at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Hardware and software experience gained via extensive use of that facility and its derivatives have led to a newer implementation of McIDAS on a larger computer with significant enhancements to the supporting McIDAS software. McIDAS allows remote and local access to a wide range of data from satellites and conventional observations, time lapse displays of imagery data, overlaid graphics, and current and past meteorological data. Available software allows one to perform analysis of a wide range of digital images as well as temperature and moisture sounding data obtained from satellites. McIDAS can generate multicolor composites of conventional and satellite weather data, radar and forecast data in a wide variety of two- and three-dimensional displays as well as time lapse movies of these analyses. These and other capabilities are described in this paper.

Suomi, V. E.; Fox, R.; Limaye, S. S.; Smith, W. L.

1983-01-01

340

Analysis of the CSP Reduction Method for Chemical Kinetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is concerned with the asymptotic accuracy of the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) method developed by Lam and Goussis to reduce the dimensionality of a system of chemical kinetics equations. The method exploits the presence of disparate time scales to model the dynamics by an evolution equation on a lower-dimensional slow manifold. In this article it is shown that the successive applications of the CSP algorithm generate, order by order, the asymptotic ...

Zagaris, Antonios; Kaper, Hans G.; Kaper, Tasso J.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Chemical atomic emission analysis of high-purity boron bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique of chemical atomic emission determination of Fe,Mg,Mn,Pb,Cr,Sn,Ni,Bi,Ti,Co,Cd,Al,Sb,Ag,Cu,Ca,Zn,Mo,V impurities in high-purity boron bromide is developed. The relative detection limit is 6x10-8-2x10-10 mass %. The relative standard deviation in the 10-7-10-9 mass % impurity content range constituted from 0.27 to 0.53 depending on determined element

1990-01-01

342

Modeling and analysis of uranium isotope enrichment by chemical exchange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical study of uranium isotopes separation by chemical exchange, starting with an accurate mathematical model, is presented. The experimental data used in this study were obtained by reverse break-through operation and the numerical algorithm, developed for simulation in a previous study, was adapted to be suitable for this kind of processes. The model parameters were identified from experimental data and simulations were carried out for different experimental conditions. (author)

2003-09-25

343

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response an...

Boobis, Alan R.; Daston, George P.; Preston, R. Julian; Olin, Stephen S.

2009-01-01

344

[Analysis on mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation process].  

Science.gov (United States)

Zeta potential, particle size distribution and molecular weight distribution of dissolved TOC were studied to elementarily disclose the mechanism of the chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process to treat municipal wastewater. Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and primary sedimentation tank process were taken as the parallel-compared wastewater treatment processes. The experimental results show that under the same dosage, Zeta potential of the CBF process effluent is equal to that of the CEPT process, which indicates that flocculant in return sludge does not change the stabilization of particles in CBF reactor, and the biological flocculation is the key reason for CBF is superior to CEPT. In CBF process, good removal results are achieved for particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku by chemical dosage, and biological flocculation can not only promote the removal of particles >10 microm and dissolved TOC with molecular weight >6 ku, but also have high capacity to remove small particles and dissolved TOC with small molecular weight, with the results that particles >3 tpm are removed completely and TOC with molecular weight of 2-6 ku are removed by 42.5% . PMID:17633167

Zhang, Zhi-bin; Zhao, Jian-fu; Xia, Si-qing; Liu, Chang-qing; Wang, Xue-jiang

2007-05-01

345

Analysis of chemical interactions between stabilized zirconia and perovskites.  

Science.gov (United States)

LaMnO(3)-based perovskites are used as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A major aspect for their applicability is their chemical inertness in connection with the electrolyte material YSZ (Zr(0.85)Y(0.15)O(1.93)) against zirconate formations. Perovskites with the composition La(y-x)(Sr, Ca)(x)Mn(1-u)Co(u)O(3) (y = 1.0 and 0.95; x = 0- 0.2 and 1; u = 0 and 0.2) were investigated with regard to their reactivity with YSZ at different reaction times and temperatures. Powder mixtures and double-layer reaction couples were used for the investigations. XRD phase analyses, SEM/EDX and EPMA were applied for the characterization of the annealed samples. La-deficient perovskites (y = 0.95) partially substituted by Sr and Ca improve the chemical compatibility of perovskite compositions towards YSZ. Sr-containing perovskites were found to have a higher reactivity than Ca perovskites for La(2)Zr(2)O(7) formation. On the other hand enhanced Ca diffusion into YSZ was observed. Co substitution on Mn lattice sites decreased the chemical compatibility, especially for Sr containing perovskites. PMID:15045345

Stochniol, G; Broel, S; Naoumidis, A; Nickel, H

1996-06-01

346

Heat and Chemical Exergy Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, derived from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat and electricity generation, can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated by substituting fossil fuels with a clean energy source, e.g. solar energy. However, solar radiation reaching the earth is diluted, intermittent, and, unequally distributed. These disadvantages can be overcome by converting solar energy into chemical energy carriers, i.e. solar fuels, such as solar hydrogen and solar methanol, which can be long-termed stored and long-ranged transported. Since the energy conversion efficiency of thermochemical processes is limited by the Carnot efficiency, the use of concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat provides a thermodynamically efficient path for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels. In this study, water-gas shift reaction in parabolic trough collector is evaluated with regarding the heat exergy and chemical exergy analyses and the results are given as tables and graphs.

Öztürk, M.; Üçgül, I.; Özek, N.

2007-04-01

347

Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

2014-01-15

348

Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

1979-01-01

349

Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

2013-03-01

350

Airborne photography of chemical releases and analysis of twilight sky brightness data, phases 1 and 2  

Science.gov (United States)

The photography from aboard an aircraft of chemical releases is reported. The equipment installation on the aircraft is described, and photographs of the releases are included. An extensive analysis of twilight sky photographs is presented.

Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

1976-01-01

351

Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured.

Gladney, E.S.

1979-09-01

352

A Modern Dunciad A Modern Dunciad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Push-button war demands a woman's touch!" shrills Nason's twentieth century goddess Dullness, (in his book length poetic plagiarism of Pope's mock epic Dunciad), as she reestablishes her Empire in the modern New World by masking, cancelling, and attacking Progress and Liberty in a lustful attempt to destroy the Moral and Emotional content of poetry. She sluttishly breeds and fosters the Dunces of the literary kingdom of today, (Pope's Dunces were the poet L...

Anita Flanders Rebelo

2008-01-01

353

A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-09-01

354

A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

1993-01-01

355

Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein. The more important ones are discussed and, where relevant, compared with the ...

Beek, T. A.; Montoro, P.

2009-01-01

356

Design and analysis of feedback structures in chemical plants and biochemical systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with modelling, analysis, and design of interactions between subsystems in chemical process plants and intracellular biochemical processes. In the first part, the focus is on the selection of decentralized feedback control structures for plants in the chemical process industry, with the aim of achieving a desired performance in the presence of interactions. The second part focuses on modelling and analysis of complex biochemical networks, with the aim of unravelling the impa...

Schmidt, Henning

2004-01-01

357

ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

2010-01-01

358

Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the techni...

Thomson, B. A.; Davidson, W. R.; Lovett, A. M.

1980-01-01

359

Interlaboratory comparison of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) as a vegetation standard in chemical and radiochemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alfalfa (UST-1361) as a single SRM for use in chemical and radiochemical analysis of vegetation has been reported earlier, interest are shown in this paper. They were obtained in an interlaboratory comparison program currently in progress. Of the 22 split samples 15 have been acknowledged by the participants to test parameters of their interest. The chemical analysis is detailed and the procedures used are described

1984-10-15

360

Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

RAYMOND E. MARCH

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Physico-chemical analysis of some Pakistani crude oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical characteristics such as API gravity. Specific gravity, Pour point, Calorific value, Kinematic viscosity, Flash point, Reid vapour pressure, Copper corrosion. Condradson carbon, Water and sediments, Total sulphur, salt contents, Distillation range, I.B.P., F.B.P., total recovery, residue and metallic contents of some Pakistani crude oils collected from different oil fields of the Punjab and Sindh provinces has been employed to estimate the amounts of metallic elements, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Ni, Si, Na and K and V. Results have been compared with other international crude oils to assess the quality of Pakistani oils. (author)

1996-06-01

362

Analysis of the CSP Reduction Method for Chemical Kinetics  

CERN Multimedia

This article is concerned with the asymptotic accuracy of the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) method developed by Lam and Goussis to reduce the dimensionality of a system of chemical kinetics equations. The method exploits the presence of disparate time scales to model the dynamics by an evolution equation on a lower-dimensional slow manifold. In this article it is shown that the successive applications of the CSP algorithm generate, order by order, the asymptotic expansion of a slow manifold. The results are illustrated on the Michaelis-Menten-Henri equations of enzyme kinetics.

Zagaris, A; Kaper, T J; Kaper, Tasso J.

2003-01-01

363

Apparatus and method for performing microfluidic manipulations for chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microchip apparatus and method provide fluidic manipulations for a variety of applications, including sample injection for microchip liquid chromatography. The microchip is fabricated using standard photolithographic procedures and chemical wet etching, with the substrate and cover plate joined using direct bonding. Capillary electrophoresis is performed in channels formed in the substrate. Injections are made by electro-osmotically pumping sample through the injection channel that crosses the separation channel, followed by a switching of the potentials to force a plug into the separation channel.

Ramsey, J.M.

1999-12-14

364

Thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and crystal chemical characterization of phases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthetic rocks of different compositions have been prepared through melting in order to evaluate the technological potential of this process (in contrast with the favoured hot-pressing technique working well below solidus temperatures). Thermal analyses guiding the cooling process and the optimization of the texture of synthetic rocks have been performed as well as thermal gravimetry has been applied to control mass losses due to incongruent evaporation. The crystalline phases formed have been characterized crystal-chemically by means of X-ray diffraction. So far all synthetic rocks prepared through melting contain smaller amounts of glass. (orig.)

1981-06-01

365

New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. I. Chemical analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CS), the deacetylated form of chitin, the second most abundant, natural polysaccharide, is attractive for applications in the biomedical field because of its biocompatibility and resorption rates, which are higher than chitin. Crosslinking improves chemical and mechanical stability of CS. Here, we report the successful utilization of a new set of crosslinkers for electrospun CS. Genipin, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have not been previously explored for crosslinking of electrospun CS. In this first part of a two-part publication, we report the morphology, determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and chemical interactions, determined by Fourier transform infrared microscopy, respectively. FESEM revealed that CS could successfully be electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid with genipin, HDACS and ECH added to the solution. Diameters were 267 ± 199 nm, 644 ± 359 nm and 896 ± 435 nm for CS–genipin, CS–HDACS and CS–ECH, respectively. Short- (15 min) and long-term (72 h) dissolution tests (T600) were performed in acidic, neutral and basic pHs (3, 7 and 12). Post-spinning activation by heat and base to enhance crosslinking of CS–HDACS and CS–ECH decreased the fibre diameters and improved the stability. In the second part of this publication, we report the mechanical properties of the fibres.

Austero, Marjorie S.; Donius, Amalie E.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Schauer, Caroline L.

2012-01-01

366

The iron compound and the chemical analysis in agricultural soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil as chemically and biologically active means, where the nutrients and also the polluting agents are retained, is a very important factor in the development of a determined culture, reason why the man conducts different actions that allow to improve the nutrient composition of soil, and to eliminate the polluting agents through provision of fertilizers, wastes, etc.. The characterization of these improved soils is an indispensable task to the development of a certain culture. Plants take from the soil different elements that allows make different functions during the nutrition. Iron is one of such elements which take place en the chlorophyll in plants and can be forming different compounds. The determination of mineralogical of such iron compounds could be performed by means of different analytical techniques. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is the finger print technique in the valuation of iron compounds. The results of the valuation of the chemical composition and the iron mineralogical forms in Cuban and Spanish soil samples. A high ferric oxide concentration (100 %) in different mineralogical forms in the studied Cuban agriculture soil was found. A calcareous soil from Huelva region with ferrous sulphate as additive was characterized. This additive allows to improve the cation interchange capacity

2005-07-01

367

New crosslinkers for electrospun chitosan fibre mats. I. Chemical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CS), the deacetylated form of chitin, the second most abundant, natural polysaccharide, is attractive for applications in the biomedical field because of its biocompatibility and resorption rates, which are higher than chitin. Crosslinking improves chemical and mechanical stability of CS. Here, we report the successful utilization of a new set of crosslinkers for electrospun CS. Genipin, hexamethylene-1,6-diaminocarboxysulphonate (HDACS) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) have not been previously explored for crosslinking of electrospun CS. In this first part of a two-part publication, we report the morphology, determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and chemical interactions, determined by Fourier transform infrared microscopy, respectively. FESEM revealed that CS could successfully be electrospun from trifluoroacetic acid with genipin, HDACS and ECH added to the solution. Diameters were 267 ± 199 nm, 644 ± 359 nm and 896 ± 435 nm for CS-genipin, CS-HDACS and CS-ECH, respectively. Short- (15 min) and long-term (72 h) dissolution tests (T(600)) were performed in acidic, neutral and basic pHs (3, 7 and 12). Post-spinning activation by heat and base to enhance crosslinking of CS-HDACS and CS-ECH decreased the fibre diameters and improved the stability. In the second part of this publication, we report the mechanical properties of the fibres. PMID:22628209

Austero, Marjorie S; Donius, Amalie E; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schauer, Caroline L

2012-10-01

368

XPS analysis of combustion aerosols for chemical composition, surface chemistry, and carbon chemical state.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonaceous aerosols can vary in elemental content, surface chemistry, and carbon nano-structure. Each of these properties is related to the details of soot formation. Fuel source, combustion process (affecting formation and growth conditions), and postcombustion exhaust where oxidation occurs all contribute to the physical structure and surface chemistry of soot. Traditionally such physical and chemical parameters have been measured separately by various techniques. Presented here is the unified measurement of these characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present study, XPS is applied to combustion soot collected from a diesel engine (running biodiesel and pump-grade fuels); jet engine; and institutional, plant, and residential oil-fired boilers. Elemental composition is mapped by a survey scan over a broad energy range. Surface chemistry and carbon nanostructure are quantified by deconvolution of high-resolution scans over the C1s region. This combination of parameters forms a distinct matrix of identifiers for the soots from these sources. PMID:21322576

Vander Wal, Randy L; Bryg, Vicky M; Hays, Michael D

2011-03-15

369

Modernization (Selected Articles).  

Science.gov (United States)

TABLE OF CONTENTS: Modernization of Educational Training Methods; Tactical Combat Exercise Conducted Using Laser and Electronic Simulation Equipment; General Description of the Development of Our Military Training Simulation Equipment; An Interview With D...

Q. Xiaohao Z. Zhongfan L. Shuanqin L. Sehua

1986-01-01

370

Etymology and Modern Linguistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

Malkiel, Yakov

1975-01-01

371

Turbine maintenance and modernization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

1998-12-31

372

Concepts in modern parenting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus of my dissertation represents changes in parenthood, which are a consequence of a wider specter of social changes. Besides, I am interested in modern trends of educational strategies and how parents deal with the demands of society and those of professional public for nothing less than a perfect parenthood. Theoretical cognitions are divided into three parts: in the first one, new forms of family and social changes which affected the development of the modern family are describ...

2011-01-01

373

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...derivatization, cleanup, and electron capture detector gas chromatography...derivatization cleanup and electron capture detector...and analysis by GC with an electron capture detector (ECD) can...organic solvent. A secondary containment system around the...

2009-07-01

374

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...2 This is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method...procedure. 12. High Performance Liquid Chromatography 12.1 Table...analysis. 12. High Performance Liquid Chromatography 12.1 To the...acetonitrile and a new boiling...

2009-07-01

375

Chemical analysis of new and used 5% TEDA - impregnated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All radioiodine filters in Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations use 5% triethylene diamine impregnated carbon as an absorbent. Because replacement carbon, management of used carbon from the filters, and labor to change the carbon are expensive, increased service-life is desirable. Methods to optimize the quality of the new carbon, including analysis methods for new supplies, are described. Analysis of carbon samples taken from filters, to try to determine the reason for deterioration in service, are also discussed

1989-05-01

376

Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of solid oxide cells (SOCs) is highly dependent on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). Therefore, detailed TPB characterization is crucial for their further development. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare a similar to 50 nm thick transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical composition of nanoscale impurity phases at the TPBs has been obtained with a few nanometers lateral resolution. (c) 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.

2008-01-01

377

Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

1993-06-01

378

Gas Phase Analysis of Diamond Growth Chemical Vapor Deposition Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gas composition of two diamond film chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems is probed with absorption spectroscopy. The gas temperature in a hot filament diamond CVD system is derived from the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the H_2 molecule using synchrotron continuum radiation. The gas temperature is influenced most strongly by the substrate temperature, less strongly by heat conduction from the filament, and is nearly unaffected by heat deposited or absorbed by chemical reactions. The density of methyl radicals (CH _3) and the mole fraction of acetylene are measured in a hot filament CVD system both during and after an initial pretreatment that is intended to enhance the crystal nucleation density. The measurements suggest that the surface condition of the filament is the primary factor affecting the gas phase chemistry both during and after the pretreatment. The densities of CH_3 and CH and the hydrogen dissociation fraction are measured in a hot filament diamond CVD system for each of five different hydrocarbon input gases. The crystal growth rate and morphology of the diamond grown from the different input gases are also examined. The results indicate that the nature of the input hydrocarbon is relatively unimportant, and that the addition of oxygen greatly alters the gas phase chemistry and the filament surface condition. The absolute column densities of CH_3 and CH and the hydrogen dissociation ratio are measured in a DC hollow cathode plasma-assisted CVD system. The plasma gas temperature is determined using the H _2 emission spectrum near 460 nm. The CH _3 and CH densities are compared with measurements made in the hot filament CVD system.

Menningen, Kenneth Lee

1995-01-01

379

A Modern Dunciad A Modern Dunciad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "Push-button war demands a woman's touch!" shrills Nason's twentieth century goddess Dullness, (in his book length poetic plagiarism of Pope's mock epic Dunciad, as she reestablishes her Empire in the modern New World by masking, cancelling, and attacking Progress and Liberty in a lustful attempt to destroy the Moral and Emotional content of poetry. She sluttishly breeds and fosters the Dunces of the literary kingdom of today, (Pope's Dunces were the poet Laureates of his day, and sallies brazenly everywhere in the company of her muses Self-Service, Smuggnes, sadism, and "sweet Anality", so light and fair,/ Enlaced with tender plaits her public hair".

Anita Flanders Rebelo

2008-04-01

380

Radar equations for modern radar  

CERN Document Server

Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

Barton, David K

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

1998-03-01

382

Risk analysis of chemical and radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic problem in dealing with risky events is to compare the costs of various precautions taken to reduce risk with the risk reduction achieved. Deep-well injection serves as an example for a risk analysis of hazardous waste decisions, but the analysis can apply to other decisions. The failure of a deep-well disposal system can be traced to human error, mechanical failure, or hydrologic occurrence. Even while the value of resources endangered by deep-well disposal is considerable, the low probability of such an extreme event reduces the expected value of such an alternative to modest levels. 28 references, 3 tables

1985-01-01

383

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WET SCRUBBERS UTILIZING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the key elements required to develop a sampling and analysis program for a wet scrubber using ion chromatography as the main analytical technique. The first part of the report describes a sampling program for two different types of wet scrubbers: the venturi/...

384

40 CFR Appendix - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of  

Science.gov (United States)

...standard is used for calibration verification (VER). If only 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2...the calibration verification standard (VER, Table 4). Recalibration is required...analysis of the CS3 calibration verification (VER) standard (Section 7.13 and Table...

2009-07-01

385

Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

1993-04-01

386

Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature on the product quality (degree of cure) are examined by means of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The variations in the activation energy as well as the density of the resin are found to have a strong influence on the centerline degree of cure at the exit whereas the other process parameters have smaller influences. Moreover, different MCS options are examined to investigate their effects on the accuracy of the random output parameter.

Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal

2012-01-01

387

Chemical analysis of rain samples collected over the Pacific Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

During seven research cruises in the Pacific Ocean from 1984 to 1989 we collected rain samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and temporal variations of rain chemistry were studied in relation to natural and anthropogenic sources and transport of the constituents. The pH values of rain samples ranged from 3.9 to 7.2, with a mean of 5.6 (n = 104, ? = 0.5). The most acidic rain was found near the big ports, where SO4= and NO3- concentrations in rain were also the highest. The data indicated that wet deposition transports anthropogenic pollution from continents to oceans. Enrichments of Ca++ and K+, which are compared to Na+ in seawater, were observed in all rain samples throughout the ocean. However, their enrichment factors (EF) decrease with distance from land, signifying the extent of transport of crustal elements through cloud process and wet deposition. The EFs of Mg++ were close to unity, indicating its common origin with Na+. The EFs of Cl- in most rain samples were less than l, indicating loss of Cl- in aerosols, cloud droplets, or rain drops. High EFs of SO4= were also observed at the equatorial regions, where biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide is well known. During the 1987 El Niño anomaly the sulfate aerosol distribution and rainfall patterns altered with air trajectories. The effects of sulfate aerosol on cloud condensation and rainfall amount in various regions during normal years and the El Niño anomaly are discussed.

Nagamoto, C.; Parungo, F.; Kopcewicz, B.; Zhou, M. Y.

1990-12-01

388

Chemical analysis of americium samples irradiated under fast neutron spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the transmutation behavior of americium under fast neutron spectra, two irradiated 241Am samples (No. 69, No. 70) were analyzed by radiochemical methods. About 100 ?g of 241Am (Am oxide, 99.9%) samples encapsulated in a small vanadium capsule were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO for 275 effective full power day (EFPD) by the fast neutron flux of 1.08 x 1015 (No. 69, in the reflector region) and 3.25 x 1015 (No. 70, at the center core) n·cm-2 s-1 (E ? 0.1 MeV). After dissolution of these samples, americium, curium, and plutonium were chemically separated and the isotopic composition was determined by alpha and gamma-ray spectrometries and mass spectroscopy. 242mAm, 243Am, 238-242Pu and 242-248Cm were clearly observed. The isotopic composition of 242mAm exceeded 1.01 at.% for sample No. 69 and 1.48 at.% for No. 70. It was suggested that this difference came from the different rates of neutron capture reaction. The main detected curium isotope 243Cm was formed through 242m,gAm by the neutron capture of 241Am. The transmutation ratios of americium could be evaluated from these experimental results and were around 7.8% and 11.1% for the sample No. 69 and No. 70, respectively. (author)

2008-09-01

389

Achocolatados: análise química Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredientes lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose e "light" (com redução de açúcares e os tradicionais.Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars and light (low sugar and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas Eduardo

2004-09-01

390

Achocolatados: análise química / Chocolate drink powders: chemical analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho avaliaram-se propriedades químicas de achocolatados do mercado brasileiro, sendo estas os teores de lipídios, proteínas, cinzas, umidade, pH, teobromina e alcalóides totais. Estas propriedades são influenciadas principalmente pelo conteúdo de cacau em pó e pelo conteúdo dos ingredient [...] es lácteos, como o leite em pó e o soro de leite em pó. Foi feito um comparativo entre as marcas de achocolatados, dando ênfase às grandes diferenças, quando existentes, entre os achocolatados dietéticos (para dietas de restrição de sacarose, frutose e glicose (dextrose)) e "light" (com redução de açúcares) e os tradicionais. Abstract in english Some chemical properties of chocolate drink powders from Brazilian market, such as lipid, protein, ashes, moisture, pH, theobromine and total alkaloids content of the samples were evaluated. These properties are mainly influenced by cocoa powder content and by dairy products, such as milk powder and [...] whey. A comparison among the brands, emphasizing their strong differences, when existing, among diet (without sugars) and light (low sugar) and the standard brands was made.

Mércia de Freitas, Eduardo; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

391

Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements from 1 to 2 cantilevers have been reported, without any information on repeatability and reliability of the presented data. In explosive detection high reliability is needed and thus a statistical measurement approach needs to be developed and implemented. We have developed a DVD-based read-out system capable of generating large sets of cantilever data for vapor and liquid phase detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Gold coated cantilevers are initially functionalized with tetraTIT-calix[4]pyrrole molecules, specifically designed to bind nitro-aromatic compounds. The selective binding of DNT molecules on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with non-selective coatings the tetraTTF-calix[4]pyrrole functionalized cantilevers reveal a uniform and reproducible behavior. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bosco, F. G.; Bache, M.

2012-01-01

392

The Determination of the Iridoids from the Melampyrum species by Modern Chromatographic Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The idea of studying the iridoids from the Melampyrum bihariense Kern has started from the few data found about the chemical composition of this species. The literature mentions the presence of iridoids found in two species of Melampyrum: Melampyrum arvense and Melampyrum cristatum. The study consists of a qualitative and quantitative analysis by modern chromatographic methods, TLC.TLC coupled with photo-densitometry as well as chromatography on the high performance column (LC/MS). The methan...

Munteanu, Melania F.; Vlase, Laurian

2011-01-01

393

ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT FLOW IN THE IMPELLER OF A CHEMICAL PUMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the phenomena of two-phase flow with salt crystallising in the chemical pump, the 3-D turbulent flow in the impeller of chemical pump was simulated at the condition of rinsing. The internal flow between the impellers of 1H65 chemical pump is investigated. Based on the Reynolds-averaging N-S equations and the standard k-? two equations turbulent model, the simulations of turbulent flow between the impellers are performed using the flow computing software Fluent under different operating conditions. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data by particle image velocimetery (PIV. Based on the analysis of the calculated results of velocity and pressure profiles in the chemical pump and experimentally observed phenomenon of flow impact, secondary flow and recirculation, some design improvements are proposed, which give suggestions on the optimal design and internal two-phase flow study of the chemical pump.

MIN-GUAN YANG

2007-12-01

394

Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

Mcnutt, R. C.

1973-01-01

395

Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility

2002-07-03

396

Low Cost Long Distance Detector for Explosives and Chemical Analysis by IEC Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A radiation source for detecting specific chemicals at several meter distances even behind walls, car doors or other barriers is the application of Million electron Volts (MeV) neutrons from nuclear fusion reactions at such low intensities to avoid any danger for human bodies. The chemical analysis consists in the neutron activation of nuclei emitting then gamma radiation of lines very specific for the excited nuclei. The neutron generation by the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) had ...

Miley, George H.; Heinrich Hora; Frederick Osman; Yang Yang; Linchun Wu; Hiromo Momota; Xing Zhong Li

2005-01-01

397

New Techniques for Continuous Chemical Analysis in the Pulp&Paper Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents some new techniques that were developedfor continuous chemical analysis of a paper furnish. First, ageneral background is presented, covering topics from theorigins of papermaking to present day. A short introduction topapermaking chemistry and a variety of presently availableon-line chemical analysers and measurement strategies are alsodiscussed. A method is described for the continuous fractionation of apaper furnish containing coarse fibres (>10µm) in orderto obtai...

Rice, Matthew

2001-01-01

398

Modernity and the Belgian Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article will explore the intellectual context in which French-Belgian colonial writing developed from the turn of the twentieth century to the late 1930s. This period is marked by a gradual shift from evolutionism to cultural relativism. The analysis will first focus on the Tervuren colonial ex [...] hibition of 1897 and the progressive emergence of Belgian africanism in the early twentieth century. Secondly, it will account for the ways in which this overall context bore witness to new and somewhat less Eurocentric conditions of possibility. Subsequently, the article will attempt to draw parallels between these more inclusive and seemingly less orientalising anthropological paradigms and the advent, first in France and then in Belgium, of a rejuvenated brand of colonial literature (or indigenous realism) which, for all its openness and eagerness to embrace modernity, did not result in radical rejections of colonialism on the part of its promoters. Finally, two Belgian novels in French - M. L. Delhaise-Arnould's Amedra (1926) and H. Drum's Luéji (1932) - will be analysed to appraise whether or not their authors' objective to reconstitute Congolese indigeneity is a strategy to oppose Belgian modernity against Congolese supposed pre-modernity.

Pierre-Philippe, Fraiture.

399

Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR2O3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

2013-04-14

400

Chemical etching and EDAX analysis of beryllium-free nickel-chromium ceramo-metal alloy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemical etching technique is described for producing etch patterns in beryllium-free nickel chromium ceramo-metal alloy. Disc-shaped samples were chemically etched, evaluated with SEM and analysed by the EDAX technique. Scanning electron micrographs revealed, profound retentive cavities. The EDAX analysis provided a comprehensive interpretation of the etch mechanism. The obtained results show that the developed chemical etching has the potential to produce a highly retentive etched surface with less problematic and less technique sensitive than electrolytic etching. PMID:9497687

Atta, O M; Mosleh, I E; Shehata, M T

1995-10-01