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1

Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emi...

Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

2

Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm?3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m?3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations were described for processes as required.

Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

2010-01-01

3

Occupational exposure assessment in carbon nanotube and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers: mobile direct-reading sampling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE: Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. METHODS: Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. RESULTS: Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542-56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI instruments employed were limited in their usefulness in assessing and quantifying potential exposures at the sampled sites but were helpful for hypothesis generation, control technology evaluations, and other air quality issues. The DRIs employed are nonspecific, aerosol monitors, and, therefore, subject to interferences. As such, it is necessary to collect samples for analysis by more selective, time-integrated, laboratory-based methods to confirm and quantify exposures.

Dahm MM; Evans DE; Schubauer-Berigan MK; Birch ME; Deddens JA

2013-04-01

4

Direct reading dosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

1981-10-02

5

Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

2000-01-01

6

Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the final report for the Analytical Laboratory and Mobile Sampling Platform project. This report contains only major findings and conclusions resulting from this project. Detailed reports of all activities performed for this project were provided to the Project Office every quarter since the beginning of the project. This report contains water chemistry data for samples collected in the Nevada section of Death Valley National Park (Triangle Area Springs), Nevada Test Site springs, Pahranagat Valley springs, Nevada Test Site wells, Spring Mountain springs and Crater Flat and Amargosa Valley wells.

1996-01-01

7

Studies of particle emission from solid surfaces by means of direct-Reading Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An experimental set-up measuring differential sputtering yields and angular distribution of sputtered and/or evaporated particles is described. By beam switching the evaporation and sputtering components can be separated which is a problem at higher sample temperatures. As a specific application the temperature dependence of the differential sputtering yield of silver under atomic and molecular antimony bombardment is investigated. It is concluded that direct reading particle detectors can give valuable information in special areas. (G.Q.)

1983-02-04

8

Setting-up of a direct reading emission spectrometer and its adaptation for plutonium handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Jarrell-Ash 750 AtomComp 1100 series direct reading emission spectrometer was set up and its performance features were checked with regard to analysis of uranium-based samples using d.c. arc/inductively coupled argon plasma excitation techniques. The instrument has been subsequently modified to enable handling of plutonium-based samples. The modifications include building up of a specially designed glove-box around the excitation sources and consequent changes in the electro-mechanical controls associated with them. The modified system was extensively used for the trace metal assay of FBTR fuel sample. (author)

1986-01-01

9

Value of information and mobility constraints for sampling with mobile sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a vital role in environmental monitoring. Advances in mobile sensors offer new opportunities to improve phenomenon predictions by adapting spatial sampling to local variability. Two issues are relevant: which location should be sampled and which mobile sensor should move to do it? This paper proposes a form of adaptive sampling by mobile sensors according to the expected value of information (EVoI) and mobility constraints. EVoI allows decisions to be made about the location to observe. It minimises the expected costs of wrong predictions about a phenomenon using a spatially aggregated EVoI criterion. Mobility constraints allow decisions to be made about which sensor to move. A cost-distance criterion is used to minimise unwanted effects of sensor mobility on the WSN itself, such as energy depletion. We implemented our approach using a synthetic data set, representing a typical monitoring scenario with heterogeneous mobile sensors. To assess the method, it was compared with a random selection of sample locations. The results demonstrate that EVoI enables selecting the most informative locations, while mobility constraints provide the needed context for sensor selection. This paper therefore provides insights about how sensor mobility can be efficiently managed to improve knowledge about a monitored phenomenon.

Ballari, Daniela; de Bruin, Sytze; Bregt, Arnold K.

2012-12-01

10

Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

2011-01-01

11

A Refined Experience Sampling Method to Capture Mobile User Experience  

CERN Multimedia

This paper reviews research methods used to understand the user experience of mobile technology. The paper presents an improvement of the Experience Sampling Method and case studies supporting its design. The paper concludes with an agenda of future work for improving research in this field. Keywords: Research methods, topology, case study, contrasting graph, Experience Sampling Method

Cherubini, Mauro

2009-01-01

12

Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r2=0.96, P

2003-01-01

13

EFFICIENT DATA AGGREGATION FOR MOBILE SAMPLING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile objects can be used to gather samples from a sensor field. Civilian vehicles or even human beings equipped with proper wireless communication devices can be used as mobile sinks that retrieve sensor-data from sampling points within a large sensor field. A key challenge is how to gather the sensor data in a manner that is energy efficient with respect to the sensor nodes that serve as sources of the sensor data. In this paper, an algorithmic technique called Band-based Directional Broadcast is introduced to control the direction of broadcasts that originate from sensor nodes. The goal is to direct each broadcast of sensor data toward the mobile sink, thus reducing costly forwarding of sensor data packets. The technique is studied by simulations that consider energy consumption and data deliverability.

K. SIVAKUMAR; DR. T. RAVICHANDRAN

2012-01-01

14

Direct reading spectrochemical determination of aluminium, iron and silicon in fluorite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative spectrochemical method for the determination of Al, Fe and Si in fluorite has been worked out. The sample was supported in a graphite electrode with crater of 5 mm. in diameter, 2,5 mm deep, and burned by a d.c. are in a direct reading spectrometer. The excitation of samples has been studied without dilution as well as using graphite powder as diluent in the ratios 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9; the latter factor was chosen. Ag, Ca, Co, Cr, Mo and Sn were tested as internal standards. It has not been found any significant inter element effect. It is necessary to use natural fluorite as base material for the standards. (Author) 5 refs.

1966-01-01

15

Evaluation of the direct reading instruments for the measurement of aerosols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six portable, direct-reading instruments for measuring industrial aerosols were evaluated with respect to bias and precision. The Instruments were: Sibata P5, Simslin II, TM-digital, RAM-1, TSI 3500, and RDM 201. As a reference, total dust was determined using an open 37 mm cassette and respirable dust by sampling with a cyclone. Tests were carried out on aerosols simulated with a generator and a dust chamber, and also on aerosols in mines, sintering plants and smelters. Zero drift, reference unit drift, and flow rate drift were recorded during each test run. None of the 6 instruments gave the same readings as the filter method, but 4 of them could be calibrated to yield precision <25% for a given aerosol. The fifth instrument, Simslin II, showed somewhat greater precision and the sixth RDM 201, displayed precision >25%. Wide differences in factory precalibration were found among instruments of the same model.

Kuusisto, P.

1983-11-01

16

Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

Mike Stears

2010-07-01

17

Improved configuration space sampling: Langevin dynamics with alternative mobility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a new and efficient method for determining optimal configurations of a large number (N) of interacting particles. We use a coarse-grained stochastic Langevin equation in the overdamped limit to describe the dynamics of this system and replace the standard mobility by an effective space dependent inverse Hessian correlation matrix. Due to the analogy of the drift term in the Langevin equation and the update scheme in Newton's method, we expect accelerated dynamics or improved convergence in the convex part of the potential energy surface Phi. The stochastic noise term, however, is not only essential for proper thermodynamic sampling but also allows the system to access transition states in the concave parts of Phi. We employ a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shannon method for updating the local mobility matrix. Quantitative analysis for one and two dimensional systems shows that the new method is indeed more efficient than standard methods with constant effective friction. Due to the construction, our effective mobility adapts high values/low friction in configurations which are less optimal and low values/high friction in configurations that are more optimal.

Chau CD; Sevink GJ; Fraaije JG

2008-06-01

18

Improved configuration space sampling: Langevin dynamics with alternative mobility  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new and efficient method for determining optimal configurations of a large number (N) of interacting particles. We use a coarse-grained stochastic Langevin equation in the overdamped limit to describe the dynamics of this system and replace the standard mobility by an effective space dependent inverse Hessian correlation matrix. Due to the analogy of the drift term in the Langevin equation and the update scheme in Newton's method, we expect accelerated dynamics or improved convergence in the convex part of the potential energy surface ?. The stochastic noise term, however, is not only essential for proper thermodynamic sampling but also allows the system to access transition states in the concave parts of ?. We employ a Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shannon method for updating the local mobility matrix. Quantitative analysis for one and two dimensional systems shows that the new method is indeed more efficient than standard methods with constant effective friction. Due to the construction, our effective mobility adapts high values/low friction in configurations which are less optimal and low values/high friction in configurations that are more optimal.

Chau, C. D.; Sevink, G. J. A.; Fraaije, J. G. E. M.

2008-06-01

19

Effect of calibration environment on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of two direct-reading organic vapor monitors (monitors) when calibrated at different environmental conditions was compared with charcoal tube results. Three MIRAN SapphIRe portable ambient air analyzers (SAP) and three Century portable toxic vapor analyzers (TVAs) were evaluated. Prior to sampling, the monitors were calibrated per the manufacturer's instructions using methane for the TVA flame ionization detector (FID) and isobutylene for the photoionization detector (PID), whereas the SapphIRe instruments were zeroed and the instrument's manufacturer-supplied library was used. For the first series of tests ("Part 1--Same condition"), the monitors were calibrated under the same environmental conditions as those present during sampling. They were then challenged with four cyclohexane concentrations (30, 150, 300, and 475 ppm) under two extreme environmental conditions: 5 degrees C and 30% relative humidity (RH) (same/cold) and 38 degrees C and 90% RH (same/hot). For the second series of tests ("Part 2--Different condition"), the monitors were calibrated at approximately normal indoor environmental conditions (21 degrees C and 50% RH) and sampled at extreme environmental conditions (different/cold and different/hot). The monitor readings from the two methods were compared with the actual cyclohexane concentration determined from charcoal tubes using ratios and root mean square errors. A number of monitor failures, both below detection limit values in the presence of a known challenge concentration and erroneously high measurements, occurred in each part: same condition 20.7% (149/720) and different condition 42.4% (305/ 720), with a majority of the failures (> 78%) during the hot and humid conditions. All monitors performed best at the same/cold, followed by the same/hot, in terms of closeness to the reference standard method and low within-monitor variability. The ranked choice of monitors for same/cold is PID > SAP > FID; for different/cold FID > PID > SAP; for same/hot SAP > PID > FID; and for different/hot PID > SAP (FID not included due to 100% failure rate). Implications: Direct-reading organic vapor monitors are used for assessing the concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the air at varying environmental conditions. Typical calibration is performed at laboratory temperature and pressure. The monitors may be used in atmospheres that differ from that during calibration. An understanding of the effect of calibration environment on monitor performance may provide valuable information on the reliability and appropriateness of certain monitor types for industrial hygienists, emergency responders, and exposure assessment practitioners. Results of the study indicate monitor calibration should be performed at the same environmental conditions as sampling.

LeBouf RF; Slaven JE; Coffey CC

2013-05-01

20

75 FR 64309 - Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum  

Science.gov (United States)

...Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors and Addendum...Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors'' and...Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors:...

2010-10-19

 
 
 
 
21

Surveying alcohol and other drug use through telephone sampling: a comparison of landline and mobile phone samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Telephone surveys based on samples of landline telephone numbers are widely used to measure the prevalence of health risk behaviours such as smoking, drug use and alcohol consumption. An increasing number of households are relying solely on mobile telephones, creating a potential bias for population estimates derived from landline-based sampling frames which do not incorporate mobile phone numbers. Studies in the US have identified significant differences between landline and mobile telephone users in smoking and alcohol consumption, but there has been little work in other settings or focussed on illicit drugs. METHODS: This study examined Australian prevalence estimates of cannabis use, tobacco smoking and risky alcohol consumption based on samples selected using a dual-frame (mobile and landline) approach. Respondents from the landline sample were compared both to the overall mobile sample (including respondents who had access to a landline) and specifically to respondents who lived in mobile-only households. Bivariate comparisons were complemented with multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for the effects of basic demographic variables. RESULTS: The landline sample reported much lower prevalence of tobacco use, cannabis use and alcohol consumption than the mobile samples. Once demographic variables were adjusted for, there were no significant differences between the landline and mobile respondents on any of the alcohol measures examined. In contrast, the mobile samples had significantly higher rates of cannabis and tobacco use, even after adjustment. Weighted estimates from the dual-frame sample were generally higher than the landline sample across all substances, but only significantly higher for tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: Landline telephone surveys in Australia are likely to substantially underestimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking by excluding potential respondents who live in mobile-only households. In contrast, estimates of alcohol consumption and cannabis use from landline surveys are likely to be broadly accurate, once basic demographic weighting is undertaken.

Livingston M; Dietze P; Ferris J; Pennay D; Hayes L; Lenton S

2013-01-01

22

Direct-reading spectrochemical analysis of magnesium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Quantometer has been applied to the determination of aluminum, berylium, calcium, iron, silicon and zinc in magnesium alloys Magnox, after the conversion of the samples to the oxide. For the aluminum, whose concentration is relatively high, the conducting briquets technique with an interrupted discharge is employed, using the magnesium as the internal standard. For the other elements a total burning method with direct current arc is employed, using also the magnesium as the internal standard. (Author) 7 refs.

1964-01-01

23

Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained detectable concentrations of extractable Pu and Am. Water extracts from samples containing high concentrations of TBP suggest that if the TBP degradation products DBP and MBP are available in these sediments, they do not significantly increase the extractability of Pu or Am. Geochemical modeling results suggest that the concentrations of Am in water in contact with these sediments is not controlled by the solubility of Am(OH)3(c), but rather by desorption of Am that has been previously adsorbed to the sediments during the period of active wastewater disposal. Sediment extracts that had measureable concentrations of Am only occurred in samples that were fairly acidic (pH 4.3 to 4.6), indicating that Am will remain effectively sequestered to sediments when pH conditions approach those of normal Hanford groundwater (mildly alkaline, ~ pH 8). The geochemical modeling results indicate that Pu in acidic extracts is significantly undersaturated with respect to PuO2(am). However, recent reviews of Pu solubility and redox reactions suggest that the data used for these calculations is incomplete (Neck et al. 2007a, 2007b). The results of Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b) suggest that Pu concentrations in solutions in contact with the 216-Z-9 Trench sediment samples might be controlled by a mixed valent solid phase [(PuV)2x(PuIV)1-2xO2+x(am)] with various dissolved Pu(V) complexes and Pu(IV)O2(am) colloids or nanoclusters being the dominant species in solution for typical Hanford groundwater conditions. Adsorption is likely to have a major impact on the mobility of these species (Neck et al. 2007a, 2007b; Clark et al. 2006; Kaplan et al. 2006; Powell et al. 2005). Further research is planned to verify these hypotheses.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

2008-09-05

24

Industrial Component-based Sample Mobile Robot System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mobile robot development can be done in two different ways. The first is tobuild up an embedded system, the second is to use ‘ready to use’ industrial components.With the spread of Industrial mobile robots there are more and more components on themarket which can be used to build up a whole control and sensor system of a mobile robotplatform. Using these components electrical hardware development is not needed, whichspeeds up the development time and decreases the cost. Using a PLC on board, ‘only’constructing the program is needed and the developer can concentrate on the algorithms,not on developing hardware. My idea is to solve the problem of mobile robot localizationand obstacle avoidance using industrial components and concentrate this topic to themobile robot docking. In factories, mobile robots can be used to deliver parts from oneplace to another, but there are always two critical points. The robot has to be able tooperate in human environment, and also reach the target and get to a predefined positionwhere another system can load it or get the delivered product. I would like to construct amechanically simple robot model, which can calculate its position from the rotation of itswheels, and when it reaches a predefined location with the aid of an image processingsystem it can dock to an electrical connector. If the robot succeeded it could charge itsbatteries through this connector as well.

Péter Kucsera

2007-01-01

25

Assessment of personal direct-reading dust monitors for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in particle size could not be accurately investigated for the respirable fraction. The sampling head of the Split 2 monitor incorporates an IOM inlet and filter to gravimetrically collect the inhalable fraction of airborne dust. This can give a concurrent reference measure of inhalable airborne dust concentration. However, poor sealing within the sampling head resulted in some of the sampled dust not reaching the backup filter. This resulted in the Split 2 underestimating the reference inhalable dust concentration, which meant that it could not be accurately used as a calibration standard. Communications with the manufacturers have since revealed that the sampling head has recently been redesigned in order to improve the seal and eliminate leakage. The Respicon sampler gravimetrically underestimated the inhalable dust concentration, and did so increasingly as the particle size increased.

Thorpe A

2007-01-01

26

TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN & EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION & PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP-22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore, hazard analyses can and should be tailored as appropriate. Detection of each chemical by current industrial hygiene non-specific instrumentation in use at the tank farms is evaluated. Information gaps are identified and recommendations are made to resolve these needs. Of the 52 COPC, 34 can be detected with existing instrumentation. Three additional chemicals could be detected with a photoionization detector (PID) equipped with a different lamp. Discussion with specific instrument manufacturers is warranted. Consideration should be given to having the SapphIRe XL customized for tank farm applications. Other instruments, sampling or modeling techniques should be evaluated to estimate concentrations of chemicals not detected by direct reading instruments. In addition, relative instrument response needs to be factored in to action levels used for direct reading instruments. These action levels should be correlated to exposures to the COPC and corresponding occupational exposure limits (OELs). The minimum respiratory protection for each of the COPC is evaluated against current options. Recommendations are made for respiratory protection based on each chemical. Until exposures are sufficiently quantified and analyzed, the current use of supplied air respiratory protection is appropriate and protective for the COPC. Use of supplied air respiratory protection should be evaluated once a detailed exposure assessment for the COPC is completed. The established tank farm OELs should be documented in the TFC-PLN-34. For chemicals without an established tank farm OEL, consideration should be given to adopting protective limits from NIOSH, AIHA, or developing OELs. Protective gloves and suits are evaluated for each chemical for which information is available. Information gaps are identified for some of the compounds and materials. Recommendations are made for resolving these needs. Based on available information, Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves are promising for tank farm applications. However, permeation testing documentation is needed for the COPC and mixtures for Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves to evaluate their protectiveness. North Safety Products is expected to provide the requested documentation. Multiple Tychem{reg_sign} products are available. There is overlap between chemicals and effective materials. Further hazard evaluation to determine actual hazards and permeation testing documentation is required to assess the efficacy of a single Tychem{reg_sign} product for tank farm applications. All of this chemical specific data is combined into a spreadsheet that will assist the industrial hygienist in the selection of monitoring instruments, respiratory protection selection and protective clothing for performing work at a specific tank(s).

BUTLER, N.K.

2004-11-01

27

TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN and EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION and PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP--22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore, hazard analyses can and should be tailored as appropriate. Detection of each chemical by current industrial hygiene non-specific instrumentation in use at the tank farms is evaluated. Information gaps are identified and recommendations are made to resolve these needs. Of the 52 COPC, 34 can be detected with existing instrumentation. Three additional chemicals could be detected with a photoionization detector (PID) equipped with a different lamp. Discussion with specific instrument manufacturers is warranted. Consideration should be given to having the SapphIRe XL customized for tank farm applications. Other instruments, sampling or modeling techniques should be evaluated to estimate concentrations of chemicals not detected by direct reading instruments. In addition, relative instrument response needs to be factored in to action levels used for direct reading instruments. These action levels should be correlated to exposures to the COPC and corresponding occupational exposure limits (OELs). The minimum respiratory protection for each of the COPC is evaluated against current options. Recommendations are made for respiratory protection based on each chemical. Until exposures are sufficiently quantified and analyzed, the current use of supplied air respiratory protection is appropriate and protective for the COPC. Use of supplied air respiratory protection should be evaluated once a detailed exposure assessment for the COPC is completed. The established tank farm OELs should be documented in the TFC-PLN-34. For chemicals without an established tank farm OEL, consideration should be given to adopting protective limits from NIOSH, AIHA, or developing OELs. Protective gloves and suits are evaluated for each chemical for which information is available. Information gaps are identified for some of the compounds and materials. Recommendations are made for resolving these needs. Based on available information, Silver Shield(regsign) gloves are promising for tank farm applications. However, permeation testing documentation is needed for the COPC and mixtures for Silver Shield(regsign) gloves to evaluate their protectiveness. North Safety Products is expected to provide the requested documentation. Multiple Tychem(regsign) products are available. There is overlap between chemicals and effective materials. Further hazard evaluation to determine actual hazards and permeation testing documentation is required to assess the efficacy of a single Tychem(regsign) product for tank farm applications. All of this chemical specific data is combined into a spreadsheet that will assist the industrial hygienist in the selection of monitoring instruments, respiratory protection selection and protective clothing for performing work at a specific tank(s)

2004-01-01

28

Improving Gambling Survey Research Using Dual-Frame Sampling of Landline and Mobile Phone Numbers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gambling prevalence studies are typically conducted within a single (landline) telephone sampling frame. This practice continues, despite emerging evidence that significant differences exist between landline and mobile (cell) phone only households. This study utilised a dual-frame (landline and mobile) telephone sampling methodology to cast light on the extent of differences across groups of respondents in respect to demographic, health, and gambling characteristics. A total of 2,014 participants from across Australian states and territories ranging in age from 18 to 96 years participated. Interviews were conducted using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology where 1,012 respondents from the landline sampling frame and 1,002 from the mobile phone sampling frame completed a questionnaire about gambling and other health behaviours. Responses across the landline sampling frame, the mobile phone sampling frame, and the subset of the mobile phone sampling frame that possessed a mobile phone only (MPO) were contrasted. The findings revealed that although respondents in the landline sample (62.7 %) did not significantly differ from respondents in the mobile phone sample (59.2 %) in gambling participation in the previous 12 months, they were significantly more likely to have gambled in the previous 12 months than the MPO sample (56.4 %). There were no significant differences in internet gambling participation over the previous 12 months in the landline sample (4.7 %), mobile phone sample (4.7 %) and the MPO sample (5.0 %). However, endorsement of lifetime problem gambling on the NODS-CLiP was significantly higher within the mobile sample (10.7 %) and the MPO sample (14.8 %) than the landline sample (6.6 %). Our research supports previous findings that reliance on a traditional landline telephone sampling approach effectively excludes distinct subgroups of the population from being represented in research findings. Consequently, we suggest that research best practice necessitates the use of a dual-frame sampling methodology. Despite inherent logistical and cost issues, this approach needs to become the norm in gambling survey research.

Jackson AC; Pennay D; Dowling NA; Coles-Janess B; Christensen DR

2013-01-01

29

The simulation of pulsed heater for a sampling system for the ion mobility spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the sampling device with pulsed heating of the intermediate carrier for ion mobility spectrometer is described in this article. Numerical simulation of a pulse heater structure of is presented. The design of the sampling device using a pulsed heating of the intermediate carrier is developed. Experimental results of approval of the sampling device are presented.

2011-01-01

30

Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the photometer-type dust monitors on the other hand showed little correlation. The Respicon also accurately measured the inhalable concentration, whereas the modified PDM underestimated it by ~27%. Photometer responses varied considerably with changing particle size, which resulted in appreciable errors in airborne inhalable dust concentration measurements. Similar trends were also observed during field trials. Despite having limitations, both the modified PDM and Respicon showed promise as real-time inhalable dust monitors.

Thorpe A; Walsh PT

2013-08-01

31

SUBSURFACE MOBILE PLUTONIUM SPECIATION: SAMPLING ARTIFACTS FOR GROUNDWATER COLLOIDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recent review found several conflicting conclusions regarding colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in groundwater and noted that colloids can both facilitate and retard transport. Given these contrasting conclusions and the profound implications even trace concentrations of plutonium (Pu) have on the calculated risk posed to human health, it is important that the methodology used to sample groundwater colloids be free of artifacts. The objective of this study was: (1) to conduct a field study and measure Pu speciation, ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu for reduced-Pu{sub aq}, oxidized-Pu{sub aq}, reduced-Pu{sub colloid}, and oxidized-Pu{sub colloid}), in a Savannah River Site (SRS) aquifer along a pH gradient in F-Area, (2) to determine the impact of pumping rate on Pu concentration, Pu speciation, and Pu isotopic ratios, (3) determine the impact of delayed sample processing (as opposed to processing directly from the well).

Kaplan, D.; Buesseler, K.

2010-06-29

32

Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. ? Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. ? Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. ? Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. ? The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L?1 (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

2012-03-30

33

Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L{sup -1} (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

Li Shu; Jia Jian; Gao Xiaoguang; He Xiuli [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Jianping, E-mail: jpli@mail.ie.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-03-30

34

A direct reading on-line flowrate meter for use in radiochemical plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A device for measurement and remote direct reading display of the flowrates of streams in a radiochemical plant is described. The device is interposed in the measured stream and consists of a syphon pot with a specially developed attachment on the discharge line. Differential pressure switches are used to trigger a timer device at set levels in the pot and the time required for filling the pot during each cycle is measured and is used to compute and display the flowrate. The device is accurate and reliable and is simple to fabricate and install. It is maintenance-free since it has no moving parts. It is also suggested that a manometer with conductive contacts could be used in place of the d.p. switches. The background and various stages of development of the device are described. The operating data is tabulated and parameters required for plant applications are indicated in detail. A simple method to detect and correct for errors due to drift in d.p. switch setting is also outlined. Sketches of typical syphon pot, the schematic of the apparatus and suggested layout for application in radiochemical plant are also included. (author). 11 figures, 6 tables

1987-01-01

35

Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered

1993-01-01

36

Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered.

Shaw, K.R.

1993-07-01

37

Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: ? In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. ? Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. ? Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. ? Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. ? This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

2011-01-01

38

Nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): Comparison of mobile personal and stationary area sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous investigations of personal vs. area sampling of ambient nicotine may not accurately reflect personal exposure to ETS nicotine in environments in which individuals are relatively mobile. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a stationary area sampler could estimate actual personal exposure to ambient nicotine when the exposed individuals are moving in and through a field environment. For this study, personal samplers using Tenax, and area samplers using XAD-4, were employed. Evaluations of the two systems using controlled experimental atmospheres of ETS revealed no differences in the measured nicotine levels over a range of 1.0--150 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Field studies were conductd at approximately 30 locations, including taverns, restaurants with salad bars, laundromats, gaming establishments, and transportation waiting areas. Ambient nicotine levels ranged from 0.0--90.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were considerable differences in individual nicotine levels over relatively short distances within a given environment, probably due to atmospheric inhomogeneities. The variability between duplicate samples of a particular type was such that no statistically significant difference between stationary area and mobile personal samplers could be discerned. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Jenkins, R.A.; Moody, R.L.; Higgins, C.E.; Moneyhun, J.H.

1991-01-01

39

Study on mobility of Cr(VI) in soils and removal from wastewater and synthetic samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of ascending and descending of 51Cr(VI) in soil plates with TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography) analysis and 51Cr(VI) leaching in soil column were consistent with the Rf values of 51Cr(VI) in different soils decreased in order of soil type of 2,3,5,4 and 1. Only a few portion of 51Cr(VI), 3.84% in soil-2 could move downwards into leachate when leaching continuously. The contamination resulted from the mobility of Cr(VI) might be very limited after the wastewater containing Cr(VI) entered soil, Cr(VI) in wastewater and synthetic samples could be effectively removed by the tea residues, soils, and fly-ash-lime respectively. The efficiency of the removal decreased in order of tea residues, soil-1, soil-4 and fly-ash-lime.

1997-01-01

40

Engineering Task Plan for Development and Fabrication and Deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling At-Tank Analysis Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This engineering task plan identifies the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development and deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling system and an at-tank analysis system. The mobile, variable depth sampling system concept was developed after a cost assessment indicated a high cost for multiple deployments of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. The sampling will provide double-shell tank (DST) staging tank waste samples for assuring the readiness of the waste for shipment to the LAW/HLW plant for treatment and immobilization. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the samples' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B vitrification project

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Assessing potential nanoparticle release during nanocomposite shredding using direct-reading instruments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to determine if engineered nanoparticles are released into the air when nanocomposite parts are shredded for recycling. Test plaques made from polypropylene resin reinforced with either montmorillonite nanoclay or talc and from the same resin with no reinforcing material were shredded by a granulator inside a test apparatus. As the plaques were shredded, an ultrafine condensation particle counter; a diffusion charger; a photometer; an electrical mobility analyzer; and an optical particle counter measured number, lung-deposited surface area, and mass concentrations and size distributions by number in real-time. Overall, the particle levels produced were both stable and lower than found in some occupational environments. Although the lowest particle concentrations were observed when the talc-filled plaques were shredded, fewer nanoparticles were generated from the nanocomposite plaques than when the plain resin plaques were shredded. For example, the average particle number concentrations measured using the ultrafine condensation particle counter were 1300 particles/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 4280 particles/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 12,600 particles/cm(3) for the plain resin. Similarly, the average alveolar-deposited particle surface area concentrations measured using the diffusion charger were 4.0 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the talc-reinforced resin, 8.5 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the nanoclay-reinforced resin, and 26 ?m(2)/cm(3) for the plain resin. For all three materials, count median diameters were near 10 nm during tests, which is smaller than should be found from the reinforcing materials. These findings suggest that recycling of nanoclay-reinforced plastics does not have a strong potential to generate more airborne nanoparticles than recycling of conventional plastics.

Raynor PC; Cebula JI; Spangenberger JS; Olson BA; Dasch JM; D'Arcy JB

2012-01-01

42

Distribution, accumulation and mobility of mercury in superficial sediment samples from Tianjin, northern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventeen sediment samples at three representative sites (the Yuqiao Reservoir, the Haihe River and the Haihe River Estuary) in Tianjin, northern China, were analyzed to investigate the pollution status, accumulation and mobility of mercury (Hg). The results show that the Haihe River has to be considered as moderate to strongly contaminated with Hg (2 < mean I(geo) = 2.35 < 3), where total Hg contents were ca. 3 to 24 orders of magnitude greater than the regional background value. The sediments collected near a coal-fired power plant in an urban area were found to have very high Hg concentrations, which were significantly related to Hg emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. In the Yuqiao Reservoir, the surface sediments have to be considered as unpolluted with Hg (mean I(geo) = -0.05 < 0) and the Haihe River Estuary sediments have to be considered as unpolluted to moderately polluted with Hg (0 < mean I(geo) = 0.18 < 1). Sediment-bound Hg in the Yuqiao Reservoir and the Haihe River Estuary was found to be predominantly associated with the organo-chelated phase of the sediment (38.3% and 50.5%, respectively). However, unlike the Yuqiao Reservoir and the Haihe River Estuary, Hg in the Haihe River sediments existed mainly as sulfide Hg and elemental Hg, which accounted for 54.2% and 30.7% of total Hg, respectively. The availability of this element seemed restricted. The majority of Hg contamination in the Haihe River sediments had been attributed to historic and modern atmospheric deposition and Hg released from the Haihe River sediments didn't seem to be an important pollutant pathway into the Haihe River Estuary. The results provide new insights into Hg contamination in this region.

Wu G; Wei Z; Su R

2011-09-01

43

Mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH: Results of samples collected in a roadway tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent review article emphasized the need for further characterizations of the carbonaceous fraction of mobile source emissions, particularly with the impending removal of lead alkyl octane boosters and bromine-containing lead scavengers from regular leaded gasolines. The lead and bromine emitted from the combustion of these fuels have been used as tracers of mobile source emissions for a number of years. Single vehicle emission studies have shed light on the relationship between engine operating parameters and the chemical characteristics of the emissions but they are not suitable for use in source apportionment studies which require emission data from a large number of different vehicles. Air particulate samples collected near a busy highway or in a roadway tunnel would be more appropriate for use in estimating the mobile source contribution of organic compounds to a region. Suspended particle samples collected in a heavily-travelled roadway tunnel (Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland) were characterized for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some nitro-PAH by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. These samples included those collected on Teflon filters and on glass fiber filters for investigating any differences in samples collected on an inert (Teflon) and more reactive (glass-fiber) medium. All samples collected on Teflon were backed-up with polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) which trapped any inherent vapor-phase PAH as well as any compounds ''blown-off'' the particles during collection.

1987-01-01

44

Development and performance evaluation of 0-5 mSv direct reading quartz fibre pocket dosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Development of 0-5 mSv quartz fibre type direct reading dosimeter (DRD) based on standard designs/models, has been accomplished indigenously. This dosimeter measures accumulated dose of x- and ? radiations having energies in the range of 300 keV to 3.0 MeV. In this development we have carried out the design, fabrication and assembly of three main parts namely ionisation chamber, charging switch and optical viewing system (microscope) of a DRD. The design considerations have been discussed. The performance of the dosimeter has been evaluated according to international standards, ISO 1758-1976(E) and ISO 4071-1978(E). The results show a natural charge leakage of less than 1% of full scale deflection (FSD) per 24 hrs. The dependence of response on exposure rate, energy of radiation, orientation of the DRD towards the incident radiation etc. and linearity was studied. Geotropism was found to be less than 5% of FSD. The device qualified the drop test from a height of 1 m. These devices have been found acceptable by users like NPCIL, PREFRE(BARC). (author)

1999-01-01

45

Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrakx2122 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

2009-05-01

46

Discovery of Lipid Alterations in Biological Samples using UPLC, Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and TransOmics  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipids play essential roles in health and disease. The discovery of novel alterations in lipid levels related to human diseases could lead to the development of novel biomarkers and shed light on the etiology of many human diseases. The challenge with global lipid analysis is the chemical complexity and the large range of concentrations of thousands of lipid species that are present in biological samples. Here we present a robust workflow for global lipid profiling, which employs UPLC, ion mobility mass spectrometry and TransOmics software for high throughput discovery of lipid alterations in biological samples. Lipid extracts from biological matrices were separated using Charged Surface Hybrid (CSH) C18 UPLC according to acyl chain length and number of double bonds. Major lipid classes were identified using both positive and negative ESI. After chromatographic separation, lipids were analyzed using a hybrid QTOF system upgraded with an Ion Mobility Separation (IMS) cell capable separating lipids according to their size and shape. For example, differences in the acyl chain length or number of double bonds affect the shape and size of lipid molecules, resulting in characteristic migration times across the drift cell. Therefore, IMS provided an additional degree of separation besides chromatography, improving peak capacity and increasing selectivity over conventional UPLC. Data were analyzed using TransOmics software developed for visualization, processing, and interpretation of multi-dimensional MS data. In conclusion, we present a simple and robust solution for the high-throughput, automated identification of lipid alterations using novel analytical and informatics tools. The use of UPLC coupled to ion mobility provides multiple degrees of orthogonal separation, delivering unprecedented peak capacity required for the confident identification of lipid species in a biological mixture.

Astarita, G.; Isaac, G.; Shockcor, J.; Langridge, J.; Martin, LeRoy

2013-01-01

47

Discovery of Lipid Alterations in Biological Samples using UPLC, Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and TransOmics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipids play essential roles in health and disease. The discovery of novel alterations in lipid levels related to human diseases could lead to the development of novel biomarkers and shed light on the etiology of many human diseases. The challenge with global lipid analysis is the chemical complexity and the large range of concentrations of thousands of lipid species that are present in biological samples. Here we present a robust workflow for global lipid profiling, which employs UPLC, ion mobility mass spectrometry and TransOmics software for high throughput discovery of lipid alterations in biological samples.Lipid extracts from biological matrices were separated using Charged Surface Hybrid (CSH) C18 UPLC according to acyl chain length and number of double bonds. Major lipid classes were identified using both positive and negative ESI. After chromatographic separation, lipids were analyzed using a hybrid QTOF system upgraded with an Ion Mobility Separation (IMS) cell capable separating lipids according to their size and shape. For example, differences in the acyl chain length or number of double bonds affect the shape and size of lipid molecules, resulting in characteristic migration times across the drift cell. Therefore, IMS provided an additional degree of separation besides chromatography, improving peak capacity and increasing selectivity over conventional UPLC. Data were analyzed using TransOmics software developed for visualization, processing, and interpretation of multi-dimensional MS data.In conclusion, we present a simple and robust solution for the high-throughput, automated identification of lipid alterations using novel analytical and informatics tools. The use of UPLC coupled to ion mobility provides multiple degrees of orthogonal separation, delivering unprecedented peak capacity required for the confident identification of lipid species in a biological mixture.

Astarita G; Isaac G; Shockcor J; Langridge J; Martin L

2013-05-01

48

Application of Importance Sampling to the Performance Evaluation of Mobile Communications Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bit error rate (BER) of most practical digital communication systems cannot be exactly determined with analytical methods. Conventional Monte Carlo (MC) methods usually require an overwhelming number of simulation runs. Importance sampling (IS) is a v...

D. R. Bueno W. C. van Etten V. F. Nicola H. E. P. Tattje

1997-01-01

49

Mobilities Mobilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urry, John (2007) Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007) Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-), profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

César Pompeyo

2011-01-01

50

Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. RESULTS: A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

Medvedovici A; Udrescu S; Albu F; Tache F; David V

2011-09-01

51

Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

Mendonça, Marcos César Lima de; Ferreira, Ana Maria de Amorim; Santos, Marta Gonçalves Matos dos; Oviedo, Elva Cristina; Bello, Maria Sônia Dal; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Maceira, Juan Manuel Piñeiro; von Hubinger, Maria Genoveva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva

2011-06-01

52

Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

Marcos César Lima de Mendonça; Ana Maria de Amorim Ferreira; Marta Gonçalves Matos dos Santos; Elva Cristina Oviedo; Maria Sônia Dal Bello; Marilda Mendonça Siqueira; Juan Manuel Piñeiro Maceira; Maria Genoveva von Hubinger; José Nelson dos Santos Silva Couceiro

2011-01-01

53

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main focus of the Ames Laboratory's Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST

1991-05-00

54

Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

1995-01-27

55

Uptake and mobilization of organic chemicals with clouds: evidence from a hail sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in hail samples collected during a storm that occurred on a spring morning in Toronto, Canada. The presence of these organic chemicals in hail suggests that clouds likely provide an atmospheric transport pathway for these substances in the free atmosphere. Results reported here may carry significant implications for atmospheric transport, mass balance, tropospheric cold trapping, and environmental fate of organic chemicals. Backward trajectories along with measured and modeled cloud cover show that clouds causing the hail event were formed and advected from the midwestern and southeastern United States. After being emitted to the atmosphere, the organic chemicals were likely lifted by atmospheric ascending motions to a higher atmospheric elevation and partitioned onto clouds. These clouds then carry the organic chemicals to a downwind location where they are deposited to the ground surface via precipitation. We found that the organic chemicals with high solubility and vapor pressure tend to partition into clouds through sorption to cloudwater droplets and ice particles. It was found that approximately 7-30% of pyrene could be sorbed into cloudwater droplets and ice particles in this hail event at the expense of reduced gas-phase concentrations.

Ma J; Sverko E; Su Y; Zhang J; Gao H

2013-09-01

56

Long-term calibration considerations during subcutaneous microdialysis sampling in mobile rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The level at which implanted sensors and sampling devices maintain their calibration is an important research area. In this work, microdialysis probes with identical geometry and different membranes, polycarbonate/polyether (PC) or polyethersulfone (PES), were used with internal standards (Vitamin B(12) (MW 1355), antipyrine (MW 188) and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, MW 164)) and endogenous glucose to investigate changes in their long-term calibration after implantation into the subcutaneous space of Sprague-Dawley rats. Histological analysis confirmed an inflammatory response to the microdialysis probes and the presence of a collagen capsule. The membrane extraction efficiency (percentage delivered to the tissue space) for antipyrine and 2-DG was not altered throughout the implant lifetime for either PC- or PES membranes. Yet, Vitamin B(12) extraction efficiency and collected glucose concentrations decreased during the implant lifetime. Antipyrine was administered i.v. and its concentrations obtained in both PC- and PES-membrane probes were significantly reduced between the implant day and seven (PC) or 10 (PES) days post-implantation suggesting that solute supply is critical for in vivo extraction efficiency. For the low molecular weight solutes such as antipyrine and glucose, localized delivery is not affected by the foreign body reaction, but recovery is significantly reduced. For Vitamin B(12), a larger solute, the fibrotic capsule formed around the probe significantly restricts diffusion from the implanted microdialysis probes.

Mou X; Lennartz MR; Loegering DJ; Stenken JA

2010-06-01

57

Assessment of a sequential extraction method to evaluate mercury mobility and geochemistry in solid environmental samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of a sequential extraction method for mercury in solid environmental samples is presented. The scheme recognizes and quantifies four major phase associations of mercury: "Labile mercury species", "Hg bound to humic and fulvic complexes", "elemental Hg and bound to crystalline oxides" and "Hg sulfide and refractory species". Model solids were used in this study to evaluate different extracting solutions and to determine optimum extraction conditions. Sequential and single-step extractions were conducted to evaluate the interaction among the successive steps. Different variables such as extractant concentration, time, temperature and number of extractions were optimized for each stage when necessary. The selectivity of the selected extractions was assured through experiments with natural and synthetic matrices of some specific Hg-bearing phases. The suitability of the proposed method was evaluated by using four certified reference materials from different Hg sources, physicochemical properties and total Hg content (from 0.3µgg(-1) to 33µgg(-1)). Recovery of total Hg by the sum of fractions in reference materials showed that the accuracy of the method ranges from 85 percent to 105 percent.

Fernández-Martínez R; Rucandio I

2013-11-01

58

Assessment of a sequential extraction method to evaluate mercury mobility and geochemistry in solid environmental samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a sequential extraction method for mercury in solid environmental samples is presented. The scheme recognizes and quantifies four major phase associations of mercury: "Labile mercury species", "Hg bound to humic and fulvic complexes", "elemental Hg and bound to crystalline oxides" and "Hg sulfide and refractory species". Model solids were used in this study to evaluate different extracting solutions and to determine optimum extraction conditions. Sequential and single-step extractions were conducted to evaluate the interaction among the successive steps. Different variables such as extractant concentration, time, temperature and number of extractions were optimized for each stage when necessary. The selectivity of the selected extractions was assured through experiments with natural and synthetic matrices of some specific Hg-bearing phases. The suitability of the proposed method was evaluated by using four certified reference materials from different Hg sources, physicochemical properties and total Hg content (from 0.3µgg(-1) to 33µgg(-1)). Recovery of total Hg by the sum of fractions in reference materials showed that the accuracy of the method ranges from 85 percent to 105 percent. PMID:23948345

Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Rucandio, Isabel

2013-08-13

59

Inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia: design, methods, call outcomes, costs and sample representativeness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-only phone users, the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into these existing landline population health surveys has not occurred. This paper describes the methods used for the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an existing ongoing landline random digit dialling (RDD) health survey in an Australian state, the New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS). This paper also compares the call outcomes, costs and the representativeness of the resultant sample to that of the previous landline sample. Methods After examining several mobile phone pilot studies conducted in Australia and possible sample designs (screening dual-frame and overlapping dual-frame), mobile phone numbers were included into the NSWPHS using an overlapping dual-frame design. Data collection was consistent, where possible, with the previous years’ landline RDD phone surveys and between frames. Survey operational data for the frames were compared and combined. Demographic information from the interview data for mobile-only phone users, both, and total were compared to the landline frame using ?2 tests. Demographic information for each frame, landline and the mobile-only (equivalent to a screening dual frame design), and the frames combined (with appropriate overlap adjustment) were compared to the NSW demographic profile from the 2011 census using ?2 tests. Results In the first quarter of 2012, 3395 interviews were completed with 2171 respondents (63.9%) from the landline frame (17.6% landline only) and 1224 (36.1%) from the mobile frame (25.8% mobile only). Overall combined response, contact and cooperation rates were 33.1%, 65.1% and 72.2% respectively. As expected from previous research, the demographic profile of the mobile-only phone respondents differed most (more that were young, males, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, overseas born and single) compared to the landline frame responders. The profile of respondents from the two frames combined, with overlap adjustment, was most similar to the latest New South Wales (NSW) population profile. Conclusions The inclusion of the mobile phone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did not impact negatively on response rates or data collection, and although costing more the design was still cost-effective because of the additional interviews that were conducted with young people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and people who were born overseas resulting in a more representative overall sample.

Barr Margo L; van Ritten Jason J; Steel David G; Thackway Sarah V

2012-01-01

60

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants) were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1) or less than six months (short-term, or M2). Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%), had never returned to Myanmar (85%), and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the artemisinin resistance containment zone will help target health interventions, including treatment follow-up and surveillance.

Khamsiriwatchara Amnat; Wangroongsarb Piyaporn; Thwing Julie; Eliades James; Satimai Wichai; Delacollette Charles; Kaewkungwal Jaranit

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission  

Science.gov (United States)

In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples.Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander.The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are necessary, the active suspension significantly contributes to the lightweight MPE design. The thermal control system enables the MPE to operate in shaded areas for about 2 h and hibernate darkness periods of about 14 h. Increasing the hibernation capability requires additional battery capacity and thus increases the MPE mass. As operational modes teleoperations from earth and autonomous navigation are foreseen. The MPE payload includes navigation cameras, a close-up imager and a mole as sampling device.The MPE phase 0/A study finished in early 2012. This article describes the resulting MPE rover concept with focus on its scientific benefit for the Lunar Lander Mission.

Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

2012-12-01

62

Top down viewing of the inductively coupled plasma using a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and an all mirror optical system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using an all-mirror optical system, an inductively coupled plasma is viewed top down and the light is directed to a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph. Top down viewing of the plasma, with masking of the image of the argon plasma torus at the spectrograph entrance slit, significantly reduces background signal from the source and permits the use of the depth of field of the optical system to achieve compromise conditions for viewing the plasma. Light from the plasma source is introduced to the optical system by means of a mirror situated directly over the plasma. The system is exhausted in such a way that cool air flowing past the mirror forms a thermal barrier between the mirror and the plasma. Elements such as copper and lead have atomic and ionic lines which tend to exhibit self absorption when viewed top down through the cooler ground state atoms in the plume of the plasma. One of the approaches to this problem is to shear off the plume of the plasma with a jet of air directed across the tip of the plasma. A second approach is to make use of the dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and real-time computer system which easily permits the setting of alternate lines for each element so that self absorption and matrix effects are minimized. The design of the dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph allows for the mounting of more than 200 13-mm-dia photomultiplier tubes along the focal curves. In an effort to demonstrate the use of fiber optics as a viable technique for the closer placement of exit slits, a red sensitive photomultiplier tube was coupled with a 30-cm fiber-optic ribbon to detect light from the Li 670.784 nm line on the focal curve. It was successful and had the added advantages of absorbing second-order ultraviolet light

1980-01-11

63

The Development of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in an independent sample of older acute medical patients: refinement and validation using the Rasch model (part 2).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the refinement and validation of the 17-item DEMMI in an independent sample of older acute medical patients. Instrument refinement was based on Rasch analysis and input from clinicians and researchers. The refined DEMMI was tested on 106 older general medical patients and a total of 312 mobility assessments were conducted. Based on the results of this study a further 2 items were removed and the 15 item DEMMI was adopted. The Rasch measurement properties of the DEMMI were consistent with estimates obtained from the instrument development sample. No differential item functioning was identified and an interval level scoring system was established. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument for older people to be developed, refined and validated using the Rasch model. This study confirms that the DEMMI provides clinicians and researchers with a unidimensional instrument for measuring and monitoring changes in mobility of hospitalised older acute medical patients.

de Morton NA; Davidson M; Keating JL

2013-01-01

64

An introduction to the technique of combined ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry for the analysis of complex biological samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text: Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) offers several advantages compared with conventional High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) as an 'inlet system' for mass spectrometry. UPLC provides improved chromatographic resolution, increased sensitivity and reduced analysis time. This is achieved through the use of sub 2?m particles (stationary phase) combined with high-pressure solvent delivery (up to 15,000 psi). When coupled with orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), UPLC presents a means to achieve high sample throughput with reduced spectral overlap, increased sensitivity, and exact mass measurement capabilities with high mass spectral resolution (Ca 20,000 FWHM). Dispersive ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) implemented within a traveling-wave ion guide provides an orthogonal separation strategy for ions in the gas phase that can resolve isobaric ions formed by either Electrospray of MALDI ionization typically in Ca 20 mille seconds. All three techniques have the potential to be combined on-line (e.g. UPLC-IMS-MS/MS) in real time to maximize peak capacity and resolving power for the analysis of complex biological mixtures including; intact proteins, modified peptides and endogenous/exogenous metabolites

2008-01-01

65

EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY FOR MONITORING VINYL CHLORIDE AND OTHER CHLORINATED AND AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to evaluate, in the laboratory, the potential of gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for monitoring vinyl chloride and other organic compounds in air samples in the field. It was determined that GC/IMS has the potential to dire...

66

A comparison of two ozone sampling methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to compare the alkaline potassium iodide (AKI) impinger method versus a direct-reading chemiluminescent monitor for determining ozone concentrations. Comparisons were made in both a controlled laboratory situation and in the field during MIG welding. Laboratoy results indicated that the accuracy of the AKI procedure is affected by sample size. In the field, AKI impinger samples seemed to give very low estimations of the true ozone concentration. The direct-reading chemiluminescent monitor performed excellently in both the laboratory and field, and exhibited its merit as an industrial hygiene field instrument.

Downey, E.B. (Arkansas Dept. of Labor, Little Rock); Buchan, R.M.; Blehm, K.D.; Gunter, B.J.

1983-05-01

67

Ionic liquids as mobile phase additives for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, four ionic liquids differing in the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation and one ionic liquid containing tetraethylammonium, all with the same counterion, (i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIm-BF(4)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (HMIm-BF(4)), 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (MOIm-BF(4)), and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et(4)N-BF(4))) were tested as mobile phase additives for HPLC separation of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics for human and veterinary use (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) using a conventional reversed-phase Nova-Pak C(18) column. Fluorescence detection was used. Among the ionic liquids selected, use of BMIm-BF(4) enabled effective separation of these compounds with relatively low analysis time (14 min). The best separation was achieved by isocratic elution at 1 mL min(-1) with 5 mmol L(-1) BMIm-BF(4) and 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate at pH 3.0 with 13% (v/v) acetonitrile. Limits of detection (LODs) for fluorescence detection were in the range 0.5-11 microg L(-1). The method was tested by analyzing several water samples after the optimization of a suitable solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Mean recovery values were above 84% for all analytes with LODs in the range 1-29 ng L(-1).

Herrera-Herrera AV; Hernández-Borges J; Rodríguez-Delgado MA

2008-12-01

68

Ionic liquids as mobile phase additives for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, four ionic liquids differing in the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation and one ionic liquid containing tetraethylammonium, all with the same counterion, (i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIm-BF(4)), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIm-BF(4)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (HMIm-BF(4)), 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (MOIm-BF(4)), and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et(4)N-BF(4))) were tested as mobile phase additives for HPLC separation of a group of seven basic fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics for human and veterinary use (i.e. fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) using a conventional reversed-phase Nova-Pak C(18) column. Fluorescence detection was used. Among the ionic liquids selected, use of BMIm-BF(4) enabled effective separation of these compounds with relatively low analysis time (14 min). The best separation was achieved by isocratic elution at 1 mL min(-1) with 5 mmol L(-1) BMIm-BF(4) and 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate at pH 3.0 with 13% (v/v) acetonitrile. Limits of detection (LODs) for fluorescence detection were in the range 0.5-11 microg L(-1). The method was tested by analyzing several water samples after the optimization of a suitable solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Mean recovery values were above 84% for all analytes with LODs in the range 1-29 ng L(-1). PMID:18854988

Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

2008-10-15

69

Sampling  

CERN Multimedia

Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

Thompson, Steven K

2012-01-01

70

A performance comparison of accelerometry-based step detection algorithms on a large, non-laboratory sample of healthy and mobility-impaired persons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accelerometers are frequently used for activity assessment and as reference devices for counting steps. Their performance on healthy subjects' data is good, but there are doubts as to their applicability on elderly and mobility-impaired subjects. Furthermore, only few step detection algorithms have been published so far, and their performance has not been evaluated on a large, non-laboratory sample. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of four freely accessible accelerometry-based step detection algorithms in a non-laboratory setting. Two samples of healthy persons (n=140) and mobility-impaired, geriatric in-patients (n=10) wore a single triaxial accelerometer on a waist-belt during unconstrained walking. The relative error rate of the four algorithms on the two samples was compared with reference video recordings. All four algorithms show a fairly poor performance on healthy subjects' (8.4-30.8% relative error rate) and especially geriatric patients' data (28.1-62.1%). Among the tested ones, a simple autocorrelation algorithm works best on both data sets together. More complex algorithms might work better, and more research is needed to evaluate the accuracy of step detection methods on mobility-impaired subjects.

Marschollek M; Goevercin M; Wolf KH; Song B; Gietzelt M; Haux R; Steinhagen-Thiessen E

2008-01-01

71

Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry for the direct analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine and cork samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry coupling has been evaluated for the direct analysis of wine and cork stopper samples for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). The instrumental configuration permits the sample to be introduced in headspace vials which are placed into the autosampler oven in order to facilitate the transference of the volatile compounds from the sample to its headspace. Further, an aliquot of 200 ?L of the homogenized gaseous phase is injected into the multicapillary column in order to separate the target compounds from potential interferents. The detection of 2,4,6-TCA was carried out in an ion mobility spectrometer with a radioactive source and working under negative mode. All the system was computer controlled, including data acquisition and treatment. The limits of detection achieved were 0.012 ng L(-1) for wine and 0.28 ng g(-1) for the cork stopper. The procedure was applied to the analysis of commercial wine samples in different packages and 2,4,6-TCA was found in all of those closed with a cork stopper. The excellent recovery values obtained testify for the goodness of the method as no interference from the sample matrix exits.

Márquez-Sillero I; Cárdenas S; Valcárcel M

2012-11-01

72

Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry for the direct analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine and cork samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry coupling has been evaluated for the direct analysis of wine and cork stopper samples for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). The instrumental configuration permits the sample to be introduced in headspace vials which are placed into the autosampler oven in order to facilitate the transference of the volatile compounds from the sample to its headspace. Further, an aliquot of 200 ?L of the homogenized gaseous phase is injected into the multicapillary column in order to separate the target compounds from potential interferents. The detection of 2,4,6-TCA was carried out in an ion mobility spectrometer with a radioactive source and working under negative mode. All the system was computer controlled, including data acquisition and treatment. The limits of detection achieved were 0.012 ng L(-1) for wine and 0.28 ng g(-1) for the cork stopper. The procedure was applied to the analysis of commercial wine samples in different packages and 2,4,6-TCA was found in all of those closed with a cork stopper. The excellent recovery values obtained testify for the goodness of the method as no interference from the sample matrix exits. PMID:23089513

Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

2012-09-29

73

Headspace-solid phase microextraction of selenium(IV) from human blood and water samples using polypyrrole film and analysis with ion mobility spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a polypyrrole (PPy)-coated fiber was applied as a sample preparation method for determination of selenite [Se(IV)] following derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenzene to convert into the piaselenol form and analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The HS-SPME-IMS method presents good repeatability (RSDs <6%), simplicity, good sensitivity and short analysis times. The influence of the various analytical parameters on microextraction procedure, i.e. ligand concentration, pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time and temperature has been evaluated and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 20-320 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 12 ng mL(-1). The method was applied for determination of selenium in human serum and environmental surface water samples with satisfactory recovery.

Shahdousti P; Alizadeh N

2011-01-01

74

Headspace-solid phase microextraction of selenium(IV) from human blood and water samples using polypyrrole film and analysis with ion mobility spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a polypyrrole (PPy)-coated fiber was applied as a sample preparation method for determination of selenite [Se(IV)] following derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenzene to convert into the piaselenol form and analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The HS-SPME-IMS method presents good repeatability (RSDs <6%), simplicity, good sensitivity and short analysis times. The influence of the various analytical parameters on microextraction procedure, i.e. ligand concentration, pH, ionic strength, equilibrium time and temperature has been evaluated and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 20-320 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 12 ng mL(-1). The method was applied for determination of selenium in human serum and environmental surface water samples with satisfactory recovery. PMID:21167986

Shahdousti, Parvin; Alizadeh, Naader

2010-11-09

75

Remote possibly hazardous content container sampling device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to an apparatus capable of sampling enclosed containers, where the contents of the container is unknown. The invention includes a compressed air device capable of supplying air pressure, device for controlling the amount of air pressure applied, a pneumatic valve, a sampling device having a hollow, sampling insertion needle suspended therein and device to communicate fluid flow between the container and a containment vessel, pump or direct reading instrument.

Volz, David L. (59 La Paloma, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1998-01-01

76

Characterization and quantification by mass spectrometry of mobile organic matter from clay rock: influence of the origin and of the sampling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. In environmental studies, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) plays a key role on the bioavailability and the toxicity of metallic compounds. If one wants to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals / radionuclides, which is in natura in most of the cases dependant on their interactions with NOM. One part of the organic inventory in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) exists as small dissolved compounds in the pore water but the weak content and the weak porosity of the formation (? 8 % of water in weight) make the complexation study with metal ions difficult. One part of the organic matter attached to the sediment (? 1 % in weight) can be mobilized in a synthetic pore water 1 and can be considered as similar to in situ pore water dissolved organic matter (DOM) regarding its size distribution. The collection of clay pore water has been done through percolation experiment, a unique and original experimental process developed to get pore water from a core sample,that have been described previously. From these experiments, it was shown that mobile organic matter concentration could reach 0.01 mol C/L by application of a pressure gradient up to 100 bars. Since part of the OM from the COx is known to be sensitive to air oxidation, the characterization and quantification of DOM were then performed under anoxic conditions (about - 170 mV vs Standard Hydrogen Electrode SHE). In addition, the chemical composition of NOM contained in the pore water from the argillite clay rock has been determined in in-situ like conditions by ESI-MS and APCI-MS, which are suitable techniques to identify the chemical composition of NOM contained in the COx pore water available from boreholes. Mostly low molecular weight molecules were identified, of whom structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds, fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. Fulvic and Humic Acids have such low concentrations in the COx formation, leading to a probable low velocity, that the inventory was focused on the small organic molecules. The influence of the sampling was studied, notably by performing an experiment in which the argillite core sample was squeezed for 28 days at 175 MPa. The initial water content of the sample was 5.3% and the concentration of organic matter XX mol C/L. The structural features observed for the DOM were different from the percolated water samples either obtained in situ from the POX 1601 borehole or in lab from EST 34399 cores than for the squeezed water sample. The influence of the water collection will be discussed. Additionally, a part of organic matter can be extracted and isolated by HCl/HF treatment. This corresponds to the kerogen fraction which is insoluble in the pore water. 150 Myears solid-bound organic matter of the COx has been already investigated in several studies and originates from a mixture of marine and terrestrial sources. In addition to this, the CCl4 soluble organic fraction (bitumen) has been already characterized by liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. And finally, a small fraction of the kerogen can be mobilized under alkaline conditions from the COx, a scenario which could happen at the COx/cement interface. This fraction (approx. 0,002 mol C/L) could be transported in the pore water and has been characterized to contain small molecules with carboxylic and phenolic groups. Nonetheless, in order to predict the speciation of metals and radionuclides for a given scenario, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) either in the pore water or that could be mobilized from the kerogen fraction must be supported by quantitative data. Thus, the present study is focused the quantification of these low molecular weight compounds using mass spectrometry. Several simple, sensitive, and reproducible methods of quantification, such as internal calibration, calibrated addition of external standard or sequential tandem mass spectrometry, have been developed and are discussed in this paper, mainly focused on acidic compounds, which are the mo st probable com

2012-01-01

77

Temporal mood changes associated with different levels of adolescent drinking: using mobile phones and experience sampling methods to explore motivations for adolescent alcohol use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol use during adolescence is associated with the onset of alcohol use disorders, mental health disorders, substance abuse as well as socially and physically damaging behaviours, the effects of which last well into adulthood. Nevertheless, alcohol use remains prevalent in this population. Understanding motivations behind adolescent alcohol consumption may help in developing more appropriate and effective interventions. This study aims to increase this understanding by exploring the temporal relationship between mood and different levels of alcohol intake in a sample of young people. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-one secondary school students used a purpose-designed mobile phone application to monitor their daily mood and alcohol use for 20 random days within a 31 day period. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between differing levels of alcohol consumption (light, intermediate and heavy) and positive and negative mood three days before and after drinking episodes. RESULTS: While there was no relationship between light and heavy drinking and positive mood, there was an increase in positive mood before and after the drinking event for those that drank intermediate amounts. No statistically significant relationships were found between negative mood and any of the three drinking categories. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Adolescents who drank in intermediate amounts on a single drinking occasion experienced an increase in positive mood over the three days leading up to and three days following a drinking event. These findings contribute to an understanding of the motivations that underpin adolescent alcohol use, which may help inform future interventions.

Crooke AH; Reid SC; Kauer SD; McKenzie DP; Hearps SJ; Khor AS; Forbes AB

2013-05-01

78

Positron mobility in polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron mobility in polyethylene was studied. Angular distribution of annihilation ?-quanta, on stationary electric field being applied on the sample, and positron implantation profile were determined. Positron mobility is shown to be 5.6±0.6 cm2/Vxc. Positron diffusion coefficient and diffusion length are determined.

1986-01-01

79

Mobile Election  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile phones have the potential of fostering political mobilisation. There is a significant political power in mobile technology. Like the Internet, mobile phones facilitate communication and rapid access to information. Compared to the Internet, however, mobile phone diffusion has reached a larg...

Long, Elena; Lovitskii, Vladimir; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David

80

Evaluation of false positive responses by mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry for the detection of trace explosives in complex samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary electrospray ionization-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry (SESI-IM-TOFMS) was used to evaluate common household products and food ingredients for any mass or mobility responses that produced false positives for explosives. These products contained ingredients which shared the same mass and mobility drift time ranges as the analyte ions for common explosives. The results of this study showed that the vast array of compounds in these products can cause either mass or mobility false positive responses. This work also found that two ingredients caused either enhanced or reduced ionization of the target analytes. Another result showed that an IMS can provide real-time separation of ion species that impede accurate mass identifications due to overlapping isotope peak patterns. The final result of this study showed that, when mass and mobility values were used to identify an ion, no false responses were found for the target explosives. The wider implication of these results is that the possibility exists for even greater occurrences of false responses from complex mixtures found in common products. Neither IMS nor MS alone can provide 100% assurance from false responses. IMS, due to its low cost, ease of operation, rugged reliability, high sensitivity and tunable selectivity, will remain the field method of choice for the near future but, when combined with MS, can also reduce the false positive rate for explosive analyses. PMID:23998535

Crawford, C L; Hill, H H

2013-08-06

 
 
 
 
81

Mobile units to hydro geochemistry characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report shows the mobile units for hydro geochemical studies. The authors analyze the work of mobile unit and the cars that conform the unit: Sampling car and analysis car: The sampling and equipment are took into account as well

1994-01-01

82

Mobile learning in medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

Serkan Güllüoü?lu, Sabri

2013-03-01

83

Staging Mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?

Jensen, Ole B.

2013-01-01

84

The Role of Neighborhood Safety in Recovery from Mobility Limitations: Findings from a National Sample of Older Americans (1996-2008).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prior research has documented a link between perceived neighborhood safety and functional limitations including incident mobility limitation, yet no research has explored the association between perceived neighborhood safety and recovery from functional limitations. This study investigates whether perceived neighborhood safety independently predicts recovery. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1996-2008), discrete-time event history models with multiple competing events were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Robust standard errors were used to adjust for clustering. In the unadjusted model, the odds ratio for recovery from mobility limitations was 1.22 (CI: 1.17, 1.27) for respondents reporting greater neighborhood safety, while, in the fully adjusted model, the odds ratio was 1.11 (CI: 1.05, 1.17). Even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and numerous health risk factors, perceived neighborhood safety was a robust predictor of mobility limitation recovery. This research provides further evidence that environmental factors shape functional health outcomes including recovery.

Latham K; Clarke PJ

2013-07-01

85

Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base available in the design decision process.

Ørngreen, Rikke; BlomhØj, Ulla

2011-01-01

86

Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting a...

Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

87

Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope is therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design, and wayfiding systems.

Jensen, Ole B.

88

Mobile phone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

2009-01-01

89

Review of sampling and analysis methodology for polynuclear aromatic compounds in air from mobile sources. Final report, 1 March-30 November 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the program was to review and recommend test compounds and sampling and analysis methods for a future EPA study of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in microenvironments. Review of PAH profiles in ambient air indicated that concentrations of PAH were generally higher in winter than summer and varied with climate and between sampling sites within an urban area. Levels of several PAH were found to be proportional to traffic density. Studies of the biological activity of ambient air samples showed that some PAH and their nitrated derivatives are extremely carcinogenic and mutagenic. The following compounds were determined to be the most prevalent and mutagenic in ambient air and were recommended for the future EPA study: phenanthrene, pyrene, cyclopenta(c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, 1-nitropyrene, fluoranthene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, coronene, and 3-nitrofluoranthene. In the review of PAH sampling methods, collection of both gaseous and particulate bound PAH was determined to be necessary to accurately characterize health effects of PAH in ambient air. Most studies have used filters to sample particulate-bound PAH and absorbents to collect vapor phase PAH. The major sampling problems encountered in the studies were PAH losses due to volatilization and reactivity.

Chuang, C.C.; Petersen, B.A.

1985-06-01

90

Mobile Platforms and Development Environments  

CERN Document Server

Mobile platform development has lately become a technological war zone with extremely dynamic and fluid movement, especially in the smart phone and tablet market space. This Synthesis lecture is a guide to the latest developments of the key mobile platforms that are shaping the mobile platform industry. The book covers the three currently dominant native platforms -- iOS, Android and Windows Phone -- along with the device-agnostic HTML5 mobile web platform. The lecture also covers location-based services (LBS) which can be considered as a platform in its own right. The lecture utilizes a sampl

Helal, Sumi; Li, Wengdong

2012-01-01

91

Combination of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with a novel reagent gas and two immiscible organic solvent liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for analysis of clomipramine in biological samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel and sensitive method based on combination of two immiscible organic solvents hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (HF-LLLME-CD-IMS) was employed for the analysis of clomipramine in human urine and plasma. The effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid as the reagent gas (dopant) on the corona discharge ion mobility signal was investigated. The influence of dopant amount was also studied. Optimum mass flow rates of the dopants were 3.7, 1.1 and 1.0 ?mol min(-1) for formic, acetic and propionic acid, respectively. Experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of HF-LLLME, such as NaOH concentration as donor solution, ionic strength of the sample, stirring rate, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, analytical parameters such as linearity, precision and limit of detection were also evaluated. The linear dynamic range was from 1 to 100 ?g L(-1) (r(2)=0.9980) and the limit of detection was 0.35 ?g L(-1). Intra- and inter-day precisions were satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.9 and 6.7%, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of clomipramine in human plasma and urine.

Saraji M; Bidgoli AA; Khayamian T; Moradmand A

2011-12-01

92

Combination of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry with a novel reagent gas and two immiscible organic solvent liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for analysis of clomipramine in biological samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and sensitive method based on combination of two immiscible organic solvents hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (HF-LLLME-CD-IMS) was employed for the analysis of clomipramine in human urine and plasma. The effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid as the reagent gas (dopant) on the corona discharge ion mobility signal was investigated. The influence of dopant amount was also studied. Optimum mass flow rates of the dopants were 3.7, 1.1 and 1.0 ?mol min(-1) for formic, acetic and propionic acid, respectively. Experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of HF-LLLME, such as NaOH concentration as donor solution, ionic strength of the sample, stirring rate, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, analytical parameters such as linearity, precision and limit of detection were also evaluated. The linear dynamic range was from 1 to 100 ?g L(-1) (r(2)=0.9980) and the limit of detection was 0.35 ?g L(-1). Intra- and inter-day precisions were satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.9 and 6.7%, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of clomipramine in human plasma and urine. PMID:22041141

Saraji, Mohammad; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari; Khayamian, Taghi; Moradmand, Ali

2011-10-19

93

Headspace solid-phase microextraction using a dodecylsulfate-doped polypyrrole film coupled to ion mobility spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of atrazine and ametryn in soil and water samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) based method is presented for the simultaneous determination of atrazine and ametryn in soil and water samples by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). A dodecylsulfate-doped polypyrrole (PPy-DS), synthesized by electrochemical method, was applied as a laboratory-made fiber for SPME. The HS-SPME system was designed with a cooling device on the upper part of the sample vial and a circulating water bath for adjusting the sample temperature. The extraction properties of the fiber to spiked soil and water samples with atrazine and ametryn were examined, using a HS-SPME device and thermal desorption in injection port of IMS. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as the volume of water added to the soil, pH effect, extraction time, extraction temperature, salt effect, desorption time, and desorption temperature were investigated. The HS-SPME-IMS method with PPy-DS fiber, provided good repeatability (RSDs<10 %), simplicity, good sensitivity and short analysis times for spiked soil (200 ng g(-1)) and water samples (100 and 200 ng mL(-1)). The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 200-4000 ng g(-1) and 50-2800 ng mL(-1) for soil and water respectively (R(2)>0.99). Detection limits for atrazine and ametryn were 37 ng g(-1) (soil) and 23 ng g(-1) (soil) and 15 ng mL(-1) (water) and 10 ng mL(-1) (water), respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, atrazine and ametryn in the three kinds of soils and two well water samples were determined. Finally, comparing the HS-SPME results for extraction and determination of selected triazines using PPy-DS fiber with the other methods in literature shows that the proposed method has comparable detection limits and RSDs and good linear ranges.

Mohammadi A; Ameli A; Alizadeh N

2009-05-01

94

Headspace solid-phase microextraction using a dodecylsulfate-doped polypyrrole film coupled to ion mobility spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of atrazine and ametryn in soil and water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) based method is presented for the simultaneous determination of atrazine and ametryn in soil and water samples by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). A dodecylsulfate-doped polypyrrole (PPy-DS), synthesized by electrochemical method, was applied as a laboratory-made fiber for SPME. The HS-SPME system was designed with a cooling device on the upper part of the sample vial and a circulating water bath for adjusting the sample temperature. The extraction properties of the fiber to spiked soil and water samples with atrazine and ametryn were examined, using a HS-SPME device and thermal desorption in injection port of IMS. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as the volume of water added to the soil, pH effect, extraction time, extraction temperature, salt effect, desorption time, and desorption temperature were investigated. The HS-SPME-IMS method with PPy-DS fiber, provided good repeatability (RSDs0.99). Detection limits for atrazine and ametryn were 37 ng g(-1) (soil) and 23 ng g(-1) (soil) and 15 ng mL(-1) (water) and 10 ng mL(-1) (water), respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method, atrazine and ametryn in the three kinds of soils and two well water samples were determined. Finally, comparing the HS-SPME results for extraction and determination of selected triazines using PPy-DS fiber with the other methods in literature shows that the proposed method has comparable detection limits and RSDs and good linear ranges. PMID:19269479

Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ameli, Akram; Alizadeh, Naader

2009-01-23

95

Mobile barrages; Les barrages mobiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides all useful information for the design and realization of a mobile barrage, but also for the reconstruction of a decayed barrage and for the mastery and optimization of costs. Mobile barrages contribute to the country planing: control of river levels, water supplies, protection against flooding, keeping of ecological equilibria, hydro-power production etc.. This book analyzes the successive steps of the project from the basic functional analysis to the operation with the conditions for river arrangement and exploitation. (J.S.)

NONE

1998-12-31

96

Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

97

Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels  

CERN Document Server

Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

Zajic, Alenka

2013-01-01

98

Mobile Phones, Financial Inclusion, and Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses the impact of mobile phone rollout on economic growth in a sample of African countries from 1988 to 2007. Further, in light of the large financial infrastructure gap in African countries, we investigate whether mobile phone development fosters economic growth through better financial inclusion. In estimating the impact of mobile phone development on growth, we use mobile penetration rate as well as the cost of mobile local calls to capture mobile phone diffusion, while financial inclusion is measured by the number of deposits or loans per head. Using the System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator to address endogeneity issues, the results confirm that mobile phone development contributes significantly to economic growth in African countries. Part of the positive effect of mobile phone penetration on growth comes from greater financial inclusion.

Mihasonirina Andrianaivo; Kangni Kpodar

2012-01-01

99

Professional Flash Lite Mobile Development  

CERN Document Server

Discover how to create Flash Lite mobile apps from the ground up. Adobe Flash is an ideal choice for developing rich interactive content for "Flash-enabled" mobile devices; and with this book, you'll learn how to create unique applications with Flash Lite. Through a series of code samples and extensive example applications, you'll explore the core concepts, key features, and best practices of the Flash Lite player. Coverage reveals various ways to develop Flash mobile content, create applications with a cross-platform programming framework based on the Model, View and Controller conc

Anderson, J G

2010-01-01

100

Mobility Divides : ‘Staging’ and designing differential mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices.

Jensen, Ole B.

 
 
 
 
101

Mobility Impact on Performance of Mobile Grids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless mobile grids are one of the emerging grid types, which help to pool the resources of several willing and cooperative mobile devices to resolve a computationally intensive task. The mobile grids exhibit stronger challenges like mobility management of devices, providing transparent access to grid resources, task management and handling of limited resources so that resources are shared efficiently. Task execution on these devices should not be affected by their mobility. The proposed work presents performance evaluation of wireless mobile grid using normal walk mobility model. The normal walk model represents daily motion of users and the direction of motion is mostly symmetric in a real life environment; thus it is effective in location updating of a mobile station and in turn helps task distribution among these available mobile stations. Some of the performance parameters such as Task Execution Time, task failure rate, communication overhead on Brokering Server and Monitoring Cost are discussed.

A. S. Nandeppanavar,; M. N. Birje,; S. S. Manvi,; Shridhar,

2010-01-01

102

Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6  

CERN Multimedia

Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

Minoli, Daniel

2012-01-01

103

CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

2009-05-01

104

Capital Mobility in African Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that one of the important aspects of achieving sustainable development is to preservemacroeconomic stability, which is closely related to the extent of capital mobility. Given the importance of thesubject for open economies, this paper examines the degree of capital mobility for African countries by usingamong other methodologies the Feldstein- Horioka coefficients. To determine those coefficients, we use timeseries data and methods, along with the Dynamic Heterogeneous panel approach. We find significantcross-country heterogeneity in the dynamic of income per capita, investment rate, and saving rate; and concludethat it is invalid to pool data across our sample countries. Furthemore, the empirical findings reveal that forAfrican countries included in the sample, the estimated saving retention coefficients are at the same time, smalland high indicating respectively higher and lower degrees of capital mobility and therefore, challenging theresults of Feldstein – Horioka on developing countries.

Solo Padawassou

2012-01-01

105

Intergenerational Income Mobility and Family Dissolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the intergenerational income mobility between intact families and families disrupted due to divorce or parental death. The data samples consist of children born in 1960 and 1970 along with their biological fathers and mothers. The income mobility is explored between sons and fath...

Rieck, Karsten Marshall Elseth

106

Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

B. Naresh Kumar; Dr. R.V. Krishnaiah?

2013-01-01

107

Exploring technology acceptance for mobile services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Mobile phone industries are no longer relying on voice services. It is predicted that data services are expected to be a remediation for the declining of average revenue per user (ARPU) in telecommunication market. The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that influence the acceptance/adoption of mobile services.Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes quantitative method. Questionnaire were distributed to collect the data. The questionnaires are designed specifically to address the factors related to mobile services. Later on, this paper uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Cluster analysis to identify the factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Findings: The results show that ease of use and usefulness are top two factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Research limitations/implications: The sample for the study is relatively small. For future research, the sample should be increased. The data collection should also look into different devices and operating system of mobile phones to find if there is any significant difference in adopting mobile services.Practical implications: This framework is expected to be able to help the mobile services provider to design better mobile services that can attract users to adopt them. Originality/value: This is the follow on research on the previous study that employed different method. This study is to confirm and support the findings from previous study.

Kenny Phan; Tugrul Daim

2011-01-01

108

Mobile Operating Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

2012-01-01

109

Next generation mobile broadcasting  

CERN Multimedia

Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

Gómez-Barquero, David

2013-01-01

110

Estimating and Learning the Trajectory of Mobile Phones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project is based on the ongoing data collection campaign by Nokia Re- search Center-Lausanne. We use location data sampled everyday by mobile phones in the campaign to estimate position of the participants. It is with emerging mobile systems that combines different sensors in a mobile phone so,...

Hosseini Kamal, Mahdad

111

Mobility vs Multihoming  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In current scenario, use of mobile and Internet has beenincreasing and the increasing number of users are comingforward to use new services like mobility and multihoming.Roaming users are interested to stay connected withnetwork while moving from one network to another networkwith multiple network interfaces e.g. WLAN andGPRS.Problems which might arise when mobile host movesfrom one network to another network. Some mobility solutionshave been introduced to ensure connections betweennetworks,e.g., Mobile IPv4 & IPv6.

Naveen Gundu

112

Liquid phase ion mobility spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel analytical method, called Liquid Phase Ion Mobility Spectrometry (LiPIMS) was demonstrated, where aqueous phase analytes were ionized and introduced into non-aqueous liquids, transported by an external electric field from the point of generation to a collection electrode. Ions were produced from a unique liquid phase ionization process, called Electrodispersion Ionization. Spectra of analyte ions illustrated the potential of LiPIMS as a new separation technique. Experimental data showed that electrodispersion ionization was effective in generating nanoampere level of ion current in hexane and benzene from aqueous samples. By controlling the ionization voltage in relation to the sample flow rate, it was possible to operate the electrodispersion ionization source in both continuous and pulsed ionization modes. Unique LiPIMS spectra of aqueous samples of tetramethylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium bromide and bradykinin were presented and their respected liquid phase ion mobility values were determined.

Tam M; Hill HH Jr

2011-08-01

113

Liquid phase ion mobility spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel analytical method, called Liquid Phase Ion Mobility Spectrometry (LiPIMS) was demonstrated, where aqueous phase analytes were ionized and introduced into non-aqueous liquids, transported by an external electric field from the point of generation to a collection electrode. Ions were produced from a unique liquid phase ionization process, called Electrodispersion Ionization. Spectra of analyte ions illustrated the potential of LiPIMS as a new separation technique. Experimental data showed that electrodispersion ionization was effective in generating nanoampere level of ion current in hexane and benzene from aqueous samples. By controlling the ionization voltage in relation to the sample flow rate, it was possible to operate the electrodispersion ionization source in both continuous and pulsed ionization modes. Unique LiPIMS spectra of aqueous samples of tetramethylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium bromide and bradykinin were presented and their respected liquid phase ion mobility values were determined. PMID:21698311

Tam, Maggie; Hill, Herbert H

2011-06-23

114

Mobile Commerce and Related Mobile Security Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution

Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade

2013-01-01

115

Designing Mobilities : Staging Materialities of Mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices. Everyday life mobilities take place in complex socio-technical systems where the over-layering of hard infrastructures, with design codes and protocols shapes the ‘mobile biotopes’ of the everyday life. By exploring the very tangible and concrete designs of for example everyday life transit spaces, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases of: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub.

Jensen, Ole B.

116

Mobility Management Framework  

CERN Document Server

This paper investigates mobility management strategies from the point of view of their need of signalling and processing resources on the backbone network and load on the air interface. A method is proposed to model the serving network and mobile node mobility in order to be able to compare the different types of mobility management algorithms. To obtain a good description of the network we calculate descriptive parameters from given topologies. Most mobility approaches derived from existing protocols are analyzed and their performances are numerically compared in various network and mobility scenarios. We developed a mobility management framework that is able to give general designing guidelines for the next generation mobility managements on given network, technology and mobility properties. With our model an operator can design the network and tune the parameters to obtain the optimal implementation of course revising existing systems is also possible. We present a vertical handover decision method as a sp...

Fulop, Peter; Imre, Sandor

2008-01-01

117

Head First Mobile Web  

CERN Document Server

Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

2011-01-01

118

MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, challenges, and open problems of mobile agent technology.

RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

2011-01-01

119

Mobility estimation in microsized bismuth wire arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Wire-diameter dependencies were investigated using microwire sample arrays with diameters from 2 to 25 ?m and polycrystalline bulk bismuth. Seebeck coefficient and resistivity were measured from 50 to 300 K. Although the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficients of all samples were similar to that of the bulk, the resistivity dependence of the 2-?m-diameter microwire array sample had a small positive temperature coefficient, and was quite different from the other samples. Mobility was estimated using a simple model to identify the dependences on temperature and wire diameter. The ratio of electron mobility divided by hole mobility gradually decreased with decreasing temperature for samples with wire diameters below 6 ?m, and electron mobility was suppressed at low temperatures, explaining the promotion of the boundary scattering. Therefore, small positive temperature coefficients of resistivity were obtained for very small diameter microwire array samples. To compare with the temperature dependence of the nanowire array samples that typically have negative temperature coefficient reported, a model for mobility was developed to represent the temperature dependence of resistivity.

Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Murata, Masayuki; Nakamura, Daiki; Komine, Takashi; Taguchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinichiro

2009-05-01

120

Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users  

CERN Multimedia

Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

MOBILE COMMERCE APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Telecommunications technologies are advanced; they introduced new technologies to meet the needs of individuals and organizations to make commercial transactions, where we find the birth of e-commerce after the emergence of the Internet. But this approach has limits like the use of a client / server model, which limit the use of these transactions in anytime and anywhere. Recently and after the emergence of the wireless networking, the commerce increase the range of the E-commerce applications in anytime and anywhere by the technology of mobile commerce. In this article, we propose an approach of mobile commerce based mobile agent with the aim to deploy the mobile agent paradigm for mobile commerce applications.

Oussama Zerdoumi; Okba Kazar; Saber Benharzallah

2011-01-01

122

Tandem mobile robot system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01

123

Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram...

L. J. Brachfeld

1999-01-01

124

Mobile Robot Command  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the components of a mobile robot assembled bymodules; its mechanical, driving and command systems are described.The dedicated software and the programming manner of different tasksfor the mobile robot are shown.

C?lin-Octavian Miclosin?; Codru?a-Oana Hamat; Dorian Nedelcu; Vasile Cojocaru

2008-01-01

125

Mobile Multilayer IPsec protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mobile user moves around and switches between wireless cells, subnets and domains, it needs to maintain the session continuity. At the same time security of signaling and transport media should not be compromised. A multi-layer security framework involving user authentication, packet based encryption and access control mechanism can provide the desired level of security to the mobile users. Supporting streaming traffic in a mobile wireless Internet is faced with several challenges due to continuous handoff experienced by a mobile user. These challenges include dynamic binding, location management, quality of service and end-to-end security for signaling and transport. Mobile users will use heterogeneous radio access networking technologies. Mobile multilayer IPsec protocol (MML IPSec) extends ML-IPSec to deal with mobility and make it suitable for wireless networks. MML-IPSec is integration of ML-IPSec and mobile IP.

T.Gayathri; S.Venkadajothi; S.Kalaivani; C.Divya; Dr.C.Suresh Gnana Dhas

2009-01-01

126

IP mobility techniques compared  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In traditional IP network IP address has both the meaningof network locater as well as host identity. This paradigmis fundamentally incompatible with mobility, with exceptionof data link layer mobility, such as WLAN and GPRS.

Joonas Kekoni

127

Ion mobility sensor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

2013-01-22

128

Mobile Student Information System  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

2011-01-01

129

MOBILE BUSINESS APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Users today want the opportunity to make (or manage) a businesses in anytime and anywhere via their mobile devices. This paper proposes the architecture with mobile agent for the mobile businesses (m-business). M-business appeared as the promising approach to drive the vague following one of electronic business (e-business). Most of the e-busines [9] applications uses the traditional model client/server in which a commercial operation requires generally a link of stable communication being established between the customer and the server, and the traditional approach client/server [8] constitutes an obstacle to the development of application of m-business. The proposed architecture introduces several advantages: in the first place, allow the consumers to manage their commercial business driven by types of mobile devices (phones, PDAs, etc. ....) at any time and wherever. Secondly, minimize the waiting time of the customer, and the quantity of transferring information. Third, this architecture addresses the problem of time limited and expensive connection for mobile users. The Mobile agents will be used on a single level: research agent. Every research mobile agent will be used to visit the target server site of the application to collect the information’s for his client, which allows it to interact locally with a server, and so to reduce the traffic on the network by transmitting only the useful data.

Ahmed Aloui; Okba Kazar

2011-01-01

130

Undergraduate Attitudes and Expectations for Mobile Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed the undergraduate students' willingness on adopting the usage of mobile phone in banking transaction' focusing on Islamic banking in FT, Labuan. Research has been conducted to analyze the students' attitudes and expectations toward mobile banking. Furthermore, students' socio-demographic elements were also studied and analyzes in relations with the study. As noted, sample was taken from students of Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Labuan International Campus. A total of 615 students were approached using convenience sampling modes. And, the finding illustrate that students tend to learn and adopt mobile banking in their banking transactions. In addition, the results also demonstrate students' attitudes and expectations to be the most consistent explanatory factors in predicting their willingness on adopting mobile banking usage in the future. In the nutshell, the findings were in-line with the previous study conducted by Howcroft, Hamilton and Hewer (2002), Sivanand, Geeta and Suleep (2004) and Laforet and Li (2005).

Hanudin Amin; Mohamad Rizal Abdul Hamid; Geoffrey Harvey Tanakinjal; Suddin Lada

2006-01-01

131

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

132

Instant Kendo UI mobile  

CERN Document Server

Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Written as practical recipes, Instant Kendo UI Mobile How-to will show you all you need to know to build your first mobile application utilizing the Kendo UI Mobile framework and its components.This book is for web application developers who are looking forward to build a mobile website or an application. It requires basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. This guide assumes that you are new to the topic and provides a step-by-step approach to building mobile applications usin

Ganatra, Sagar

2013-01-01

133

MOBILE ROBOTIC SURGICAL SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile robotic surgical system which includes a mobile surgical robot for use in a mobile or confined environment and a control station in communication with the mobile surgical robot over a network. The mobile surgical robot includes a controller for controlling operation of the mobile surgical robot, a communications subsystem for communicating with the control station over the network, robotic surgical instruments controllable by the control station over the network, a detector subsystem for determining spatial information relating to a surgical environment of the surgical robot, and a motion stabilizer subsystem for facilitating operation of the robotic surgical instruments while the mobile environment is in motion. The controller is configured to operate a local control loop between at least one of the subsystems and the robotic surgical instruments.

ANVARI MEHRAN; WILLIAMS DAVID; LYMER JOHN

134

Mobile Cloud Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with rapid growth in mobile applications and cloud computing technology, mobile cloud computing has been introduced to be a potential technology for mobile services. As mobile cloud computing is still in an early stage of development, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the technology in order to point to the direction of future research. With this aim, this paper presents a review on the background and principles of mobile cloud computing- principle, architecture and challenges along with the possible solutions. It also gives brief account about mobile and cloud computing. Applications like M-commerce, M-healthcare and M-gaming have been presented to discuss the possible applications of mobile cloud computing. The paper concludes with the authors view about the future of this technology.

PriyankaAsrani

2013-01-01

135

Mobile Cloud Computing.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite increasing usage of mobile computing, using its full potential is difficult due to its problems such as resource scarcity, frequent disconnections, and mobility. Mobile cloud computing can address these problems by executing mobile applications on resource providers external to the mobile device. Cloud computing is the latest effort in delivering computing resources as a service. It represents a shift away from computing as a product that is purchased, to computing as a service that is delivered to consumers over the internet from large-scale data centers – or “clouds”.In this paper, we provide an extensive survey of mobile cloud computing research, while highlighting the specific concerns in mobile cloud computing along with various issues to be considered and their solutions.

Miss Priyanka J.Pursani, Prof. P.L.Ramteke

2013-01-01

136

Priority Based Mobile Transaction Scheme Using Mobile Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We define a priority based mobile transaction scheme in which mobile users can share data stored in the cache of a mobile agent which is a special mobile node for coordinating the sharing process. This framework allows mobile affiliation work group to be formed dynamically with a mobile agent and mobile hosts. Using short range wireless communication technology, mobile users can simultaneously access the data from the cache of the mobile agent. Data Access Manager module at the mobile agent enforces concurrency control using cache invalidation technique. Four levels of priority are assigned to the requesting mobile nodes based on available energy and connectivity. This model supports disconnected mobile computing by allowing mobile agent to move along with the Mobile Hosts. The proposed Transaction frame work has been simulated in J2ME and NS2 and performance of this scheme is compared with existing frame works.

J.L. Walter Jeyakumar; R.S.Rajesh

2011-01-01

137

Mobile Web Analytics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Paper presents an overview of the Mobile Web analytics, with a focus on providing insight and actionable outcomes from collecting and analyzing Internet data. The amazing and tremendous growth of web site over the Mobile Internet has raised many concerns for organizations to analyze the lifetime value of their customers, and also improve their marketing strategies in the competitive world through the their website. So this has uplifted the need and requirement of Mobile Web Analytics. There are short comings of applying traditional web analytics to mobile web analytics. Mobile Web analytic process converts the collected data to meaningful key performance indicators in order to measure the organizational goals or potential opportunities. Mobile Web analytics in used to improve Web systems, increase customer satisfaction, and target revenue through effective analysis of user interactions with the organization’s Website.

Ruchi Gupta; Kinjal Mehta; Kaushal Bhavsar; Dr. Hiren Joshi

2013-01-01

138

CERN Mobility Survey  

CERN Document Server

The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

GS Department

2011-01-01

139

An Evaluation of Hach Direct Reading Engineer's Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hach kit has the capacity to test for 19 parameters. The kit is described as are the parameters it can be used to test. The results of known standards analyzed using the Hach kit are discussed and also presented in tabular form.

G. D. McKee E. L. Bour

1968-01-01

140

Client Mobile Software Design Principles for Mobile Learning Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to of...

Qing Tan; Kinshuk Kinshuk

 
 
 
 
141

Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

Mohamed Ally

2007-01-01

142

Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed  

CERN Multimedia

Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

2013-01-01

143

3R-WL air sampling survey meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and operation of a direct-reading sampler for air-borne radon progeny are described. The instrument was designed for use by ventilation personnel in uranium mines and is small, rugged, light-weight and easily carried and operated. Direct readout of the radon progeny concentration in units of working levels, in the range of 0.01 to 10 WL, is accomplished by counting the alpha particles from 218Po and 214Po with a single detector and two energy discrimination channels. Unique features include a fixed-volume, gravity-operated pump requiring no power source and minimal calibration, automatic decay, counting and display sequencing, capacity for more than 50 samples on a single roll of membrane filter, and provisions for recording all data directly on the filter tape

1977-01-01

144

Experiences with Linux Mobile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile phones are becoming more and more complex in terms of both hardware and software. Linux Mobile, as a term covering both the kernel and its surrounding components that together form the operating system, is said to have the potential to become the de-facto standard operating system for m...

Sivertsen, Frode

145

Voting for mobile citizens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes inter- and intraregional redistribution in a centralized state using the citizen-candidate model. It focuses on conflicting interests among regions and among citizens of varying mobility. If discrimination with respect to place of residence and degree of mobility is possible, div...

Wrede, Matthias

146

Wireless mobile Internet security  

CERN Document Server

  The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

Rhee, Man Young

2013-01-01

147

Access to mobile services  

CERN Document Server

Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

Bouguettaya, Athman

2009-01-01

148

Mobile Sites Style Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Instit?tes of Health National Cancer Instit?te NCI Mobile Sites St?le Guide Version 1.0 Table of Con?en?s 2 01. Mobile 01.1 Branding and Required Content 01.2 Branding: Backgrounds 01.3 Branding:

149

Mobile Apps Style Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

National Cancer Instit?te U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Instit?tes of Health NCI Mobile Apps St?le Guide Version 1.0 Table of Contents 2 01. Mobile 01.1 Branding: Iconograph? 01.2 Branding: Logo Usage 01.3 Branding: Backgrounds 01.4

150

Mobile spectrometric laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the Mobile Spectrometric Laboratory used by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection since year 2000. The equipment installed in the Mobile Laboratory and its uses is described. The results of international exercises and intercalibrations, in which the Laboratory participated are presented. (author)

2002-01-01

151

Improving Mobile Internet Usability  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile internet technologies, such as WAP, are important forpervasive, anytime, anywhere computing. Although muchprogress has been made in terms of technological innovation,many of mobile internet systems are difficult to use, lackflexibility and robustness. They give a poor user experience.

George Buchanan; Sarah Farrant; Matt Jones; Harold Thimbleby; Gary Marsden; Michael Pazzani

152

Robotics vehicle mobility study  

Science.gov (United States)

A nine-month study was conducted under the direction of Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, MI. to determine the best platform design for inherent all-terrain mobility of an unmanned robotic vehicle in the 15000-2500 lb. range. Reference platforms were the DEMO III 4x4 and the Utah State University 6x6 with omni-directional wheels. The study systematically developed desired top- down design-driving capabilities, operational needs, and mobility concepts supported by extensive analysis using the NATO Reference Mobility Model and literature searches. Maximizing mobility over all terrain and resisting immobilization were emphasized in order to minimize sensor computational burdens while maximizing the probability of timely mission accomplishment. Several wheeled, tracked and hybrid platform concepts were evaluated. Significant improvements in cross- country mobility, obstacle negotiation and self-extraction capability were achieved with hybrid solutions. Final concept development focused on an 8x8 swiveling wheeled platform with band track overlays. Conclusions of the study were: a technology demonstrator platform should be built for mobility validation and NRMM II refinemment; a robotic- vehicle-specific NRMM II mobility scenario should be developed; and sensor solutions for unmanned mobility platforms should be revisited.

Ansorge, Kurt H.; Pond, James E.

2000-07-01

153

Mobile communications design fundamentals  

CERN Document Server

Revised and enlarged version that discusses how to design a mobile communications system. Comprehensively examines the mobile radio environment. Covers prediction of propagation loss, calculation and methods of reducing fades, interference, frequency plans and associated schemes, design parameters, signaling and channel access, cellular CDMA, microcell systems, and miscellaneous related systems. Contains chapter-by-chapter references and problems.

Lee, William C Y

2010-01-01

154

Mobile School Service  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is in common for the majority of young people? Mobile phone. In epoch of rapid development of information technologies the time came in which only few people do not have mobiles, especially among young people in high schools. Researches which we made in our school say that this percentage (rate...

Zoran Vucetic; Borislav Odadzic

155

Mobile phone; Mobiltelefon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

2009-07-01

156

Mobile Services Adoption Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research presents an explanatory model for consumers' adoption of mobile services. This model uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology presented by Venkatesh in 2003 as a baseline and integrates the Perceived Enjoyment, Mobile Affinity, Perceived Price of Service and the Freq...

Abu Ghannam, Bashar

157

Mobile Apps for Librarians  

Science.gov (United States)

|In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

Power, June L.

2013-01-01

158

Mobile Internet Business Strategies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A business model for the Mobile Internet is developed from Porter (1980) andThaler (1985) that balances firm goals for start ups and established firms versus userinterest in benefits and savings. The model defines specific benefits and savings byhypothesizing versions of products, time limited places, pricing of MI services, andpromotion of MI. Example firms and products from Sweden and the U.S. are featuredas illustrative. Data are reported that support the hypotheses. Suggestions for futuredevelopment of the MI markets are outlined.3Mobile Internet Business StrategiesMobile internet (MI) offers a new wave of economic opportunity as twotechnologies, mobile terminals and the fixed internet, are brought together. Europe, andin particular Scandinavia, are years ahead of the U.S. in the percent of the populationusing mobile phones (Holst, 2001, p 201). The U.S. leads Europe in the proportionconnecting to the internet via fixed terminals, laptops with WLANS, or PDAs(Zoo...

Gerrit Wolf

159

Mobile Learning for All  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents research regarding the accessibility design for a mobile learning activity carried out at the Italian National Research Council, Institute for Educational Technologies. In particular, we introduce some considerations about the methodology and the design steps used to build some educational tools on mobile devices that are fully accessible for students with special needs using a compact screen reader (on a Smartphone). Briefly, we outline the common problems of accessing an online learning management system through a Smartphone (services and information), and then we introduce a mobile learning environment, the Accessible Mobile Learning (AMobiLe), which we have designed with specific features for visually impaired students. One of the main aims of our research is to explore and evaluate ways of using mobile devices to stimulate collaborative learning, as well as to demolish barriers for disabled students in order to reduce the digital divide.

Marco Arrigo; Giovanni Ciprì

2010-01-01

160

MOBILE OPERATION SUPPORT CENTER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modular mobile operation support center for supporting oilfield operations is disclosed that overcomes the lack of mobility or quick-response capability of existing solutions and well as other problems. The modular mobile operation support center comprises one or more portable, self-contained modules or stations, each module or station capable of providing real-time surveillance of remote oilfield operations. The portable, self- contained modules or stations allow the mobile operation support center to be quickly and easily moved from one location to another in a substantially assembled state to support an oilfield operation.Appropriately-trained oilfield personnel, such as drilling engineers, geosteering coordinators, and the like, may then use the mobile operation support center to monitor well-site operations and other remote oilfield operations either at their own facility or at a client's facility.

ALVAREZ CARMEN ELENA

 
 
 
 
161

Mobility of photosynthetic proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mobility of photosynthetic proteins represents an important factor that affects light-energy conversion in photosynthesis. The specific feature of photosynthetic proteins mobility can be currently measured in vivo using advanced microscopic methods, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching which allows the direct observation of photosynthetic proteins mobility on a single cell level. The heterogeneous organization of thylakoid membrane proteins results in heterogeneity in protein mobility. The thylakoid membrane contains both, protein-crowded compartments with immobile proteins and fluid areas (less crowded by proteins), allowing restricted diffusion of proteins. This heterogeneity represents an optimal balance as protein crowding is necessary for efficient light-energy conversion, and protein mobility plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthesis. The mobility is required for an optimal light-harvesting process (e.g., during state transitions), and also for transport of proteins during their synthesis or repair. Protein crowding is then a key limiting factor of thylakoid membrane protein mobility; the less thylakoid membranes are crowded by proteins, the higher protein mobility is observed. Mobility of photosynthetic proteins outside the thylakoid membrane (lumen and stroma/cytosol) is less understood. Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes attached to the stromal side of the thylakoid can move relatively fast. Therefore, it seems that stroma with their active enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle, are a more fluid compartment in comparison to the rather rigid thylakoid lumen. In conclusion, photosynthetic protein diffusion is generally slower in comparison to similarly sized proteins from other eukaryotic membranes or organelles. Mobility of photosynthetic proteins resembles restricted protein diffusion in bacteria, and has been rationalized by high protein crowding similar to that of thylakoids.

Ka?a R

2013-08-01

162

Boat sampling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

1994-01-01

163

Untraceability of Mobile Internet Users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current mobile telecommunications providers conceal the records gathered about their subscribers from other subscribers and non-subscribers but not from the mobile telecommunications providers themselves. Thanks to the availability of these records, mobil...

C. Molina-Jimenez L. Marshall

2002-01-01

164

Untraceability of mobile Internet users  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current mobile telecommunications providers conceal the records gathered about their subscribers from other subscribers and non-subscribers but not from the mobile telecommunications providers themselves. Thanks to the availability of these records, mobile telecommunications providers ....

Lindsay Marshall

165

Embodied Cultures of Mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper explores the relationship between the body and mobility by looking into a number of modes of transportation and their ways of constructing particular engagements with mobility. The ‘mobile embodiments’ are significant to a material and symbolic set of relations between human agents and material artifacts. The paper target the complex relationship between the moving, sensing body and the material and built environment of infrastructures and mobility modes in order to explore what norms, and meanings, and everyday life mobility cultures are being produced and re-produced in this process. A particular emphasis is put on how mobilities produce and re-produce norms, meanings and cultures in relation to the Everyday life perspective. By looking into walking, running, cycling, driving and mass transit mobilities different modes of embodied mobility is identified. The theoretical framework is based on a re-reading and re-interpretation of Gibson’s theories of visual perception and motion, Lynch’s theories of the mobile experiences of the city, and Goffman’s notions of ‘presentation of self’ and elaborations on ideas about interaction in motion. The new and innovative dimension to this paper is partly a new juxtaposition of three very different theorists that to the knowledge of this author never before has been combined. The theorists engaged with are all rather ‘old’ meaning that they are re-read in order to explore their underused potentials. However, this obviously also mean that more contemporary theorists understanding bodily movement, material sites of mobility, and social interactions must be consulted along the road (e.g. Latour’s work on objects and ANT, Thrift’s work on the body and ‘non-representational theory, and Massumi’s notions of affects and emotions related to bodily mobility). More importantly though, is the new insights that a theoretical framing connecting perception and bodily motion (Gibson) with an understanding of the face-to-face bodily interaction (Goffman) and an explicit awareness to the meaning of the physical design of the sites and places of the bodily mobility and interaction (Lynch). The argument is thus that understanding embodied cultures of mobilities from the vantage point of this paper lend is self to new interpretations, explorations and understandings of what it means to move within and between other social agents in particular material and physical environments.

Jensen, Ole B.

2010-01-01

166

Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10-4 cm3 s-1 with detection limit of 58.8 ?g m-3 h-1. Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozone.

2008-03-10

167

Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones. Copyright (C) 2009 G. P. Perrucci et al.

Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP

2009-01-01

168

Attention All Mobile Users!  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ongoing convergence between the telecommunications industry and theinformation technology industry leads to new products and services for the enduser.Products based on Wireless Application Protocol (WAP1) technology bringthe world of Internet into our pockets, where the services provided may be wirelessand accessed from anywhere. There are high expectations to these new servicesprovided by products like the next generation of mobile phones, Personal DigitalAssistants (PDAs), handheld computers and so on. The leading telecom industriesexpect services like banking transactions and mobile electronic commerce (ecommerce)to be widely used by the adopters. Based on our empirical research, weclaim that system developers of such mobile services who do not realize that there isa major fundamental difference between stationary computing services and mobilecomputing services will see the whole concept of mobile e-commerce challenged.Designing services and applications to be used with mobile devices requires a newway of thinking. In this article we elucidate one aspect we believe to be important,namely attention. We have observed that existing mobile devices demand too muchattention from the user, actually more attention than the user is willing to give.Keywords: Contextual communications, Mobility, E-commerce, handheld devices, WAPBRT Keywords:

John Olav Olsen; Jo Herstad

169

Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

G. P. Perrucci; F. H. P. Fitzek; Q. Zhang; M. D. Katz

2009-01-01

170

Limits of social mobilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

2013-04-01

171

Limits of social mobilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

Rutherford A; Cebrian M; Dsouza S; Moro E; Pentland A; Rahwan I

2013-04-01

172

Mobile and contextual learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice) to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

Agnes Kukulska-Hulme; Mike Sharples

2009-01-01

173

Editorial: Mobile (March 2010)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open source software and hardware has become an accepted way of developing new and interesting applications in many information and communication technology domains: operating systems, databases, Web infrastructure, and applications. It's not surprising that with the increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices, users and researchers have explored the power of open approaches to providing innovative new applications and services in this domain. However, unlike personal computers and the Internet, mobile handsets were tightly controlled by mobile network operators (MNOs) who developed a vertical ecosystem by integrating the communication infrastructure, the handheld device hardware, and often the applications installed on those devices. The software and protocols running the mobile communications infrastructure and devices are often standardized by membership-only bodies, where large MNOs and manufacturers have a predominant influence. These players invest significant financial resources into shaping the industry along their vision to gain a competitive advantage. A current example is the ongoing battle about the dominant radio access technology for 4G cellular systems: LTE vs. Wimax. These trends have changed recently. Companies such as Google, Nokia, or Openmoko and Industry Alliances such as the Open Handset Alliance are providing the core building blocks, both in hardware as well as software, of increasingly open mobile devices. This issue of the OSBR reviews the relevant trends in the open mobile platform space from a number of perspectives. As the articles in these issue show, there is a lot of exciting ongoing work that brings the power of open source development to the mobile space. This trend is not just confined to the mobile devices as there are also efforts in the development of open mobile infrastructure elements and whole systems.

Dru Lavigne; Thomas Kunz; François Lefebvre

2010-01-01

174

Interventions to maintain mobility: What works?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability; (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies must have reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed.

Ross LA; Schmidt EL; Ball K

2012-10-01

175

Neighborhood amenities and mobility in older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods.

Rosso AL; Grubesic TH; Auchincloss AH; Tabb LP; Michael YL

2013-09-01

176

MOBILE COMMERCE: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the power of wireless increases, it provides various opportunities for improving services to customers. In today’s era, mobile commerce or M-Commerce has entered almost all the aspects of Business organizations like finance, retails, services, telecommunications and information technology services. This paper discusses the concept of Mobile Commerce. It looks at how the technology of Mobile Commerce has facilitated new business trends. After this there is detailed description of applications of M-Commerce, its advantages & disadvantages. In last finally it throws light on the challenges that are faced by M-Commerce.

Shruti Jain

2012-01-01

177

Mobile technology and place  

CERN Multimedia

An international roster of contributors come together in this comprehensive volume to examine the complex interactions between mobile media technologies and issues of place. Balancing philosophical reflection with empirical analysis, this book examines the specific contexts in which place and mobile technologies come into focus, intersect, and interact. Given the far-reaching impact of contemporary mobile technology use - and given the lasting importance of the concept and experiences of place - this book will appeal to a wide range of scholars in media and cultural studies, sociology, and phi

Wilken, Rowan

2013-01-01

178

Improving Mobile Internet Usability  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile internet technologies, such as WAP, are important for pervasive, anytime, anywhere computing. Although much progress has been made in terms of technological innovation, many of mobile internet systems are difficult to use, lack flexibility and robustness. They give a poor user experience. Evaluation and theoretical analysis of usability combined with innovative design can achieve significant improvements in user performance and satisfaction. Using such multidisciplinary methods explains the negative reactions to WAP, and --- more constructively --- suggest ways of developing more effective and efficient devices and services. Key words: Mobile internet, HCI, Usability, WAP. 1.

George Buchanan; Sarah Farrant; Matt Jones; Harold Thimbleby; Gary Marsden; Michael Pazzani

179

Mobile communication and intermediality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across all contexts of daily life.

Helles, Rasmus

2013-01-01

180

Mobile ad hoc networking  

CERN Multimedia

"Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

John Wiley & Sons

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Data mining mobile devices  

CERN Multimedia

With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

Mena, Jesus

2013-01-01

182

Mobile networks architecture  

CERN Multimedia

This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

Perez, Andre

2013-01-01

183

Explaining mobile commerce services adoption by different type of customers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile phones have been proclaimed as the new service frontier. Nowadays, in addition to traditional mobile services, new mobile commerce services are ready to be used by customers based on 3G-related technologies. However, little is known about the reasons why different groups of customers adopt mobile commerce services. By means of a sample of 542 Dutch consumers, we analyze the acceptance of these services by four different groups of customers. We finish our work providing interesting conclusions for academics as well as practitioners

Francisco J. Molina-Castillo; Carolina López-Nicolás; Harry Bouwman

2008-01-01

184

MMIP - Mixed Mobile Internet Protocol  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile IP extends the Internet Protocol to provide mobility features. Unfortunately,Mobile IP introduces new security threats unknown in IP environments.In this paper we emphasize on the problem of ensuring locationprivacy for mobile users which is not addressed by Mobile IP. To concealmovements of mobile users and to prevent an attacker from tracing users' locationswe designed and implemented a simple extension of Mobile IP whichis called Mixed Mobile IP. The basic idea of the proposed extension is toseparate information about the identity of a host from information about itslocation. The paper presents the main features of the protocol and sketchesour Linux-based prototype implementation.KeywordsCommunication Security, Mobile IP, Anonymity, Mix1 INTRODUCTIONWith the evolving of mobile computing (Forman,1994) the vision of accessingany service anywhere at any time becomes more and more realistic. Thefirst step towards this ultimate goal is to enable mobile hosts to mo...

T. Lopatik; C. Eckert; U. Baumgarten

185

Mobile phone based SCADA for industrial automation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCADA is the acronym for "Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition." SCADA systems are widely used in industry for supervisory control and data acquisition of industrial processes. Conventional SCADA systems use PC, notebook, thin client, and PDA as a client. In this paper, a Java-enabled mobile phone has been used as a client in a sample SCADA application in order to display and supervise the position of a sample prototype crane. The paper presents an actual implementation of the on-line controlling of the prototype crane via mobile phone. The wireless communication between the mobile phone and the SCADA server is performed by means of a base station via general packet radio service (GPRS) and wireless application protocol (WAP). Test results have indicated that the mobile phone based SCADA integration using the GPRS or WAP transfer scheme could enhance the performance of the crane in a day without causing an increase in the response times of SCADA functions. The operator can visualize and modify the plant parameters using his mobile phone, without reaching the site. In this way maintenance costs are reduced and productivity is increased.

Ozdemir E; Karacor M

2006-01-01

186

Sample extractor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An automatic extractor of capsuled oil well drilling fluid samples and a process for extracting the fluid samples, the extractor including a vertically oriented tube canister for storing a quantity of empty sample capsules; a plate canister which contains a supply of plates for storing the filled sample capsules; a pivotally mounted sampling device positioned between the tube canister and the plate canister, which sampling device operates to remove the sample capsules one by one from storage in the tube canister, immerse the capsules in a stream of drilling fluid from which a sample is desired, and insert the filled sample capsule in the plate canister; and a plate conveyor in cooperation with the plate canister for periodically removing filled plates containing the sealed capsules and samples.

Apple, C.L.

1981-03-24

187

Mobile agents and mobile devices: friendship or difficult relationship?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile agent technology has traditionally been recognized as a very useful approach to build applications for mobile computing and wireless environments. However, only a few studies report practical experiences with mobile agents in a mobile medium. This leads us to the following question: can curre...

Urra, Óscar; Ilarri Artigas, Sergio; Trillo Lado, Raquel; Mena Nieto, Eduardo

188

Research in Mobile Intelligence Mobile Computing and Computational Intelligence  

CERN Multimedia

* Focuses on learning patterns and knowledge from data generated by mobile users and mobile technology. * Covers research and application issues in applying computational intelligence applications to mobile computing. * Delivers benefits to a wide range of applications. * Introduces the state of the art of computational intelligence to the mobile paradigm

Yang, Laurence T

2010-01-01

189

Mobile Learning Applications Audit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While mobile learning (m-learning) applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like automatic speech recognition (ASR) can improve their accessibility. This article will start with a brief introduction on m-learning applications, then it will present the audit process for m-learning applications, it will iterate their specific security threats, it will define the ASR process, and it will elaborate how ASR can enhance accessibility of these types of applications.

Paul POCATILU; Adrian POCOVNICU

2010-01-01

190

Economic Mobility Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Working with partners from The American Enterprise Institute and The Urban Institute, the Economic Mobility Project is an initiative of The Pew Charitable Trusts. The aim of the Project is to focus public attention on economic mobility through well-thought out scholarly analyses, reports, public events, and discussion. In the "Reports & Research" section, visitors can download papers like "Neighborhoods and the Black-White Mobility Gap" and "Ups and Downs: Does the American Economy Still Promote Upward Mobility?" Visitors can also look over a topical list of their papers as well. Moving on, the "Newsroom" area provides access to the Project's latest press releases and information about their upcoming events. The site is rounded out by a search engine and an area where visitors can sign up to receive the latest news from the Project.

191

Persuasive Mobile Health Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

192

Mobile Information Access  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to access information on demand when mobile will be a critical capability in the 21stcentury. In this paper, we examine the fundamental forces at work in mobile computing systems andexplain how they constrain the problem of mobile information access. From these constraints, wederive the importance of adaptivity as a crucial requirement of mobile clients. We then develop ataxonomy of adaptation strategies, and summarize our research in application-transparent andapplication-aware adaptation in the Coda and Odyssey systems respectively.This research was supported by the Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) and the Advanced Research ProjectsAgency (ARPA) under contract number F196828-93-C-0193. Additional support was provided by the IBM Corp.,Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., Xerox Corp., and AT&T Corp. The U.S. government is authorized toreproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes, notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.The views and conclusi...

M. Satyanarayanan

193

Mobile School Service  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What is in common for the majority of young people? Mobile phone. In epoch of rapid development of information technologies the time came in which only few people do not have mobiles, especially among young people in high schools. Researches which we made in our school say that this percentage (rate) is really high 99,23% at this moment. The educational institutions should use this opportunity. In aim to improve the success of students the mobile service is developed, which will be described in this work. This is first result which provides a cognitive tool which is supporting the independent learning by applying mobile phones with wireless communication technology to extend learning outside of the classroom in Serbia. The service was developed during times when we didn’t know anything about how much and in which way m-learning was being used in the world.

Zoran Vucetic; Borislav Odadzic

2010-01-01

194

Analysis of Mobile Users’ Perception towards SMS Voting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voting through Short Message Service (SMS) technology is fast and reliable as the mobile technology in Malaysia is quite advanced. Most of the SMS voting mechanism is easily understood by the public. There is no need to explain the voting process in detail as almost 80% of the mobile users know how to use the SMS service. SMS voting is just another way of sending a vote to the recipient by using short code instead of using a normal mobile number. SMS voting provides a useful, secure and reliable process as mobile users are informed of the charges incurred and receive a return SMS to acknowledge that their SMS vote has been received. The objective of this study is to study the characteristics of SMS voting adopters in terms of demographic factors as well as to explore the mobile users’ perception towards SMS voting. A survey using questionnaires was conducted to gain information and opinions from a convenience sample of 300 Malaysian mobile users regarding their perceptions on using SMS to vote. The findings revealed that approximately two-thirds of the Malay respondents use SMS voting, most mobile users in the sample are single and female, and that mobile users like to send their votes using SMS. There is a significant difference between the usage of SMS voting among female respondents. Of the respondents 80 per cent perceive that the ease of use factor has greatly influenced mobile users in using SMS for voting purposes.

NG KAI SIN; Ainin Sulaiman; Ali Hussein Saleh Zolait

2008-01-01

195

Miniature ion mobility spectrometer detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A miniaturized ion mobility spectrometer (Mini-IMS) has been fabricated. The device is approximately the size of a remote control for a television set. Compared to conventional hand-held and laboratory IMS devices, a number of important logistic changes have been made. The Mini-IMS unit adheres to the fundamental principles of ion mobility spectrometry with considerably lower power requirements. The device is a sample-on-demand system that uses only passive molecular sieve pumping to effect a dry cell. Internal background, sample scans and difference spectra, in both ion modes are obtained in only 5 sec. Qualitative and quantitative investigations of the new hand-held device reveal major improvements as well as further areas for improvement compared to conventional IMS systems. The vast majority of IMS systems have been constructed for use by the military for defense against chemical warfare--the Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) is the prime example. Other applications include environmental monitoring, law enforcement (e.g., drug detection) and antiterrorism (e.g., explosives detection).

Snyder, A.P.; Harden, C.S.; Shoff, D.B. [Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

196

Mobile Phone as Pedagogical Tools: Are Teachers Ready?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the teachers’ perceptions on the implementation of mobile learning via mobile phone at schools. The sample for this study comprised thirty eight teachers who were teaching Information Technology (IT) subjects from various primary schools in Penang, Malaysia. A quantitative survey was administered to the respondents whereby results indicated that the adoption of mobile learning via mobile phone at schools was not perceived well among respondents. Moreover, respondents also were quite skeptical about future of mobile learning should it be implemented at their schools. The article concludes with emerging concerns which may have implications for future studies, specifically on whether or not mobile phone can effectively be adopted as teaching and learning tools for Malaysian mainstream schooling.

Issham Ismail; Siti Norbaya Azizan; Nizuwan Azman

2013-01-01

197

MOBILE SOFTWARE TRAINING ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relevance of the material contained in the article, due to the necessity in shuku ways of optimizing the process of training in high school, which becomes possible through the use of mobile information and communication technologies. The work-rod lyanuto modern software mobile information and communication technologies and learning tools that enable students to provide ongoing access to resources, teach-ence school.???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ?????, ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????-?????????????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????-????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????.

Nataliya V. Rashevs’ka

2011-01-01

198

Mobile telephony and children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There is an ongoing debate about the possibility of adverse health effects related to radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure from mobile phones and their associated base stations. Of particular public concern in this context are children. In its report the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) recommended that the widespread use of mobile phones by children should be discouraged citing that children may be more vulnerable because of their developing nervous system, their greater absorption of energy in the tissue of the head and a longer lifetime of exposure. However, more recently the Health Council of the Netherlands disagreed with the IEGMP and concluded that there is no convincing scientific data to restrict children from using mobile phones. The World Health Organization states that none of there centre views have found that exposure to the RF fields form mobile phones or their base stations causes any adverse health consequence. However there has been limited scientific research specifically focussed on children. Future research will be required to address the issue of mobile telephony and children. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

2004-01-01

199

Early mobilization following angioplasty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIM: To assess the incidence of puncture site complications in in-patients undergoing early mobilization following angioplasty with a view to performing day case angioplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-eight patients undergoing peripheral and renal angioplasty using a sheath size of up to 6 French were recruited prospectively. The mobilization protocol consisted of supine bed rest for 2 h, followed by gradual mobilization, so that the patient was ambulant 4 h after the procedure. Mobilization was delayed if clinically appropriate. Puncture sites were scored for discomfort, paraesthesia, visible bruising and palpable haematoma after groin compression and the following morning. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four puncture sites were studied. There were 44 haematomas in total, of which 37 (26%) were less than 2.5 cm and seven (4.9%) were between 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm. Four patients (2.8%) had visible bruising greater than 7.5 cm. No patient assessed discomfort higher than moderate at any stage. Mobilization was delayed in 15 patients. In 11 this was due to puncture site oozing, haematoma in one, two were hypertensive and one required surgery for limb ischaemia. All complications occurred within 4 h of angioplasty. No patient required surgery or transfusion for haemorrhagic complications. CONCLUSION: Mobilization at 4 h was successful in 90% of cases but 10% require more prolonged bed rest. No delayed complications occurred. These results suggest that day case angioplasty is feasible in most cases. Butterfield, J.S. (2000)

Butterfield, John S.; Fitzgerald, James B.; Razzaq, Rubeena; Willard, Christopher J.; Ashleigh, Raymond J.; England, Ruth E.; Chalmers, Nicholas; Andrew, Heather M

2000-11-01

200

Mobile Agent Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a broad sense, an agent is any program that acts on behalf of a (human) user. A mobile agent then is a program which represents a user in a computer network, and is capable of migrating autonomously from node to node, to perform some computation on behalf of the user. In computer science, a mobile agent is a composition of computer software and data which is able to migrate (move) from one computer to another autonomously and continue its execution on the destination computer. Mobile Agent, namely, is a type of software agent, with the feature of autonomy, social ability, learning, and most important, mobility. Mobile agent is an agent that migrates from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network at times of its own choosing. An agent is “an independent software program which runs on behalf of a network user”. A mobile agent is a program which, once it is launched by a user, can travel from node to node autonomously, and can continue to function even if the user is disconnected from the network. Examples can be Personal assistant (mail filter, scheduling), Information agent (tactical picture agent), E-commerce agent (stock trader, bidder) and Recommendation agent (Firefly, Amazon.com).

Mrigank Rajya

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Sampling Distribution of Sample Means  

Science.gov (United States)

This applet generates a graph of the sampling distribution of sample means and displays the probabilities associated with that distribution. Users enter the mean and standard deviation of the source population and the size of the samples. The applet also calculates the standard error of the sample means.

Lowry, Richard

2009-01-08

202

Libraries and the Mobile Web  

Science.gov (United States)

|In 2011, cell phones and mobile devices are ubiquitous. The vast majority of Americans now own cell phones, and over half of them have mobile access to the Internet through a phone or other mobile device. For libraries to stay relevant, they must be able to offer content and services through the mobile web. In this issue of "Library Technology…

Hanson, Cody

2011-01-01

203

Mobility decline in old age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

Rantakokko M; Mänty M; Rantanen T

2013-01-01

204

Mobility decline in old age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina

2013-01-01

205

Aero particles characterization emitted by mobile sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our country, the mobile sources that conform most of the emissions at the atmosphere, are concentrated on the urban areas. For the present work, samples coming from the escapes of terrestrial transport were obtained, such as: passenger buses, load transport and particular vehicles of the Metropolitan area of the Toluca valley. The material was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy of low vacuum and X-ray diffraction. The objective was to characterize the emitted particles by mobile sources, morphological and chemically to know the structure, size and elements that compose them. (Author)

2009-01-01

206

MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge mobilization in relation to education research depends on the political will for it. To what extent is it present in Denmark? On one hand, it is whole-heartedly present in Denmark, where national competitive ability is formulated from an ideal of the population’s competitive ability – a sort of popular competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge mobilization. This lack of consensus can be traced to the political-administrative level and to the relationship between representatives of education research and representatives of the education system. So, if the concept of knowledge mobilization is not especially exploited in Denmark, it can be seen as a symptom that the will to knowledge mobilization is, in reality – and until now – notstrong enough to deserve the use of the expression mobilization. The other possibility is that what is conceptualized as mobilization in other countries is conceptualized in Denmark by the use of concepts such as transfer of, communication, and knowledge sharing. At any rate, the analysis in this report of the relationship between education research and the education system during the period from 2000 to today shows that a change has, in fact, taken place; a change from speaking less about transfer ofknowledge transfer to speaking more about the need for research communication, knowledge exchange, and knowledge sharing. I have chosen to use the concept of knowledge mobilization in this report to summarize these changes.The report accounts for knowledge mobilization through two analyses. First, an analysis of the question of research affiliation of Danish universities with the Centers for Higher Education (CVUs)/university colleges during the period from 2000 to 2010. Second, an analysis and assessment of how the use of journalism as a form of communication has been idealized – in the period from the year 2003 on – with respect to creating an equal communication between universities and society, including between education research, the education system, and educational practice.

Holm, Claus

2011-01-01

207

Mobile Applications in Dermatology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE With advancements in mobile technology, cellular phone-based mobile applications (apps) may be used in the practice and delivery of dermatologic care. OBJECTIVE To identify and categorize the variety of current mobile apps available in dermatology for patients and providers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Dermatology-related search terms were queried in the online app stores of the most commonly used mobile platforms developed by Apple, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, and Windows. Applications were assigned to categories based on description. Popularity, price, and reviews were recorded and target audiences were determined through websites offering online mobile apps. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Number, type, and price of mobile apps in dermatology. RESULTS A total of 229 dermatology-related apps were identified in the following categories: general dermatology reference (61 [26.6%]), self-surveillance/diagnosis (41 [17.9%]), disease guide (39 [17.0%]), educational aid (20 [8.7%]), sunscreen/UV recommendation (19 [8.3%]), calculator (12 [5.2%]), teledermatology (8 [3.5%]), conference (6 [2.6%]), journal (6 [2.6%]), photograph storage/sharing (5 [2.2%]), dermoscopy (2 [0.9%]), pathology (2 [0.9%]), and other (8 [3.5%]). The most reviewed apps included Ultraviolet?~?UV Index (355 reviews), VisualDx (306), SPF (128), iSore (61), and SpotMole (50). There were 209 unique apps, with 17 apps existing on more than 1 operating system. More than half of the apps were offered free of charge (117 [51.1%]). Paid apps (112 [48.9%]) ranged from $0.99 to $139.99 (median, $2.99). Target audiences included patient (117 [51.1%]), health care provider (94 [41.0%]), and both (18 [7.9%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The widespread variety and popularity of mobile apps demonstrate a great potential to expand the practice and delivery of dermatologic care.

Brewer AC; Endly DC; Henley J; Amir M; Sampson BP; Moreau JF; Dellavalle RP

2013-09-01

208

Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

2007-05-08

209

Towards a Statistical Physics of Human Mobility  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we extend some ideas of statistical physics to describe the properties of human mobility. From a physical point of view, we consider the statistical empirical laws of private cars mobility, taking advantage of a GPS database which contains a sampling of the individual trajectories of 2% of the whole vehicle population in an Italian region. Our aim is to discover possible "universal laws" that can be related to the dynamical cognitive features of individuals. Analyzing the empirical trip length distribution we study if the travel time can be used as universal cost function in a mesoscopic model of mobility. We discuss the implications of the elapsed times distribution between successive trips that shows an underlying Benford's law, and we study the rank distribution of the average visitation frequency to understand how people organize their daily agenda. We also propose simple stochastic models to suggest possible explanations of the empirical observations and we compare our results with analogo...

Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro

2012-01-01

210

Mobile systems capability plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

NONE

1996-09-01

211

NEXT GENERATION MOBILE COMPUTING?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile Computing is human Computer interaction which a computer is expected to betransported during normal usage which includes Mobile communication, Hardware, Software. Many of thesesystems operate within degraded network, power, or computing environments, such as for first-responders ina catastrophe, mobile phone users in remote regions or in countries where communication infrastructure isdegraded. The emergence of inexpensive remote-controlled aircraft in the market place for hobbyists andbusinesses has created new use cases and challenges in surveillance and security, property surveying, homeand car showcasing, search-and-rescue operations, and entertainment. Such remote-controlled aircraft usecases are likely to operate in both urban and rural environments and will face degraded communicationinfrastructure and power management concerns while maintaining and respecting quality-of-serviceproperties for information, in support of search-and-rescue crews, law enforcement, or other support needs.In each of this scenario’s the desires and needs of the mobile computing customers are likely to outstrip thecapacities of the supporting infrastructure, and the result can be degraded performance.Next generation mobile computing should increase the performance of receiving useful services and it shouldalso increase the quality of services.

N. LAKSHMI PRASANNA; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH?

2013-01-01

212

Are mobile phones harmful?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body temperature by 1 degree C or more. Guidelines for risk limits are based on this thermal effect. Experimental investigation suggests that radiofrequency fields are not tumor initiators and that if they are related to carcinogenicity, this would be by tumor promotion or by increasing the uptake of carcinogens in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data and they are limited by the small number of observations. Large epidemiological studies are necessary in order to investigate the use of mobile phones on the development of cancer. It should be emphasized that even a small elevated risk may have a large implication for public health, as the use of mobile phones and the exposure is rapidly increasing.

Blettner M; Berg G

2000-01-01

213

Overbooking in Mobile Backhaul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid increase of mobile data subscribers and deployment of broadband radio access networks pushmobile operators to upgrade their mobile backhaul from expensive legacy TDM transport to carrierEthernet for cheaper operational expenditures. The Metro Ethernet Forum has defined a set of EthernetVirtual Connection services that are adopted to provide scalable Ethernet transport for mobile backhaul.However, these services usually address single cell site backhaul per UNI handoff, neither consideringstatistical multiplexing gain at a hub site which aggregates backhaul traffics of multiple cell sites, norsupporting Quality-of-Service provisioning in overbooked backhaul pipe. This paper proposed an efficientcarrier Ethernet overbooking solution for mobile backhaul. A statistical estimation method has beendeveloped for deriving a safe overbooking factor at a given UNI. Then two efficient transport architectureswere proposed to support bandwidth sharing in cellular cluster with overbooked backhaul bandwidth incarrier Ethernet. A novel bandwidth control algorithm has been derived at customer edge device to provideQuality-of-Service for multimedia traffics over overbooked UNI, with SLA policing and protection on highpriority services. Experimental data analysis and simulations have showed that our new schemes canbenefit mobile operators in resource utilization efficiency, carrier Ethernet cost saving and backhaulperformance.

Chunming Liu; Bryan Fleming

2013-01-01

214

Handbook of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Mobility Models  

CERN Multimedia

The Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) has emerged as the next frontier for wireless communications networking in both the military and commercial arena. Handbook of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Mobility Models introduces 40 different major mobility models along with numerous associate mobility models to be used in a variety of MANET networking environments in the ground, air, space, and/or under water mobile vehicles and/or handheld devices. These vehicles include cars, armors, ships, under-sea vehicles, manned and unmanned airborne vehicles, spacecrafts and more. This handbook also describes how ea

Roy, Radhika Ranjan

2011-01-01

215

Saliva sampling method affects performance of a salivary ?-amylase biosensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Prompted by the discordance between a standardized salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) biosensor applied in clinical settings and a reference laboratory analyzer, we examined the impact of the saliva sampling method on the analytic performance of the biosensor. METHODS: Direct mouth readings using the biosensor from 31 normal, healthy volunteers were compared to biosensor and conventional assay readings obtained from saliva samples collected concurrently by passive drool and processed in three different ways (unprocessed, thawed, and thawed and centrifuged). RESULTS: The direct readings from the mouth showed consistently lower sAA values (Ps?sample processing and quantification platforms (biosensor vs. conventional assay). Readings obtained from passive drool saliva were strongly correlated with one another, and Bland-Altman plots of agreement indicated a smaller discrepancy between conventional and biosensor readings obtained with passive drool when compared to the direct mouth readings. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the analytical performance of the sAA biosensor is influenced significantly by the saliva sampling method. In contrast to the relatively imprecise direct mouth measurements, biosensor sAA levels established indirectly from passive drool saliva samples provide more accurate estimation of sAA levels, even after intermediary processing steps (e.g., freezing, thawing, centrifugation). Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Robles TF; Sharma R; Harrell L; Elashoff DA; Yamaguchi M; Shetty V

2013-09-01

216

Personal mobility vehicle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A personal mobility vehicle, such as a wheelchair system, includes a user interface having a user input and a display for displaying information to the user and a control unit that includes a data processor and a memory. The data processor is responsive to the user entering information into the personal mobility vehicle, where the information is indicative of a reminder to be generated upon the occurrence of a triggering event, to store the information and to present the reminder, upon an occurrence of the triggering event, to the user on the user interface of the personal mobility vehicle. The information can include a message text, and the triggering event may be one of the elapsing of a specified interval of time or an occurrence of a specified time of day. The reminder may be presented by generating at least one of text, an image, a pictogram, an animation and sound.

HOLENWEG MATTHIAS; CAVATORTA MICHEL

217

Spatial structure and mobility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to contribute to clearer understanding of the extent to which the spatial structure and planning of the residential environment can explain mobility, in general, and the choice of mode of transport, in particular, and what spatial planning and traffic management aspects play a significant role in these. The research showed that certain aspects of the planned environment do indeed have a clear impact on mobility. These effects are particularly apparent in trips made for shopping and social or recreational purposes. It is mainly personal characteristics that largely or almost entirely determine commuter traffic. An integral approach to the planning of residential areas is required to achieve any great changes in mobility. Only then may we expect spatial planning to have any significant impact on car use. (Author)

Meurs, Henk; Haaijer, Rinus [MuConsult, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

2001-07-01

218

Intelligent mobile security systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that mobile security systems are becoming increasingly important to military (Army, Air Force) and non-military (Drug Enforcement Agency, Border Patrol) organizations as the level and sophistication of terrorist activity increases. Frequently, organizations are required to deploy at remote sites on little notice. To ensure protection of life and equipment, security systems are sometimes required. Often, the personnel deployed on these missions are not adequately trained in the selection, installation, and operation of today's complex security equipment. The Intelligent Mobile Security System (IMSS) concept, as being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), allows untrained, non-technical personnel to configure, deploy, operate, and troubleshoot temporary/mobile physical security system. The IMSS may be used at nuclear facilities.

Allen, M.S. (Advanced Systems Integration, Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1991-01-01

219

Mobility control agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and CO/sub 2/ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five tests, two at Santa Fe Energy's Midway-Sunset field, one at Conoco's Cat Canyon, and two at Texaco's San Ardo field, are made to address the excessive channelling of steam through ''theif'' zones, and the progressive increase in steam flow through oil depleted, already swept zones. The success of the tests demonstrates the viability of the process by diverting steam, increasing oil recovery, increasing oil-steam ratio, and improving the water cut.

Hammershaimb, E.C.; KuugKraa, V.A.

1983-06-01

220

Towards Mobile Cryptography  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile code technology has become a driving force forrecent advances in distributed systems. The concept of mobilityof executable code raises major security problems. Inthis paper we deal with the protection of mobile code frompossibly malicious hosts. We conceptualize on the specificcryptographic problems posed by mobile code. We areable to provide a solution for some of these problems: Wepresent techniques how to achieve "non--interactive evaluationwith encrypted functions" in certain cases and give acomplete solution for this problem in important instances.We further present a way how an agent might securelyperform a cryptographic primitive, digital signing, in anuntrusted execution environment. Our results are based onthe use of homomorphic encryption schemes and functioncomposition techniques.1 IntroductionThe security of the execution environment is a basic cornerstoneof cryptographic systems: the parties which performa cryptographic protocol require a trusted...

Tomas Sander; Christian F. Tschudin

 
 
 
 
221

Intelligent mobile security systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that mobile security systems are becoming increasingly important to military (Army, Air Force) and non-military (Drug Enforcement Agency, Border Patrol) organizations as the level and sophistication of terrorist activity increases. Frequently, organizations are required to deploy at remote sites on little notice. To ensure protection of life and equipment, security systems are sometimes required. Often, the personnel deployed on these missions are not adequately trained in the selection, installation, and operation of today's complex security equipment. The Intelligent Mobile Security System (IMSS) concept, as being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), allows untrained, non-technical personnel to configure, deploy, operate, and troubleshoot temporary/mobile physical security system. The IMSS may be used at nuclear facilities.

1991-01-01

222

SMS Based Mobile Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M-banking has one of the main division of m-commerce. Mobile banking services consists of information inquiry, notifications and alerts, applications and payment transfer.Mobile based application is used for connecting customer handset with bank server for all such services. Current M-banking applications used by banks are facing security challenges for payment transfer banks are using secure payment gateway and other security measures which increases cost and infrastructure for bank but major day-to-day banking applications are inquiries, notifications and alerts. The problem with current banking applications is that they send data directly to customer in plain text form compromising with security.We present SMS based secure mobile banking which enhances security with minimum cost. In this approach bank hides customer transaction data is secure SMS using AES symmetric cryptographic algorithm and send it customer application supported handset.Customer application decrypts data in secure manner

Surapaneni Pujitha*, B Veera Mallu

2013-01-01

223

Water sampling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water is a substantial and vital component of the environment in which we live. Because of this fact, experts from around the world recognize a growing need to monitor water quality on a global scale. Successful environmental protection and the achievements of ecological conservation depend on the availability of large data bases about water resources. Sampling water specimens is necessary for appraising water quality and quantity. Current and potential sampling methods and technology are described in this text. Precipitation is sampled mainly to study atmospheric processes. In this book water sampling is treated as an independent and complex technological discipline. Coverage ranges from the general problems of water sampling to more specific uses including the sampling of atmospheric precipitation, surface water, soil water, and groundwater.

Krajca, J. (ed.)

1989-01-01

224

Sampling issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sampling is often considered as a separate step to be performed before extraction and quantification so that these three steps are very often considered as fully independent. In the light of dioxin and furan measurements a different approach needs to be taken. Sampling in connection with extraction and quantification will be dealt with using, as a practically important example, the sampling for dioxins and furans in flue gases emitted from a stationary source. (orig.)

Vicard, J.F. (Chairman of CEN/TC 264, Air Quality' ' , LAB S.A., 129, 69 Lyon (France)); Fraisse, D. (CARSO/CNRS, 69 Vernaison (France))

1994-01-01

225

Sampling success  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The marketability of coals hinges on their quality. Increasing commoditisation of coal and the general trend to generic thermal specifications emphasise the need for sound sampling and analysis. Productivity increases and improved efficiencies in the production and sale of coal can only be achieved through accurately measuring and reporting the coal quality. The article discusses how and when coal is best sampled and how variations can creep into measurements during the mechanical sampling of coal. 3 photos.

NONE

2003-02-01

226

Mobile Augmented Reality Applications  

CERN Multimedia

Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using of more complex computational methods such as neural networks. Our goal is to create an affordable augmented reality application suitable which will help car designers in by 'virtualizing' car modifications.

Prochazka, David; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

2011-01-01

227

Mobile radiation monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mobile radiation monitor includes a radiation detector unit and a signal analyzer connected to it. The radiation detector unit includes a base, a flat pad radiation scintillation detector on the base, and bridging platform connected to the base and extending over the radiation scintillation detector to provide a walkway over it. Radiation from a subject on the bridging platform, producing an effect in the scintillator, is monitored at the signal analyzer. The radiation detector unit includes handles for mobility and anti-slip pads for safety

1992-01-01

228

Mobile radiation monitor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mobile radiation monitor includes a radiation detector unit and a signal analyzer connected to it. The radiation detector unit includes a base, a flat pad radiation scintillation detector on the base, and bridging platform connected to the base and extending over the radiation scintillation detector to provide a walkway over it. Radiation from a subject on the bridging platform, producing an effect in the scintillator, is monitored at the signal analyzer. The radiation detector unit includes handles for mobility and anti-slip pads for safety.

Spacher, P.F.; Spacher, M.; Spacher, P.

1992-01-01

229

Mobility Balance Sheet 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This is the fifth publication in which the Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy gives an overview of the annual status of mobility in the Netherlands. For the first time, also a glimpse is given into the next two years.[nl] In de Mobiliteitsbalans geeft het KiM jaarlijks een overzicht van de stand van zaken van de mobiliteit in Nederland. Voor het eerst staat in de balans ook een doorkijkje naar de komende twee jaar. De Mobiliteitsbalans 2011 is de vijfde balans die het KiM uitbrengt.

2011-01-01

230

Mobile phones and driving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prior to the introduction of legislation in the United Kingdom, observational road-side studies showed that approximately 2 per cent of drivers use a mobile phone while driving. We studied the change in the usage rate of hand-held mobile phones from 10 weeks before to 10 weeks after the legislation came into force in December 2003. Across three different sites during the evening rush-hour, the usage rate changed from 1.85 to 0.97 per cent, a reduction of almost half. This change is attributed to the legislation. The effect of the legislation on accident and injury rates is unknown.

Johal S; Napier F; Britt-Compton J; Marshall T

2005-03-01

231

Capital mobility. An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (iii) financial factor reform; and (iv) the rule of law.

H. W. Arndt

2000-01-01

232

Mobile network maintenance (GSM)  

CERN Multimedia

Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN mobile network infrastructure (GSM) on the 23 and 24 July from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in order to replace discontinued equipment and to increase the bandwidth capacity of the GSM mobile network. All CERN GSM emitters (40 units) will be moved one by one to the new infrastructure during the maintenance. The call of a user connected to an emitter at the time of its maintenance will be cut off. However, the general overlapping of the GSM radio coverage should mean that users are able immediately to call again should their call be interrupted. IT/CS/CS

IT Department

2009-01-01

233

RESEARCH SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No aspect of the research plan is more critical for assuring the usefulness of a study than the sampling strategy. It will determine if the results of the study can be applied as evidence and contributes to the trustworthiness of the results. The sampling strategy is a critical part of research design. An appropriate sampling plan is vital for drawing the right conclusions from a study. Good sampling is critical for the confident application of the study findings to other people, settings, or time periods.

NISHA MD

2012-01-01

234

Instant XenMobile MDM  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written in a user friendly style, this guide will get readers up and running with XenMobile MDM.If you want to run your mobile enterprises on XenMobile, or work on a BYOD strategy within your organization, then this is the ideal book for you. XenMobile MDM comprehensively explores how to set up and use XenMobile to provision, secure, and manage mobile devices.

Lakhani, Aamir

2013-01-01

235

CONTRAIL – ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE DATA SHARING APPLICATIONS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collaborative applications running on 3G devices often rely on cloud-based servers forcomputation and storage. A peer to-peer approach to building these applications can provide benefits such asenhanced privacy and bandwidth efficiency. We propose a system which is based on asynchronous networkarchitecture that uses the cloud to relay messages between 3G devices. System employs selective receiverspecificfilters at sending devices to ensure that only relevant data consumes precious bandwidth. Proposedframework offers pull-based communications primitives suitable for mobile devices that are often eitherinactive or subject to poor network connectivity. This system enables robust mobile applications withoutmaking assumptions about the security of individual cloud providers. We have implemented this system withWindows cloud environment and demonstrate sample applications executing across Android mobile phone.Sample application shares the multiple contents like text, video, images and emails. In this paper, weintroduce Contrail, a new communication architecture for mobile data-sharing applications that eliminatesthe drawbacks of the client-server approach while retaining its positive attributes.

Lavanya.K; Devipriya.C; Saradha.S; Sangeetha Priya.M?

2013-01-01

236

Virtuous mobility: moralising vs measuring geographical mobility in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobility practices, discourse and measurement need rethinking in an age of energy shortages, environmental anxiety and virtual mobility. Standard numerical indexes and other proxies for geographical mobility can be misleading, not least in formulating public policy. The extremes of spatial mobilities in Africa may require particularly sensitive consideration; the peculiar social, psychological and economic dimensions of geographical mobility on the continent certainly need registering. Yet the exceptionalism of the African case is overdrawn and the developmentalism inherent in yearnings for more mobility is a short-term exaggeration. Revaluing totemic mechanised mobility is urgently required. The way we act on, and the way we think, talk and write about, geographical mobility needs reconceptualising in terms of fairness, equity, environmental justice, and human rights.

G. H. Pirie

2009-01-01

237

DNA detection using commercial mobile phones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigates the feasibility of using mobile phones cameras for DNA detection. DNA amplification uses the convective polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique due to its simple mechanism, which requires no thermal cycling control. Fluorescence increment analysis and information entropy analysis are employed separately to determine whether the test samples contain target DNA (Positive) or not (Negative). The fluorescence increment method uses the brightness of the captured images before and after DNA amplification to calculate ?F. ?F values above a threshold level indicate that the test sample is positive. The information entropy method defines the probability, P(C/X), which indicates whether the fluorescence image tends towards a specific shape. If a DNA template is successfully amplified, the captured fluorescence image should be a perfect circle. P(C/X) provides a threshold of 0.5 to identify a circle and values above 0.5 indicate the test sample is positive. Experimental results show that P(C/X) is more effective than ?F for determining DNA detection results. The information entropy analysis method is applied to ten mobile phones of three different brands equipped with camera sensors, which have pixel numbers ranging from 120 M to 800 M. The clinical evaluation study (n = 60) for screening hepatitis B virus (HBV) plasmid samples shows that the accuracy rate of all models of mobile phones ranges from 85% to 100%. This illustrates that successful DNA detection can be achieved using the most widely deployed electronic device.

Lee D; Chou WP; Yeh SH; Chen PJ; Chen PH

2011-07-01

238

Mobile antenna systems handbook  

CERN Multimedia

This ultimate one-stop reference is designed to save you a mountain of work. You get hands-on expertise for every type of mobile antenna base station and terminal system, including its theory of operation, application strengths and weaknesses, performance characteristics, design procedures, analysis techniques, and optimization methods, complete with examples and worked-out calculations at every step.

Fujimoto, Kyohei

2008-01-01

239

MOBILITY FACILITATING DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mobility facilitating device (1), in particular for handicapped persons, comprising a rod assembly (3) that has at least one rod element (5, 7, 9, 10, 15, 19, 21). At least one rod element (5, 7, 9, 10, 15, 19, 21) of the rod assembly (3) is formed with a wrought magnesium alloy.

LENZ DIETMAR; KADEREIT LUTZ

240

IDPs and mobile livelihoods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent research project has examined the relationsbetween internal displacement and migration in thePeruvian Andes in the second half of the 20th centuryand the difference that the introduction of the IDPconcept has meant for understanding mobile populations.

Finn Stepputat; Ninna Nyberg Sørensen

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Teleoperation of mobile robots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a stable control structure for bilateral teleoperation of mobile robots. The proposed control structure includes a time-delay compensation placed on both the local and remote sites of the teleoperation system. Teleoperation experiments through a simulated and real (using Internet) communication channel are presented to illustrate the performance and stability of the proposed control structure.

E. Slawiñski; V. Mut; J. F. Postigo

2006-01-01

242

Security of mobile communications  

CERN Multimedia

Covers the complex security issues that face the mobile communications industry. This book discusses hacking and infecting with viruses; techniques used to provide access control, authentication, and authorization; the security of SIM-like cards; and, standards implemented by the GSM, third generation, WLAN, and ad-hoc networks.

Boudriga, Noureddine

2009-01-01

243

Waves and mobile phones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article reports the methodology used to assess the exposure to radio-frequency of the population. The main radio-frequency emitters are transmitting antennas, mobile phones, Wi-Fi systems, cord-less home phones, and micro-wave ovens. We have to know that the level of exposure is very different depending on the device, for instance a 10 minutes long use of a mobile phone with a DAS (specific absorption dose rate) of 0.04 W/kg is equivalent to a 15 day long exposure to a transmitting antenna at a spot where the field is 0.6 V/m. It appears that for transmitting antennas the exposure levels of the population are always very low and far below the protection standards. As for mobile phones, today's results can not exclude a risk for people having used a phone for more than 10 years. Experts recommend for children a restraint use of mobile phones and for adults to keep a safety distance of a few tens of centimeters between the speaker and his phone. The passage to the new UMTS-3G standard will be favourable. (A.C.)

2011-01-01

244

The IPA Mobility Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 Mobility Program and the procedure for applying for one of the temporary positions offered by the program are discussed. It is suggested that faculty members and university administrators are strong candidates for these positions in public policy development and government research. (SF)

Ershkowitz, Miriam

1979-01-01

245

Mobile Number Portability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the consequences of introducing mobile number portability (MNP). As MNP allows consumers to keep their telephone number when switching providers, it reduces consumers’ switching costs. However, MNP may also cause consumer ignorance if telephone numbers no longer identify networks...

Buehler, Stefan; Haucap, Justus

246

MOBILE COMMERCE: A REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the power of wireless increases, it provides various opportunities for improving services to customers. In today’s era, mobile commerce or M-Commerce has entered almost all the aspects of Business organizations like finance, retails, services, telecommunications and information technolog...

Shruti Jain

247

Mobile lighting apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14

248

Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

249

Developing Mobile Collaborative Learning Applications for Mobile Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid growth wireless communication technologies, the number of mobile applications have been developing. One of them is approached for mobile learning area since it is unique in its own way and offers learning opportunities anywhere and anytime. Mobile collaborative learning (MCL) is a sma...

Kwang B Lee

250

Mobile IP LAN for ARL Mobile Communications/Networking Testbed.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the protocol and implementation of a Mobile IP (Internet protocol) LAN (local area network) for the LAN of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Mobile Communications/Networking Testbed. Mobile IP LAN protocol is developed to allow...

B. B. Luu

2001-01-01

251

Saving Mobile Internet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this paper I will point out a number of very serious principal objections onthe idea of a Mobile Internet, and why it will not work. At least not ascurrently planned.Then, I will show how some of the objections -- the most serious ones -- can besolved by taking a radically different path to the future. A path that is sodifferent that most people hesitate to think about it since it may mean that therole of mobile operators disappears.The resulting project, called The RadioSphere, is run at the Centre forDistance-spanning Technology, CDT, in Sweden.When discussing concrete examples and general market situations I will useSweden because of its very high penetration of broadband Internet to homes,PC's & mobile phones. It therefore has especially good prerequisites forpioneering the RadioSphere approach.Why Mobile Internet Does Not WorkMany of us hear the distant sound of alarm-clocks concerning the somewhatunreflected enthusiasm concerning mobile Internet. In any case, I am not convinced.Yet. And I am writing this paper to find some help.The objections can be summarized in the following points:1. Radio bandwidth will always be low, compared to wired.2. Radio bandwidth will always be expensive, compared to wired.3. The requirement for small, light and low-power terminals creates and almost(?) hopeless case for decent user interaction.4. There are few, if any, obvious applications beyond "talking" that feels naturalwhen on-the-move.The current state of affairs in an area is less important if there is an observable andsteady change going on, (such as the inevitable price/performance improvement ofelectronics according to Moore's law). However, concerning point 1 and 2 above itseems like mother nature has decided once and for all on this relationsh...

Dick Schefstrm

252

Social Mobility and Social Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

|Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)|

Sewell, William H.

1978-01-01

253

Privacy issues in mobile advertising  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising and the consumer willingness to accept mobile advertising will increase.

Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

254

EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI Mobile Geothermal Chemical Analysis Trailer, fabricated by the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, is a modern well-equipped chemical analysis laboratory. This mobile laboratory, sketched in Figure 1, has complete capability for sampling of geothermal fluids and analysis of brine, steam, and noncondensible gases. The objective of the laboratory is to provide accurate onsite chemical analyses in a timely manner that results in preservation of the sample integrity and the efficient implementation of a test program. The laboratory is built on a standard 40-ft truck trailer bed. The trailer chassis has been modified to carry requisite gas cylinders, compressor, and vacuum pump equipment in undercarriage bins, and has been equipped with air-ride shock absorbers to minimize road vibrations.

Eaton, W.S.; Nealy, C.L.; Sudar, S.

1980-12-01

255

Coal Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

This USGS publication explains the use of fluxes for preparation of coal for elemental analysis. The material would be useful to supplement textbooks concerning sample preparation and may be helpful in designing an XRF laboratory experiment.

Golightly, D. W.; Simon, Frederick Otto, 1939-

2011-03-29

256

The Mobile Wave How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything  

CERN Document Server

In the tradition of international bestsellers, Future Shock and Megatrends, Michael J. Saylor, CEO of MicroStrategy, brings The Mobile Wave, a ground-breaking analysis of the impact of mobile intelligence—the fifth wave of computer technology.   The Mobile Wave argues that the changes brought by mobile computing are so big and widespread that it’s impossible for us to see it all, even though we are all immersed in it. Saylor explains that the current generation of mobile smart phones and tablet computers has set the stage to become the universal computing platform for the world. In

Saylor, Michael

2012-01-01

257

Mobile satellite service for Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

Sward, David

1988-05-01

258

Resource Identification Using Mobile Queries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Location based mobile services (LBS) are budding significantly along with development of GPS-enabled mobile phones, smart phones and PDAs. Mobile users may submit the query to the server for knowing about nearest resources such as fuel stations, hospitals, ATM centers etc to get the services. In thi...

Balasundaram, S.R; Saravanan, A.

259

Mobile Processes: Enhancing Cooperation in Distributed Mobile Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, context awareness is one of the main trends in distributed mobile computing environments. Against this background, the demand for more complex – and additionally long-term – mobile applications increases continuously. Nevertheless, most current available mobile applications – as well as their supporting middleware platforms – are still relatively monolithic and closed systems, concentrating on only short-term activities. As a consequence, most present appliances are still restricted to rather simple tasks and are therefore rather insufficient for more complex ones which consist of sequences of related long-term activities tied together in respective application-oriented processes. In order to overcome the resource and capability restrictions of mobile environments, such application processes may profit from, e.g., cooperation between devices in the mobile vicinity – a fact which is hardly supported by existing systems. Therefore, this paper introduces a concept for integrating explicit support for mobile processes into mobile system infrastructures and for distributing their execution over different nodes in the network. Additionally, a corresponding middleware platform for context-aware and cooperative mobile applications is proposed. This framework has been designed and realized in the context of project DEMAC (Distributed Environment for Mobility-Aware Computing) which supports such migrating processes and helps to execute them under the restrictions imposed by realistic mobile applications. In particular, this paper proposes a corresponding process description language and an execution model for such mobile (business) processes.

Christian P. Kunze; Sonja Zaplata; Winfried Lamersdorf

2007-01-01

260

Audiologic disturbances in long-term mobile phone users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is general concern regarding the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobile phones on auditory functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, randomized, case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. One hundred twelve subjects who were long-term mobile phone users (more than 1 year) and 50 controls who had never used a mobile phone underwent a battery of audiologic investigations including pure-tone audiometry (both speech and high frequency), tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brain responses, and middle latency responses. Changes in the various parameters were studied in the mobile phone- and non-mobile phone-using ears of subjects and corresponding ears of the controls to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic exposure. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between users and controls for any of the audiologic parameters. However, trends for audiologic abnormalities were seen within the users. High-frequency loss and absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions were observed with an increase in the duration of mobile phone use, excessive use of mobile phones, and age more than 30 years. Additionally, users with some complaints during mobile phone use demonstrated absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions and abnormalities in auditory brainstem response. CONCLUSION: Long-term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage. A large sample size would be required to reach definitive conclusions.

Panda NK; Jain R; Bakshi J; Munjal S

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

A study of malware detection on smart mobile devices  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing in use of smart mobile devices for everyday applications has stimulated the spread of mobile malware, especially on popular mobile platforms. As a consequence, malware detection becomes ever more critical in sustaining the mobile market and providing a better user experience. In this paper, we review the existing malware and detection schemes. Using real-world malware samples with known signatures, we evaluate four popular commercial anti-virus tools and our data shows that these tools can achieve high detection accuracy. To deal with the new malware with unknown signatures, we study the anomaly based detection using decision tree algorithm. We evaluate the effectiveness of our detection scheme using malware and legitimate software samples. Our data shows that the detection scheme using decision tree can achieve a detection rate up to 90% and a false positive rate as low as 10%.

Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Guobin

2013-05-01

262

An Investigation of Initial Trust in Mobile Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A global explosion in the use of electronic commerce has been witnessed in recent times with the monetary value of products and services. This Research has investigate the factors adoption of an initial trust in electronic banking. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of initial trust on mobile banking user adoption in Kermanshah province of Iran. Based on the valid responses collected from a survey questionnaire, structural equation modeling (SEM) technology was employed to examine the research model. The sample was mainly composed of users having rich mobile Internet experience, which may affect their trust in mobile banking. Future research needs to generalize these results to other samples, such as those users without much mobile Internet experience.

Fakhraddin Maroofi; Fatemeh Kahrarian; Marzieh Dehghani

2013-01-01

263

Microbiological flora of mobile phones of resident doctors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Many studies revealed that devices like stethoscope, mobile phones can act as an important source of microbes capable of causing nosocomial infections. Hence there is need of defining their role in spreading infection, so that we can take some preventive measures against it. Aims: To screen the mobile phones of resident doctors and perform microbeological study of the organisms isolated. Setting: Resident doctors working at Tertiary Care Hospital. Methods: Swabs of 50 mobile phones of resident doctors were taken by sterile cotton swab and inoculated on Blood agar, MacConkey agar, Sabaraud’s dextrose agar. Isolated organisms were processed according to standard protocol. Results: Swabs of mobile phones of 50 resident doctors were analyzed for presence of micro-organisms. Out of the 50 samples, 30 (60%) were contaminated with micro-organisms. 32 micro-organisms were isolated from 50 mobile phones as shown in table 3. Among 32 isolates, Coagulase negative Staphylococci 23 (71.87%) was the dominant organism followed by Diphtheroids 7 (21.87%), Aspergillus niger 2 (6.25%). Also proportion of contamination of mobile phones of male resident doctors was more than female resident doctors. Conclusion: Mobile phones may act as a potential source of micro-organisms and spread nosocomial infections. Hence proper infection control practices like proper hand washing, decontamination of mobiles should be routinely practiced.

Sandeep B. Kokate; Sanjaykumar R. More; Vivek Gujar; Smita Mundhe; Quazi Syed Zahiruddin

2012-01-01

264

Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

Thomas Mason

2009-04-16

265

Social mobility and fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1) intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2) status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries). Therefore, the provocative idea of Ariès that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.

Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

2007-01-01

266

The Terregator Mobile Robot  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Terrestrial Navigator, or Terregator, is a mobile robot device designed to provide areliable and rugged testbed for both indoor and outdoor work in robotic navigation,guidance, sensor interpretation, and architectures. The design of mobile robot involvesconflicting needs and a wide mix of disciplines. The Terregator design resolves many suchneeds through flexible and extensible mechanics, electronics, hardware and software. It is asix-wheeled skid-steer machine utilizing compliant tires for suspension, a hybrid powersystem provides for different modes and environments during operation and a rugged drivesystem and integral controller provide a complete package for doing robotics research.71. IntroductionThe Terregator (Terrestrial Navigator) is a driverless outdoor vehicle developed forautonomous navigation research. Application areas for autonomous vehicle technologyinclude undersea exploration, transportation, hazardous waste mapping, material handling,and explora...

Lee Champeny-bares; Kevin Dowling

267

Mobile nuclear power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

1988-01-01

268

Equivalence Testing Mobile Apps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile apps are often developed and then evolved on more than one mobile operating system. For the publisher of such apps, the problem is how to ensure equivalence of the product on the various platforms, in the sense of acting equivalently with respect to a test set. In this paper we present an approach that tackles this problem from two directions: architecture and testing. First we will explain the role and pitfalls of reference architectures. Then we will present our equivalence testing framework. It is based on mocking components of the target implementation. Instead of implementing mock components for all platforms, our approach is to implement these mocks only once and run them on a central server. On the tested target device, stub components are injected that forward to their server-based counterparts. Thus the exactly same test code is applied to all platform specific implementations.

Denzler Christoph; Kröni Daniel; Moschko Maxim

2012-01-01

269

Mobile Identity Management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Privacy is a severe problem facing mobile computing.The fundamental question arises: Who gets to knowpersonal data stored on handhelds? Most of currenthandhelds (personal digital assistants, mobile phones,etc.) are equipped with wireless communication in-terfaces like bluetooth or infrared. However they onlyhave access controls for the user of the device, but donot consider which personal data is offered at differentlocations. This is a privacy problem because the informationoffered already allows the generation of variousprofiles of the device's user, for example locationprofiles. To improve the user's privacy, we proposean identity-based control over the data published andthe services offered. Comparable to normal liferS, thisidentity management allows the device to present differentsubsets of the user's identity depending on theperceived (wireless) communication context.

Uwe Jendricke; Michael Kreutzer; Alf Zugenmaier

270

Mobile Identity Management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Privacy is a severe problem facing mobile computing. The fundamental question arises: Who gets to know personal data stored on handhelds? Most of current handhelds (personal digital assistants, mobile phones, etc.) are equipped with wireless communication interfaces like bluetooth or infrared. However they only have access controls for the user of the device, but do not consider which personal data is offered at different locations. This is a privacy problem because the information offered already allows the generation of various profiles of the device's user, for example location profiles. To improve the user's privacy, we propose an identity-based control over the data published and the services offered. Comparable to "normal life", this identity management allows the device to present different subsets of the user's identity depending on the perceived (wireless) communication context.

Uwe Jendricke; Michael Kreutzer; Alf Zugenmaier

271

The Borders of Mobile Handset Ecosystems: Is Coopetition Inevitable?  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, the mobile phone industry witnesses important changes, shifting from a value chain to a burgeoning business ecosystem. This paper deals with the relationships that are at the very core of mobile OS ecosystems for IMTs (smartphones and PDA): Microsoft-OS, Symbian-OS, Palm-OS and RIM-OS over the period 1998-2006. Our study confirms that an ecosystem’s borders are unclear. More than half of our sample’ relationships are shared by at least two different ecosystems. The ecosystems we studied do not differ in terms of exclusive relationship which suggests that coopetitive strategies are particularly relevant in mobile platforms war.

Gueguen, Gaël; Isckia, Thierry

272

Innovative on-site sample collection and analytical technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative advances in probe sampling and mobile laboratory technologies provide powerful tools which can substantially decrease the cost and shorten the duration of site investigation and remediation projects. Recent probe sampling technology advancements enable probes to obtain representative subsurface samples with the same quality of data as drilling techniques. Probe sampling equipment is specifically designed for environmental sampling and has several advantages over conventional methods for most sampling applications. Innovative mobile laboratory technology is currently available which enables mobile labs to rapidly deploy and generate cost effective regulatory compliant data on-site. The utilization of these technologies together provides a unique synergistic advantage for site assessment projects. It is now possible to fully characterize the extent of contamination of many sites in a single mobilization. Two case studies, a Superfund site and UST site, are included to demonstrate the use and advantages of these technologies.

McLeod, M.D. [Fibertec Environmental Services, Holt, MI (United States); Yantz, C.S. [Warzyn Inc., Novi, MI (United States); Marcelletti, N. [Engineering-Science, Bingham Farms, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

273

Teleoperation of mobile robots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper proposes a stable control structure for bilateral teleoperation of mobile robots. The proposed control structure includes a time-delay compensation placed on both the local and remote sites of the teleoperation system. Teleoperation experiments through a simulated and real (using Internet) communication channel are presented to illustrate the performance and stability of the proposed control structure.

Slawiñski, E.; Mut, V.; Postigo, J. F.

2006-04-01

274

Flywheels: mobile applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off-road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel-powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications are reviewed.

Rabenhorst, D.W.

1981-06-17

275

MOBILE EQUINE ASSISTANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile support apparatus for an animal comprising an adjustable frame for securing the animal in position, a tailgate assembly for preventing egress of a secured animal from the adjustable frame and protects an individual positioned at the posterior of the secured animal, an adjustable head support, a hydraulic system for adjusting the frame and at least one pair of wheels. The support apparatus may further comprise a power supply for powering the hydraulic system and a storage compartment.

MILES MARC

276

Improving Mobile Internet Usability  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile internet technologies, such as WAP, are important for pervasive, anytime, anywherecomputing. Although much progress has been made in terms of technological innovation, many ofmobile internet systems are difficult to use, lack flexibility and robustness. They give a poor userexperience.Evaluation and theoretical analysis of usability combined with innovative design can achieve significantimprovements in user performance and satisfaction. Using such multidisciplinary methods explains thenegative reactions to WAP, and - more constructively - suggest ways of developing more effective andefficient devices and services.

George Buchanan; Sarah Farrant; Matt Jones; Gary Marsden; Michael Pazzani

277

Fuel Cells for Mobility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction and commercialization of fuel cell technology in the mobile source sector in California is a key component of California's efforts to meet health based air quality standards. California has been home to a number of early demonstration and preparatory efforts for the commercialization of fuel cell passenger cars and is taking steps to demonstrate zero-emitting fuel cell buses in the near term. An overview of these activities and future plans is presented. (author)

DeSaulnier, M.

2002-06-01

278

Mobile Phone Faraday Cage  

CERN Multimedia

A Faraday cage is an interesting physics phenomena where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can! The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.

French, M M J

2011-01-01

279

Telemedicine by mobile communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A concept of mobile telemedicine has been proposed to provide emergency care in a moving vehicle. The practicality of this technique was investigated through technical considerations required to realize mobile telemedicine. Some problems with this technique were identified, and measures to resolve the problems were devised. Then, theoretical analysis verified the feasibility of the proposed technique. Different multiplexing techniques for the multiple medical data transmission by mobile communication were investigated. An experimental system that can simultaneously transmit color images, an audio signal, three-channel ECGs, and blood pressure from a moving vehicle to a fixed station was developed. Experiments on the transmission of multichannel medical data from a moving ambulance, a navigating ship, and a flying aircraft were conducted. The results of these experiments verified the practical feasibility of the proposed technique. In the practical application of this technique, there may be some legal problems: for example, whether medical treatment through a communication medium would be legally acceptable or not, and whether the transmission of medical data violates the protection of personal privacy. However, considering the emergency nature of this technique and the significance of the results, both problems seem to be either legally or technically solvable. This application of mobile communication to telemedicine is not confined to merely a proposal to use new techniques. It can also bring about a methodological change in the concept of conventional telemedicine by changing it from static to dynamic, and by enlarging its scope from a local area to a global or cosmic area. It may also have an impact on conventional emergency medicine in that it will open up a new field of application that applies to moving vehicles.

Shimizu K

1999-07-01

280

Sampling apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Utopias of Mobilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contemporary global challenges to the distribution and organization of mobilities require new ways of envisioning and imagining to bring forward the discussion about new visions and thus policies of future mobilities. This chapter explores the imaginary visioning by using earlier utopian thoughts and visions as ‘prisms’ for the contemporary mobility debate in order to get closer to new imaginaries of technologies, complex systems and cultural change. The chapter is structured in five parts. After the introduction, part two discusses utopian and critical perspectives within urbanism in order to establish the intellectual current of ‘alternative thinking’. In part three we return to the 1950’s and 1960’s stream of what might be termed ‘Techno utopian urbanism’. From the works of Archigram and the Situationist movement in particular a perspective on the utopian imaginary is re-launched. However in order to discuss the situation of contemporary and actual proposals for urban transformation the paper in part four explore the potential to fuelling this discussion by looking at the Danish architectural company BIG. BIG is discussed from its potential as a‘wild contemporary’ shaking, stirring and stimulating the utopian stream of urban imaginary. The chapter ends in part five with some concluding reflections.

Jensen, Ole B.; Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

2012-01-01

282

Mobile 3D tomograph  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm.

2008-01-01

283

Mobile Probing and Probes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development of the method, its application to the two projects, and the challenges and potentials which were found are discussed in this paper.

Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke

2012-01-01

284

Mobile Zigbee Sensor Networks  

CERN Multimedia

OPNET Modeler accelerates network R&D and improves product quality through high-fidelity modeling and scalable simulation. It provides a virtual environment for designing protocols and devices, and for testing and demonstrating designs in realistic scenarios prior to production. OPNET Modeler supports 802.15.4 standard and has been used to make a model of PAN. Iterations have been performed by changing the Power of the transmitter and the throughput will has been analyzed to arrive at optimal values.An energy-efficient wireless home network based on IEEE 802.15.4, a novel architecture has been proposed. In this architecture, all nodes are classified into stationary nodes and mobile nodes according to the functionality of each node. Mobile nodes are usually battery-powered, and therefore need low-power operation. In order to improve power consumption of mobile nodes, effective handover sequence based on MAC broadcast and transmission power control based on LQ (link quality) are employed. Experimental resul...

Anantdeep, Er; Kaur, Er Balpreet

2010-01-01

285

Governmobility : The Powers of Mobility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobility is often associated with flow and freedom; nonetheless, it is also about power and government. While mobility studies have shown how interpersonal social relations are increasingly supported by mobile technologies, it seems less clear how mobilities are involved in governing societies. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s concept of governmentality and his 1978 lectures on security, territory and population, this article suggests that societies are increasingly governed through mobility, rather than there being government of mobility. If circulation has become a producer of, rather than an obstacle to, societies, then governmobility is a meaningful concept relating to how societies are ruled through connections. In conclusion, the article asks: what are the implications of governmobility for border studies, and more broadly, what are the powers of mobility studies?

Bærenholdt, JØrgen Ole

2013-01-01

286

Towards a Statistical Physics of Human Mobility  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we extend some ideas of statistical physics to describe the properties of human mobility. From a physical point of view, we consider the statistical empirical laws of private cars mobility, taking advantage of a GPS database which contains a sampling of the individual trajectories of 2% of the whole vehicle population in an Italian region. Our aim is to discover possible "universal laws" that can be related to the dynamical cognitive features of individuals. Analyzing the empirical trip length distribution we study if the travel time can be used as universal cost function in a mesoscopic model of mobility. We discuss the implications of the elapsed times distribution between successive trips that shows an underlying Benford's law, and we study the rank distribution of the average visitation frequency to understand how people organize their daily agenda. We also propose simple stochastic models to suggest possible explanations of the empirical observations and we compare our results with analogous results on statistical properties of human mobility presented in the literature.

Riccardo, Gallotti; Armando, Bazzani; Sandro, Rambaldi

2012-09-01

287

Using USB Keys to Promote Mobile Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M-learning (i.e. mobile learning) is a field of e-learning that provides learners learning environments using mobile technology. In this context, learning can take place anywhere and anytime, in open and distance learning. Depending on the type of technology it may be done through software called nomadic (i.e. prepared to mobility). Among these technologies, there are those composed of digital interfaces and with autonomy of treatment: Smartphone, PDA, calculator and even mp3 key. In this article we propose to take into account storage devices as mobile technologies. Our focus was on the USB key. We present a procedure to test whether a learning environment embarked on a USB key can be described as nomadic or not. This procedure has been tested on a sample of three ILE (Interactive Learning Environment. This approach has allowed us to define criteria of nomadism, criteria which were then included in the design of a synchronous Weblog on USB key.

Marilyne Rosselle; Dominique Leclet; Bénédicte Talon

2009-01-01

288

Laboratory experiments in mobile robot navigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mobile robots have potential applications in remote surveillance and operation in hazardous areas. To be effective, they must have the ability to navigate on their own to desired locations. Several experimental navigational runs of a mobile robot developed have been conducted. The robot has three wheels of which the front wheel is steered and the hind wheels are driven. The robot is equipped with an ultrasonic range sensor, which is turned around to get range data in all directions. The range data is fed to the input of a neural net, whose output steers the robot towards the goal. The robot is powered by batteries (12V 10Ah). It has an onboard stepper motor controller for driving the wheels and the ultrasonic setup. It also has an onboard computer which runs the navigation program NAV. This program sends the range data and configuration parameters to the operator''s console program OCP, running on a stationary PC, through radio communication on a serial line. Through OCP, an operator can monitor the progress of the robot from a distant control room and intervene if necessary. In this paper the control modules of the mobile robot, its ways of operation and also results of some of the experimental runs recorded are reported. It is seen that the trained net guides the mobile robot through gaps of 1m and above to its destination with about 84% success measured over a small sample of 38 runs

1997-01-01

289

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80 degrees C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either open-quotes satisfactoryclose quotes (2-20 mpy) or open-quotes excellentclose quotes (

1997-01-01

290

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

1997-05-01

291

Securing mobile code.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

2004-10-01

292

Mobility of radionuclides based on sequential extraction of soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1989, core samples of soil and vegetation from semi-natural pastures have been collected at selected sites in Norway during the growing season. The activity concentrations in soil and vegetation as well as transfer coefficients vary significantly between regions, within regions and even within sampling plot areas. In order to differentiate between mobil and inert fractions of radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr in soils, samples were extracted sequentially using agents with increasing dissolution power. The reproducibility of the sequential extraction technique is good and the data obtained seems most informative. As the distribution pattern for radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr are similar, a high degree of isotopic exchange is indicated. Based on easily leachable fractions, mobility factors are calculated. In general the mobility of [sup 90]Sr is higher than for [sup 137]Cs. Mobility factors are not significantly influenced by seasonal variations, but a decrease in the mobile fraction in soil with time is indicated. Mobility factors should be considered useful for modelling purposes. (au).

Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Lien, H.N.; Oestby, G. (ISEM, Agricultural University of Norway (Norway)); Strand, P. (National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (Norway))

1992-01-01

293

Mobility of radionuclides based on sequential extraction of soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1989, core samples of soil and vegetation from semi-natural pastures have been collected at selected sites in Norway during the growing season. The activity concentrations in soil and vegetation as well as transfer coefficients vary significantly between regions, within regions and even within sampling plot areas. In order to differentiate between mobil and inert fractions of radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr in soils, samples were extracted sequentially using agents with increasing dissolution power. The reproducibility of the sequential extraction technique is good and the data obtained seems most informative. As the distribution pattern for radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr are similar, a high degree of isotopic exchange is indicated. Based on easily leachable fractions, mobility factors are calculated. In general the mobility of 90Sr is higher than for 137Cs. Mobility factors are not significantly influenced by seasonal variations, but a decrease in the mobile fraction in soil with time is indicated. Mobility factors should be considered useful for modelling purposes. (au).

1992-01-01

294

Mobile Robots for Hospital Logistics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hospitals are complex and dynamic organisms that are vital to the well-being of societies. Providing good quality healthcare is the ultimate goal of a hospital, and it is what most of us are only concerned with. A hospital, on the other hand, has to orchestrate a great deal of supplementary services to maintain the quality of healthcare provided. Logistics is the most resource demanding service in a hospital. The scale of the transportation tasks is huge and the material flow in a hospital is comparable to that of a factory. We believe that these transportation tasks, to a great extent, can be and will be automated using mobile robots. This talk consequently addresses the key technical issues of implementing service robots in hospitals. In simple terms, a robotic system for automating hospital logistics has to be reliable, adaptable and scalable. Robots have to be semi-autonomous, and should reliably navigate in large and dynamic environments in the hospital. The complexity of the problem has to be manageable, and the solutions have to be flexible, so that the system can be applicable in real world settings. This talk summarizes the efforts to address these issues. Upon the analysis of the transportation tasks and how they are currently handled in hospitals, a navigation system is envisaged. The concept of hybrid mapping is at the core of the solution, making it possible to efficiently represent the environment. Topological nodes greatly improve planning capabilities, and create a redundant layer for localization. The system features automatic annotation, which significantly reduces manual work and offer many advantages beyond robotics. A case study on logistics solutions is finally presented. A robotic solution is tested in a hospital to handle the transportation of blood samples between the clinic and the lab. Without any environmental modification; it is shown that lab turnover time can be reduced from hours to minutes; by simply replacing the human porter with a mobile robot.

Özkil, Ali Gürcan

295

Mobile Governance - An Indian Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available M-Governance is a strategy and its implementation involves the utilization of all kinds of wireless and mobile technology services, applications and devices for improving benefits for citizens, business and all Government units. The rapid diffusion of mobile ICT gadgets such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), along with emails, instant messaging and other networking services have rapidly fuelled the mobilization of interaction. People, vehicles, air traffic, post and information have become more and more mobile around the world and our society is increasingly being recognized as a nomadic or mobile society. All these clearly indicate the burgeoning public interest in mobility and various issues relating to ‘being mobile.’ Mobility is being regarded as a new paradigm in computing. The mobile revolution will soon outpace the Internet revolution. The new paradigm shift will be marked by mobile, "Always- on" citizens, government, as well as the transient on-line communities.  In order to take the full advantage of the mobile and wireless ICT technology as well as dealing with the fluidity of the interaction with the mobile society and a booming mobile usage rates some  Government has initiated action to set up m-government Services offered by  departments identified for pilot level implementation and to deliver services though mobile phones accessible to the citizens in the field, in the street, at home or other convenient locations on a 24 x 7 basis, rather than the users having to visit Government offices or log on to the Internet portals to access services. Governments in various countries are working on several projects to deliver various services to the public using mobile phones. M-governance’s objective is to make it possible for people of the country to access different kinds of information, and eventually even equip them to effect payments of bills, using their mobile phones. At this scenario the objective of the paper is to explore the potential for m-governance in India, next section throws some light on case studies on m- governance, third section concentrates and policy and regulatory issues pertaining to m-governance in India and finally ends with conclusion.Keywords:  M-Governance: Mobile Governance, ICT: Information and Communication Technologies, Policy Issues.

ponasanapalli sree sudha

2011-01-01

296

Hybrid drive for mobile machinery; Hybridantrieb fuer mobile Arbeitsmaschinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2007 Deutz manufactured and sold round about 285.000 diesel engines in the power range from about 10 to 500 kW. Approximately 50% of these engines have been used in mobile machinery. Here mobile machinery is considered as all kind of construction, material handling and airside equipments. In the context of predevelopment Deutz analyses alternative concepts and solutions for future power trains of those mobile machinery. (orig.)

Burow, Walter; Brun, Marco; Schoulen, Kai [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany)

2009-03-15

297

Sample dissolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive experimental evidence indicates that variable and incomplete sample dissolution is one of the major causes of the inaccurate results being obtained widely in radiochemical analysis. This conclusion is easily demonstrated by analysis of the residues remaining after the sample has been leached. The residue often contains a significant fraction of the radionuclide being determined. Three procedures involving high-temperature fusions are recommended that ensure complete dissolution of virtually all types of inorganic samples routinely and reliably. With a few unique exceptions encountered over many years of constant use, dissolution of the entire matrix has been so complete that a Tyndall beam could not be observed when the solution of the final fusion cake was examined with a flashlight in a darkened room. Complete material balance studies using radioactive tracers have also shown no significant losses of even the large ter- and quadrivalent radionuclides that could be attributed to incomplete dissolution of high specific-activity particles of the most refractory and intractable species. The recommended fusion procedures are no more hazardous, time-consuming or difficult than other procedures giving much less complete or reliable dissolution.

Sill, C.W.; Sill, D.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-12-31

298

Sample dissolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive experimental evidence indicates that variable and incomplete sample dissolution is one of the major causes of the inaccurate results being obtained widely in radiochemical analysis. This conclusion is easily demonstrated by analysis of the residues remaining after the sample has been leached. The residue often contains a significant fraction of the radionuclide being determined. Three procedures involving high-temperature fusions are recommended that ensure complete dissolution of virtually all types of inorganic samples routinely and reliably. With a few unique exceptions encountered over many years of constant use, dissolution of the entire matrix has been so complete that a Tyndall beam could not be observed when the solution of the final fusion cake was examined with a flashlight in a darkened room. Complete material balance studies using radioactive tracers have also shown no significant losses of even the large ter- and quadrivalent radionuclides that could be attributed to incomplete dissolution of high specific-activity particles of the most refractory and intractable species. The recommended fusion procedures are no more hazardous, time-consuming or difficult than other procedures giving much less complete or reliable dissolution.

1995-01-01

299

Extractability and mobility of mercury from agricultural soils surrounding industrial and mining contaminated areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focussed on a comparison of the extractability of mercury in soils with two different contamination sources (a chlor-alkali plant and mining activities) and on the evaluation of the influence of specific soil properties on the behaviour of the contaminant. The method applied here did not target the identification of individual species, but instead provided information concerning the mobility of mercury species in soil. Mercury fractions were classified as mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile. The fractionation study revealed that in all samples mercury was mainly present in the semi-mobile phase (between 63% and 97%). The highest mercury mobility (2.7 mg kg(-1)) was found in soils from the industrial area. Mining soils exhibited higher percentage of non-mobile mercury, up to 35%, due to their elevated sulfur content. Results of factor analysis indicate that the presence of mercury in the mobile phase could be related to manganese and aluminium soil contents. A positive relation between mercury in the semi-mobile fraction and the aluminium content was also observed. By contrary, organic matter and sulfur contents contributed to mercury retention in the soil matrix reducing the mobility of the metal. Despite known limitations of sequential extraction procedures, the methodology applied in this study for the fractionation of mercury in contaminated soil samples provided relevant information on mercury's relative mobility.

Reis AT; Rodrigues SM; Davidson CM; Pereira E; Duarte AC

2010-12-01

300

From mobile mental health to mobile wellbeing: opportunities and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combination of smart phones, wearable sensor devices and social media offer new ways of monitoring and promoting mental and physical wellbeing. In this contribution, we describe recent developments in the field of mobile healthcare (or mHealth), by focusing in particular on mobile mental health applications. First, we examine the potential benefits associated with this approach, providing examples from existing projects. Next, we identify and explain possible differences in focus between mobile mental health and mobile wellbeing applications. Finally, we discuss some open challenges associated with the implementation of this vision, ranging from the lack of evidence-based validation to privacy, security and ethical concerns.

Gaggioli A; Riva G

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

System Architecture and Mobility Management for Mobile Immersive Communications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a system design for delivery of immersive communications to mobile wireless devices based on a distributed proxy model. It is demonstrated that this architecture addresses key technical challenges for the delivery of these services, that is, constraints on link capacity and power consumption in mobile devices. However, additional complexity is introduced with respect to application layer mobility management. The paper proposes three possible methods for updating proxy assignments in response to mobility management and compares the performance of these methods.

Mehran Dowlatshahi; Farzad Safaei

2007-01-01

302

MOBILE WOOD CHIPPER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile wood chipper a vehicle having a longitudinal axis and ground engaging wheels. A rotary bearing is supported by the vehicle and a wood chipper mounted to the rotary bearing for rotation about a substantially vertical axis between an axially oriented travel position and an off-axis operative position. A grapple arm is supported by the vehicle, the grapple arm being capable of feeding logs into the wood chipper when the wood chipper is positioned in the off-axis operative position.

ZELLER LES

303

Mobile leak testing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The design and implementation are described of a mobile testing unit ULTRATEST M for helium leak tests. The equipment has been developed by Leybold-Heraeus GmbH in Cologne and is in-built in a Mercedes-Benz 208 van. The equipment is designed for the operative use in assembly and construction of nuclear power plants and its throughput is sufficient for checking the whole upper reactor block. It may also be used for removing defects of vacuum equipment requiring a high level of tightness or equally demanding equipment used in the chemical industry. Experience with the equipment is described. (B.S.)

1981-05-14

304

MOBILE TREATMENT TABLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile treatment table having a central support operably connected with a wheel assembly. A support member is pivotally connected with the central support and operable between a vertical position and a horizontal position. At least one support leg is disposed at a distal end of the support member and operable between a deployed position substantially orthogonal to the support member and a non-deployed position substantially parallel with the support member. A handle extends from a proximal end of the support member and forms a portion of the support member when the support member is in the horizontal position.

ROZEWICZ MICHAEL S; EAGER KRIS D; WORM DUSTIN L; VELDKAMP DAVE J; GERBER VAUGHN R

305

MOBILE TREATMENT TABLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile treatment table including a central support. A first support member is pivotally connected with the central support and operable between a substantially vertical position and a substantially horizontal position. A second support member is pivotally connected with the central support and includes a handle integral therewith. The second support member is operable between a substantially vertical position and a substantially horizontal position. A wheel assembly is operably connected with the second support member and operable between an extended position adjacent a first side of the support member and a retracted position adjacent a second side of the support member.

ROZEWICZ MICHAEL S; EAGER KRIS D; WORM DUSTIN L; VELDKAMP DAVE J; GERBER VAUGHN R

306

Mobile phones and cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation was given at the Annual Conference of Engineering and Physical Sciences in Medicine (EPSM 2002) in New Zealand but no paper was written. The power point presentation summarises the status of the research carried our over the last decade on the biological effects of the RF radiation, including thermal and non-thermal effects, epidemiological and relevant laboratory studies. It is concluded that there is no real scientific evidence that mobile phones cause cancer. However, since definitive epidemiological studies may be impossible to do, it cannot be proved that a cancer connection is impossible. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

2002-01-01

307

Mobile multiwave lidar complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiwave mobile lidar complexes (MLCs) are designed and developed. A number of vehicle-based MLCs are built. The set of complex lidar probing data obtained with the help of MLCs is synchronised in space and time, covers a large area (the operation range of an MLC is 15 km), and is based on a unified methodological approach. The results of probing contain information on the concentration and physical nature of atmospheric aerosol, chemical composition of the gaseous phase of the atmosphere, wind and turbulence. The obtained data form the basis for a complex analysis of the ecological situation and prognosis of its development. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

2005-12-31

308

Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA) is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

V. Zalud

2002-01-01

309

Secure Mobile Trade Agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

Musbah M. Aqe; Sattar J. Aboud; Mohammed AL-Fayoumi

2007-01-01

310

A Secure Mobile Agents Platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile Agents is a new paradigm for distributed computing where security is very essential to the acceptance of this paradigm in a large scale distributed environment. In this paper, we propose protection mechanisms for mobile agents. In these mechanisms, the authentication of mobile agents and the access control to the system resources are controlled by the mobile-agents platform. Each agent defines its own access control policy with regard to other agents using an Interface Definition Language (IDL), thus enforcing modularity and easing programming task. An evaluation of these mechanisms has been conducted. The measurements give the overhead involved by the proposed protection mechanisms to the performance of mobile agents. An important advantage of our protection mechanisms are transparency to agents and the portability of nonsecure applications onto a secure environment. A mobile agent system and the protection mechanisms have been implemented. Our experiments have shown the feasibility and the advantages of our mechanisms.

Leila Ismail

2008-01-01

311

IP micro-mobility protocols  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wireless cellular networks are quickly evolving towards broadband wireless access networks, going from 2G, classical telephony networks such as Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), towards 3G and beyond, with, for example, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). At the same time, these networks are also moving towards all-IP networks. In this paper, we first describe the global mobility landscape for these future networks. This landscape is designed to be as generic as possible to allow us to compare several IP mobility management proposals with very different characteristics. We illustrate the utilization of this landscape with a short presentation of the mobility management in General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) networks (at the IP level) and of UMTS. Then, we point out and describe the important issues that must be addressed to manage mobile nodes. These issues include mainly handoff management, the support of Passive Connectivity and Paging, Scalability and Robustness.

Pierre Reinbold; Universite Catholique De Louvain

312

Cooperative Distributed Sensors for Mobile Robot Localization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic algorithm to collaborate distributed sensors for mobile robot localization. It uses a sample-based version of Markov localization—Monte Carlo localization (MCL), capable of localizing mobile robot in an any-time fashion. During robot localization given a known environment model, MCL method is employed to update robot’s belief whichever information (positive or negative) attained from environmental sensors. Meanwhile, an implementation is presented that uses color environmental cameras for robot detection. All the parameters of each environmental camera are unknown in advance and need be calibrated independently by robot. Once calibrated, the positive and negative detection models can be built up according to the parameters of environmental cameras. A further experiment, obtained with the real robot in an indoor office environment, illustrates it has drastic improvement in global localization speed and accuracy using our algorithm.

Zhiwei Liang; Songhao Zhu

2010-01-01

313

Mobilization processes from vanadium alloys during oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mobilization of several elements from vanadium alloys in flowing air was measured for temperatures between 600 and 1200{degree}C. Alloys with nominal compositions of V-5Cr-5Ti and minor amounts of calcium, scandium, and manganese added to simulate transmutation products were prepared by powder metallurgy. Mobilization of the three major alloying elements and the three minor additions was measured using a transpiration test method. Volatilization of sodium was modeled based upon equilibrium concentrations of this metal on the oxide scale resulting from the dissociation of Na{sub 2}O, the concentrations of vanadium oxides (V{sub 2}O{sub 4} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and the oxygen content in the gas above the sample. 8 refs., 8 figs.

Smolik, G.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; McCarthy, K.A.; Coates, K.; Wallace, R.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

314

Mobilization processes from vanadium alloys during oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mobilization of several elements from vanadium alloys in flowing air was measured for temperatures between 600 and 1200 degree C. Alloys with nominal compositions of V-5Cr-5Ti and minor amounts of calcium, scandium, and manganese added to simulate transmutation products were prepared by powder metallurgy. Mobilization of the three major alloying elements and the three minor additions was measured using a transpiration test method. Volatilization of sodium was modeled based upon equilibrium concentrations of this metal on the oxide scale resulting from the dissociation of Na2O, the concentrations of vanadium oxides (V2O4 and V2O5), and the oxygen content in the gas above the sample. 8 refs., 8 figs.

1996-01-01

315

Programmable Baseband Filter for Multistandard Mobile Phones  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a channel selection filter for mobile communication systems using a direct down conversion architecture. The filter can be programmed to meet the requirements of different communication standards, including GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), and Bluetooth. The filter includes a novel DC offset compensation circuit that combines offset sampling in GSM mode with high pass filtering in WCDMA mode. The filter can be programmed to different noise performance levels by programming the impedance level and power consumption of the input transconductor. The entire filter consumes between 2.5 mW and 7.5 mW, depending on the desired noise performance. It is implemented in a standard 0.25 mum CMOS process. A test circuit has been developed and fabricated and measurements show that both the required programmability and the required transfer functions can be obtained from the designed circuit.

Jensen, Rasmus Glarborg; Christensen, Kåre Tais

2003-01-01

316

Cross Platform Mobile Application Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days mobiles are replacing the use of laptops &desktops on large scales. The mobile operating system companies provide more resources for the creation of applications as per the users requirement. But due the use of various operating system, it becomes problem for developer to develop the application for each operating system individually. So this has been solved by the cross platform mobile application development tool which provide more scope in less time.

Mrs. V.C. Kulloli#1 , Ashish Pohare#2 , Sujit Raskar#2 , Tania Bhattacharyya#2 , Shashikant Bhure

2013-01-01

317

Classification and Evaluation of Mobility Metrics for Mobility Model Movement Patterns in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is collection of self configuring and adaption of wireless link between communicating devices (mobile devices) to form an arbitrary topology and multihop wireless connectivity without the use of existing infrastructure. It requires efficient dynamic routing protocol to determine the routes subsequent to a set of rules that enables two or more devices to communicate with each others. This paper basically classifies and evaluates the mobility metrics into two categories- direct mobility metrics and derived mobility metrics. These two mobility metrics has been used to measure different mobility models, this paper considers some of mobility models i.e Random Waypoint Model, Reference Point Group Mobility Model, Random Direction Mobility Model, Random Walk Mobility Model, Probabilistic Random Walk, Gauss Markov, Column Mobility Model, Nomadic Community Mobility Model and Manhattan Grid Model.

Santosh Kumar S; C Sharma Bhupendra Suman

2011-01-01

318

THE STRUCTURE OF MOBILITY AND SKILLS AMONG DEAF CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research of mobility and skills among deaf children (from 7 to 17 years old) is presented in this work. The sample of examinees (N=98) is consisted of two subsamples. The first subsample is consisted of deaf children (primary-school and secondary-school level), who have been included in the educative and rehabilitative treatment in the special school (N=29) and the second subsample is consisted of hearing children (primary-school and secondary-school level), who have been chosen by random choice (N=69). For the purpose of the research, a measure instrument named “Test for evaluation of the anthropologic features (extremity movement) of mobility and skills“, (TAMV), has been constructed. The aim of the research is to establish mobility and skills of deaf children. In order to test the hypothesis that there are statistically significant differencesamong deaf and hearing children (primary-school and secondary-school level) in mobility and skills, discriminative analysis has been applied. The results showed that deaf examinees have been much weaker compared to hearing examinees in mobility and skills and that these differences were statistically significant when applied on the system of variables. The results enriched the knowledge about mobility and skills of deaf children, which can encourage more programs of motor mobility and skills improvement to be constructed.

Husnija HASANBEGOVI?; Senad MEHMEDINOVI?; Esad H. MAHMUTOVI?

2010-01-01

319

Barriers to Adoption of Mobile banking: Evidence from Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the perceived barriers to adoption of mobile banking among consumers, and to assess whether the usage of M-Banking is constraint on the basis of different demographic characteristics such as age, income level, mobile phone usage “experience” and marital status. Data were collected using convenient sampling via self-administered questionnaire in a large university in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A total of usable 189 responses were collected from non-users of mobile banking and retained for analysis using SPSS version 16. The main reasons for rejecting M-Banking were explored using simple descriptive analysis, while chi-square tests were used to assess differences between socio-demographic variables and the rejection factors. The result indicates that majority of respondents do not use any kind of mobile banking service. The four main reasons for rejecting M-Banking were: M-banking requires knowledge and learning; M-banking attract additional banking charges; poor telecommunication network; consumer preference for traditional means of banking instead of mobile enabled banking services. The practical implications of this research is the revealing of the main barriers to Mobile banking adoption and suggesting of appropriate marketing strategies to overcome the obstacles to mobile banking adoption.

Faisal Iddris

2013-01-01

320

Mutual Mobile Membranes with Timers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A feature of current membrane systems is the fact that objects and membranes are persistent. However, this is not true in the real world. In fact, cells and intracellular proteins have a well-defined lifetime. Inspired from these biological facts, we define a model of systems of mobile membranes in which each membrane and each object has a timer representing their lifetime. We show that systems of mutual mobile membranes with and without timers have the same computational power. An encoding of timed safe mobile ambients into systems of mutual mobile membranes with timers offers a relationship between two formalisms used in describing biological systems.

Bogdan Aman; Gabriel Ciobanu

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Network-aware Mobile Programs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we investigate network-aware mobile programs, programs that can use mobility as a tool to adapt to variations in network characteristics. We present infrastructural support for mobility and network monitoring and show how adaptalk, a Java-based mobile Internet chat application can take advantage of this support to dynamically place the chat server so as to minimize response time. Our conclusion was that on-line network monitoring and adaptive placement of shared data-structures can significantly improve performance of distributed applications on the Internet.

M. Ranganathan; Anurag Acharya; Shamik Sharma; Joel Saltz

322

Mobile Communication Systems and Security  

CERN Multimedia

Mobile Communication Systems and Security arms readers with a thorough understanding of all major cellular air-interface technologies and their security layer techniques. Rhee covers the technological development of wireless mobile communications in compliance with each iterative generation up to 3G systems and beyond, with an emphasis on wireless security aspects. By progressing in a systematic manner, presenting the theory and practice of wireless mobile technologies along with various security problems, readers will gain an intimate sense of how mobile systems operate and how to address com

Rhee, Man Young

2009-01-01

323

Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry.

Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, BØrge

2010-01-01

324

Mobile device security for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The information you need to avoid security threats on corporate mobile devices Mobile devices have essentially replaced computers for corporate users who are on the go and there are millions of networks that have little to no security. This essential guide walks you through the steps for securing a network and building a bulletproof framework that will protect and support mobile devices in the enterprise. Featuring real-world case scenarios, this straightforward guide shares invaluable advice for protecting mobile devices from the loss of sensitive and confidential corporate informati

Campagna, Rich; Krishnan, Ashwin

2011-01-01

325

Combine mobile monitoring conception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is a document of joint final report of the collaboration between CHESCIR and JAERI on the Subject-1 'A Study on the Measurements and Evaluation of External Dose after Nuclear Accident' of JCP-1 project 'A Study on the Assessment, Analysis and Verification of the Consequences of the accident at Chernobyl' in the framework of the Agreement between JAERI and RIA 'PRIPYAT' (since 1994, CHESCIR) for 1995-1999. The most substantial part of the collaboration was research with using mobile gamma survey system, that was developed in JAERI and equipped with GIS - navigator that was developed in CHESCIR. During collaboration the carbone survey on the network of roads covered most are contaminated by Chernobyl fallout in Ukraine, Belorussia and Russia. Routes of carbone survey, carried out by CHESCIR team together with JAERI and alone for the last 5 years are shown in a non-complete map. Length of all routes taking into considers double raids is longer than 18,000 km. Experimental and methodological experience of mobile monitoring that collected by both sides allows to make considerations and conclusions, which are available in this final report. (J.P.N.)

2001-01-01

326

Combine mobile monitoring conception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is a document of joint final report of the collaboration between CHESCIR and JAERI on the Subject-1 'A Study on the Measurements and Evaluation of External Dose after Nuclear Accident' of JCP-1 project 'A Study on the Assessment, Analysis and Verification of the Consequences of the accident at Chernobyl' in the framework of the Agreement between JAERI and RIA 'PRIPYAT' (since 1994, CHESCIR) for 1995-1999. The most substantial part of the collaboration was research with using mobile gamma survey system, that was developed in JAERI and equipped with GIS - navigator that was developed in CHESCIR. During collaboration the carbone survey on the network of roads covered most are contaminated by Chernobyl fallout in Ukraine, Belorussia and Russia. Routes of carbone survey, carried out by CHESCIR team together with JAERI and alone for the last 5 years are shown in a non-complete map. Length of all routes taking into considers double raids is longer than 18,000 km. Experimental and methodological experience of mobile monitoring that collected by both sides allows to make considerations and conclusions, which are available in this final report. (J.P.N.)

Stolyarevsky, I.; Ivanov, J.A.; Arkhipov, N. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center for International Researches (CHESCIR) (Ukraine)] [and others

2001-03-01

327

Intelligent mobile robots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purpose of the application to remote working apparatuses in nuclear power plants and others, the software and moving mechanism of mobile robots that automatically accomplish the movement by only specifying the destination were manufactured for trial. The software has the function of searching a path to determine the quasi-shortest path and the function of controlling execution to control the action of the robots and guide to the destination. By taking heuristics into the method of searching a path and utilizing ultrasonic waves for the function of sight as they can easily detect distance though the information quantity is small, the execution was accelerated. By the simulation examination and the experiment using a mobile apparatus made for trial, it was confirmed that the route plan was able to be made almost in real time, and the appearance of an unknown obstacle was detected before collision and able to be reasonably avoided by the revision of the plan. An environment model, a route planner, the program for controlling execution, the makeup and control of moving function and the experiment on the movement are reported. The shortening of the processing time by dealing with unconfirmed echo and simplifying the writing in a map is a future problem. (Kako, I.)

1984-01-01

328

Financial disclosure and international capital mobility in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The extant literature provides evidence on the impact of financial disclosure environments on international capital mobility. However, to our knowledge, there are no such studies including Latin-American countries. We aimed to fill this void by assessing the influence of accounting information on international capital mobility in a twenty-two-country sample, including the three largest Latin-American countries: Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. The countries included in the s (more) ample represent around 80% of the world's GDP from 1995 to 2001. Our empirical results show with a 99% confidence level that the degree of disclosure of value-relevant accounting information has positively influenced international capital mobility. We also show, with a 95% confidence level, that countries where financial accounting is less aligned with tax accounting present higher international capital mobility. The three Latin-American countries studied present relatively low levels of disclosure among the sampled countries. However, whereas Argentina and Brazil show low levels of capital mobility, Mexico stands out with a high capital mobility, which we reckon could be accounted for by the country's trade and investment connections with the US and by its participation in the NAFTA.

Medeiros, Otavio R. de; Quinteiro, Luis Gustavo do Lago

2008-06-01

329

Financial Disclosure and International Capital Mobility in Latin America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extant literature provides evidence on the impact of financial disclosure environments on international capital mobility. However, to our knowledge, there are no such studies including Latin-American countries. We aimed to fill this void by assessing the influence of accounting information on international capital mobility in a twenty-two-country sample, including the three largest Latin-American countries: Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. The countries included in the sample represent around 80% of the world’s GDP from 1995 to 2001. Our empirical results show with a 99% confidence level that the degree of disclosure of value-relevant accounting information has positively influenced international capital mobility. We also show, with a 95% confidence level, that countries where financial accounting is less aligned with tax accounting present higher international capital mobility. The three Latin-American countries studied present relatively low levels of disclosure among thesampled countries. However, whereas Argentina and Brazil show low levels of capital mobility, Mexico stands out with a high capital mobility, which we reckon could be accounted for by the country’s trade and investment connections with the US and by its participation in the NAFTA.

Otavio R. de Medeiros; Luis Gustavo do Lago Quinteiro

2008-01-01

330

Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

Steve Wright; Gale Parchoma

2011-01-01

331

Accrual Mobility: Job Mobility in Higher Education through Responsibility Accrual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accrual mobility occurs through evolved jobs in which an employee accrues responsibility beyond normal growth in the job and develops a new position. Individual, organizational, and environmental factors associated with evolved jobs are identified and the theoretical implications of accrual mobility for administrators are discussed. (Author/MLW)

Miner, Anne S.; Estler, Suzanne E.

1985-01-01

332

Exxon Mobil, world oil leader; Exxon Mobil, leader petrolier mondial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Announced on December 1, 1998, the Exxon-Mobil merger was approved by the US Federal Trade Commission almost one year later, i.e. on November 30, 1999. Under its new name of ExxonMobil, the group - chaired by Lee Raymonds - will be organised along 11 autonomous branches. (authors)

Anon.

2000-01-01

333

Mobile Aleph: A System for Distributed Mobile Applications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

My paper introduces Mobile Aleph, a distributed shared object system that addresses the needs of mobile group-oriented applications. These applications need to work when the mobile client is connected to an application server, when offine, or when combined with other clients in an ad hoc network. In addition, a distributed system for mobile applications must have a high degree of fault tolerance and must deal with the limitations of resource-poor clients. The system employs an optimistic concurrency model that combines the approaches of client/server and peer-to-peer architectures. The paper outlines the Mobile Aleph approach, the algorithms used for maintainance of global data, and the experimental results of simulations of the system.

Mobile Aleph; Michael Coglianese

334

Mobile IPv6 Protocols and Implementation  

CERN Document Server

Mobile IPv6 has become the key enabling technology for mobile data and multimedia services and devices worldwide. This book covers the IPv6 host mobility protocol known as 'mobile IPv6' and begins with a basic description of mobile IPv6 and then details protocol specifications and data structures as well as actual implementation.

Li, Qing; Shima, Keiichi

2009-01-01

335

Barcode Payment System in Trusted Mobile Devices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile payment is an application of mobile commerce which facilitates mobile commerce transactions by providing the mobile customer with a convenient means to pay. Many mobile payment methods have been proposed and implemented like user friendly, customer centric, merchant centric where security con...

Vibha Kaw Raina

336

Clean mobility; future strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As much the energy as the transport have been fundamental pillars of the humanity's development. Their importance is evidenced when observing the map of Colombia: our more old, bigger or more important cities are located along the axis demarcated by the natural access roads of our geography: the rivers Magdalena and Cauca. Regions of big natural wealth, as the oriental plains, are punctually developed and you only consent to the progress when roads that connect them with the rest of the country appear. The transport allows the connection among the sources of resources, the production complexes and the consumption centers. It is clear that it has deep relationship with the employment, the health, the education and other activities that impact in the quality of life of the towns and it also constitutes the essential nucleus of industrial and commercial processes to whose surroundings rotate the economic development of regions or countries. Without physical access to resources and markets is stagnation of the development and the mitigation of the poverty is untenable in the time. During the second half of the century nineteen, with the population's growth and of the trade activities, derived of the industrial revolution, the sector transports it was developed in two big fronts of a part, it gave answer to the necessities of mobility in the nascent cities and of another it connected the productive centers with the consumption centers in the whole orb. In that time, the commercialization of products to scale World cup demanded that they became more and more long journeys, in a quicker way and with more load. The appearance of the machine of vapor constituted an important answer for the challenge faced by the means of that time transport, because it substituted sources of low energy density as and wind in the marine sailing and the animal traction for the mobility of people and of terrestrial load. At the beginning of the present century, the motors of internal combustion conquered earth, sea and air. The distillation of the petroleum and the domain of Otto's thermodynamic cycles and of Diesel, they responded from an overwhelming way to the necessities of a growing world population's mobility, not only in quantity but in an entire range of activities and they displaced the horses from the cities toward the field.

2000-01-01

337

Mobile munitions assessment system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

Rowe, L.C. [Department of the Army, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Watts, K.D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jorgensen, C.L. [Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States)

1996-05-01

338

CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment) of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

Süleyman BARUTÇU

2008-01-01

339

TCP Meets Mobile Code  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper argues that transport protocols such as TCPprovide a rare domain in which protocol extensibility byuntrusted parties is both valuable and practical. TCPcontinues to be refined despite more than two decadesof progress, and the difficulties due to deployment delaysand backwards-compatibility are well-known. Remoteextensibility, by which a host can ship the transportprotocol code and dynamically load it on anothernode in the network on a per-connection basis, directlytackles both of these problems. At the same time, theunicast transport protocol domain is much narrower thanother domains that use mobile code, such as active networking,which helps to make extensibility feasible.The transport level provides a well understood notion ofglobal safety---TCP friendliness---while local safety canbe guaranteed by isolation of per-protocol state and useof recent safe-language technologies. We support thesearguments by outlining the design of XTCP, our extensibleTCP framework.

Parveen Patel; David Wetherall; Jay Lepreau; Andrew Whitaker

340

Realizing Mobile Computing Personae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proliferation of computers has made it possible to do computer-relatedtasks in many places. At each place a user works, he or she runs applications,specifies preferences for them, and is allowed to access resourcesand files according to local rules. These elements, together with the nameto-resource mappings, can be referred to as a user's computing persona.Currently, an implicit persona is created wherever a user is given accessto a machine and the persona evolves as applications, preferences andresources change. This proposal outlines a method for making personaeexplicit and user-centric, instead of machine-centric, thus creating mobilecomputing personae. It also describes the underlying components that areneeded to support this shift. First, it discusses a mobile file system thatprovides file access as the user moves as a pre-requisite technology.Second, an application-based checkpoint and restart protocol is proposed;this would enable applications to be more reliab...

 
 
 
 
341

The Microbial Colonisation of Mobile Phone Used by Healthcare Staffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile phones are dispensable accessories in social life and normally they are not cleaned properly. Therefore, they serve as a reservoir of bacteria and may cause nosocomial infections in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbiological colonization of mobile phones used by healthcare staffs. The study was carried out collecting swab samples with Cary-Blair transport medium from mobile phones of attending healthcare staffs from different departments of three hospitals in March, 2008. All collected samples were inoculated in 5% sheep blood agar, eosin-methylene blue agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar. Isolated bacteria were identified using by classic technique and Vitec2 (Biomerieux, France) full automated bacteria identification system. Growth was observed in 65 of collected 106 samples, corresponding to 61.3%. The most frequent bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Escherichia coli, respectively. In conclusion, bacteria were colonized on mobile phones frequently and mobile phones may become reservoir of microorganism for nosocomial infections.

I.H. Kilic; M. Ozaslan; I.D. Karagoz; Y. Zer; V. Davutoglu

2009-01-01

342

The mobile bluff at hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The article discusses interference problems of mobile telephones and other electromagnetic pollution sources with medical equipment in Norwegian hospitals. Studies show that significant interference from mobile phones may not be registered before the distance between the appliances are about 2 cm

2003-01-01

343

Mobile security a pocket guide  

CERN Multimedia

The book provides a concise reference to the key security issues affecting those that deploy and use mobile technologies to support their organisations. It aims to raise awareness of the threats to which mobile devices, users and data are exposed, as well as to provide advice on how to address the problems

Furnell, Steven

2009-01-01

344

Mobile communications data services marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing revenue per user is very important for mobile operators because of shrinking growth from mobile voice services on a number of markets. At the same time, a more powerful platform enabling advanced mobile data services has emerged. Therefore, mobile data services offer great possibilities to operators in the future. Marketing plays the key role in offering new and existing data services. Experiences in launching various services, primarily a comparison of Japanese and other experiences, shows that different strategies and marketing mix employed in launching data services can lead to different business results in this area. The needs and preferences of Croatian mobile users are explored in this paper, especially in the following areas: the most used and potentially most interesting data services, a preferred way of paying for these services, the importance of transaction security in mobile payments and a comparison of the use of and interest in such services by users with more advanced mobile terminals and those with older mobile phones. Results imply that a strong and attractive presence of these services in the media is crucial to success. It is also important to communicate clearly the benefits of these services, along with lower prices (or promotional periods) as well as easy activation and use. Last but not least: the existence of attractive content and applications (where fair arrangements among all providers of these services is the main prerequisite) is essential for a faster adoption and use of these services.

Stanislav Maruši?

2006-01-01

345

Personal firewall in mobile phone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi 2004 - Høgskolen i Agder, Grimstad , The assignment described in this master thesis is given by Ericsson AS and gives an evaluation of a need for a personal firewall in mobile phone. In today’s commercial products personal firewall in mobile phon...

Arslanagic, Edina

346

Network-aware Mobile Programs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we investigate network-aware mobile programs,programs that can use mobility as a tool to adaptto variations in network characteristics. We present infrastructuralsupport for mobility and network monitoring andshow how adaptalk, a Java-based mobile Internet chatapplication, can take advantage of this support to dynamicallyplace the chat server so as to minimize response time.Our conclusion was that on-line network monitoring andadaptive placement of shared data-structures can significantlyimprove performance of distributed applications onthe Internet.1 IntroductionMobile programs can move an active thread of controlfrom one site to another during execution. This flexibilityhas many potential advantages. For example, a programthat searches distributed data repositories can improve itsperformance by migrating to the repositories and performingthe search on-site instead of fetching all the data to itscurrent location. Similarly, an Internet video-conferen...

M. Ranganathan; Anurag Acharya; Shamik D. Sharma; Joel Saltz

347

WEB SERVICES FOR MOBILE COMPUTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In todays day to day life,mobile users are becoming popular clients to consume any type of web resources such as web service. However, there are problems in connecting mobile devices to existing WS. This paper focuses on three of the following challenge : time and speed,bandwidth/latency,limited resources. This paper implements and developes a cross-platform architecture for connecting mobile devices to the WS. The architecture includes a platform independent design of mobile client and a middleware for enhancing the communication between mobile clients and WS. Finally, the middleware can be deployed on Cloud Platforms, like Google App Engine and Amazon EC2, to enhance the scalability and reliability. The experiments evaluate the optimization/adaptation, overhead of the middleware.

Piyush M.Patil , Kushal Gohil, Rohit Madhavi

2012-01-01

348

On using Mobile IP Protocols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4) with its major components: agent discovery, registration and tunneling. In addition, we outline the available encapsulation techniques and route optimization procedure. In the end, we describe the design of the new protocol for transparent routing of IPv6 packets to mobile IPv6 nodes operating in the Internet.

Fayza A. Nada; Fayza A. Nada

2006-01-01

349

Spatiotemporal features of human mobility  

CERN Multimedia

The individual movements of large numbers of people are important in many contexts, from urban planning to disease spreading. Datasets that capture human mobility are now available and many interesting features have been discovered, including the ultra-slow spatial growth of individual mobility. However, the detailed substructures and spatiotemporal flows of mobility-the sets and sequences of visited locations-have not been well studied. We show that individual mobility is dominated by small groups of frequently visited, dynamically close locations, forming primary "habitats" capturing typical daily activity, along with subsidiary habitats representing additional travel. These habitats do not correspond to typical contexts such as home or work. The temporal evolution of mobility within habitats, which constitutes most motion, is universal across habitats and exhibits scaling patterns both distinct from all previous observations and unpredicted by current models. The delay to enter subsidiary habitats is a pri...

Bagrow, James P

2012-01-01

350

Selective blubber fatty acid mobilization in lactating gray seals (Halichoerus grypus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During negative energy balance periods, fatty acids (FAs) are mobilized to cover the metabolic demands of the body. FAs from adipose tissue are selectively mobilized according to their carbon length (CL) and number of double bonds (DBs); however, studies in vivo have focused only on fasting and nonlactating animals. During lactation, UK gray seals fast for 18 d, mobilizing a large amount of lipid from blubber to sustain their own metabolic demands and the nutritional requirements of pups. We investigated FA mobilization in individual gray seal mothers from two UK colonies sampled in 2005 and 2006. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine to what extent the mobilization observed from FAs in blubber can be explained as a function of FAs' CL and number of DBs. FAs were mobilized according to their structure, such that for a given CL, mobilization increased with the number of DBs, and for a given number of DBs, mobilization decreased as CL increased. This pattern of selective mobilization was very similar between colonies, although the relative amounts of component FAs in blubber at early lactation were different between them. FAs, which are considered crucial to pup development, were mobilized more than predicted by the model. This suggests that selective mobilization of FAs is not related solely to the physicochemical characteristics of the FAs but also to the needs of a growing pup.

Arriola A; Biuw M; Walton M; Moss S; Pomeroy P

2013-07-01

351

Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the design of mobile sensor networks for optimal data collection. The development is strongly motivated by the application to adaptive ocean sampling for an autonomous ocean observing and prediction system. A performance metric, used to derive optimal paths for the network of mo...

Leonard, Naomi Ehrich; Paley, Derek; Lekien, François; Sepulchre, Rodolphe; Fratantoni, David M.; Davis, R. E.

352

Study on payments through mobile phones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evolution of information and communications technology, together with the increasing use of electronic commerce, phones and mobile applications, have facilitated mobile payments to become an alternative payment method for buyers and vendors. Mobile payments offer various opportunities to busines...

Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Marinela MIRCEA

353

Personal Information Search on Mobile Devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's mobile devices, especially mobile phones, are comparable in computing capability and storage to the desktop computers of a few years ago. Tbe volume and diversity of the information kept on mobile devices has continually increased and users have t...

M. Akbas

2007-01-01

354

Correlates of exercise maintenance among people with mobility impairments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This paper describes correlates of exercise maintenance in a sample of adults with mobility impairments. Understanding processes that promote exercise is important if one is to increase access to exercise for people with disabilities. METHOD: A model of variables predicting 6-month maintenance of regular exercise was examined, using data from a self-administered questionnaire given to a community sample of 113 adults with long-term mobility impairments. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression were used. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed that people with lower motivational barriers and higher exercise self-efficacy had a higher probability of exercise maintenance. Demographic characteristics and disability-related and environmental barriers did not differentiate between those who did and did not continue to exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term sustained exercise by people with mobility impairments might be promoted by efforts to increase motivation to exercise: involve health professionals as one source of support and expand opportunity by increasing access to appropriate sites and programming.

Kinne S; Patrick DL; Maher EJ

1999-01-01

355

NetInf Mobile Node Architecture and Mobility Management based on LISP Mobile Node  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose an architecture for Network of Information mobile node (NetInf MN). It bears characteristics and features of basic NetInf node architecture with features introduced in the LISP MN architecture. We also introduce a virtual node layer for mobility management in the Network of...

Saleem, Shoaib; Renault, Eric; Djamal, Zeghlache

356

Data Management Infrastructure for the Mobile Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Internet is going mobile, and indications are that the mobile Internet will be "bigger" than the conventional Internet. Due to aspects such as user mobility, much more diverse use situations, and the form factor of mobile devices, context awareness is important on the mobile Internet. Focusing on geo-spatial context awareness, this talk covers research that aims to build infrastructure for mobile data management.

Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

2009-01-01

357

Study on payments through mobile phones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolution of information and communications technology, together with the increasing use of electronic commerce, phones and mobile applications, have facilitated mobile payments to become an alternative payment method for buyers and vendors. Mobile payments offer various opportunities to business environment and became a starting point in the transition from electronic to mobile. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the mobile payment methods and to identify the effects that mobile payment systems have on electronic commerce.

Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Marinela MIRCEA

2006-01-01

358

Dimensions and Issues of Mobile Agent Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile Agent is a type of software system which acts “intelligently” on one’s behalf with the feature ofautonomy, learning ability and most importantly mobility. Now mobile agents are gaining interest in theresearch community. In this article mobile agents will be addressed as tools for mobile computing. Mobileagents have been used in applications ranging from network management to information management. Wepresent mobile agent concept, characteristics, classification, need, applications and technical constraints inthe mobile technology. We also provide a brief case study about how mobile agent is used for informationretrieval

Yashpal Singh; Kapil Gulati; S Niranjan

2012-01-01

359

HTTP BASED STREAMMING ON MOBILE DEVICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we have explain the HTTPBased Streaming on Mobile node in the field of Mobile Computing. It also suggests various technologies in the field of Mobile computing to help and to integrate to develop a Mobile Augmentation Technology. In this paper We are using the pt of Mobile Augmentation Architecture and also Develop and implement a mobile Augmentation Streaming Media algorithm. We have implemented Streaming Algorithm for Image and Video Using J2ME Platform. concept of Mobile Augmentation Architecture and also Develop and implement a mobile Augmentation Streaming Media algorithm. We have implemented Streaming Algorithm for Image and Video Using J2ME Platform.

VIJAYSINH K.JADEJA AND NOOR MOHAMMED

2012-01-01

360

Mobile Phone Tracking & Positioning Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile positioning technology has become an important area of research, for emergency as well as for commercial services. Mobile positioning in cellular networks will provide several services such as, locating stolen mobiles, emergency calls, different billing tariffs depending on where the call is originated, and methods to predict the user movement inside a region. The evolution to location-dependent services and applications in wireless systems continues to require the development of more accurate and reliable mobile positioning technologies. The major challenge to accurate location estimation is in creating techniques that yield acceptable performance when the direct path from the transmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) problem, and it is known to be a major source of error since it systematically causes mobile to appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually is, thereby increasing the positioning error. In this paper, we present a simple method for mobile telephone tracking and positioning with high accuracy. Through this we will discuss some technology used for mobile positioning and tracking.

LAXMANA SIRIDHARA ARIGELA; PUTTA ADITYA VEERENDRA; SIMHADRI ANVESH; KOLISETTY SANDEEP SATYA HANUMAN

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Leucocyte mobilization to skin lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Leucocyte mobilization to a chamber covering a skin lesion was studies in healthy volunteers.111Indium-labelled blood leucocytes accumulated in the chambers, indicating mobilization of leucocytes from the blood. The concentration of autologous serum in the chamber medium influenced the number of leucocytes mobilized, while heat inactivation of serum or the repeated use of the same serum had no effect on the counts. The use of zymosan-treated increased the mobilization by up to 53 %. The kinetics for the mobilization of leucocytes to chambers containing autologous serum was followed in healthy subjects. The mobilization showed a uniform pattern, viz. a lag phase of 2-4 hours and maximal migration rates after 20-24 hours. The cumulated counts were 74 x 106 leucocytes/cm2/24 hours and 200 x 106leucocytes/cm2/48 hours. Females and males exhibited the same kinetics and cumulated counts. Chamber leucocytes were predominantly neutrophil granulocytes (85-100 %) with 2.9-3.6 nuclear segments. The chamber technique provides a simple method permitting quantitation of in vivo mobilization of leucocytes from the blood to an inflammatory lesion. (author)

1980-01-01

362

Mobility impairments and use of screening and preventive services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Primary care for people with disabilities often concentrates on underlying debilitating disorders to the exclusion of preventive health concerns. This study examined use of screening and preventive services among adults with mobility problems (difficulty walking, climbing stairs, or standing for extended periods). METHODS: The responses of non-institutionalized adults to the 1994 National Health Interview Survey, including the disability and Healthy People 2000 supplements, were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regressions predicted service use on the basis of mobility level, demographic characteristics, and indicators of health care access. RESULTS: Ten percent of the sample reported some mobility impairment; 3% experienced major problems. People with mobility problems were as likely as others to receive pneumonia and influenza immunizations but were less likely to receive other services. Adjusted odds ratios for women with major mobility difficulties were 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 0.9) for the Papanicolaou test and 0.7 (95% CI = 0.5, 0.9) for mammography. CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be paid to screening and preventive services for people with mobility difficulties. Shortened appointment times, physically inaccessible care sites, and inadequate equipment could further compromise preventive care for this population.

Iezzoni LI; McCarthy EP; Davis RB; Siebens H

2000-06-01

363

Vast Educational Mobile Content Broadcasting using ARMrayan Multimedia Mobile CMS  

CERN Document Server

The huge information flow currently available to young generation makes it difficult for educational centers to train them as needed. Most of these information flows occur in transportation time or while on public areas. Competing with commercial information streams is far out of educational centers time and budget. For creating enough mobile applications for vast educational mobile content broadcasting that can match young spirits as well, we designed and developed the ARMrayan Multimedia Mobile CMS as the software that helps communities, educational, cultural or marketing centers in a way that ordinary operators be able to create a variety of fully functional multimedia mobile applications such as tutorials, catalogues, books, and guides in minutes without writing even a line of code. In this paper, we present the role of our developed software in our proposed vast educational content broadcasting system using kiosks and Bluetooth advertising, which will lead to a great leap in M-commerce marketing and publ...

Fatahi, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zahra Forootan

2010-01-01

364

Measurement of mobile antenna systems  

CERN Document Server

If you're involved with the design, installation or maintenance of mobile antenna systems, this thoroughly revised and updated edition of a classic Artech book offers you the most current and comprehensive coverage of all the mandatory measurement techniques you need for your work in the field. This Second Edition presents critical new material in key areas, including radiation efficiency measurement, mobile phone usage position, and MIMO (multiple-input/multiple-output) antennas.This unique resource provides in-depth examinations of all relevant mobile antenna measurement theories, along with

Arai, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

365

Rural medicine via mobile network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed a handheld Tele-ECG system for providing optimum cardiac care and a Mobile Network Based Telemedicine (MNBT) utility for providing telemedicine services to isolated rural population. The handheld Tele-ECG acquires, saves and transfers the electrocardiographic signal to the expert's mobile for his advice in dealing with cardiac emergencies. Similarly, MNBT utility transfers the medical images and relevant patient data from a PC based instrument to a mobile phone for further transmission to an expert for his advice. This paper summarizes these developments. (author)

2009-01-01

366

Mobile Web Design for Dummies  

CERN Multimedia

The perfect place to learn how to design Web sites for mobile devices!. With the popularity of Internet access via cell phones and other mobile devices, Web designers now have to consider as many as eight operating systems, several browsers, and a slew of new devices as they plan a new site, a new interface, or a new sub-site. This easy-to-follow friendly book guides you through this brave new world with a clear look at the fundamentals and offers practical techniques and tricks you may not have considered.: Explores all issues to consider in planning a mobile site; Covers the tools needed for

Warner, Janine

2010-01-01

367

Sustainable Mobility: Concerns from Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning.

Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

368

Life cycle of mobile devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article is devoted features of life cycle of mobile devices. The article highlighted a number of disadvantages associated with managing the life cycle of the product. Disadvantages include the orientation is not on the quality of mobile devices and their design, the obsolescence of digital products. The article drew attention to the need for process improvement life cycle management of mobile devices. For since this type of product is now the most popular among the population, consumers are interested, first of all, quality, and only then, look good.

G.? Peresadko; S.I. Naumenko; T.V. Rohal

2011-01-01

369

Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Companies are not going to invest into the development ofinnovative applications or services unless these can be charged forappropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobilepayment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobilecommerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs,security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedurecan be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, electroniccommerce, stationary merchant and customer-to-customer. Current paymentprocedures can be categorized with strategic , participation and operationalcriteria, using the morphological method. The proposed scheme allows tounambiguously identify and characterize any given mobile payment procedure.

Nina Kreyer; Key Pousttchi

370

Sustainable Mobility : Concerns from Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning.

Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

371

Comparing Architectures of Mobile Applications  

CERN Document Server

This article describes various advantages and disadvantages of SMS, WAP, J2ME and Windows CE technologies in designing mobile applications. In defining the architecture of any software application it is important to get the best trade-off between platform's possibilities and design requirements. Achieving optimum software design is even more important with mobile applications where all computer resources are limited. Therefore, it is important to have a comparative analysis of all relevant contemporary approaches in designing mobile applications. As always, the choice between these technologies is determined by application requirements and system capabilities.

Fertalj, K; Fertalj, Kresimir; Horvat, Marko

2007-01-01

372

Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils). The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that mobile Ni content in the investigated soils varies within a wide range, from 5.0 to 251.3 mg/kg that it is very seldom (only in 3% of the investigated samples) within the range from 5 to 7 mg/kg, that in over 90% of the 100 investigated samples it is higher than 10 mg/kg, and in almost 3/5 of the samples it is higher than 20 mg/kg. Calcareous black soils of Rajac massif have much higher mobile Ni content than previously investigated black soils from calcareous massif of Rtanj, which is, by all means, only partly due to their more severe dealkalization and acidification. In addition, here is undoubtedly apparent the influence of the geological substrate, i.e. of serpentine rocks that border the calcareous massif of Rajac.

?or?evi? Aleksandar R.

2002-01-01

373

Black market exchange rates and capital mobility in Asian economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines whether foreign exchange black markets have eroded the effectiveness of capital controls and contributed to an increase in the effective degree of capital mobility in a sample of Asian countries. Comparing the uncovered interest parity forecast errors between the official and bla...

Wong, CYP

374

Mobile station for monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present different types of mobile stations for ecological monitoring of the environment has been created at various environmental protection agencies. Mostly, such stations differ from each other by the set of equipment employed though they use, as a rule, the same measurement and sampling techniques. Basically, such mobile stations use sampling of air, water, and soil. The collected samples are then analyzed with the laboratory instrumentation. The mobile station we are going to discuss in this paper presents a new type of such systems. The matter is that it enables, in addition to traditional sampling, remote determination of the composition and intensity of the emissions at the mouth of a stack. To do this the station is equipped with a Raman lidar. This station has been tested in a number of field experiments at the territories of different plants and now it is presented for meteorological certification at the Scientific and Production Association {open_quotes}Dal`standart{close_quotes} in Khabarovsk. Thus, the mobile station discussed is capable of monitoring air quality near the ground surface using standard techniques of analysis and of performing air quality police functions, that is to control the emissions from industrial enterprises.

Arshinov, Yu.F.; Belan, B.D.; Bobrovnikov, S.M. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-12-31

375

Novel RBPF for Mobile Robot SLAM Using Stereo Vision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the novel RBPF for mobile robot SLAM using stereovision to extract landmark information. The particle filter is combined with Gaussian Mixture Unscented Particle Filters (GMUPF) to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation that dras...

Zesu Cai; Jian Cao; Lining Sun; Maohai Li

376

Differential mobility in plasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Theoretical considerations about the technique based on differential plasma mobility are made for the analysis of trace amounts of chemical products. The mechanisms for the formation of reagent-ion, reaction between ion and molecule, separation of ions and molecules and production of plasmogram, are explained. Despite being a very modern technique and the equipment has not yet been put in the market, it is already confirmed that the structural sensitivity of the fluctuation time in DPM is greater than the retention time in chromatographic techniques. (CLB)[pt] Sao feitas consideracoes teoricas a tecnica de mobilidade diferencial em plasma para analise de tracos de varios produtos quimicos. Explica-se os mecanismos de formacao do ion reagente, da reacao ion-molecula, da separacao de ions-moleculas e da producao do plasmo-grama. Apesar de ser uma tecnica bem recente e nao ter sido ainda lancado o equipamento no mercado, ja esta comprovado que a sensitividade estrutural do tempo de flutuacao em MDP e maior que a do tempo de retencao em tecnicas cromatograficas. (CLB)

1983-01-01

377

Bacterial mobilization of polonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Polonium has been observed as the sole ?-emitting nuclide in groundwaters of central Florida, in the absence of its radiogenic parents, at levels of 1,000 dpm/1 or more. Because of the chemical similarity of Po to S (both occupy the same column in the periodic table), studies were begun to determine whether bacteria, particularly those species active in sulfur cycling, could account for the selective solubilization and mobilization of Po. Possible sources of Po are the U-rich phosphate rock and phosphogypsum (gypsum), a byproduct in the manufacture of phosphoric acid. This paper reports on a series of experiments involving the interaction of bacteria with this waste gypsum that resulted in the solubilization of Po. Bacteria were isolated from gypsum that were capable of mediating Po release in column experiments of Po. Bacteria were isolated from gypsum that were capable of mediating Po release in column experiments when fed a growth medium. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were particularly effective at mediating Po release provided the sulfide levels did not rise above 10 ?M, in which case Po was apparently coprecipitated as a metal sulfide. Conversely, the ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to effectively remove dissolved Po when sulfide levels are high suggests that these bacteria may be used as an effective bioremediation tool at reducing groundwater Po levels. 22 refs., 10 figs

1996-01-01

378

Mobiles ortsbezogenes Projektmanagement  

CERN Document Server

Classic project management and its tools usually deal with the management of three variables, and their relationships with each other. These are the factors of time, resources (cost) and quality. If one of the variables is to be improved, it always has negative effects on the other two. However, these factors only partially describe the reality of project management. What current project management tools often only consider implicitly is the location of an activity. In this paper, the implications of using location data for project management are clarified and a system that offers mobile support in planning and implementing projects. ----- Klassisches Projektmanagement und seine Werkzeuge befassen sich meist mit der Verwaltung dreier Gr\\"o{\\ss}en und ihrer Zusammenh\\"ange untereinander. Dabei handelt es sich um die Faktoren Zeit, Ressourcen (Kosten) und Qualit\\"at. Falls eine der Gr\\"o{\\ss}en verbessert werden soll, hat dies immer negative Auswirkungen auf die anderen beiden Gr\\"o{\\ss}en. Diese Gr\\"o{\\ss}en b...

Schneider, Patrick; Zibuschka, Jan

2010-01-01

379

Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

1993-09-01

380

Aerosol mobility size spectrometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2007-11-20

 
 
 
 
381

The Negative Effects of Student Mobility: Mobility as a Predictor, Mobility as a Mediator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Policy discussions on how to improve educational outcomes have traditionally focused on schools and teachers. While schools and teachers have measurable effects on educational outcomes, reforms aimed at only improving schools and teachers have failed to eliminate persistent achievement gaps. Thus, some scholars have argued for a broader, bolder approach to education. These scholars have investigated the effect of nonschool factors, such as health and early childhood care, on educational outcomes. The present study is intended to add to this growing body of literature. Two analyses that were conducted to examine the effect of student mobility on achievement are discussed. The first uses a multi-level analysis to investigate the relationship between student mobility and reading achievement of students. The second analysis uses aggregate school-level data to investigate if student mobility mediates the relationship between a school's socioeconomic status and its academic achievement levels. The results suggest that student mobility is indeed a predictor of academic struggles—at the individual student level as well as the school level—and should be included in the increasing number of conversations aimed at changing social policies to improve student outcomes.??Scherrer, J. (2013). The Negative Effects of Student Mobility: Mobility as a Predictor, Mobility as a Mediator. International Journal of Education Policy & Leadership 8 (1). Retrieved from www.ijepl.org.

Jimmy Scherrer

2013-01-01

382

The Coevolution of Mobile OS User Market and Mobile Application Developer Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile computing is becoming increasingly popular. Accordingly, mobile OS (operating systems) arebecoming standard platforms for regular computer and phone users. This paper studies the evolution and the currentstatus of mobile OS user market and mobile application developer community. In particular, we study howsmartphone mobile OS user market coevolves with its application developer community. Through this study, wehighlight the symbiosis relations between mobile OS user market and mobile apps developer community.

Liguo Yu

2013-01-01

383

Strategic Marketing Planning For Mobile  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recognizing the need for consumer behaviour research initiatives in business-to-consumer mobilecommerce (m-commerce), this paper investigates consumer attitudes and behaviours in this fastevolving business landscape. An online consumer survey was conducted in Finland, Germany andGreece and a major classification between "mobile users" and "mobile shoppers" was attempted,using as a tool the consumer adoption and diffusion of innovation theory. Mobile shoppers arecharacterized as "innovators" and mobile users as "early adopters ". Significant differences betweenthese groups from the same country and between different countries were observed regarding theimportance they attach to security, ease of use interface, customer service, price, and comfort ofdevice. Correspondingly, m-commerce service providers should design their strategic marketingplanning by adapting their marketing mix elements to the specific requirements of each target markettowards supporting m-commerce diffusion and consumer adoption in Europe.

Adam P. Ioanna; D. Ioannis; Vrechopoulos Constantiou Sideris

384

Mobile ATM Buffer Capacity Analysis  

CERN Document Server

This paper extends a stochastic theory for buffer fill distribution for multiple ``on'' and ``off'' sources to a mobile environment. Queue fill distribution is described by a set of differential equations assuming sources alternate asynchronously between exponentially distributed periods in ``on'' and ``off'' states. This paper includes the probabilities that mobile sources have links to a given queue. The sources represent mobile user nodes, and the queue represents the capacity of a switch. This paper presents a method of analysis which uses mobile parameters such as speed, call rates per unit area, cell area, and call duration and determines queue fill distribution at the ATM cell level. The analytic results are compared with simulation results.

Bush, S F; Evans, J B; Frost, V S; Bush, Stephen F.; Jagannath, Sunil; Evans, Joseph B.; Frost, Victor

1996-01-01

385

Cyber Threats to Mobile Phones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smartphones, or mobile phones with advanced capabilities like those of personal computers (PCs), are appearing in more peoples pockets, purses, and briefcases. Smartphones popularity and relatively lax security have made them attractive targets for attack...

J. Foote P. Ruggiero

2011-01-01

386

Reciprocity of mobile phone calls  

CERN Multimedia

We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of a single mobile phone operator. It turns out that lopsided relations are indeed quite common, to the extent that the variation cannot be explained by simple random deviations or by variations in personal activity. We also show that there is no non-trivial correlation between reciprocity and local network density.

Kovanen, Lauri; Kaski, Kimmo

2010-01-01

387

Bystander responses and xenophobic mobilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Students of social movements have long struggled with the question how relatively abstract political opportunities, such as elite divisions, affect unorganized activists without much knowledge of politics. We argue that the relationship between institutional opportunities and decisions to mobilize m...

Braun, Robert; Koopmans, Ruud

388

MOBILE GOVERNMENT: AN EMERGING DIRECTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new developments in ICT along with the growth of mobile communication have developed new ways of interaction between the governments and the citizens. More and more governments are using information and communication technology especially Internet or web-based network, to pro-vide services between government agencies and citizens, businesses, employees and other nongovernmental agencies.The paper try to present an introduction on the characteristics of mobile government and some major issues that justify the necessity of the mobile government and identify the potential that it pos-sesses, but also the problems that concerns such an activity (trust, security risks, privacy risks).Adoption of mobile technologies by government organizations not only benefits the parties who use these services, but also has a positive impact in the productivity and costs of these organizations.

Mircea GEORGESCU

2010-01-01

389

Mobility management – o projeto Momentum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nesse texto o autor apresenta o projeto MOMENTUM (Mobility Management for the Urban Environment) financiado pela União Européia dentro do Programa de Pesquisa e desenvolvimento IV Framework.

Paulo Câmara

2010-01-01

390

Visual Interfaces for Mobile Handhelds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile handhelds become smaller and more handy which leads to new challenges in humancomputer interaction. This effects in particular the design of the visual interface. New paradigmsmust be developed, especially due to the limited display size and computing power.

Bernd Karstens; Ren Rosenbaum; Heidrun Schumann

391

Early Mobilization after Acute Stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatment in stroke units reduces mortality and disability compared with treatment in general medical wards. Early mobilization is considered one element of stroke unit care contributing to this benefit. There are uncertainties regarding the effect of this approach on different groups of acute stroke patients. In this study, we compared the proportions of patients having a modified Rankin Scale score ?2 assessed 3 months poststroke in patients mobilized within 24 hours versus between 24 to 48 hours of hospitalization, and explored whether other factors were associated with good outcome. METHODS: Patients hospitalized within 24 hours of stroke onset were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. They were assigned to 2 groups; 1 that was mobilized within 24 hours of admittance and 1 that was mobilized 24 to 48 hours after admittance. Binary logistic regression was performed to analyze predictors of good outcome, with stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables in the multivariate model. Candidate variables were mobilization within 24 hours of admittance, age, sex, stroke risk factors, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admittance. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were mobilized within 24 hours of hospitalization and 25 between 24 and 48 hours. The median times to first mobilization were 7.5 hours (interquartile range 2.5-16.3) and 30.0 hours (interquartile range 25.5-38.0), respectively. Fifty-five percent of patients had a good outcome. None of the candidate variables had a significant association with good outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neither time to mobilization nor any other candidate variable was associated with good outcome 3 months poststroke.

Sundseth A; Thommessen B; Rønning OM

2013-05-01

392

Trustworthy execution on mobile devices  

CERN Document Server

This brief considers the various stakeholders in today's mobile device ecosystem, and analyzes why widely-deployed hardware security primitives on mobile device platforms are inaccessible to application developers and end-users. Existing proposals are also evaluated for leveraging such primitives, and proves that they can indeed strengthen the security properties available to applications and users, without reducing the properties currently enjoyed by OEMs and network carriers. Finally, this brief makes recommendations for future research that may yield practical and deployable results.

Vasudevan, Amit; Newsome, James

2013-01-01

393

Monitoring mobile roof supports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Researchers from the US Bureau of Mines conducted a field study to assess the safety of remotely controlled mobile roof supports (MRS) in a retreat pillar mining operation. Data were collected to provide the mine Health and Safety Administration with criteria needed to develop guidelines for MRS use and to determine if precursors could be identified that would alert miners to imminent roof falls. Two test sites at which two different support methods--MRS`s and posts--were used and were monitored to obtain information on entry stability. Pressure transducers and string pots were installed on all four MRS`s to obtain loading and displacement information, and rood bolt load cells, sonic probes, extensometers, and survey targets were installed in the surrounding entries to obtain information on ground behavior. Results showed a larger increase in roof bolt loading and roof moment when MRS`s were used, especially in the intersection area. Roof bolt loads in the entries showed decreases in load when the MRS`s were set and increases up to 11.1 kN (2,500 lbf) when the MRS`s were unloaded. Unloading of one MRS in a pair did not significantly increase load on the other. MORS`s 1 and 2 usually had the higher loads, with these loads increasing as the pillars on each side were being mined. MRS 3 normally had lower loads than 1 and 2; however, it also experienced some very high loads when in the last position near the pushout. MRS 4 usually had the lowest loads, primarily because it was located near the solid pillar that was not being mined.

Hay, K.E.; Signer, S.P.; King, M.E. [Bureau of Mines, Spokane, WA (United States). Spokane Research Center

1995-11-01

394

Mobile phones. precautionary options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mobile phones have been in use for over two decades and are ubiquitous in the western world for at least ten years. There has been scientific interest and public concern about the possibility of adverse health effects from this relatively new use of non-ionising electromagnetic energy both at the level of the handset and the base station. The proliferation of base transmitter stations in the early 1990's caused a resurgence of interest in the possible health effects of low level RF in general and several significant studies investigated the issue generally using broadcast transmitters as a more predictable source of exposure. Handsets, although of much lower power are closely coupled to the users body and deserve special attention, which they have received. From this research, a high level of assurance of safety has emerged and this is reflected in secure international exposure standards allowing more or less unrestricted use of the technology from a public health point of view. Nonetheless, some research remains unsettled, the science is incomplete in some areas and in the minds of some the unknown provides an uncomfortable level of risk. This debate is unlikely to see an early resolution and so precautionary approaches are increasingly supported. There are a wide range of actions, which have been regarded as precautionary, but ultimately minimisation of public exposure is likely to be the only strategy which could provide a benefit if any risk is later found. There are practical ways of achieving this, but not all proposed strategies seem to recognise them.

Black DR

2006-03-01

395

Mobile phones and health concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

2003-01-01

396

Exploring mobile learning success factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a comparative account and analysis of three mobile Web 2.0 projects instigated within a tertiary learning environment during 2008. Following the successful instigation of a mobile Web 2.0 project in the third year of a Bachelor of Product Design course during semester one, similar projects were initiated in semester two within the first-year and second-year Bachelor of Product Design courses. A common methodology for supporting and facilitating mobile Web 2.0 projects was used for all three projects. The projects were designed to explore the potential of mobile Web 2.0 tools to enhance both the formal and informal teaching and learning environments with a focus upon mobile blogging (moblogging). A comparison of student and teaching staff feedback from each of the three projects provided a basis for identifying and illustrating critical success factors within similar m-learning scenarios. Critical success factors identified include: the importance of the pedagogical integration of the technology into the course assessment, lecturer modelling of the pedagogical use of the tools, the need for regular formative feedback from lecturers to students, and the appropriate choice of mobile devices and software to support the pedagogical model underlying the course.

Thomas D. Cochrane

2010-01-01

397

Physical mobility limitations in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mobility limitations increase with age in the general population. Despite a growing population of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), mobility is rarely studied in the ID literature. The specific aim of this study was to identify and summarise primary literature investigating mobility limitations in adults with ID. METHODS: This study was a systematic review of the epidemiological literature (incidence and prevalence) of mobility limitations among adults with ID. Four electronic databases were searched from January 1980 to May 2007 for publications according to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Additional sources were consulted. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the included articles. RESULTS: Thirty-two publications representing 31 studies were ultimately included. In general, studies did not focus on mobility but were conducted for other purposes. All studies were conducted in industrialised countries. Only one study used a longitudinal design; the remainders were cross-sectional. Few investigators reported on the representativeness of the sample or the validity of the measurement tool. Study samples differed substantially and investigators used numerous definitions of mobility limiting comparability between studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for increased research on mobility limitations among adults with ID, particularly longitudinal research. Researchers investigating mobility limitations should use validated measurement tools and offer detailed descriptions of the study sample and how it compares with an identifiable population.

Cleaver S; Hunter D; Ouellette-Kuntz H

2009-02-01

398

Mobile Phone Programming : Piano Player Game  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, a mobile phone is playing an increasingly essential role in human life. With the development of the high technology and mobile phone industry, mobile phones can be used as computers and for simulating sorts of devices mostly. So entertainment is a promising market in the mobile phone techn...

Wang, Zi

399

Mobile Systems Development: An Empirical Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of an ongoing study on mobile systems development (MSD), this paper presents preliminary findings of research-in-progress. The debate on mobility in research has so far been dominated by mobile HCI, technological innovations, and socio-technical issues related to new and emerging mobile work...

Hosbond, J. H.

400

Tracking of Mobile Devices Through Bluetooth Contacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate if it is possible to reconstruct a mobile phone’s mobility using its Bluetooth contacts with other mobile devices, some of which are equipped with GPS receivers. Our data mining analysis, based on two different data sets, shows that in certain environments coarse grained mobility of a...

Ristanovic, Nikodin; Tran, Dang Khoa; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

 
 
 
 
401

Mobile IP and protocol authentication extension  

CERN Document Server

Mobile IP is an open standard, defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 3220. By using Mobile IP, you can keep the same IP address, stay connected, and maintain ongoing applications while roaming between IP networks. Mobile IP is scalable for the Internet because it is based on IP - any media that can support IP can support Mobile IP.

Nguyen, Phuc V

2011-01-01

402

Mobile social networking in theory and practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile social networks have gained the attention of the media, academy and mobile market. Despite of the robust tradition of network and community studies, mobile social networks are often addressed improperly. This paper presents a theoretical framework to study mobile social networking and examine...

Giuseppe Lugano; University of Jyväskylä

403

3D Mobile Game Engine Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid development of mobile games, more rich and colorful mobile games are demanded. While during the development of mobile games, a good mobile game engine is a key technology, since it can integrate some important functions in a framework. In my thesis, the objective is to design the fram...

Liu, Danyang

404

An Empirical Assessment of Service Quality of Cellular Mobile Telephone Operators in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:  The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensions of users’ perceived service quality of cellular mobile telephone operators in Pakistan.Research design / methodology: A structured questionnaire, covering SERVQUAL dimensions of tangible, reliability, assurance, empathy, responsiveness, and additional dimensions of network quality and convenience, was used to measure mobile phone users’ perception about service quality. Convenience sample of 800 mobile phone users was used to collect the data. Confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis were conducted.Finding: The adapted SERVQUAL with additional dimensions was found to be a valid instrument to measure service quality in mobile phone services. The dimensions of tangible, assurance, responsiveness, empathy, convenience, and network quality found to have positive and statistically significant relationship with mobile phone users’ perceived service quality. Convenience and network quality dimensions found to be relatively most important dimensions affecting users’ perception. The dimension of reliability did not reflect significant effect on customers’ perception of quality.Research limitations/implications: Convenience sample was used to measure mobile phone users’ perception of service quality. Practical implications: SERVQUAL is a valid instrument to measure service quality in cellular mobile telephone operators in Pakistan. Inclusion of additional dimensions and items make it more comprehensive for application in telecommunication services. The dimensions of network quality, convenience, and reliability are important aspects that need managerial attention to attract and retain customers. The regulators in telecommunication industry should take appropriate measure to include these dimensions in undertaking objective assessment of quality of service of cellular mobile telephone operators in Pakistan in safeguarding customers’ interest.Originality/value:  Few studies on cellular mobile phone users’ perception of service quality using SERVQUAL, and additional dimensions of convenience and network quality has been carried out in Pakistan. The current study has improved the understanding of mobile phone users’ perception of quality for mobile phone operators, and regulators, beside its practical implications for telecommunication industry in Pakistan. Key Words: Customer service quality, SERVQUAL, Mobile communication service, Pakistan

Muhammad Asif Khan

2010-01-01

405

An Investigation about obstacles of Mobile Commerce in Iran (A case study in Saravan City)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is an investigation about obstacles and challenges in development of mobile commerce in Iran. To notice the present infrastructure and the ratio of high influence of mobile commerce and its availability and being at the hand of common people as one of main tools in mobile commerce, in the world as well as in Iran, people have tendency and are going for mobile commerce and it is also attracting general attentions of people. In this paper it investigate the unique benefits of mobile commerce using a descriptive field survey to access barriers and obstacles which are facing to the development of mobile commerce. Samples and statistical research population are teachers in Saravan city of Sistan and Baluchestan in south of Iran which are using mobile phone for paying light and water bills or doing business and financial transactions. The samples were choosing among 300 of so-call teachers which selected in order random tools of data collection was questionnaire which collected after 15 days. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. The result of this analysis is showing that information technology, in the development of mobile commerce is facing many problems and challenges such as: the limitation in extension of internet band, inappropriate user accepted connector mobile equipments, none existence of using mobile commerce culture in trade, lack of the security feeling for users technical equipment limitations and also mobile network stability. And scale of importance of each one from the view of users is different. At the end to overcome these problems and barriers and to accelerate the development of mobile commerce which is the requirement of the modern life, with the results based on and come out from the present paper some strategies are going to be shown.

Baqer Kord; Dawood Karimzadegan; Mehrab Omara

2012-01-01

406

[Cyberbullying: adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized.

Buelga S; Cava MJ; Musitu G

2010-11-01

407

[Cyberbullying: adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized. PMID:21044514

Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo

2010-11-01

408

Power Estimation in Mobile Communication Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:????; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Accurate power estimation has an important role for power control and handoff decisions in mobile communications. Window based weighed sample average power estimators are commonly used due to their simplicity. In practice, the performances of these estimators degrade severely when the estimators are used in the presence of correlated samples. In this paper performances of the three local mean power estimators namely, sample average, optimum unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators, are analysed in the presence of correlated samples. The variance of the estimators is used as performance measures. Finally, the simulation results show that the performances of the optimum unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators are very good as compared to the performance of the sample average estimator.

Lenin Gopal; Ashutosh Kumar Singh; Veeramani Shanmugam

2009-01-01

409

Mobile Enterprise Resource Planning: New Technology Horizons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile ERP is not per se something new or even special. It is an issue growing to become more and more important and enabling mobility due to the technological revolution and more so due to the mobile users. Mobility is about how businesses can provide a better infrastructure through mobile applications and services. While ERP was an important step taken by many firms, provision of services through mobile technologies is now inevitable. Together with other trends that are changing the enterprise applications landscape, ERP systems have to support the mobile behavior of their users. The paper explores the mobile applications landscape and proposes an architecture model for the mobile services starting from the necessary functionalities for a portal of mobile services. Besides the general architecture of the portal, a set of minimal functionalities for implementation is proposed in order to ensure the promotion and use of services.

Octavian Dospinescu; Doina Fotache; Bogdanel Adrian Munteanu; Luminita Hurbean

2008-01-01

410

Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

2011-06-01

411

Thiosulfate leaching of gold from waste mobile phones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present communication deals with the leaching of gold from the printed circuit boards (PCBs) of waste mobile phones using an effective and less hazardous system, i.e., a copper-ammonia-thiosulfate solution, as an alternative to the conventional and toxic cyanide leaching of gold. The influence of thiosulfate, ammonia and copper sulfate concentrations on the leaching of gold from PCBs of waste mobile phones was investigated. Gold extraction was found to be enhanced with solutions containing 15-20 mM cupric, 0.1-0.14 M thiosulfate, and 0.2-0.3 M ammonia. Similar trends were obtained for the leaching of gold from two different types of scraps and PCBs of waste mobile phones. From the scrap samples, 98% of the gold was leached out using a solution containing 20 mM copper, 0.12 M thiosulfate and 0.2 M ammonia. Similarly, the leaching of gold from the PCBs samples was also found to be good, but it was lower than that of scrap samples in similar experimental conditions. In this case, only 90% of the gold was leached, even with a contact time of 10h. The obtained data will be useful for the development of processes for the recycling of gold from waste mobile phones.

Ha VH; Lee JC; Jeong J; Hai HT; Jha MK

2010-06-01

412

Mobile Phone Usage for M-Learning: Comparing Heavy and Light Mobile Phone Users  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: Mobile technologies offer the opportunity to embed learning in a natural environment. The objective of the study is to examine how the usage of mobile phones for m-learning differs between heavy and light mobile phone users. Heavy mobile phone users are hypothesized to have access to/subscribe to one type of mobile content than light…

Suki, Norbayah Mohd; Suki, Norazah Mohd

2007-01-01

413

Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area of Aek Simamak Sibolga North Sumatera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area Aek Simamak Sobolga North-Sumatera. The analysis of mobile uranium on 76 stream sediment, 38 water and 40 vegetation samples have been done. The dispersion of mobile uranium on stream sediment and vegetation has reflected the rather significant uranium occurrences. The analysis of Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, PH and Eh in water samples have been done too. A good correlation was found between uranium and Na+ and HCO3- with a correlation coefficient of 0,37. (author). 8 figs.; 10 refs.

1988-01-01

414

Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area of aek simamak Sibolga North-Sumatra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area of aek simamak sibolga North-Sumatra. The analysis of mobile uranium on 76 stream sediments, 38 water and 40 vegetation samples have been done. The dispersion of mobile uranium on stream sediment and vegetation has reflected the rather significant uranium occurrences. The analysis of Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO2/3-, pH and Eh in water samples have been done too. A good correlation was found between uranium and Na+ and HCO3- with a correlation coefficient of 0,37. (author). 8 refs.; 8 figs.

1988-01-01

415

Evaluating change in mobility in people with multiple sclerosis: relative responsiveness of four clinical measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Determining responsiveness of measures across different samples and settings is important for selecting measures of mobility and understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) study results. Currently such information is limited. METHODS: This exploratory study examined the relative responsiveness of four mobility measures (walking velocity, 6-minute walk distance, Rivermead Mobility Index and MS Walking Scale) in a community sample (n = 70), after three annual assessments. Distribution based estimates and anchor-based methods (comparison against transition questions) determined responsiveness. A head-to-head comparison was made. RESULTS: While variations in individuals occurred, the group mean change scores for all measures was small, suggesting that there was minimal deterioration in the total sample. Consistent with this, total sample Effect Size (ES) was negligible to small (ES -0.32 to +0.03) for all measures. Differentiation between sub-groups, defined by the participants' perception of change in mobility over the past year (transition questions), showed that some instruments could detect clinically significant changes (small sample sizes limited this interpretation). Correlation analyses between change scores demonstrated that these measures captured related, but different information (r < 0.364). CONCLUSIONS: The measures were broadly comparable in detecting mobility changes in this community sample. These correlations highlight that in selection of measures, one should also consider the discrete mobility dimension that the intervention intends to impact.

Freeman J; Walters R; Ingram W; Slade A; Hobart J; Zajicek J

2013-03-01

416

Mobile Discussion Boards: An Analysis on Mobile Collaboration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile technology offers learning institutes theopportunity to extend e-learning opportunities and enablestudents the opportunity to have more control over theirlearning. Mobile technology truly enables learning to takeplace were and when the learner wants to learn. Discussionboards are typically used in teaching to enable students tocollaborate and interact outside class time. These discussionboards seem particularly well suited to mobileenhancements given that their effectiveness depends heavilyon active participation and timely posting/response cycles.This research assessed the effectiveness of discussion forumsand how well these forums performed when viewed on fourdifferent mobile devices. The research focuses on how thedevice influences the interaction with the discussion board.The results of this analysis will help determine how differentdevices support users interacting with a discussion board.

Kathryn Mac Callum; Kinshuk

2008-01-01

417

LIMITED SPEECH RECOGNITION FOR CONTROLLING MOVEMENT OF MOBILE ROBOT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mobile robot is controlled by using speech signal. The input speech signal is given through micro phone. Speech extractor is used to convert the given speech signal to word signal. The extracted word signal is recognized by using the speech recognizer. The word signal generates the command. According to the generated command the various operations were performed in the mobile robot like move forward, backward, left and right, clockwise rotate, anticlockwise rotate, open, close, up, down, and stop. The methods used in this research areLinear Predictive Coding(LPC)and Hidden Markow Model(HMM).LPC is used to extract word data from speech signal.HMM is used to recognize the word pattern data, which are extracted from a speech signal .Sampling rate of the speech signal is 8kHz and the speech signal is sampled for 0.5 seconds. In our project each command is sampled for 20 times.

A.Vijayaraj; N.Velmurugan

2010-01-01

418

MPEG streaming over mobile Internet  

Science.gov (United States)

MPEG streaming over Mobile Internet leads to degradation of MPEG video quality. When a handoff of a mobile node (MN) occurs, it is quite difficult to guarantee seamless video quality due to the change of routing path towards the MN. In this paper, we propose a new scheme, MPEG streaming over Concatenation and Optimization for Reservation Path (CORP), to guarantee QoS of MPEG streaming service in the Mobile Internet. When a handoff of a MN occurs, the CORP extends the existing reservation path, which was established using RSVP between a server and a MN, to a new Base Station (BS) that the MN currently connected to, instead of making a new RSVP session between the server and the MN. To demonstrate practicality of the proposed scheme, we built a prototype system which provides the MPEG-1 Video and Audio on demand over Mobile Internet using Mobile IP and IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN. Our experiment shows that the proposed scheme significantly improves the peak signal-to-noise rate (PSNR) of MPEG streaming video. Also, we analyzed the video quality of our scheme with respect to TCP and UDP transport protocols.

Lee, Myungjin; Lee, Kyounghee; Thang, Truong C.; Thanh, Nguyen N.; Kim, MyungChul; Ro, Yong M.; Lee, Jong H.

2002-04-01

419

Üniversite Ö?rencilerinin Mobil Reklamlara Yönelik Tutumlar?n?n ?zinli Pazarlama Ekseninde ?ncelenmesi(Attitudes of University Students’ Towards Mobile Advertising within the Scope of Permission Marketing)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile advertising, which means delivering promotion messages directly to mobile phones with different applications, has been the frequently preferred method by the companies in recent years. The rapid increase in the use of mobile phones in our country has increased the interest in this method even further and the use of mobile phones for marketing purposes has become more common.Within the scope of the survey, the attitudes of students towards mobile advertisements are measured with a field research on 800 students studying at Mersin and Celal Bayar Universities. In addition, it has also been researched if there is a difference between the students’ attitudes of these two universities regarding the related information, entertainment, reliability, personalization and irritation dimensions of mobile advertising or