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1

Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei  

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Full Text Available Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei also known as acne agminata is a rare disease affecting face in adults. Previously, it was thought to be a tuberculid; and its relation with rosacea is undefined. We report a case who had multiple yellowish brown to erythematous small papular lesions and many pitted atrophic scars on the face of 8 months duration. Investigations for tuberculosis were negative. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granuloma.

Gupta Dinesh

1996-01-01

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Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei report of 4 cases  

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Full Text Available Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei is an uncommon disease affecting face. Previously lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei was thought to be a tuberculid; but now it is considered as a granulomatuous variant fo acne rosacea. We report 4 cases; each having lesions on face but in 1 also on body. The cases had erythematous tiny popular lesions of varying chronicity of 4 months to 1 year. Investigations for tuberculosis were negative. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granuloma. All patients responded to Erythromycin; except 1 required Chloroquine.

Sule R

1992-01-01

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Granulomatous rosacea : is it a variant of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei?  

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Full Text Available Granulomatous rosacea, a subtype of rosacea showing non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas is difficult to differentiate form lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei. Although appearently similar, the clinical and pathologic features, and the natural course of both are different. The similarities and differentiation of rosacea from lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei is discussed.

Kaur S

2003-01-01

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Granulomatous rosacea : is it a variant of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei?  

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Full Text Available Granulomatous rosacea, a subtype of rosacea showing non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas is difficult to differentiate form lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei. Although appearently similar, the clinical and pathologic features, and the natural course of both are different. The similarities and differentiation of rosacea from lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei is discussed.

Kaur S

2003-03-01

5

Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis  

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A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

2014-01-01

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Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis.  

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A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

2014-10-01

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Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans.  

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We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the infant during 12 months of follow-up. PMID:23554797

Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

2013-01-01

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Leber's miliary aneurysms.  

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Leber's disease is a form of primary retinal telangiectasia characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. It is an idiopathic, unilateral condition with male predilection. It is not associated with any other systemic or ocular disease. The disease has a very slow progression and can be complicated by vascular dilatations, neovascularizations, thromboses, retrovitreal hemorrhages, and macular changes. We present a case of Leber's miliary aneurysms in an asymptomatic 22-year-old male patient. His fundus examination showed aneurysmal dilatations with lipid exudation. Intravenous fluorescein angiography showed early and late leakage as well as capillary dropout with late hypofluorescence. In this case, the patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:24082673

Alturkistany, Walaa; Waheeb, Saad

2013-05-01

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ACNE Agminata - Report Of 3 Cases  

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Full Text Available Acne agminata or lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disorder-affecting adults of both sexes which terminates spontaneously with scarring. Histopathologically, the papules show granulomas consisting of epithelioif cells, Gaint cells, with or without caseation necrosis along with periappendigeal lymphomononuclear cell infiltrate in the dermis. The exact aetiopathogenesis of this condition is still unknown. We report 3 cases of this uncommon dermatoses recently seen by us.

Punia Raj Pal Singh

2000-01-01

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Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Germany  

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Full Text Available We report the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting facial erythematous circinate and scaling lesions that had slowly developed over the last nine years. The patient was born in Angola but has lived in Germany for the last ten years. A clinical diagnosis of tinea faciei was made and proven by fungal elements in lesional skin. A darkly pigmented dermatophyte with multiple trichophyton macroconidia was grown in the culture medium, which was subsequently identified as Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii. Combined topical and systemic antimycotic treatment resulted in the complete resolution of the lesions. The variant raubitschekii of Trichophyton rubrum is mostly found in Africa, Asia and South America; in Germany only isolated infections have been seen in immigrants from Africa. In comparison to previous observations our case is noteworthy for two reasons: it is the first communication of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Germany and the patient history suggests that the infection was acquired in Germany. Therefore, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii should be monitored as an upcoming pathogen in Europe.

Jochen Brasch

2008-06-01

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67Gallium Scan Findings in Miliary Tuberculosis  

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Miliary Tuberculosis is an illness produced by acute dissemination of tubercle bacilli via the blood stream. In chest roentgenogram, a diffuse 'miliary' infiltrates are usually seen, but normal or suspicious ground glass pattern also can be seen in early manifestation. Ten patients of miliary tuberculosis who underwent whole-body 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy were evaluated retrospectively to study usefulness of Ga-scan for early diagnosis of miliary Tbc and evaluation of disease activity. All of ten patients demonstrated significantly diffuse bilateral pulmonary uptakes on 48 hours image. All of three patients of ground-glass pattern in chest roentgemogram also demonstrated increased uptakes. In the statistical analysis, the severity of chest roentgenographic findings showed positive correlation with the activity on Ga-scan. These results suggest that Gallium scan is useful for diagnosis of early miliary tuberculosis and for evaluation of disease activity on follow-up examination of miliary tuberculosis of lung.

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CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND OUTCOME OF MILIARY TUBERCULOSIS  

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Full Text Available Miliary tuberculosis (TB is due to hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific and protean, depending on the predominant site of involvement.We evaluated the clinical manifestations of 15 patients with miliary TB. The diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis was based on the identification of miliary nodules on chest radiography and one of the three following criteria: 1 positive acid-fast bacilli smear and/or culture (14/15, 2 histopathological identification of TB histopathological granuloma (4/15, or 3 radiological and clinical improvement after anti-tuberculosis treatment (14/15. The median age (±SD of the patients was 52.6±19.1 years. Only one patient had underlying diseases, diabetes mellitus. Three patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, one of whom died during intensive care. ARDS caused by miliary TB is associated with a high fatality rate, scope remains for improvement in its management.

J. Ayatollahi

2004-11-01

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Pediatric tinea faciei in southern Spain: a 30-year survey.  

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Tinea faciei (TF) is a common clinical form of tinea in children that is frequently misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. No large case series of TF focusing on children have been published. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features of TF in children over a period of 30 years and compare these features with those of other tineas. We undertook a retrospective study of 818 cases of tinea in children at a referral hospital in southern Spain, diagnosed between 1977 and 2006, concentrating for this study on TF. Of the 73 cases of TF diagnosed, 50.7% were in girls. Most children (46.6%) were 4 to 9 years old. At the time of diagnosis, 29.2% of the cases had been treated with topical steroids. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was isolated significantly more frequently in TF than in the other tineas. Cases of TF in children were not extremely unusual, emphasizing that TF must be considered in children with inflammatory facial eruptions. This consideration and the more-frequent use of mycologic tests can help achieve the correct diagnosis, when present. PMID:21995701

del Boz, Javier; Crespo, Vicente; de Troya, Magdalena

2012-01-01

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MRI study of cerebral miliary tuberculosis  

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Objective: To study and analyze the MRI manifestation of miliary tuberculosis of the brain. Methods: Twenty-two cases with cerebral miliary tuberculosis of the brain were retrospectively studied with MRI including plain scan and enhanced study with GD-DTPA. MRI features regarding the size, shape and distribution of the lesions were summarized and analyzed. Results: Miliary tuberculosis of the brain was found most frequently at the junctional area of white and gray matter. The diameter of the lesion was less than 3 mm, therefore, plain scan often failed to display the lesions, however, markedly enhanced tubercles could be demonstrated on enhanced scan. Conclusion: Enhanced MRI scan proved to be very helpful in the early detection of miliary tuberculosis of the brain. (authors)

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Tinea faciei and tinea capitis in a 15-day-old infant  

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Full Text Available A case of tinea faciei and tinea capitis in a 15-day-old male infant caused by Trichophyton tonsurans is being reported because of its rarity. This may be the youngest infant from India where source of infection was his elder brother who had black dot type of tinea capitis and incubation period in the present case was 7 days.

Mittal R

1996-01-01

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Frequency and predictors of miliary tuberculosis in patients with miliary pulmonary nodules in South Korea: A retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Miliary pulmonary nodules are commonly caused by various infections and cancers. We sought to identify the relative frequencies of various aetiologies and the clinical and radiographic predictors of miliary tuberculosis (TB in patients with miliary pulmonary nodules. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who presented with micronodules occupying more than two-thirds of the lung volume, based on computed tomography (CT of the chest, between November 2001 and April 2007, in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Results We analyzed 76 patients with miliary pulmonary nodules. Their median age was 52 years and 38 (50% were males; 18 patients (24% had a previous or current malignancy and five (7% had a history of TB. The most common diagnoses of miliary nodules were miliary TB (41 patients, 54% and miliary metastasis of malignancies (20 patients, 26%. Multivariate analysis revealed that age ?30 years, HIV infection, corticosteroid use, bronchogenic spread of lesions, and ground-glass opacities occupying >25% of total lung volume increased the probability of miliary TB. However, a history of malignancy decreased the probability of miliary TB. Conclusion Miliary TB accounted for approximately half of all causes of miliary pulmonary nodules. Young age, an immune-compromised state, and several clinical and radiographic characteristics increased the probability of miliary TB.

Shim Young-Soo

2008-11-01

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Miliary tuberculosis: HRCT findings in 14 patients  

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To evaluate high-resolution CT(HRCT) findings of the miliary tuberculosis and their significance. We retrospectively studied clinical records, HRCT and chest radiographs of 14 patients with miliary tuberculosis. On HRCT, nodules were seen in all 14 cases, 10 of them evenly, and 4 were irregularly distributed. The size of each nodule was less than 1 mm in 7 cases, 1 - 2 mm in 6 cases, and 3 mm or more in 1 case. The ground - glass opacity was accompanied in 8 cases, and fine reticular opacity was also noted in 8 cases. Other associated findings were pleural effusion (n=4), hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=3), consolidation of the exudative tuberculosis (n=4). HRCT findings of miliary tuberculosis are diffusely distributed micro nodules of variable size, less than 5 mm in diameter. The ground-glass opacity can be combined

18

Acute respiratory distress syndrome with miliary tuberculosis.  

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A 71-year-old man was admitted to the hospital complaining of productive cough and weight loss. Physical examination showed fine bilateral basal crackles. Laboratory findings showed elevated liver enzymes. Tuberculin skin test and sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli were negative. On the fifth day of admission, he deteriorated and developed severe respiratory distress. A chest radiograph demonstrated worsening pulmonary infiltrates. He was electively intubated and was put on a mechanical ventilator. The chest CT scan revealed diffuse bilateral pulmonary nodules and airspace disease. Based upon the clinical suspicion of acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with miliary tuberculosis (TB, empiric treatment with antituberculosis and systemic steroids was started. He was extubated after 6 days. The diagnosis of miliary TB was confirmed by a thoracoscopic lung biopsy. He was discharged with a near normal chest radiograph and was followed up as an outpatient.

Hadeel A. Khadawardi

2012-01-01

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Recurrent pneumothorax developing during chemotherapy in a patient with miliary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Despite the fact that miliary tuberculosis is frequently seen, associated pneumothorax developing during antitubercular chemotherapy for miliary tuberculosis is rare. Pneumothorax is potentially life threatening in association with miliary tuberculosis; and its symptoms may be masked by those of miliary tuberculosis, leading to avoidable delay in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Here we describe a 24-year-old female patient developing recurrent pneumothorax while on antitubercular chemotherapy for miliary tuberculosis.

Gupta Prem

2007-01-01

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Teleradiology : detectability of pneumothorax and miliary tuberculosis  

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To evaluate the clinical utility of the teleradiology system using the information super highway communication network. Two radiologists selected 101 cases of pneumothorax and 20 cases of miliary tuberculosis. There were scanned and transmitted to our hospital at a speed of 640 Kbps and displayed on a video monitor with a resolution of 1280 pixels/line x 1024 lines. Four radiologists divided into three groups:read the images group A read the images without image processing;group B read the images with image processing, group C read the radiographic films on the view box. The authors compared sensitivity and specificity between the groups and checked their statistical significance using the Chi-square test. According to the location of the pleural line, we divided the pneumothorax into four types:continve on this live type 1, pleural line confined to the apex;type 2, to the upper half;type 3, to the lower half;type 4, to the upper through lower half. We then compared sensitivity between the Three groups. In the pneumothorax group, the average sensitivity of group A, B and C was 79%, 90% and 96%, and average specificity was 99%, 99% and 94%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in seasitivity between group A and B and between group B and C (p<0.017). There were no statistically significant difference in specificity between group A and B or between group B and C. In the miliary tuberculosis group, the average sensitivity of group A, B and C was erage sensitivity of group A, B and C was 73%, 78%, and 90%, and average specificity was 95%, 95% and 100%, respectively. With regard to sensitivity and specificity, there was no statistically significant difference between group A and B or between group B and C but there was a statistically significant difference between group A and C (p<0.017). According to the location of the pneumothorax, for all types, the sensitivity of group A was less than that of group B and group B was less than that of group C. All groups showed reduced observer performance in the detection of pneumothorax and miliary tuberculosis when reading a transmitted image on the monitor-workstation compared with reading conventional radiographs on the view box. To improve the clinical utility of the teleradiology system, a higher resolution workstation and adequate image processing are required

 
 
 
 
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Misdiagnosed zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.  

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There have been few published reports on the human transmission of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a zoophilic fungus frequently occurring in pets. Here we report on 2 girls, living with a pet dwarf rabbit, who presented with inflammatory skin lesions positive for T. mentagrophytes and subsequently diagnosed as zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis. The patients were successfully treated with systemic terbinafine and 2-week therapy with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. PMID:23574022

Czaika, Viktor A

2013-05-01

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Bilateral Miliary Shadowing on Chest X-ray  

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A patient presented with recent onset of increasing shortness of breath, weight loss and low-grade fever. His chest X-ray revealed bilateral miliary shadowing. He was investigated with CT-scanning of thorax. Later, a biopsy from supra-clavicular node and its immunocytochemistry studies confirmed metastasis from primary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer with miliary pulmonary metastases is a rare happening and is mostly associated with lung adenocarcinoma. (author)

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A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling  

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Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herei...

Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra; Mohammed Ismailkhan; Kuppegala Chikkaveeraiah Shashidhar; Moda Gopalakrishna Narahari

2013-01-01

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Asymptomatic pons tuberculoma in an infant with miliary tuberculosis  

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Miliary tuberculosis is caused by the hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and consists of 1.5% of all tuberculosis cases. It is seen mostly in infants because of the immature immune system, and central nervous system CNS involvement is not rare. Tuberculomas are rarely seen in the localized form of CNS tuberculosis, and only 4% are localized in the brain stem. We report a 4.5-month-old infant who deteriorated during follow-up with the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia, and afterwards received the diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Although the baby had no neurologic abnormality and cerebrospinal fluid findings were normal, cranial MRI revealed contrast enhanced nodular lesions in pons, cerebellum, and right parietal region. The case is presented to intensify the importance of CNS investigation even if the patient with miliary tuberculosis has no neurologic finding. (author)

25

Asymptomatic pons tuberculoma in an infant with miliary tuberculosis.  

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Miliary tuberculosis is caused by the hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and consists of 1.5% of all tuberculosis cases. It is seen mostly in infants because of the immature immune system, and central nervous system CNS involvement is not rare. Tuberculomas are rarely seen in the localized form of CNS tuberculosis, and only 4% are localized in the brain stem. We report a 4.5-month-old infant who deteriorated during follow-up with the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia, and afterwards received the diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Although the baby had no neurologic abnormality and cerebrospinal fluid findings were normal, cranial MRI revealed contrast enhanced nodular lesions in pons, cerebellum, and right parietal region. The case is presented to intensify the importance of CNS investigation even if the patient with miliary tuberculosis has no neurologic finding.

Gulnar Uysal

2005-08-01

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Unexplained Hypercalcemia: Atypical Presentation of (Disseminated) Miliary Tuberculosis  

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Introdution: Miliary tuberculosis may not present with typical chronic respiratory symptoms. Metabolic disturbances like hypercalcemia may be an important clue to its diagnosis. Case Report: We report an unusual case of miliary tuberculosis in a 77-year-old Filipino man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, and nephrolithiasis (status-post left nephrectomy), presenting with a one-month history of fever, generalized weakness, and weight loss. Laboratory data was significant for anemia, hypercalemia, and acute kidney injury. Chest radiograph showed ground glass opacities and interstitial infiltrates. Empiric antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia were initiated, however, fever persisted. Extensive workup was performed to evaluate fever and hypercalcemia. Malignancy, hormonal, and septic workup were all unremarkable. PPD skin test was negative. Sputum, pleural fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and cerebrospinal fluid were AFB smear negative. Remarkably, urine AFB smear was positive. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was initiated which lead to defervescence and clinical improvement. However, his hospital course was complicated by small bowel obstruction and respiratory failure. He subsequently developed loss of cardiac electrical activity and expired. Postmortem autopsy confirmed the presence of tuberculosis in multiple organs including his remaining kidney. Discussion: Diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis can be very challenging especially in patients with an unusual presentation. A high index of suspicion is warranted, and as in our case, miliary tuberculosis should always be one of the differential diagnoses of fever of unknown origin with hypercalcemia. Moreover, workup for renal tuberculosis with urine AFB should be done in high-risk patients with a history of kidney stones.

Bolger, Dennis

2014-01-01

27

Action of ?-radiation on bioluminescence of Noctiluca miliaris  

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Results of the study in the action of various doses of irradiation on the bioluminescence of Noctiluca miliaris are presented. The doses are found that stimulate the bioluminescence and the dose - effect curves are obtained. It has been shown that stimulation of Noctiluca luminescence by ?-radiation is not of a constant character and extinguishes after a period of time determined by a dose rate

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MRI findings of miliary tuberculosis of the brain  

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To evaluate MRI(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) findings of miliary tuberculosis of the brain Six patients with miliary tuberculosis of the brain diagnosed by characteristic clinical or laboratory findings were studied with spin echo MRI before and after contrast enhancement. We retrospectively evaluated MRI findings according to the appearance, distribution, location, and enhancement pattern of the granulomas as well as associated other abnormalities. In six patients, contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain showed numerous punctate, contrast enhancing lesions scattered throughout the brain. Unenhanced MRI failed to demonstrate small granulomas except a few small foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The shapes of enhancing granulomas were homogeneous nodular enhancement in 86% of cases and small ring enhancement in 14%. 98% of granulomas were smaller than 3-mm and 2% were larger. Although several lesions were located in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem, the majority were located in the subpial and subarachnoid space. There was no significant difference in distribution of granulomas between the supratentorial and the infratentorial areas. Other associated abnormalities were focal meningitis in five cases and focal cerebritis in one. On chest radiograph, all patients had miliary tuberculosis in the lungs. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging showed numerous round, very small enhancing lesions scattered throughout the brain. The majority of lesions were located in the subpial and subarachnoid space. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images are helpful in the detection and diagnosis of miliary disseminated tuberculous granulomas and meningitis

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[A case of miliary tuberculosis showing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage].  

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A 43-year-old diabetic man had a productive cough and high fever and was admitted to another hospital. His condition did not improve despite treatment with Cefepime, and he was transferred to our hospital. Chest X-ray films and CT findings showed pulmonary infiltration and diffuse ground-glass opacities in bilateral lung fields, but disseminated nodules were not identified. Since his bronchial lavage fluid (BALF) was bloody, we suspected diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to vasculitis. Steroid pulse therapy was given, and his fever and chest X-ray findings completely improved. However, 1 week later, he again suffered a high fever and bloody sputum, and a chest X-ray film showed granular shadows in bilateral lung fields. He died of respiratory failure on the 18th hospital day despite treatment and mechanical ventilation. An autopsy revealed many necrotizing epithelioid granulomas in both lungs, the liver, the spleen, both kidneys and both adrenal glands. These findings indicated miliary tuberculosis, and a culture of his sputum and BALF finally revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis. Marked alveolar hemorrhage and a hyaline membrane were also found in both lungs, but vasculitis was not recognized in any organ. We report this case, because to the best of our knowledge diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been reported as the primary symptom of miliary tuberculosis. PMID:21842695

Nakamura, Sukeyuki; Kamioka, Eiko; Tokuda, Atsuko; Tabeta, Hiroshi

2011-07-01

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A rare case of non-small cell carcinoma of lung presenting as miliary mottling.  

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Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner's pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:23645961

Jayaram Subhashchandra, Ballaekere; Ismailkhan, Mohammed; Chikkaveeraiah Shashidhar, Kuppegala; Gopalakrishna Narahari, Moda

2013-03-01

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A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling  

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Full Text Available Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma. It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra

2013-03-01

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Magnetic resonance imaging of miliary tuberculosis of the central nervous system in children with tuberculous meningitis  

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Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is closely associated with miliary tuberculosis and a pathogenetic relationship is suspected, although it has been proposed that the two processes are unrelated. To describe miliary tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS) on MRI in children with TBM. A retrospective descriptive study of 32 paediatric TBM patients referred for MRI. The presence of miliary nodules in the CNS was recorded. Lesions were categorized according to their distribution, enhancement pattern, size and signal characteristics. A miliary distribution of nodules was present in 88% of patients. All patients with a miliary distribution had leptomeningeal nodules and 18% of these patients had deep parenchymal nodules in addition. At least one tuberculoma with central T2 hypointensity was identified in 39% of patients. The high prevalence of miliary leptomeningeal nodules in the CNS of children with TBM is significant because it points to a pathogenetic relationship that has long been suspected on epidemiological grounds. Our findings challenge the concept that miliary tuberculosis is only an incidental finding in TBM patients and suggest that it plays an integral part in the pathogenesis. (orig.)

33

Multidrug resistant miliary tuberculosis and Pott's disease in an immunocompetent patient.  

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In a high tuberculosis TB prevalence country, mortality due to miliary TB is not unknown but the treatment outcome in general is good. We describe a previously healthy man with miliary TB who did not respond to 2-months antituberculous therapy with 4 drugs. Persistent complaints of backache, which antedated chest symptoms, resulted in a diagnosis of Pott's disease. Culture of bronchial aspirate yielded multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis that responded slowly to streptomycin, ethionamide, cycloserine, clofazimine, ofloxacin, paraaminosalicylic acid and isoniazid. The association of multidrug resistant miliary TB with Pott's disease in an immunocompetent patient is yet to be highlighted.

Ashok Shah

2004-10-01

34

[Leber's miliary aneurysms associated with vitreomacular traction syndrome: case report].  

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Retinal telangiectasias are idiopathic vascular abnormalities of the retina characterized by irregular dilatation of the retinal vessels, intraretinal and subretinal exudation. The aim of this article is to describe the uncommon association of Leber's miliary aneurysms and vitreomacular traction syndrome in a female patient. The diagnosis was established with angiofluoresceinography and optic coherence tomography. The patient was treated with focal photocoagulation with argon green laser directed to the perimacular aneurysms and pars plana posterior vitrectomy. The visual acuity showed great improvement after a four-month follow-up. The present report supports the importance of optic coherence tomography in cases where the vitreoretinal interface must be evaluated, including vascular pathologies, which allowed us to offer a better treatment to this patient. PMID:18157318

Násser, Luciano Sólia; Almeida, Herbert Paulo de; Zacarias, Leandro Cabral; Abujamra, Suel; Gomes, André Marcelo Vieira

2007-01-01

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Isolated Pulmonary Langerhans-Cell Histiocytosis Mimicking Miliary Tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Isolated involvement of lungs in the course of Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis (LCH is very rare in childhood. Spontaneous pneumothorax (PTX may occur during the course which necessitates rapid intervention. We present a 17 months-old girl who was sent with the pre-diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Despite antituberculosis therapy, her pulmonary function deteriorated. The chest tomography showed a different lung pattern which is suggestive of LCH. The biopsy findings and immunohistochemistry staining supported the diagnosis. She experienced recurrent pneumothorax incidences which were managed by drainage. She responded well to chemotherapy. Although rare, isolated pulmonary LCH should be remembered in differential diagnosis of cystic lung disease in childhood. On time diagnosis, appropriate therapy and rapid intervention for pneumothorax have important impacts on patient prognosis.

Metehan Özen

2009-09-01

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Diagnosis and management of miliary tuberculosis: current state and future perspectives  

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Full Text Available Sayantan Ray, Arunansu Talukdar, Supratip Kundu, Dibbendhu Khanra, Nikhil SonthaliaDepartment of Medicine, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, IndiaAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the most important causes of death from an infectious disease, and it poses formidable challenges to global health at the public health, scientific, and political level. Miliary TB is a potentially fatal form of TB that results from massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. The epidemiology of miliary TB has been altered by the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs. Diagnosis of miliary TB is a challenge that can perplex even the most experienced clinicians. There are nonspecific clinical symptoms, and the chest radiographs do not always reveal classical miliary changes. Atypical presentations like cryptic miliary TB and acute respiratory distress syndrome often lead to delayed diagnosis. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is relatively more sensitive and shows randomly distributed miliary nodules. In extrapulmonary locations, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in discerning the extent of organ involvement by lesions of miliary TB. Recently, positron-emission tomographic CT has been investigated as a promising tool for evaluation of suspected TB. Fundus examination for choroid tubercles, histopathological examination of tissue biopsy specimens, and rapid culture methods for isolation of M. tuberculosis in sputum, body fluids, and other body tissues aid in confirming the diagnosis. Several novel diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active TB disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. A high index of clinical suspicion and early diagnosis and timely institution of antituberculosis treatment can be lifesaving. Response to first-line antituberculosis drugs is good, but drug-induced hepatotoxicity and drug–drug interactions in HIV/TB coinfected patients create significant problems during treatment. Data available from randomized controlled trials are insufficient to define the optimum regimen and duration of treatment in patients with drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant miliary TB, including those with HIV/AIDS, and the role of adjunctive corticosteroid treatment has not been properly studied. Research is going on worldwide in an attempt to provide a more effective vaccine than bacille Calmette–Guérin. This review highlights the epidemiology and clinical manifestation of miliary TB, challenges, recent advances, needs, and opportunities related to TB diagnostics and treatment.Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, diagnostic tests, biomarkers, antituberculosis drugs, vaccine

Ray S

2013-01-01

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Miliary Tuberculosis with Concurrent Brain and Spinal Cord Involvement: A Case Report  

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Central nervous system involvement by tuberculosis is rare, and intramedullary involvement is even more rare. A patient that developed intermittent amnesia during anti-tuberculous therapy underwent brain CT and MRI and spine MRI. The latter showed multiple small enhancing nodules in the brain and spinal cord. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculous medication and steroids under the suspected diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Follow-up CT showed decreased nodule size and number. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in the brain and spinal cord and present a review of the literature related to similar cases

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Muerte por tuberculosis milliar / Death from miliary tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el caso clínico de un anciano, en estado senil y desnutrido, quien presentaba síndrome febril prolongado, por lo que fue ingresado en el Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" de Santiago de Cuba, pero al efectuar los exámenes complementarios no se obtuvo un d [...] iagnóstico definitivo. Posteriormente tuvo descompensación cardiovascular y fue trasladado a la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, donde se le realizó urgentemente una radiografía de tórax, la cual mostró lesiones características de tuberculosis milliar. En consecuencia, se interconsultó con especialistas de neumología y se decidió iniciar el tratamiento con drogas antituberculosas; sin embargo, el paciente falleció un día después de comenzada la terapia. La necropsia mostró una granulomatosis crónica inespecífica, cuyo resultado solo se confirmó 2 meses más tarde, cuando el cultivo de las secreciones bronquiales fue positivo (codificación 7) de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Abstract in english A case report of an elderly man in senile and malnourished state was described, who had prolonged febrile syndrome and was admitted to «Dr "Ambrosio Grillo Portuondo" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital of Santiago de Cuba, but a definitive diagnosis could not be obtained with complementary test [...] s. Later he had cardiovascular decompensation and was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, where he underwent an emergent chest radiograph, which showed characteristic lesions of miliary tuberculosis. Consequently, pulmonary specialists were consulted and it was decided to start treatment with antitubercular drugs; however, the patient died a day after the beginning of therapy. The autopsy showed a nonspecific chronic granulomatosis, which results were only confirmed 2 months later, when the culture of bronchial secretions was positive (coding 7) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Haidee, Marrero Rodríguez.

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Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

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Full Text Available Background: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation.

Anthony Al-Khan

2002-01-01

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Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

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A 33 year old man with AIDS presented with fever, dyspnoea, cough and a miliary pattern on the chest radiograph. Cryptococcus neoformans infection was diagnosed from bronchoalveolar lavage bronchoscopy. This case supports the principle that, in patients with AIDS, pulmonary infections can exhibit variable radiographic features and that definitive diagnosis should always be considered.

Douketis, J. D.; Kesten, S.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
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X-ray findings in patients with miliary appearance of metallic mercury after suicide attempt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case report evaluates X-ray findings in patients with miliary accumulation of mercury observed after parenteral application of metallic mercury in a suizide attempt. There are certain discrepancies between clinical symptoms and the X-ray findings. A clear demonstration of mercury in coronary blood vessels is possible by fluoroscopy. (orig.)

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X-ray findings in patients with miliary appearance of metallic mercury after suicide attempt  

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This case report evaluates X-ray findings in patients with miliary accumulation of mercury observed after parenteral application of metallic mercury in a suizide attempt. There are certain discrepancies between clinical symptoms and the X-ray findings. A clear demonstration of mercury in coronary blood vessels is possible by fluoroscopy.

Bonse, G.; Neuhaus, R.; Gunkel, L.V.

1985-03-01

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The reproductive response of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus (G.) and Psammechinus miliaris (L.) to an hyperproteinated macrophytic diet  

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The sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Psammechinus miliaris are submitted to the same environmental conditions in the Bay of Brest. The relationship between seasonal changes in food source quality and their gonad production was investigated in reproducing experimentally these conditions. In a first stage two macroalgae (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata) were tested. P. miliaris showed a stronger preference for P. palmata and over a year-long experiment both urchins progressively pr...

Jacquin, Anne-gaelle; Donval, Anne; Guillou, Jacques; Leyzour, Sandra; Deslandes, Eric; Guillou, Monique

2006-01-01

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BIO-CONVENTIONAL BLEACHING OF KRAFT-AQ PULP OF A. CADAMBA BY CRUDE XYLANASES FROM COPRINELLUS DISSEMINATUS MLK-03 AND EFFECT OF RESIDUAL ENZYME ON EFFLUENT LOAD  

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Full Text Available A new thermo-alkali-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus decreased kappa number by 34.38% and improved brightness and viscosity by 1.6 and 6.47% respectively after XE1-stage during prebleaching of Anthocephalus cadamba kraft-AQ pulp. At 2.4% chlorine demand, crude xylanase in a XECEHH (X= enzymatic prebleaching stage, E= extraction stage, C= chlorination stage, H= hypochlorite stage bleaching sequence improved pulp brightness, tensile index, burst index, and double fold numbers by 3.66%, 4.78%, 6.38%, and 11.11%, respectively with a reduction in viscosity (10.59% and tear index (10.77% compared to the control. Combined bleach effluent of the XECEHH sequence mitigated adsorable organic halides (AOX by 21% and increased chemical oxygen demand (COD, bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD, and colour by 67.18%, 84.78%, and 97.53%, respectively, compared to the control. Residual enzymes that entered during enzymatic prebleaching stage decreased AOX, COD, BOD, and colour of combined effluent of the XECEHH bleaching sequence progressively and on 6th day, and these were reduced by 23.78%, 0.04%, 15.00%, and 0.61%, respectively, compared to the control.

Mohan Lal

2011-04-01

45

Subclinical miliary Mycobacterium bovis following BCG immunotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.  

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The authors present an unusual case of a 51-year-old man who developed relatively mild non-specific symptoms following intravesical BCG instillation for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, with radiological investigations demonstrating typical features of miliary tuberculosis (TB). Transbronchial biopsy showed small foci of poorly formed granuloma suggestive of Mycobacterium infection. The patient's respiratory symptoms only became apparent 7 days after discharge having had 4 weeks of unremarkable inpatient stay where he remained clinically well. Prompt anti-TB treatment resulted in a remarkable improvement in his symptoms and radiological appearance, supporting the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium bovis infection. This case highlights the importance of recognising miliary M bovis as a potential complication in patients receiving BCG immunotherapy, and that the disease course can be subclinical with delayed onset of symptoms. PMID:24811557

Choi, Chang-Ho Ryan; Lee, Sang Oh; Smith, Geoff

2014-01-01

46

Amyloid angiopathy causing widespread miliary haemorrhages within the brain evident on MRI  

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The case of a 70-year-old woman with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is presented. MRI of the head showed widespread miliary foci of haemorrhage within the cerebrum and cerebellum, with some additional linear lesions within the cerebral cortex and patchy lesions in the white matter. This is in contrast to the more usual pattern of intracranial haemorrhage in CAA, i. e., a lobar haematoma. (orig.)

47

Miliary brain metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung: MR imaging findings with clinical and post-mortem histopathologic correlation  

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Miliary dissemination is a rare form of brain metastasis. The clinical and pathologic features of this form are unclear. We report a 66-year-old man with miliary brain metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung, describing MRI and neuropathologic findings in the context of previously reported cases. Initial disorientation progressed to an apallic state within 6 months. Although, CT with administration of contrast agent failed to demonstrate any lesions, MRI with Gd-DTPA administration showed multiple enhancing miliary nodules in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Some of those nodules also could be seen on T2-weighted imaging without Gd-DTPA, but were difficult to identify conclusively. A histopathologic examination at autopsy disclosed diffusely distributed miliary tumor nodules in a perivascular distribution without surrounding focal edema or reactive gliosis. Notably, this patient with miliary brain metastases developed disorientation followed by unconsciousness, which overshadowed other focal neurologic signs at that time. We should consider this pattern of brain dissemination when a cancer is associated with unexplained disturbance of consciousness. (orig.)

Iguchi, Yohei; Mano, Kazuo; Goto, Yoji; Nakano, Tomonobu [Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Department of Neurology Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nomura, Fumio; Shimokata, Tomoya [Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Iwamizu-Watanabe, Sachiko [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology of Molecular Diagnosis, Nagoya (Japan); Hashizume, Yoshio [Aichi Medical University, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

2007-01-15

48

BCG pneumonitis with a miliary radiological pattern complicating intravesical BCG immunotherapy  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY. The case is described of a 42 year-old male who presented with fever, haematuria, hypoxaemia, impaired liver function and a miliary pattern on chest X-ray while receiving intravesical BCG treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Initiation of antituberculous therapy resulted in rapid amelioration of the symptoms and the X-ray findings, and the patient left hospital in a good general state of health. Although M. bovis was not isolated from samples of sputum, bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF or bronchial biopsy tissue, the prompt response to antituberculous therapy suggests an infectious aetiology due to microbial dissemination. Pneumon 2010, 23(4:388-391.

Evangelia Fouka

2010-01-01

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ECF and TCF bleaching of Saccharum officinerum-CO89003 bagasse soda-AQ pulp with alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165  

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An alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165 produced under solid-state fermentation conditions improves the brightness of sugarcane bagasse soda-AQ pulp by 7.3, 4.7, 6.1, and 8.2% in XODED, XOD(EOP)DP, OX(EOP)P, and XO(EOP)P bleaching sequences, respectively, at an enzyme dose of 8IU/g, a reaction time of 120 min, a consistency of 10%, and a pH of 6.4 at 55 oC. An improvement in brightness by 2.1% for pulp bleached by XO(EOP)P compared to OX(EOP)P seq...

Swarnima Agnihotri; Dharm Dutt; Vidyarthi, A. K.

2012-01-01

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Tuberculosis miliar en paciente inmunocompetente como causa rara de fiebre nosocomial MILIARY TUBERCULOSIS AN UNCOMMON CAUSE OF NOSOCOMIAL FEVER IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT  

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Full Text Available La tuberculosis ha disminuido su incidencia en los últimos años en Chile, siendo considerado actualmente como un país con baja incidencia de tuberculosis (A progresive decrease of tuberculosis incidence has been shown in the last years in Chile. Presently Chile is considered as a country with a low incidence of tuberculosis (< 20 cases per 10(5 inhabitants. Miliary tuberculosis is an uncommon form of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients. Miliary tuberculosis is tipically observed in immunocompromised patients. It is an infrequent cause of nosocomial fever. We report a case of miliary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient, that caused intrahospitalary fever, in the course of a long term hospitalization.

Alcides Zambrano F.

2004-07-01

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Case for diagnosis / Caso para diagnostico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Dermatite Periorificial Granulomatosa da Infância é erupção facial acneiforme que afeta área periorificial do segmento cefálico de pré-puberes. Consiste em pápulas assintomáticas de 1 a 3 mm, monomorfas, eritematosas ou hipopigmentadas em áreas periorificiais - boca, nariz e olhos. A doença é beni [...] gna e auto-limitada, curando sem deixar cicatriz e por regra sem terapia específica. Diagnósticos diferenciais incluem a dermatite perioral, rosácea granulomatosa, sarcoidose e lúpus miliar da face. Relata-se paciente de 4 anos, masculino, com erupção papulosa há 2 anos em áreas periorificais. Devido à sua baixa incidência e o reduzido número de publicações relata-se o presente caso. Abstract in english Childhood Granulomatous Periorificial Dermatitis is an acneiform facial rash that affects the periorificial area in children. The clinical aspectare asymptomatic 1-3 mm papules of, monomorphic, erythematous or hypopigmented in periorificial areas - mouth, nose and eyes. It's a benign and self-limite [...] d disease that heals spontaneously without scarring and specific therapy. Differential diagnoses include perioral dermatitis, granulomatous-rosacea, sarcoidosis, and lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy, presenting papules in periorificials areas. Due to its low incidence and low number of publications we report the present case.

Adriana, Tiengo; Hugo Rocha, Barros; Daniele Bueno, Carvalho; Gabriela Mantovanelli de, Oliveira; Ney, Romiti.

2013-08-01

52

Case for diagnosis / Caso para diagnostico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Dermatite Periorificial Granulomatosa da Infância é erupção facial acneiforme que afeta área periorificial do segmento cefálico de pré-puberes. Consiste em pápulas assintomáticas de 1 a 3 mm, monomorfas, eritematosas ou hipopigmentadas em áreas periorificiais - boca, nariz e olhos. A doença é beni [...] gna e auto-limitada, curando sem deixar cicatriz e por regra sem terapia específica. Diagnósticos diferenciais incluem a dermatite perioral, rosácea granulomatosa, sarcoidose e lúpus miliar da face. Relata-se paciente de 4 anos, masculino, com erupção papulosa há 2 anos em áreas periorificais. Devido à sua baixa incidência e o reduzido número de publicações relata-se o presente caso. Abstract in english Childhood Granulomatous Periorificial Dermatitis is an acneiform facial rash that affects the periorificial area in children. The clinical aspectare asymptomatic 1-3 mm papules of, monomorphic, erythematous or hypopigmented in periorificial areas - mouth, nose and eyes. It's a benign and self-limite [...] d disease that heals spontaneously without scarring and specific therapy. Differential diagnoses include perioral dermatitis, granulomatous-rosacea, sarcoidosis, and lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy, presenting papules in periorificials areas. Due to its low incidence and low number of publications we report the present case.

Adriana, Tiengo; Hugo Rocha, Barros; Daniele Bueno, Carvalho; Gabriela Mantovanelli de, Oliveira; Ney, Romiti.

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Miliary tuberculosis with atypical presentation in an immunocompetent young African man.  

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We present an atypical case of tuberculosis in an immunocompetent man from west Africa living in Europe. The patient entered the hospital with a painful lump of 3 cm on his right clavicule which he noticed 2 weeks before and back pain. During the examinations for further evaluation his condition deteriorated within short time. Tuberculosis was diagnosed, treatment started but he needed mechanical ventilation at the intensive care unit and had kidney failure. The further evolvement was favourable in the end but needed intensive treatment for over 4 weeks. Tuberculosis cases with such severe evolution are rather known with immunodeficient patients. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, especially skeletal tuberculosis is seen more frequent in young immunocompetent migrants. The migrating persons seem to be more at risk to get sick than the ones staying in their origin country. We suppose the course of our patient's disease is miliary or septic, of which both are rather rare entities. PMID:24654236

Albrecht, Nicole; Cottagnoud, Philippe; Chatterjee, Bidisha

2014-01-01

54

Understanding the effect of miliary tuberculosis through the experience of one young person.  

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In the UK, tuberculosis (TB) is on the increase. Miliary TB affects the lungs and can leave lasting damage, and affect a person's quality of life adversely. Healthcare professionals need to co-ordinate services efficiently, to ensure a smooth transition from hospital to home, and ensure there is appropriate support in the community for as long as necessary. In this article, a boy describes his journey through the illness: the associated bewilderment, deterioration, pain, fear and isolation; the emergencies; the prolonged but effective treatment; the care he received; and the support of his family. On discharge, he was still breathless and found it difficult to adapt to home life but, with thorough planning of his support with healthcare professionals, parents and relevant agencies, he was able to get back to school and continue his education. PMID:25289628

Mighten, Janice

2014-10-01

55

Effects of anthropogenic seawater acidification on acid-base balance in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.  

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The purple-tipped sea urchin, Psammechinus miliaris, was exposed to artificially acidified seawater treatments (pH(w) 6.16, 6.63 or 7.44) over a period of 8 days. Urchin mortality of 100% was observed at pH(w) 6.16 after 7 days and coincided with a pronounced hypercapnia in the coelomic fluid producing an irrecoverable acidosis. Coelomic fluid acid-base measures showed that an accumulation of CO(2) and a significant reduction in pH occurred in all treatments compared with controls. Bicarbonate buffering was employed in each case, reducing the resultant acidosis, but compensation was incomplete even under moderate environmental hypercapnia. Significant test dissolution was inferred from observable increases in the Mg(2+) concentration of the coelomic fluid under all pH treatments. We show that a chronic reduction of surface water pH to below 7.5 would be severely detrimental to the acid-base balance of this predominantly intertidal species; despite its ability to tolerate fluctuations in pCO(2) and pH in the rock pool environment. The absence of respiratory pigment (or any substantial protein in the coelomic fluid), a poor capacity for ionic regulation and dependency on a magnesium calcite test, make echinoids particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic acidification. Geological sequestration leaks may result in dramatic localised pH reductions, e.g. pH 5.8. P. miliaris is intolerant of pH 6.16 seawater and significant mortality is seen at pH 6.63. PMID:17083950

Miles, Hayley; Widdicombe, Stephen; Spicer, John I; Hall-Spencer, Jason

2007-01-01

56

Anti-TNF treatment and miliary tuberculosis in Crohn’s disease  

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Full Text Available Introdution. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF? has a central role in the host immune response to mycobacterial infection. TNF? blockade may therefore result in reactivation of recent or remotely acquired infection. In reported mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, extra-pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis (TB was common, appeared rapidly, and if unrecognized, with fatal outcome. We present a female patient with miliary TB following treatment with infliximab for fistulizing Crohn’s disease. Case Outline. Five years before admission, the patient was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease, with inflammation limited to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon and has been on azathioprine 100 mg/day for the last 10 months. Three months before admission to the hospital she developed an enterocutaneous fistula for which therapy with infliximab was started in addition to azathioprine therapy. A tuberculin skin test and a chest x-ray were performed prior to the first infusion with normal findings. She presented with a 6-week history of fever, weakness, weight-loss and a 2-week dry cough. Chest x-ray and computed tomography displayed remarkable bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and uniformly distributed fine nodules throughout both lung fields varying in size from 2 to 3 mm, without any signs of cavitation. Since there were clinical and morphological signs that indicated miliary TB, the treatment with antituberculous therapy was started and six weeks later all of the symptoms completely resolved and the lesions visible on x-ray diminished. Conclusion. The clinical use of TNF-inhibitors is associated with increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Physicians should be aware of the increased risk of reactivation of TB among patients treated with anti-TNF agents and regularly look for usual and unusual symptoms of TB.

Milenkovi? Branislava

2011-01-01

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Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef  

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Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

1983-09-01

58

An indeterminate result of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube for miliary tuberculosis due to a high level of IFN-? production.  

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The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube(®) test has excellent specificity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis remains challenging, and the interpretation of QuantiFERON(®) results in immunocompromised individuals has not been fully established. Here, we present a patient with military tuberculosis who showed an indeterminate QuantiFERON(®) result. A 76-year-old male presented with fever and pancytopenia. Radiological tests did not show the classical miliary pattern. Acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction of several specimens were negative for M. tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON(®) responses were indeterminate on two separate tests, as interferon-? (IFN-?) concentration was high in the negative control. The patient did not respond to anti-microbiological therapy, and developed sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to lethal intracranial hemorrhage. An autopsy showed miliary tuberculosis and aplastic anemia. A literature review suggests a tendency towards indeterminate or false-negative QuantiFERON(®) results in immunocompromised individuals or patients with miliary tuberculosis due to low production of IFN-?. Our patient, however, showed substantial amounts of IFN-? despite lymphocytopenia, which has not been reported in the literature. The present case suggests that indeterminate results of QuantiFERON(®) should be interpreted with caution, as IFN-? production in patients with miliary tuberculosis can vary significantly, even with sustained lymphocytopenia. PMID:24481938

Hangai, Sho; Yoshimi, Akihide; Hosoi, Atsuko; Matsusaka, Keisuke; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

2014-04-01

59

Isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistant miliary tuberculosis complicated by intracranial tuberculoma in a Japanese infant.  

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In Japan, the incidence of severe pediatric tuberculosis (TB) has decreased dramatically in recent years. However, children in Japan can still have considerable opportunities to contract TB infection from adult TB patients living nearby, and infants infected with TB may develop severe disseminated disease. A 3-month-old girl was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea and poor feeding. After admission, miliary TB and multiple brain tuberculomas were diagnosed. Anti-tuberculous therapy was initiated with streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Symptoms persisted after starting the initial treatment and mycobacterial cultures of gastric fluid remained positive. Drug sensitivity testing revealed the TB strain isolated on admission as completely resistant to INH and SM. Treatments with INH and SM were therefore stopped, and treatment with ethambutol and ethionamide was started in addition to rifampicin and pyrazinamide. After this change to the treatment regimen, symptoms and laboratory data gradually improved. The patient was treated with these four drugs for 18 months, and then pyrazinamide was stopped. After another 2 months, ethambutol was stopped. Treatment of tuberculosis was completed in 24 months. No adverse effects of these anti-TB drugs were observed. The patient achieved a full recovery without any sequelae. On the other hand, the infectious source for this patient remained unidentified, despite the extensive contact investigations. The incidence of drug-resistant TB is increasing in many areas of the world. Continuous monitoring for pediatric patients with drug-resistant TB is therefore needed. PMID:23470647

Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Tokunaga, Osamu; Nagasawa, Koo; Ichimoto, Keiko; Kinoshita, Kaori; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

2013-01-01

60

Lung miliary micro-nodules in human T-cell leukemia virus type I carriers.  

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Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers are rarely subject to inflammatory disorders in multiple organs, other than the well-known complication, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 associated bronchiolo-alveolar disorder (HABA) has been proposed as an immune mediated pulmonary reaction seen rarely in HTLV-1 carriers. The reported clinico-pathological patterns of HABA are diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). We here report three cases of HTLV-1 carriers showing miliary micro-nodules throughout both lungs. Microscopic examination in the video assisted thoracic surgery biopsies demonstrated that all cases had multiple discrete micro-nodules which consisted of marked lymphoid infiltration, granulomas, eosinophils and a few foci of necrosis inside the granuloma. No findings indicating ATLL, other neoplastic conditions, infection or interstitial pneumonia, including DPB and LIP, were present following panels of special staining and immunohistochemical examinations. Two patients improved without treatment within one month, with no evidence of recurrence after 7 years. One patient showed slow deterioration of lung reticular shadows in spite of a low dose corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone 10 mg/day). We believe these cases may be a newly recognized variant of HABA. PMID:23464968

Fukuoka, Junya; Tominaga, Masaki; Ichikado, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Ishizawa, Shin; Suga, Moritaka

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Miliary tuberculosis occurred after immunosuppressive drug in PNH patient with completely cured tuberculosis; a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a clonal disorder that presents with hemolytic anemia, marrow failure and thrombophilia. During acute attacks, corticosteroid can alleviate the hemolytic paroxysm, but the prolonged administration induces serious toxicity including immunosuppression. So American thoracic society (ATS for tuberculosis (TB recommends prophylactic anti-TB medication in patients with a long-term steroid therapy. However, in the patient who was treated for active TB in the past, there are no guidelines of the test for determining patients who have latent TB infection (LTBI and no recommendations of TB prophylaxis if there is no evidence of reactivation at present. A 40-year-old male patient presented with fever and aggravated weakness for a week. He was diagnosed with PNH a month ago and took corticosteroid for 3 weeks. In the past, he was diagnosed with pulmonary TB and completely cured after treatment. According to guideline, he was not indicated with TB prophylaxis. However, he caught miliary TB, progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. We experience this embarrassing case, and emphasize the need to investigate multicentral TB prevalence and to make the guidelines of anti-TB medication in subgroups of hematologic diseases including PNH.

Lee Jihyun

2012-05-01

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ECF and TCF bleaching of Saccharum officinerum-CO89003 bagasse soda-AQ pulp with alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165  

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Full Text Available An alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165 produced under solid-state fermentation conditions improves the brightness of sugarcane bagasse soda-AQ pulp by 7.3, 4.7, 6.1, and 8.2% in XODED, XOD(EOPDP, OX(EOPP, and XO(EOPP bleaching sequences, respectively, at an enzyme dose of 8IU/g, a reaction time of 120 min, a consistency of 10%, and a pH of 6.4 at 55 oC. An improvement in brightness by 2.1% for pulp bleached by XO(EOPP compared to OX(EOPP sequence validates that xylanase treatment is more effective for hydrolysing lignin-carbohydrates complexes before oxygen treatment. AOX after XODED and XOD(EOPDP sequences is reduced by 41.43 and 40%, respectively, compared to controls, but an increase in COD and color in studied bleaching sequences is attributable to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and the release of lignin-carbohydrates complexes after xylanase treatment. Xylanase treatment modifies fibre surface by introducing cracks, peelings, swelling, and external fibrillation, which facilitates faster penetration of bleach chemicals by disrupting physical barriers, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

Swarnima Agnihotri

2012-11-01

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Tuberculosis miliar secundaria a instilación endovesical de BCG / Miliary tuberculosis in a patient treated with BCG intravesical instillation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La instilación endovesical con bacilo de Calmette-Guerin es el tratamiento de elección para el carcinoma superficial e in situ de vejiga. En raras ocasiones presenta complicaciones graves que deben ser tenidas en cuenta. A continuación presentamos un caso de reactivación endógena de tuberculosis mil [...] iar secundaria a dicho tratamiento. Abstract in english Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin is the elective treatment for trnasitional cell and in situ bladder carcinoma. Severe complications occur very seldom but must be known and promptly recognized. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis reactivation secondary to the mentioned tre [...] atment.

H., Fernández Jiménez-Ortiz; J.J., Gómez Marco; I., Rojo Zamanillo; E., Fernández Fernández.

2007-08-01

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Bio-conventional bleaching of kadam kraft-AQ pulp by thermo-alkali-tolerant xylanases from two strains of Coprinellus disseminatus for extenuating adsorbable organic halides and improving strength with optical properties and energy conservation.  

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Two novel thermo-alkali-tolerant crude xylanases namely MLK-01 (enzyme-A) and MLK-07 (enzyme-B) from Coprinellus disseminatus mitigated kappa numbers of Anthocephalus cadamba kraft-AQ pulps by 32.5 and 34.38%, improved brightness by 1.5 and 1.6% and viscosity by 5.75 and 6.47% after (A)XE(1) and (B)XE(1)-stages, respectively. The release of reducing sugars and chromophores was the highest during prebleaching of A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulp at enzyme doses of 5 and 10 IU/g, reaction times 90 and 120 min, reaction temperatures 75 and 65°C and consistency 10% for MLK-01 and MLK-07, respectively. MLK-07 was more efficient than MLK01 in terms of producing pulp brightness, improving mechanical strength properties and reducing pollution load. MLK-01 and MLK-07 reduced AOX by 19.51 and 42.77%, respectively at 4% chlorine demands with an increase in COD and colour due to removal of lignin carbohydrates complexes. A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulps treated with xylanases from MLK-01 to MLK-07 and followed by CEHH bleaching at half chlorine demand (2%) showed a drastic reduction in brightness with slight improvement in mechanical strength properties compared to pulp bleached at 4% chlorine demand. MLK-01 reduced AOX, COD and colour by 43.83, 39.03 and 27.71% and MLK-07 by 38.34, 40.48 and 30.77%, respectively at half chlorine demand compared to full chlorine demand (4%). pH variation during prebleaching of A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulps with strains MLK-01 and MLK-07 followed by CEHH bleaching sequences showed a decrease in pulp brightness, AOX, COD and colour with an increase in mechanical strength properties, pulp viscosity and PFI revolutions to get a beating level of 35 ± 1 °SR at full chlorine demand. PMID:22805918

Lal, Mohan; Dutt, Dharm; Tyagi, C H

2012-04-01

65

Retreived bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea  

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In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS (20°N-17°N and 64°E-70°E), during the spring-inter-monsoon cruise of Sagar Sampada 253, in March 2007. Bacterial growth as assessed by most-probable number (MPN) and plate counts, revealed `variable-physiotypes' over a wide range of salinities (0%-25% w/v NaCl), pH levels (5-8.5), and organic nutrient strengths, in comparison to non-bloom waters. MPN indices of bacteria in surface waters of bloom stations *DWK and *PRB, corresponded to (3.08-4.41)×103 cells/mL at 3.5% NaCl (w/v), and (2.82-9.49)×102 cells/mL at 25% (w/v) NaCl in tryptone-yeast extract broth (TYE). Plate counts were (1.12-4)×106 CFU/mL at 0% (w/v) NaCl, (1.28-3.9)×106 CFU/mL at 3.5% (w/v) NaCl, and (0.4-7)×104 CFU/mL at 25% NaCl (w/v) on TYE. One-tenth-strength Zobell's gave (0.6-3.74)×105 CFU/mL at pH 5 to (3.58-7.5)×105 CFU/mL at pH 8.5. These bacteria were identified to the genera Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Staphylococcus, Planococcus, Dietzia, Virgibacillus, Micrococcus, Sporosarcinae, Leucobacter, and Halomonas. The identity of three strains (GUFBSS253N2, GUFBSS253N30, and GUFBSS253N84) was confirmed through 16S rDNA sequence homology as Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus cereus. The ˜2-3-fold higher plate counts of culturable bacteria from the open-waters of the NAS indicate that these bacteria could critically determine the biogeochemical dynamics of the bloom and its milieu. The role of these bacteria in sustaining/terminating the bloom is under evaluation.

Basu, Subhajit; Matondkar, S. G. Prabhu; Furtado, Irene

2013-01-01

66

Uncommon presentation of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia with miliary pattern in the thorax; Ungewoehnliche Manifestation einer kryptogen organisierenden Pneumonie mit miliarem Verschattungsmuster im Thorax  

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A 28-year-old female with worsening dyspnea showed miliary nodules of 2 mm in diameter on chest X-ray and high-resolution CT (HRCT). Histological evaluation and clinical outcome revealed an uncommon presentation of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. (orig.) [German] Bei einer 28-jaehrigen Patientin mit zunehmender Dyspnoe wurden auf der Thoraxroentgenaufnahme und in der hochaufloesenden CT (HRCT) homogen verteilte monomorphe miliare Fleckschatten von ca. 2 mm Durchmesser nachgewiesen. Die histologische Sicherung und der klinische Verlauf ergaben eine kryptogen organisierende Pneumonie, die sich bildmorphologisch ungewoehnlicherweise nur mit miliaren Knoetchen manifestierte. (orig.)

Langen, H.J.; Biewener, C. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Radiologische Abteilung, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ruediger, T. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Pathologisches Institut, Wuerzburg (Germany); Jany, B. [Missionsaerztliche Klinik, Abteilung fuer Innere Medizin, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2008-03-15

67

Differential adaptations between cold-stenothermal environments in the bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philobryidae) from the Scotia Sea islands and Antarctic Peninsula  

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The cold stenothermal nature of the Southern Ocean, and highly adapted fauna living within, raises the question of how much intra-specific variation there is among invertebrate populations, and how variation may have a role in speciation processes through ecological divergence, natural selection, and reproductive isolation. Despite decades of collecting biological material, this question remains largely unanswered, and many studies compare ‘populations' of pooled material from wide geographic ranges to compensate for sampling constraints. In this study, variations in ecophysiological traits are explored by measuring growth, reproduction, and shell morphology among six populations of the small bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philippi, 1845) from the Southern Ocean, which experience subtle differences in temperature, disturbance, and food availability. There are significant differences in shell morphology and growth among different populations and slower growth rates at higher latitude populations. Prodissoconch sizes show an inverse ‘U' shaped relationship with latitude, and are correlated with egg size at South Georgia and King George Island's Potter Cove. Higher brood sizes at the South Georgia population represent a trade-off with lower egg size, and correlate with shell morphology by offering lower internal capacity to brood young. Lower investment into offspring and morphological variations in L. cf. miliaris highlight the importance of local scale environmental variations on species' ecology. These variations in physical traits appear to be underestimated in the Southern Ocean, but may be important drivers of ecological divergence and speciation, which should be considered in future genetic investigations on different invertebrate populations.

Reed, Adam J.; Linse, Katrin; Thatje, Sven

2014-04-01

68

Revisão de 45 casos de tuberculose miliar em adultos - estudos clínicopatológicos / Clinical and pathological review on 45 cases of miliary tuberculosis in adults  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentem uma revisão de 45 casos de tuberculose viiliar em adultos, sendo que 42 foram selecionados de urn total de 4.000 necropsias. Uma correlação clínico-patológica é feita senão nitidamente evidenciado c baixo grau de suspeita clinica da doenca e a relativa freqüência desta infecção [...] em Hospitais Gerais conseqüente à mimetização com outras patologias. Uma classificação histovatológica da condição é feita, assim como os principais órgãos atingidos são assinalados. Discussão a respeito dos mecanismos patogênicos é tentada. Finalizam com uma revisão a respeito dos problemas gerais envolvidos na tuberculose miliar. Abstract in english The aa. studied 45 cases of miliary tuberculosis in adults; 42 were selected from a total of 4.900 necropsies. A clinical-pathological correlation was made showing its relative frequency in a General Hospital as well as a low incidence of clinical suspicion of this disease due to its mimmetitation w [...] ith other pathological conditions. A histopathological classification was proposed by the aa. and the frequency of the organs involved was mentioned. A ternptative explanation about the pathogenic mechanism of the disease was considered. A review of the general problems involved with miliary tuberculosis is also considered.

Adrelirio José Rios, Gonçalves; Lucia Emi, Suzuki; Adilson Sarmet, Moreira; Sonia Regina Carvalho, Faray; Sonia Mana, Tavares; Francisco Duarte, G. Neto; Robson José da Silva, Souza; Albanita Prado, Viana; Tercia Teles de, Castro.

69

Miliary tuberculosis with no pulmonary involvement in myelodysplastic syndromes: a curable, yet rarely diagnosed, disease: case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although tuberculosis is not uncommon among patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, only a few reports of such patients suffering from miliary tuberculosis (MT exist. MT often presents as a fever of unknown origin and it is a curable disease, yet fatal if left untreated. Case presentation We report a case of MT with no clinical or laboratory indications of pulmonary involvement in a patient with MDS, and review the relevant literature. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the liquid culture of a bone marrow aspirate. Conclusion Even if the initial diagnostic investigation for a fever of obscure etiology is negative, MT should not be excluded from the differential diagnosis list. Since it is a curable disease, persistent and vigorous diagnostic efforts are warranted. In suspected cases, mycobacterial blood cultures should be collected as soon as possible after hospital admission and early bone marrow aspirate with mycobacterial cultures is advocated.

Krambovitis Elias

2008-03-01

70

[Serious course of a miliary tuberculosis in a 34-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis and HIV infection under concomitant therapy with infliximab].  

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A 34-year-old HIV-positive patient with ulcerative colitis was transferred to the authors' hospital because of progressive worsening of his general condition with intermittent fever, increasing lymphopenia, anemia, thrombopenia and neutropenia under anti-tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)alpha therapy with infliximab. In spite of negative screening tests before initiation of infliximab therapy and intermittent tests during treatment, miliary tuberculosis was finally diagnosed and a tuberculostatic therapy was started. The patient's clinical condition worsened due to the development of a serious exudative necrotizing pancreatitis which was likely to be caused by the tuberculostatic treatment. Due to severe pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusions with respiratory failure the patient finally passed away. PMID:20455057

Zeitz, Jonas; Huber, Milo; Rogler, Gerhard

2010-04-01

71

Aneurisma miliar de Leber associado à síndrome de tração vítreomacular: relato de caso Leber's miliary aneurysms associated with vitreomacular traction syndrome: case report  

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Full Text Available Telangiectasias retinianas são anormalidades vasculares primárias e idiopáticas caracterizadas por dilatações irregulares e incompetência dos vasos retinianos com variados graus de exsudação intra e sub-retiniana. O objetivo desse relato é documentar uma rara associação entre aneurisma miliar de Leber e síndrome de tração vítreomacular bem caracterizada à angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. O tratamento realizado foi fotocoagulação com laser de argônio nos aneurismas perimaculares e cirurgia de vitrectomia posterior via pars plana, o que resultou em melhora consistente da acuidade visual. O caso relatado confirma a importância da tomografia de coerência óptica em estudar a interface vítreorretiniana e suas alterações, o que permitiu abordagem completa da doença em questão.Retinal telangiectasias are idiopatic vascular abnormalities of the retina characterizad by irregular dilatation of the retinal vessels, intraretinal and subretinal exsudation. The aim of this article is to describe the uncommon association of Leber's miliary aneurysms and vitreomacular traction syndrome in a female patient. The diagnosis was established with angiofluoresceinography and optic coherence tomography. The patient was treated with focal photocoagulation with argon green laser directed to the perimacular aneurysms and pars plana posterior vitrectomy. The visual acuity showed great improvement after a four-month follow-up. The present report supports the importance of optic coherence tomography in cases where the vitreoretinal interface must be evaluated, including vascular pathologies, which allowed us to offer a better treatment to this patient.

Luciano Sólia Násser

2007-10-01

72

Aneurisma miliar de Leber associado à síndrome de tração vítreomacular: relato de caso / Leber's miliary aneurysms associated with vitreomacular traction syndrome: case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Telangiectasias retinianas são anormalidades vasculares primárias e idiopáticas caracterizadas por dilatações irregulares e incompetência dos vasos retinianos com variados graus de exsudação intra e sub-retiniana. O objetivo desse relato é documentar uma rara associação entre aneurisma miliar de Leb [...] er e síndrome de tração vítreomacular bem caracterizada à angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. O tratamento realizado foi fotocoagulação com laser de argônio nos aneurismas perimaculares e cirurgia de vitrectomia posterior via pars plana, o que resultou em melhora consistente da acuidade visual. O caso relatado confirma a importância da tomografia de coerência óptica em estudar a interface vítreorretiniana e suas alterações, o que permitiu abordagem completa da doença em questão. Abstract in english Retinal telangiectasias are idiopatic vascular abnormalities of the retina characterizad by irregular dilatation of the retinal vessels, intraretinal and subretinal exsudation. The aim of this article is to describe the uncommon association of Leber's miliary aneurysms and vitreomacular traction syn [...] drome in a female patient. The diagnosis was established with angiofluoresceinography and optic coherence tomography. The patient was treated with focal photocoagulation with argon green laser directed to the perimacular aneurysms and pars plana posterior vitrectomy. The visual acuity showed great improvement after a four-month follow-up. The present report supports the importance of optic coherence tomography in cases where the vitreoretinal interface must be evaluated, including vascular pathologies, which allowed us to offer a better treatment to this patient.

Luciano Sólia, Násser; Herbert Paulo de, Almeida; Leandro Cabral, Zacarias; Suel, Abujamra; André Marcelo Vieira, Gomes.

2007-10-01

73

The inability of the Psammechinus miliaris H3 RNA to be processed in the Xenopus oocyte is associated with sequences distinct from those highly conserved amongst sea urchin histone RNAs.  

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3' processing of precursors of the H3 RNA of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris in Xenopus oocytes is dependent upon sea urchin U7 snRNA. Sequences necessary for this interaction are highly conserved in all sea urchin histone precursor RNAs (including the Psammechinus H3) which, in contrast, are efficiently processed in the Xenopus oocyte without the addition of the homologous U7 snRNA. We resolve this seeming paradox by demonstrating here that the inability of the sea urchin Psammechinus m...

Schaufele, F.; Birnstiel, M. L.

1987-01-01

74

Hepatitis granulomatosa en paciente con tuberculosis miliar: presentación de un caso / Granulomatous hepatitis in a patient with Miliary Tuberculosis: presentation of a case  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hepatitis granulomatosa como elemento inicial de una enfermedad tuberculosa es muy poco frecuente. El rendimiento de las pruebas para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis hepática resulta baja, siendo las principales causas de granulomatosis hepática las infecciones (tuberculosis, brucelosis, hongos, p [...] arásitos, etc.). En la tuberculosis miliar, durante la diseminación hemática, que ocurre en el desarrollo de la primoinfección, el hígado es capaz de recibir y albergar una carga considerable de bacilos por sus características anatomofuncionales que se agrupan en forma de granuloma, que es un patrón de reacción inflamatoria crónica en el que predomina un tipo especial de célula denominada macrófago. Esto es causa frecuente de síndrome febril prolongado de causa sistémica, puede debutar con manifestaciones clínicas poco precisas. Se presentó un caso del sexo masculino que ingresa en el servicio de Medicina del Hospital Militar Docente Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy, de Matanzas, que ingresa por cuadro de fiebre de origen desconocido, que resultó ser por esta causa. Abstract in english Granulomatous hepatitis as initial element of a tubercular disease is few frequent; the efficacy of the tests for diagnosing hepatic tuberculosis is low, being infections (tuberculosis, brucellosis, fungi, parasites, etc.). The main cause of hepatic granulomatosis. during the hematic dissemination i [...] n the miliary tuberculosis, occurring in the development of primo-infection, liver is able of receiving and dwelling a considerable charge of bacilli due to its anatomic functional characteristics; they group in the form of granulomas, a pattern of chronic inflammatory reaction, in which there is a predomination of an special kind of cells called macrophages; it frequently causes a prolonged febrile syndrome and may start with little precise clinical manifestations. We present the case of a male patient entering the Medicine Service of the Military Hospital Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy of Matanzas, with a picture of unknown origin fever, resulting being originated by this cause.

Dalia, García Cuervo; Yanet, Acosta Piedra; Omara, Bandera Rodríguez; Janet, Testar de Armas; Adianez, Jiménez Álvarez.

75

Hepatitis granulomatosa en paciente con tuberculosis miliar: presentación de un caso / Granulomatous hepatitis in a patient with Miliary Tuberculosis: presentation of a case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hepatitis granulomatosa como elemento inicial de una enfermedad tuberculosa es muy poco frecuente. El rendimiento de las pruebas para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis hepática resulta baja, siendo las principales causas de granulomatosis hepática las infecciones (tuberculosis, brucelosis, hongos, p [...] arásitos, etc.). En la tuberculosis miliar, durante la diseminación hemática, que ocurre en el desarrollo de la primoinfección, el hígado es capaz de recibir y albergar una carga considerable de bacilos por sus características anatomofuncionales que se agrupan en forma de granuloma, que es un patrón de reacción inflamatoria crónica en el que predomina un tipo especial de célula denominada macrófago. Esto es causa frecuente de síndrome febril prolongado de causa sistémica, puede debutar con manifestaciones clínicas poco precisas. Se presentó un caso del sexo masculino que ingresa en el servicio de Medicina del Hospital Militar Docente Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy, de Matanzas, que ingresa por cuadro de fiebre de origen desconocido, que resultó ser por esta causa. Abstract in english Granulomatous hepatitis as initial element of a tubercular disease is few frequent; the efficacy of the tests for diagnosing hepatic tuberculosis is low, being infections (tuberculosis, brucellosis, fungi, parasites, etc.). The main cause of hepatic granulomatosis. during the hematic dissemination i [...] n the miliary tuberculosis, occurring in the development of primo-infection, liver is able of receiving and dwelling a considerable charge of bacilli due to its anatomic functional characteristics; they group in the form of granulomas, a pattern of chronic inflammatory reaction, in which there is a predomination of an special kind of cells called macrophages; it frequently causes a prolonged febrile syndrome and may start with little precise clinical manifestations. We present the case of a male patient entering the Medicine Service of the Military Hospital Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy of Matanzas, with a picture of unknown origin fever, resulting being originated by this cause.

Dalia, García Cuervo; Yanet, Acosta Piedra; Omara, Bandera Rodríguez; Janet, Testar de Armas; Adianez, Jiménez Álvarez.

2014-02-01

76

Associação de osteomielite tibial e pneumonite por tuberculose miliar em paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico / Association of tibial osteomyelitis and pneumonitis due to miliary tuberculosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune multissistêmica na qual há grande prevalência e manifestações incomuns de doenças infecciosas oportunistas, principalmente pelas múltiplas anormalidades no sistema imunológico e pelo efeito imunossupressor das medicações utilizadas em seu tr [...] atamento. Pacientes com LES têm incidência aumentada de tuberculose, e o acometimento osteoarticular ocorre em 1%-3% desses casos. Manifesta-se com dor, diminuição da mobilidade e aumento do volume osteoarticular, e os achados radiográficos costumam ser inespecíficos. A ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) é exame útil para definir o grau de acometimento ósseo; entretanto, o diagnóstico etiológico é dado apenas pela cultura de líquido sinovial, pela cultura óssea ou pela histologia dessas regiões. Devido à inespecificidade dos achados, geralmente há atraso diagnóstico, em média de 11 meses. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente do gênero feminino com LES apresentando fatores predisponentes para a infecção/reativação da tuberculose. A RMN foi importante para definir o acometimento ósseo, e o diagnóstico etiológico foi dado pela biópsia óssea. A paciente também apresentava acometimento pulmonar devido à tuberculose, em sua forma miliar, demonstrado pela radiografia simples de tórax e pela tomografia computadorizada e confirmado pela cultura do bacilo de Koch no escarro. Houve demora de 1,5 mês para o início da terapêutica, tempo considerado curto em relação à literatura. Conclui-se dessa maneira que a tuberculose óssea, apesar de rara, deve sempre ser lembrada como diagnóstico diferencial nos pacientes lúpicos com osteomielite, principalmente naqueles com antecedente de tuberculose pulmonar. Abstract in english Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease, which has great prevalence and uncommon manifestations of opportunistic infectious diseases, mainly due to the multiple abnormalities of the immune system and the immunosuppressive effect of the medications used in its treatment [...] . Patients whit SLE have an increased incidence of tuberculosis, and osteoarticular involvement occurs in 1%-3% of the cases, manifesting as pain, reduction in mobility, and increased osteoarticular volume. The radiographic findings are often nonspecific. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an useful test to define the severity of bone involvement; however, the etiological diagnosis can only be established by use of synovial fluid or bone cultures or the histological study of the affected areas. Due to the lack of specificity of the findings, there is usually a mean diagnosis delay of 11 months. We report the case of a female patient with SLE and predisposing factors for tuberculosis infection/reactivation. The MRI was important to define bone involvement, and the etiological diagnosis was established by use of bone biopsy. The patient also had lung involvement due to miliary tuberculosis, shown on plain chest radiography and CT scan and confirmed on culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum. There was a 1.5-month delay in beginning therapy, which is considered a short time when compared to the reports in the literature. In conclusion, bone tuberculosis, although rare, should always be remembered as a differential diagnosis of patients with SLE and osteomyelitis, mainly those with history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Vitor Emer Egypto, Rosa; Daniel, Martin; André Marun, Lyrio; Maria Aparecida Barone, Teixeira; José Roberto, Provenza.

77

Associação de osteomielite tibial e pneumonite por tuberculose miliar em paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico / Association of tibial osteomyelitis and pneumonitis due to miliary tuberculosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune multissistêmica na qual há grande prevalência e manifestações incomuns de doenças infecciosas oportunistas, principalmente pelas múltiplas anormalidades no sistema imunológico e pelo efeito imunossupressor das medicações utilizadas em seu tr [...] atamento. Pacientes com LES têm incidência aumentada de tuberculose, e o acometimento osteoarticular ocorre em 1%-3% desses casos. Manifesta-se com dor, diminuição da mobilidade e aumento do volume osteoarticular, e os achados radiográficos costumam ser inespecíficos. A ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) é exame útil para definir o grau de acometimento ósseo; entretanto, o diagnóstico etiológico é dado apenas pela cultura de líquido sinovial, pela cultura óssea ou pela histologia dessas regiões. Devido à inespecificidade dos achados, geralmente há atraso diagnóstico, em média de 11 meses. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente do gênero feminino com LES apresentando fatores predisponentes para a infecção/reativação da tuberculose. A RMN foi importante para definir o acometimento ósseo, e o diagnóstico etiológico foi dado pela biópsia óssea. A paciente também apresentava acometimento pulmonar devido à tuberculose, em sua forma miliar, demonstrado pela radiografia simples de tórax e pela tomografia computadorizada e confirmado pela cultura do bacilo de Koch no escarro. Houve demora de 1,5 mês para o início da terapêutica, tempo considerado curto em relação à literatura. Conclui-se dessa maneira que a tuberculose óssea, apesar de rara, deve sempre ser lembrada como diagnóstico diferencial nos pacientes lúpicos com osteomielite, principalmente naqueles com antecedente de tuberculose pulmonar. Abstract in english Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease, which has great prevalence and uncommon manifestations of opportunistic infectious diseases, mainly due to the multiple abnormalities of the immune system and the immunosuppressive effect of the medications used in its treatment [...] . Patients whit SLE have an increased incidence of tuberculosis, and osteoarticular involvement occurs in 1%-3% of the cases, manifesting as pain, reduction in mobility, and increased osteoarticular volume. The radiographic findings are often nonspecific. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an useful test to define the severity of bone involvement; however, the etiological diagnosis can only be established by use of synovial fluid or bone cultures or the histological study of the affected areas. Due to the lack of specificity of the findings, there is usually a mean diagnosis delay of 11 months. We report the case of a female patient with SLE and predisposing factors for tuberculosis infection/reactivation. The MRI was important to define bone involvement, and the etiological diagnosis was established by use of bone biopsy. The patient also had lung involvement due to miliary tuberculosis, shown on plain chest radiography and CT scan and confirmed on culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum. There was a 1.5-month delay in beginning therapy, which is considered a short time when compared to the reports in the literature. In conclusion, bone tuberculosis, although rare, should always be remembered as a differential diagnosis of patients with SLE and osteomyelitis, mainly those with history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Vitor Emer Egypto, Rosa; Daniel, Martin; André Marun, Lyrio; Maria Aparecida Barone, Teixeira; José Roberto, Provenza.

2011-12-01

78

Unusual cutaneous ulcers in a case of miliary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available A 3-year old girl had multiple, large, deep, infected ulcers on the extremities and buttocks for 1½ years. Additional features included malnutrition, Cushingoid facies with buffalo hump, and absence of any underlying bony involvement. Edge biopsy showed a tuberculous picture without vasculitis or acid-fast bacilli; X-ray of the chest revealed military tuberculosis. The ulcers, although atypical, healed completely and rapidly on anti-tuberculous therapy.

Amladi Sangeeta

1993-01-01

79

Evolution of the Bipolar Mating System of the Mushroom Coprinellus disseminatus From Its Tetrapolar Ancestors Involves Loss of Mating-Type-Specific Pheromone Receptor Function  

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Mating incompatibility in mushroom fungi is controlled by the mating-type loci. In tetrapolar species, two unlinked mating-type loci exist (A and B), whereas in bipolar species there is only one locus. The A and B mating-type loci encode homeodomain transcription factors and pheromones and pheromone receptors, respectively. Most mushroom species have a tetrapolar mating system, but numerous transitions to bipolar mating systems have occurred. Here we determined the genes controlling mating ty...

James, Timothy Y.; Srivilai, Prayook; Ku?es, Ursula; Vilgalys, Rytas

2006-01-01

80

[Fatal miliary tuberculosis in an HIV-infected Cameroon woman: disseminated histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum capsulatum].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this report is to describe the first Cameroonian case of disseminated histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum capsulatum in association with HIV infection. The patient was a 34-year-old HIV1 infected woman. Diagnosis of histoplamosis was made in post-mortem. The similarity of the clinical symptoms with disseminated tuberculosis makes diagnosis of mycosis difficult. Active and effective care of histoplasmosis is urgently necessary for the HIV infected persons. PMID:22393632

Mandengue, C E; Lindou, J; Mandeng, N; Takuefou, B; Nouedoui, C; Atangana, P; Fonkoua, M C

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

El “Tentamen medicum de morbo miliari infantum, muguet, millet, blanchet, gallico idiomate appellate" (1786, de Francisco Sanponts  

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Full Text Available A medical text on aphtae, writed in 1786 and printed in 1788, is analized. Its author was the catalan physician Francisco Sanponts y Roca (1756-1821. This work was awarded with the first prize by the Société Royal de Médecine from Paris, in a competition to study and solve the problem of the wide diffusion of Aphtae (Muguet among the orphanages' children. This was the first description of this disease in Spain. The author was influenced by the antisystematic mentality and by the anatomoclinical empiricism; he widely refers to Van Swieten and Nils Rosen, besides other 65 authors. Through his references he proved that he was well informed about the European medicine and pediatrics, although he was not apparently acquainted with the work of Underwood, the first known description of this disease, that was published two years earlier.

Se analiza un texto de 1786 impreso en 1788, cuyo autor es el médico catalán Francisco Sanponts y Roca (1756-1821, que mereció el primer premio de la Real Sociedad de Medicina de París en un certamen convocado para estudiar y solucionar el problema planteado por la amplia difusión del Muguet entre los niños acogidos en hospicios. Se trata de la primera descripción de la enfermedad hecha en España y el autor, influido por la mentalidad antisistemática y el empirismo anatomoclínico, cita de forma amplia a Van Swieten y a Nils Rosen, entre 67 autores, con lo que demuestra estar al corriente de la medicina y la pediatría europeas, aunque aparentemente desconoce el trabajo de Underwood, publicado dos años antes de la elaboración del suyo, que representa la primera descripción conocida de esta enfermedad.

Romero Maroto, Martín

1997-06-01

82

Life-threatening disseminated tuberculosis as a complication of treatment by infliximab for Crohn's disease: report of two cases, including cerebral tuberculomas and miliary tuberculosis.  

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Tumor necrosis factor ? antagonist therapies represent an increased risk of reactivation of tuberculosis. We report two cases of life-threatening disseminated tuberculosis in patients undergoing treatment with infliximab for Crohn's disease including one case of a patient with cerebral tuberculomas. We discuss the implication of tumor necrosis factor ? in the genesis of tuberculosis infection and the features of tuberculosis under infliximab. Tuberculosis screening and eventually preventive chemotherapy should become the standard of care for individual undergoing tumor necrosis factor ? antagonist therapies. PMID:22749231

Tissot, Claire; Couraud, Sébastien; Meng, Lun; Girard, Philippe; Avrillon, Virginie; Gérinière, Laurence; Perrot, Emilie; Souquet, Pierre-Jean

2012-10-01

83

[New clinical aspects of dermatomycosis.].  

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Usually the clinical diagnostic of tinea is easy for the dermatologist, but occasionally, mostly as a result of an unsuitable treatment, the cutaneous lesions can show up atypical forms. In this article tinea capitis in the elderly, tinea follicularis et granulomatosa of the legs, tinea faciei and tinea incognito are discussed. PMID:18473600

Moreno Giménez, J C

1999-10-01

84

A Case of Dermatophytic Blepharitis  

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Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are the most common fungal infections of the skin. In the clinical practise, tinea pedis is most common clinical form of dermatophytosis. Other clinical forms are tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea corporis and tinea faciei. Tinea faciei is a rare form of dermatophytosis of glabrous skin, characterized by a well- circumscribed erythematous patch, and is more commonly misdiagnosed with some dermatologic diseases as seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, polymorphic light eruption and lymphocytic infiltrations. In addition, it is reported its clinical forms resembling folliculitis, perioral dermatitis, impetigo and sycosis. To date, a few cases of dermatophytosis involving eyelid were presented in the literature. Here, we present a patient who has an erythematous and fine scaly patch on her eyelid and who is diagnosed as dermatophytic blepharitis by helping typical tinea corporis on her wrist.

Mustafa Kulaç

2008-07-01

85

Radiographic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised adult patients: comparison with immunocompetent adult patients  

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ltiple cavitary lesions, wide extent of bronchogenic spread and tuberculous pneumonia, and miliary disseminations and mass like lesions. Pulmonary tuberculosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised adult patients is characterized by frequent bilateral distribution, wide pulmonary extent, and atypical radiographic findings

86

Clinical and radiological deterioration in a patient with AIDS  

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Paradoxical clinical deterioration of miliary tuberculosis, characterized by pulmonary and abdominal manifestations, is reported in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, after initiation of treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Paradoxical reaction was attributed to partial restoration of cell-mediated immunity related to highly effective antiretroviral therapy. Because tuberculosis has a high prevalence in HIV patients and tuberculosis is often characterized by miliary spreading of disease in these patients, it is important to recognize this phenomenon. (orig.)

Backer, A.I. de [General Hospital Sint-Lucas, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Mortele, K.J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Bomans, P.; Vanschoubroeck, I.J. [Ziekenhuisnetwerk Antwerpen, Stuivenberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium); Keulenaer, B.L. de [Royal Darwin Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Tiwi, NT (Australia); Kockx, M.M. [Ziekenhuisnetwerk Antwerpen, Stuivenberg, Department of Pathology, Antwerp (Belgium)

2005-11-01

87

Unusual radiological findings of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis  

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%), miliary infiltrates (1.2%), fibrocalcific scar-like infiltrates (1.2%), masslike density (1.2%) and rheumatoid lung-like infiltrates (1.2%) were occasionally noted. Pneumothorax without parenchymal disease (0.4%) and bron chocutaneous fistula (0.4%) are. The recognition of these unusual findings could further improve the detection and diagnosis of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

88

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with the absence of technetium-99m MDP uptake of lungs  

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The authors report a patient with alveolar microlithiasis who was treated for miliary tuberculosis eight years earlier and whose Tc-99m MDP scan revealed absent lung uptake. Diagnosis was established by bronchoalveolar lavage. Both the roentgenogram and computed tomography of the chest confirmed alveolar microlithiasis

89

Indications, diagnostic yields and complications of transbronchial biopsy over 5 years in the State of Qatar.  

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Our experience substantiates previous reports of the value and safety of transbronchial biopsy in the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative miliary TB. In diffuse lung diseases of a non-infectious nature, other than sarcoidosis, lymphangitis carcinomatosis and few other conditions, a pathological diagnosis are much less likely to be reliably made on small pieces of tissue such as those provided by TBB.

Abdulsalam S. Ibrahim

2005-04-01

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Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available dog Canis lupus ... familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus _fa ... miliaris_L.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus _familiaris_S.png Can ... is_lupus _familiaris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy ...

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GenBank blastn search result: AK059019 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059019 001-021-B02 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 2e-12 Plus Plus ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK104901 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK104901 001-046-D02 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 6e-67 +3 ...

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GenBank blastn search result: AK119240 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK119240 001-120-A04 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 4e-17 Plus Plus ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK059098 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059098 001-022-C07 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 1e-19 +2 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK058913 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058913 001-009-A01 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 7e-29 +1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK059228 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059228 001-024-D11 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 2e-13 +3 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK058686 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058686 001-019-A10 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 4e-16 +3 ...

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GenBank blastn search result: AK240854 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK240854 J065021E17 V01143.1 PMHIS7 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.). INV 5e-42 1 -1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK058540 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058540 001-017-B06 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 1e-28 +1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK059019 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059019 001-021-B02 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 7e-16 +2 ...

 
 
 
 
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GenBank blastx search result: AK058741 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058741 001-019-G08 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 5e-16 +2 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK058913 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058913 001-009-A01 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 1e-13 +1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK059228 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059228 001-024-D11 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 4e-26 +3 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK061605 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK061605 001-030-C05 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 2e-27 +1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK058436 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK058436 001-015-F07 V01144.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H1, H4, H2B, H3 and H2A ... (in that order, with many gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 3e-15 +1 ...

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GenBank blastx search result: AK059159 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK059159 001-023-D03 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 6e-12 +3 ...

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GenBank blastn search result: AK105816 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK105816 001-203-C11 V01143.1 Sea urchin (P. miliaris) gene for histones H4, H2B, H3, H2A and H1 ... , containing many sequence gaps). (see also ... for allelic sequence.).|INV INV 3e-17 Plus Plus ...

108

Imaging Features of Pediatric Pentastomiasis Infection: a Case Report  

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We report here a case of pentastomiasis infection in a 3-year-old girl who had high fever, abdominal pain, abdominal tension and anemia. Ultrasound scanning of the abdomen revealed disseminated hyperechoic nodules in the liver and a small amount of ascites. Abdominal MRI showed marked hepatomegaly with disseminated miliary nodules of high signal intensity throughout the hepatic parenchyma on T2-weighted images; retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and disseminated miliary nodules on the peritoneum were also noted. Chest CT showed scattered small hyperdense nodules on both sides of the lungs. The laparoscopy demonstrated diffuse white nodules on the liver surface and the peritoneum. After the small intestinal wall and peritoneal biopsy, histological examination revealed parenchymal tubercles containing several larvae of pentastomids and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration around them. The pathological diagnosis was parasitic granuloma from pentastomiasis infection

Lai, Can; Wang, Xi Qun; Lin, Long; Gao, De Chun; Zhang, Hong Xi; Zhang, Yi Ying; Zhou, Yin Bao [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang (China)

2010-08-15

109

Tuberculosis and TNF-inhibitors: history of exposure should outweigh investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 39-year-old Indian man was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis on colonic biopsy and started on mesalazine, prednisolone and azathioprine. However, the colitis remained active and required antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment with infliximab. Prior to starting infliximab, his chest X-ray was normal and QuantiFERON interferon ? release assay for tuberculosis (TB) was negative. However, his wife had been treated for pulmonary TB 11 years previously when they were cohabiting. On attending for his third dose of infliximab, he was feverish and tachycardic, and was admitted for investigation. Chest X-ray on admission showed changes consistent with miliary TB, and thoracic CT confirmed extensive miliary nodules with supraclavicular and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Abdominal CT showed multiple mesenteric lymph nodes. Subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage, neck lymph node aspirate and colonic biopsies all cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In retrospect, a clear history of close household TB exposure should have precipitated consideration of TB chemoprophylaxis prior to anti-TNF treatment. PMID:24798354

Reichmann, Michaela T; Marshall, Ben G; Cummings, Fraser; Elkington, Paul T

2014-01-01

110

Pulmonary Strongyloides stercoralis infection  

Science.gov (United States)

The 17-year-old male patient presented with fever, weakness, dyspnea and weight loss. His chest radiography demonstrated diffuse reticulonodular density, and high-resolution lung tomography indicated diffuse micronodules and prevalent ground-glass pattern. The findings were consistent with miliary involvement. The patient underwent examinations for rheumatology, immunology, cytology and infectious conditions. His immune system was normal and had no comorbidities or any history of immunosuppressive treatment. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were noted upon direct inspection of the feces. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved with albendazole 400 mg/day. This case is being presented since miliary involvement in the lungs caused by S. stercoralis infection in an individual with intact immune system is rare and difficult to diagnosis.

Dogan, Canan; Gayaf, Mine; Ozsoz, Ayse; Sahin, Birsen; Aksel, Nimet; Karasu, Isil; Aydogdu, Zekiye; Turgay, Nevin

2014-01-01

111

Immune Thrombocytopenia in Tuberculosis: Causal or Coincidental?  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune thrombocytopenia is a relatively rare hematological manifestation in tuberculosis. We report two cases of immune thrombocytopemia, one in sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis and the other in miliary tuberculosis. Antituberculous drugs and immunosuppressive therapy corrected the thrombocytopenia in both patients. Our case reports stress that tuberculosis should be considered during the evaluation of immune thrombocytopenia, and also highlights the safety of immunosuppressive therapy during active tuberculosis along with antituberculous drugs.

Srividya, Gopalakrishnan; Nikhila, Gopalakrishna Pillai Syamala; Kaushik, Adusumilli Venkatakrishna; Jayachandran, Kuppusamy

2014-01-01

112

Gefitinib and High-Dose Fractionated Radiotherapy for Carcinomatous Encephalitis from Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

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Carcinomatous encephalitis is a rapidly fatal form of metastasis caused by miliary spread of systemic cancer into the brain parenchyma. The diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment for this disease are not well defined. We report a patient with rapid neurologic deterioration from carcinomatous encephalitis from lung adenocarcinoma. She was treated with gefitinib and high-dose fractionated whole brain radiotherapy, and eventually improved neurologically and was discharged home on hospital day...

Wong, Eric T.; Wu, Julian K.; Mahadevan, Anand

2007-01-01

113

Combination therapy of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with caspofungin and fluconazole  

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Abstract Background The current recommended therapy for diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia involves initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate or high-dose fluconazole, followed by an azole after clinical improvement. Amphotericin B is more frequently used as initial therapy if the patient's deterioration is rapid. Case presentation A 31-year-old Korean male with coccidioidomycosis presented to the hospital with miliary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) and s...

Ja Kim Min; Kim Woo; Cheong Hee; Sohn Jang; Park Dae; Kim Je Hyeong; Shin Chol

2006-01-01

114

October 2014 imaging case of the month  

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Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 53-year-old man presents with fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. An admission chest radiograph (Figure 1 was obtained. What is the best term or phrase used to describe the salient radiographic abnormality? 1. Diffuse thick-walled cavitary lesions; 2. Interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema with effusions; 3. Miliary nodules; 4. Patchy consolidation; 5. Tension pneumothorax.

Sakla S

2014-10-01

115

Isolated hepatic tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Hepatic tuberculosis is usually associated with an active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis, but rarely localizes as a liver tumor mass. The clinical presentation of isolated liver tuberculosis is so rare and atypical that it challenges the clinical acumen of the treating physician. Diagnostic modalities like ultrasound and computed tomography can miss the diagnosis. Ultimately, the diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating an acid fast Mycobacterium in aspirated pus or necrotic material.

Bangroo A

2005-01-01

116

Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking Klatskin tumor: A diagnostic dilemma  

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Tubercular involvement of liver is rare and usually occurs in association with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis, as diffuse involvement without recognizable pulmonary tuberculosis or rarely in a localized form, which presents as a tuberculoma or tubercular abscess. We report the case of a 22-year-old boy presenting with features of obstructive jaundice and a clinico-radiological picture highly suggestive of a perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor), but found to have tubercular involve...

Arora Raman; Sharma Alok; Bhowate Prashant; Bansal Vijender; Guleria Sandeep; Dinda Amit

2008-01-01

117

Tuberculous abscess of the pancreas presenting as obstructive jaundice: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pancreatic tuberculosis is very rare, though dissemination to the gastrointestinal tract and mesenteric lymph nodes is common. We describe a case of pancreatic tuberculosis presenting as a cystic mass in the pancreatic head, with biliary obstruction, in a patient with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis. Surgery for the curative treatment of jaundice was performed, and the histopathologic findings indicated that a pancreatic abscess with caseous necrosis was present, consistent with tuberculosis

118

Tuberculous abscess of the pancreas presenting as obstructive jaundice: a case report  

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Pancreatic tuberculosis is very rare, though dissemination to the gastrointestinal tract and mesenteric lymph nodes is common. We describe a case of pancreatic tuberculosis presenting as a cystic mass in the pancreatic head, with biliary obstruction, in a patient with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis. Surgery for the curative treatment of jaundice was performed, and the histopathologic findings indicated that a pancreatic abscess with caseous necrosis was present, consistent with tuberculosis.

Yoo, Dong Kyun; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kang, Dae Young [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2002-06-01

119

[Palpebral cryptococcosis: case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is about a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome empirically treated for miliary tuberculosis. During the clinical evolution the patient presented lesions compromising the right eyelid and tarsal conjunctiva. The initial diagnostic hypothesis was ocular tuberculosis with conjunctival and eyelid involvement. The biopsy of the conjunctival lesion identified an encapsulated yeast-like fungus: Criptococcus neoformans. After starting treatment with B anfotericin, the cutaneus lesions cleared. PMID:16699682

Souza, Murilo Barreto; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Silva, Cristiana Silveira; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Matayoshi, Suzana

2006-01-01

120

Identification of non-pseudomonad bacteria from fruit bodies of wild agaricales fungi that detoxify tolaasin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial isolates from wild Agaricales fungi detoxified tolaasin, the inducer of brown blotch disease of cultivated mushrooms produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii. Mycetocola tolaasinivorans and Mycetocola lacteus were associated with fruit bodies of wild Pleurotus ostreatus and wild Lepista nuda, respectively. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria belonging to other genera were found in various wild mushrooms. An Acinetobacter sp. was isolated from fruit bodies of Tricholoma matsutake, Bacillus pumilus was isolated from Coprinus disseminatus, and Sphingobacterium multivorum was isolated from Clitocybe clavipes. A Pedobacter sp., which seemed not be identifiable as any known bacterial species, was isolated from a Clitocybe sp. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria identified thus far were attached to the surface of mycelia rather than residing within the fungal cells. M. tolaasinivorans, M. lacteus, B. pumilus, the Pedobacter sp., and S. multivorum efficiently detoxified tolaasin and strongly suppressed brown blotch development in cultivated P. ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus in vitro, but the Acinetobacter sp. did so less efficiently. These bacteria may be useful for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in tolaasin-detoxification, and may become biological control agents of mushroom disease. PMID:12450133

Tsukamoto, Takanori; Murata, Hitoshi; Shirata, Akira

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Impact of FDG PET in optimizing patient selection for cytoreductive surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer  

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To investigate the impact of PET and PET/CT scanning on decision-making in management planning and to identify the optimal setting for selecting candidates for surgery in suspicious recurrent ovarian cancer. A retrospective chart review was performed in patients with possible recurrent ovarian cancer after primary optimal cytoreduction and taxane/carboplatin chemotherapy who had undergone FDG PET or FDG PET/CT scans from July 2002 to August 2008 to help make treatment decisions. The analysis included 44 patients who had undergone a total of 89 PET scans. The positive PET scans were classified as follows. (1) localized (one or two localized sites of FDG uptake), (2) multiple (three or more sites of FDG uptake), (3) diffuse (extensive low-grade activity outlining serosal and peritoneal surfaces). Of the 89 PET scans, 52 (58.4 %) led to a change in management plan. The total number of patients in whom cytoreductive surgery was selected as the treatment of choice increased from 12 to 35. Miliary disseminated disease, which was not detected by PET scan, was found in 22.2 % of those receiving surgery. Miliary disseminated disease was detected in 6 of the 12 patients with recurrent disease whose treatment-free interval (TFI) was <12 months, whereas none of those with a TFI of ?12 months had such disease (P = 0.0031). PET or PET/CT is useful for selecting candidates for cytoreductive surgery among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. To avoid surgical attempts in those with miliary dissemination, patients with a TFI of ?12 months are the best candidates for cytoreductive surgery. (orig.)

Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe (Japan); Watari, Hidemichi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Takeda, Mahito; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Sapporo (Japan)

2014-03-15

122

Impact of FDG PET in optimizing patient selection for cytoreductive surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the impact of PET and PET/CT scanning on decision-making in management planning and to identify the optimal setting for selecting candidates for surgery in suspicious recurrent ovarian cancer. A retrospective chart review was performed in patients with possible recurrent ovarian cancer after primary optimal cytoreduction and taxane/carboplatin chemotherapy who had undergone FDG PET or FDG PET/CT scans from July 2002 to August 2008 to help make treatment decisions. The analysis included 44 patients who had undergone a total of 89 PET scans. The positive PET scans were classified as follows. (1) localized (one or two localized sites of FDG uptake), (2) multiple (three or more sites of FDG uptake), (3) diffuse (extensive low-grade activity outlining serosal and peritoneal surfaces). Of the 89 PET scans, 52 (58.4 %) led to a change in management plan. The total number of patients in whom cytoreductive surgery was selected as the treatment of choice increased from 12 to 35. Miliary disseminated disease, which was not detected by PET scan, was found in 22.2 % of those receiving surgery. Miliary disseminated disease was detected in 6 of the 12 patients with recurrent disease whose treatment-free interval (TFI) was <12 months, whereas none of those with a TFI of ?12 months had such disease (P = 0.0031). PET or PET/CT is useful for selecting candidates for cytoreductive surgery among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. To avoid surgical attempts in those with miliary dissemination, patients with a TFI of ?12 months are the best candidates for cytoreductive surgery. (orig.)

123

The pathology of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a herd of semi-free-ranging springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis  

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Full Text Available The first detailed description of the pathology of tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in springbok is reported. The springbok were part of a semi-free-ranging herd kept on the grounds of iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (LABS in the Kuils River district of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from three animals out of a total of 33 sampled, with two animals showing tuberculosis lesions. The index case was an adult ewe that showed advanced miliary tuberculosis with marked macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the lungs, pleura and respiratory lymph nodes, and numerous acid-fast bacilli. Six healthy rams were sampled nine months later and a pilot study indicated miliary tuberculosis lesions in one ram, which again were macroscopically most prominent in the lungs, pleura and respiratory lymph nodes. Macroscopic lesions were also noted in the sternal, iliac, prefemoral and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Microscopy in this animal revealed lesions in the macroscopically affected organs as well as numerous other lymph nodes, and suspected lesions occurred in the testicle and colon. Acid-fast bacilli were scarce to moderate in affected organs. Because of the miliary nature of the lesions in both affected animals, the route of infection could not be established conclusively. The lesions in most affected organs of both animals resembled classical tuberculous granulomas. A main study conducted on healthy animals 19 months after the pilot study failed to find any animal with tuberculosis lesions in the group of 25 sampled, and all were negative for mycobacteria via mycobacterial culture.

M.C. Williams

2010-09-01

124

[Malignant hemopathies combined with latent tuberculosis (a report of 2 cases)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cases of a combination of a malignant blood disease with latent tuberculosis are presented. One of the patients was with acute leukemia and the other one was with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (Lymphosarcoma). The blood disease dominated the clinical picture and determined the severity of the course and the lethal outcome. The post mortem examination revealed hepatosplenic form of miliary tuberculosis in both patients. In one of the patients caseous tuberculosis of the bronchopulmonary, peribronchial and periportal lymph nodes was found, too. The tuberculous process had a latent course without characteristic manifestations but it also led to worsening of the patients' condition. PMID:3673041

Naplatanova, N; Georgieva, R; K?rnolski, I

1987-01-01

125

Endocardial tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 30-year-old male patient with persistent fever, history of stroke, and a left atrial mass. He was diagnosed as miliary pulmonary tuberculosis radiologically and had fever despite 2 months of antitubercular treatment. The mass was excised and fever resolved. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were demonstrable on Ziehl Neelsen stain and routine histopathology. To the best of our knowledge, the visualization of AFB from an intracardiac lesion on ZN staining has not been reported earlier and tuberculosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of left atrial masses. PMID:25282244

Kandachar, Pranav; Guin, Devajyoti; Mohanty, Suravi; Sinha, Namita; George, Mary; Nagaraj, Savitha; Fathima, Saba; Lal, Navin

2014-10-01

126

Tuberculosis Can Mimic Lung Cancer: A Case Series  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis can mimic all pathological considerations of the lung and can present in many various forms and appearances. Most common radiographic appearances are cavitary, fibroproductive, exudative, acinary, micro and macronodular and miliary types. Six patients (5 men; ages ranging from 38 to 74 years who presented at our clinic during previous years were evaluated. In this case series report we discussed the consideration that, very rarely, post- primary lung tuberculosis presenting with large nodular and mass-like forms in a chest X-ray or tomography scan, can be considered as having a neoplastic pattern.

Levent Dalar

2013-03-01

127

Intraventricular haemorrhage due to ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm in tuberculous meningitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 9-year-old Asian boy with known miliary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus was successfully treated with chemotherapy and ventriculoperitoneal shunting, but re-presented 7 months later with an intraventricular haemorrhage secondary to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery mycotic aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully treated by craniotomy and clipping. Tuberculous mycotic intracranial aneurysms are rare, but they should be considered in patients with tuberculous meningitis, particularly when there is a rapid neurological deterioration which may represent rupture. PMID:11156304

Griffiths, S J; Sgouros, S; James, G; John, P

2000-12-01

128

Obstructive jaundice: a manifestation of pancreatic tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare and is most often associated with miliary tuberculosis or occurs in the immunocompromised patients. A case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient is presented with constitutional symptoms and obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computerised tomography showed a mass lesion in the head of pancreas. Histological examination of the peripancreatic lymph node and fine needle aspiration cytology from the head of pancreas confirmed the diagnosis following laparotomy. Patient recovered following the administration of antituberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:17824465

Pandya, Garvi; Dixit, Ramakant; Shelat, Vishal; Dixit, Kalpana; Shah, Nalin; Shah, Kusum

2007-03-01

129

CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

2012-06-15

130

CT and high resolution CT in diagnosis of pulmonary complications of bone marrow transplants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare conventional and high resolution CT for demonstrating pulmonary complications. 23 patients treated by bone marrow transplantation were included in the study between December 1990 and August 1991. These patients were examined radiologically at regular intervals following the transplants. In 9 patients lung changes were detected by CT: There were pneumonic infiltrates, including one CMV pneumonia, two cases of mild parenchymal fibrosis, two cases of extensive lung fibrosis and one of miliary tuberculosis. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional and high resolution techniques are discussed in relation to our findings. (orig.)

131

HRCT findings of chest complications in patients with leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of several chest complications occurring in leukemic patients were reviewed. Although most entities show non-specific HRCT findings including ground-glass opacity and air-space consolidation, characteristic findings are observed in several pulmonary complications including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, fungal infections, miliary tuberculosis, leukemic infiltration, pulmonary edema, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. A combination of these characteristic HRCT findings and the information obtained from the clinical setting may help in achieving a correct diagnosis of chest complications occurring in leukemic patients. (orig.)

132

HRCT findings of chest complications in patients with leukemia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of several chest complications occurring in leukemic patients were reviewed. Although most entities show non-specific HRCT findings including ground-glass opacity and air-space consolidation, characteristic findings are observed in several pulmonary complications including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, fungal infections, miliary tuberculosis, leukemic infiltration, pulmonary edema, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. A combination of these characteristic HRCT findings and the information obtained from the clinical setting may help in achieving a correct diagnosis of chest complications occurring in leukemic patients. (orig.)

Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Miura, Gouji; Emoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine (Japan)

2002-06-01

133

[Finding of the bacterial species Edwardsiella tarda in the aquarium fish Betta splendens].  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of the mass occurrence of a disease in the aquarium fish species Betta splendens is described; morphologically the disease was characterized by the finding of large dermal changes located mainly in the dorsal part and by miliary granulomata in liver, spleen and kidneys. The granulomata consisted of epitheloid light cells with centrally located necrosis. Gram-negative bacteria with morphological and biochemical characteristics corresponding to the bacterial species Edwardsiella tarda were isolated from the kidneys, liver and from the dermal lesion. The characteristics of the strains isolated by us were compared with the reference Edwardsiella strain (Bth 1/64) obtained from the Czechoslovak collection of type cultures, Prague. PMID:6407179

Vladík, P; Prouza, A; Vítovec, J

1983-01-01

134

Tinea incognito in children: 54 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of tinea incognito (TI) appears to have increased over recent years, although no large series of cases has been reported in children. The aim of this study was to analyse the main epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of TI diagnosed in children in comparison with other tineas. We undertook a retrospective study of 818 tineas diagnosed in children in a referral hospital between 1977 and 2006, concentrating on TI. Of the 54 TI diagnosed, 85% were in the last 15 years. Most children were older than 9 years of age. The most usual clinical forms were tinea corporis (46.3%) and tinea faciei (38.9%). Topical steroids alone had been used to treat 68.5% of the cases. Direct examination was positive in 91.5% of the cases examined. Culture was positive in 85.2% of cases. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.4%). This is the largest case series of childhood TI reported to date. TI has increased over recent years and important differences were found between these TI and the other tineas in children over the same period. PMID:20002310

del Boz, J; Crespo, V; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya, M

2011-05-01

135

Clinical variations in dermatophytosis in HIV infected patients  

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Full Text Available Dermatophyte infections are common in HIV infected patients and can occur at some point during their illness. They may show clinical variations. The present study was to note the prevalence and clinical variations in dermatophytosis in HIV infected patients. Out of 185 HIV infected patients screened at our hospital, the diagnosis of dermatophytosis was made in 41 cases. The prevalence of dermatophytosis was 22.2% Male to female ratio was 3:1 The mean age of our patients was 30.7 years. The occupations of our patients in decreasing order of frequency were labourers (43.9%, drivers (29.3% and rest were housewives, commercial sex workers etc. Heterosexual route was the most common mode of acquisition of HIV infection. Tinea corporis was the commonest dermatophyte infection and was seen in 22 (53.7% cases, followed by tinea cruris in 18 (49.9%, tinea pedis in 7 (17.1, tinea faciei in 6 (14.7% and one patient had tinea manum infection. Tinea unguium was recorded in 11 cases. Out of the 22 patients with tinea corporis, 19 were in the HIV Group IV. Ten of them presented with multiple, large sharply marginated areas of hyperkeratosis resembling dry scaly skin (anergic form of tinea corporis. Proximal white subungual onychomycosis (PWSO, thought to be pathognomonic of HIV was seen in 3 cases only. This study has brought into focus variations in presentations of dermatophytosis.

Kaviarasan P

2002-01-01

136

Epidemiology of dermatophytosis in patients referred to the medical mycology laboratory of Afzalipoor Faculty of Medicine in Kerman in 2007-2011  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that cause infection in the skin, hair and nails. Dermatophytic infections are one of the important health problems in the world that related to social and economic life of communities.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all suspected patients in the medical mycology laboratory of Afzalipoor Faculty in Kerman from March 2007 to March 2011. For each patient after obtaining the detailed history, direct smear, staining and culture on specific media were performed.Results: Out of 1800 referred cases, 166 patients were positive for dermatophytosis. The highest prevalence of infection was in the under 10 years old (28.31%, men and women were also involved equally. The most common agents of the cutaneous infection were Trichophyton mentagrophytes (45.78% and T. verrucosum (18.1%. The most common infections were tinea manuum (35.54%, tinea capitis (16.87, and the least common one was tinea faciei (4.82%.Conclusion: It is necessary to increase the level of community health in order to prevent this dermatophytosis.

Seyed Amin Ayetollahi Mosavi

2012-06-01

137

Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

2014-07-01

138

Radiographic study of soft tissue calcification in the oral and maxillofacial area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiographic findings of soft tissue calcification in the oral and maxillofacial area was analysed using panoramic, skull P-A and intraoral radiographs in 250 patients. The following results were obtained; 1. Salivary stone had the highest rate of occurrence at 46% (116 cases), followed by lymph node calcification (97 cases), phlebolith (21 cases), multiple miliary osteoma (15 cases), antrolith (1 case), vessel calcification (1 case) and cysticercosis (1 case). 2. The prevalence of salivary stone was slightly higher in females, on the right side and in the middle-aged group and was especially higher in the submandibular gland (83%). The majority of them were round-shaped, homogeneously radiopaque and associated with sialodochitis. 3. The prevalence of lymph node calcification was higher in the female and old-aged group. Irregular shape and radiopaque bodies were seen in the cervical area, bilaterally. 4. The prevalence of phlebolith was slightly higher in the male, and the third decade group. The radiopaque bodies were 4-8 mm in diameter and had laminated appearance. 5. The prevalence of multiple miliary osteoma was higher in old-aged females. The numerous doughnut-shaped radiopaque bodies, sized 2-4 mm in diameter, were seen bilaterally in the cheek and were usually associated with the edentulous ridge.

Park, Tae Won; Kim, Young Girl; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-02-15

139

Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

140

An Interesting Case of Dysphagia in a HIV Patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Oesophageal tuberculosis is a rare disease. Tuberculosis (TB) can cause dysphagia due to oesophageal ulcers, Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistulas (TOFs) and an extrinsic compression which is caused by the mediastinal lymph nodes. A 33-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of fever, dysphagia and cough. His chest X-ray was suggestive of miliary tuberculosis. A CT scan of his chest revealed miliary tuberculosis, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pneumomediastinum. His sputum AFB (acid-fast bacilli) test was positive. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a large ulcer in the oesophagus with a fistulous opening which was suggestive of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula. A biopsy from the ulcer was positive for AFB. The test for HIV-1 was positive. A nasogastric feeding tube was placed and the Anti Tubercular Therapy ( ATT) was started. The main aim of this case report is to sensitize the clinicians about the fact that Tuberculosis can present with dysphagia, especially in HIV patients. PMID:23634414

Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Ramapuram, John T.; Chowta, Nithyananda; Mahalingaman, Soundarya

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Imaging diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate CT and X-ray features of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients, patients post kidney transplantation, and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The authors reviewed CT scans in 20 patients with diabetic patients, X-ray films in 10 cases after kidney transplantation, and CT scans in 2 patients with AIDS. Results: CT features of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic diseases included larger confluent consolidation (10 cases ), multiple small cavities within any given lesion (9 cases ) and non-segmental distribution (2 cases). Satellite lesions were found in most films. The X-ray appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis post kidney transplantation included patch and larger confluent consolidation (6 cases), and miliary tuberculosis(4 cases). The CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with AIDS were enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (1 case), pulmonary infiltration (1 case), and extra chest lesions(2 cases) such as enlarged neck lymph nodes and post-peritoneal lymph nodes. Conclusion: The Main radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients appear larger confluent consolidation, multiple small cavities within a given lesion, miliary tuberculosis, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, and extra chest enlarged lymph nodes

142

Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil / Serpentes das ilhas costeiras do Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Há poucos estudos sobre a fauna de serpentes em ilhas costeiras do Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil e um baixo número de espécies depositadas em coleções zoológicas. No Brasil, pela primeira vez, foi realizado um inventário em 18 ilhas do litoral paulista a partir de pesquisa de registros nas [...] coleções herpetológicas do Sudeste do Brasil. Também foram realizadas coletas de campo em onze ilhas. Trinta e seis espécies de quatro famílias foram registradas: uma espécie de Boidae, trinta de Colubridae, uma de Elapidae e quatro de Viperidae. Os dados de campo apresentaram treze ocorrências novas de espécies sem registro nas coleções. Para estimar a raridade das espécies utilizaram-se categorias de abundância relativa: comum, não-freqüente e rara. Das espécies amostradas, 44,4% foram consideradas raras. As espécies mais comuns foram Micrurus corallinus, presente em doze ilhas; Bothrops jararaca e Liophis miliaris, presentes em onze ilhas, B. jararacussu e Chironius bicarinatus, presentes em 10 ilhas. Foram efetuados sete novos registros para a Ilha do Cardoso (25° 05’ S e 47° 59’ W): C. bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus e Xenodon neuwiedii; três para Ilha Comprida (24° 54’ S e 47° 48’ W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus e H. carinicaudus; um para Ilha Anchieta (23° 32’ S e 45° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; um para a Ilha das Couves (23° 25’ S e 44° 52’ W): L. miliaris; um para a Ilha dos Porcos (23° 23’ S e 44° 54’ W): B. jararaca. B. alcatraz e B. insularis, endêmicos à Ilha de Alcatrazes e à Ilha da Queimada Grande, respectivamente, são considerados criticamente em perigo segundo IUCN. Foi registrada a extinção da fauna de serpentes na Ilha Monte de Trigo. Os ecossistemas insulares, mais vulneráveis que os continentais, carecem de uma proteção mais efetiva. A maioria destas espécies (cerca de 52%) preda anfíbios, reforçando a necessidade de conservação das florestas. Abstract in english There are relatively few studies on snake fauna from coastal islands of the State of São Paulo (SSP), Southeastern Brazil and the number of species housed in Brazilian institutional zoological collections is relatively limited. In Brazil, for the first time, a snake inventory for eighteen islands of [...] coastal SSP is presented. Here we record data from sampling on eleven islands as well information on vouchered species in the main herpetological collections. Thirty-six species from four families: one Boidae, thirty Colubridae, one Elapidae and four Viperidae from eighteen islands are listed as well as the thirteen new island records for snakes. Relative abundance categories were used for species rarity: common, infrequent and rare; 44.4% of the snakes with voucher specimens were considered rare. The most common species in twelve of the eighteen islands was Micrurus corallinus; in eleven of the eighteen islands were Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris; in ten of the eighteen islands were B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus. The most common snake species on coastal islands were Micrurus corallinus which was found in twelve of the eighteen islands, followed by Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris found on eleven of the eighteen islands and B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus which were found in ten of the eighteen islands studied. There are seven new records of snake species for Cardoso Island (25° 05’ S and 047° 59’ W): C. bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus and Xenodon neuwiedii; three new records for Comprida Island (24° 54’ S and 47° 48’ W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus and H. carinicaudus; one for Anchieta Island (23° 32’ S and 045° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; one for Couves Island (23° 25’ S and 44° 52’ W): L. miliaris; one for Porcos Island (23° 23’ S and 44° 54’ W), B. jararaca. The endemi

Paulo José Pyles, Cicchi; Marco Aurélio de, Sena; Denise Maria, Peccinini-Seale; Marcelo Ribeiro, Duarte.

143

Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of Fusarium and Aspergillus are found. PMID:24533779

Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

2014-03-01

144

Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran, from 2000 to 2005  

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Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous fungal infections are common in Tehran, Iran, and causative organisms include dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. The prevalence of superficial mycosis infections has risen to such a level that skin mycoses now affect more than 20-25% of the world?s population, making them the most frequent form of infection. Aims: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of superficial cutaneous fungal infections especially dermatophytosis in our Medical Mycology Laboratory in the Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Methods: A total of 17,573 specimens were collected from clinically suspected tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea faciei, tinea pedis, tinea manuum and finger and toe onychomycosis from 2000 to 2005. Patients were referred to our laboratory for direct examination, fungal culture and identification. The incidence of each species was thus calculated. Results: Dermatophytes remain the most commonly isolated fungal organisms, except from clinically suspected finger onychomycosis, in which case Candida species comprise> 7% of the isolates. Epidermophyton floccosum remains the most prevalent fungal pathogen and increased incidence of this species was observed in tinea cruris. Trichophyton tonsurans continues to increase in incidence. Conclusion: This study identifies the epidemiologic trends and the predominant organisms causing dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran. These data can be used to ascertain the past and present trends in incidence, predict the adequacy of our current pharmacologic repertoire and provide insight into future developments. Consideration of the current epidemiologic trends in the incidence of cutaneous fungal pathogens is of key importance to investigational effort, diagnosis and treatment.

Bassiri-Jahromi Shahindokht

2009-01-01

145

A Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Clinically Important Dermatophytes in Iran Based on Specific RFLP Profiles of Beta-tubulin Gene  

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Full Text Available Background: Surveillance of dermatophytosis is essential to determine the likely changes in etiological trends and distribution profile of this infection. In this study beta tubulin gene (BT2, was used as the first time in a PCR-RFLP format to clarify the distribution of dermatophytosis agents in some parts of Iran.Methods: A total of 603 clinical isolates was obtained from 500 patients in Tehran, Isfahan, Mazandaran and Guilan provinces. The isolates were identified using macro/micro-morphological criteria and electrophoretic patterns of PCR amplicons of BT2after digestion with each of the restriction enzymes FatI, HpyCH4V, MwoI and Alw21I.Results: Among the patients, 59.2% were male and 40.8% female. The most prevalent clinical form was tinea pedis (42.4%, followed by tinea cruris (24.2%, tinea unguium (12.3%, tinea corporis (10.8%, tinea faciei (4%, tinea manuum (3.14%, tinea capitis (3% and tinea barbae (0.16%, respectively. Trichophyton interdigitale ranked the first, followed by T. rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, T. tonsurans, T. erinacei and T. violaceum (each 0.49% and the less frequent species were T. schoenleinii, M. gypseum and T. anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae (each 0.16%. A case of scalp infection by E. floccosum was an exceptional event in the study. No case of T. verrucosum was found.Conclusion: Trichophyton species and E. floccosum are yet the predominant agents of infection in Iran, while Microsporum species are decreasing. T. interdigitale and Tinea pedis remain as the most causal agent and clinical form of dermatophytosis, respectively. It seems that BT2 can be a useful genetic marker for epidemiological survey of common pathogenic dermatophytes.

Mahdi Abastabar

2013-09-01

146

Dermatophyte Infections in Primorsko-Goranska County, Croatia: a 21-year Survey.  

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This study examined the frequency of dermatophytoses in the Primorsko-Goranska County, a north-western part of Croatia, over a period of 21 years (1988-2008). All fungal samples were microscopically examined with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. Fungal infections were confirmed in 26.9% cases. Out of these, dermatophytes were isolated in 38.3%, Candida spp. infection in 55.1% cases, while non-dermatophyte molds were identified in 6.6% isolates. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes var. interdigitalis (55.4%), followed by Mycrosporum (M.) canis (36.9%), T. violaceum (3.2%), M. gypseum (2.2%), and T. verrucosum (1.3%). Epidermophyton (E.) floccosum (0.9%) and T. rubrum (0.1%) were identified only sporadically. The most common dermatophytosis diagnosed in the 21-year period was tinea pedis (26.2%) followed by tinea capitis (21.8%) and tinea corporis (20.1%). Toenail onychomycosis (14.5%) was more common than fingernail onychomycosis (2.0%). T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitalis was the major pathogen causing tinea pedis (86.6%) as well as toenail onychomycosis (93.9%), while M. canis was most frequently isolated in tinea capitis (98.6%), tinea corporis (62.1%), and tinea faciei (40.2%). With regard to age and sex, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitalis infections were predominant in middle-aged men. M. canis affected mostly children up to 9 years with a slight predominance in girls. Data from epidemiological trend analysis such as presented in our study are important for evidence-based public health measures for the prevention and control of dermatophytoses. PMID:25230057

Kaštelan, Marija; Utješinovi?-Gudelj, Vesna; Prpi?-Massari, Larisa; Brajac, Ines

2014-09-01

147

Incidence of Vesicobullous and Erosive Disorders of Neonates: Where and How Much to Worry?  

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OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incidence of dermatoses in neonates, stress the importance of simple noninvasive diagnostic procedures with perspective to actual need of active intervention. METHODS: Forty four neonates with vesicobullous lesions in Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics were evaluated with respect to diagnosis, required treatments and follow ups. RESULTS: Of the total 44 neonates, 29 were boys and 15 girls. Low birth weight (weight at birth less than 2,500 g as per WHO criteria) was seen in 19 neonates. Of the infectious dermatoses, most common were pyodermas. Four cases (9%) were diagnosed to be of staphylococcal pyoderma and impetigo and two cases each of Group A Streptococcal impetigo and neonatal tinea faciei (4.5% each), one case each of neonatal candidiasis, neonatal varicella/chickenpox and scabies (2.3% each) were seen. Of the transient skin lesions, erythema toxicum neonatorum was commonest of all, being seen in 18 neonates (41%), followed by four cases (9%) of miliaria crystallina, three cases of neonatal acne (6.8%) and two cases of sucking blisters (4.5%) and one case each of transient neonatal pustular melanosis, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, incontinentia pigmentii, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, pemphigus vulgaris and neonatal herpes simplex (2.3% each) were enrolled in this study (Fig. 1). Fig. 1 Piechart showing percentage and number of neonates with different diagnostic profiles in the study CONCLUSIONS: Certain specific considerations have to be born in mind while evaluating and managing neonatal dermatoses. Care has to be instituted to identify accurately infectious diseases and distinguish them from benign transient neonatal dermatoses. Some disorders first manifesting during the neonatal period may also represent harbingers of potential problems during adulthood. Finally, treatment modalities are instituted taking in account the actual diagnosis and judging if the treatment really is required or not. PMID:22037857

Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

2011-10-25

148

Coexistence of granulomatous enteric inflammation and neoplasia in an adult sheep.  

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A 7-year-old dairy sheep suffering from chronic loss of weight without diarrhea or anorexia was euthanized after failing to respond to any treatment (antibiotic and antiparasitic). The main findings at the necropsy of this animal were multifocal miliary nodules in several organs, mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine, and a segmental thickening of the jejunal wall. Histologic examination of the samples taken at the necropsy showed a multifocal chronic granulomatous inflammation, with mineralization and caseous necrosis at the core of the larger granulomas and scarce intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli consistent with a disseminated digestive tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological culture from these samples confirmed Mycobacterium avium subsp avium to be the etiologic agent of this infection. Histologically, the cause of the segmental thickening of the jejunal wall was found to be a small intestine adenocarcinoma, which in some areas coexisted with the granulomatous lesion. PMID:23456963

Benavides, J; Garcia-Pariente, C; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C

2013-11-01

149

Radiological profile of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV: concerning 171 observations in Kinshasa  

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This prospective descriptive study was conducted in Depistage center of the Tuberculosis treatment of Kabinda during a period of three months, had as objectives to study the radiological profile of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV and HIV- patients, then to compare the frequency of different radiological abnormalities between the two groups to determine some characteristics of co-infection HIV/TP+. Among 171 patients with contagious pulmonary tuberculosis, 50 patients had positive serology for HIV, a prevalence of 29,2%. The intrathoracic lymph nodes, localized lesions only in the lower field were more observed in HIV, as well as pleurisy and the absence of radiological abnormality. The only one case of miliary was HIV positive. By contrast, excavations and localized lesions in the upper field were predominant in HIV-. Atypical radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis were more common in patients with HIV infection.

150

Sepsis tuberculosa gravissima: Una presentación infrecuente en paciente con tratamiento inmunosupresor / Severe disseminated tuberculosis in a patient on immunosuppressive treatment: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. We report a 39-year-old female with an ulcerative colitis receiving prednisone, azathioprine and azulfidine that was admitted to hospital due to fever, anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. A chest CT scan showed mu [...] ltiple miliary micronodular images diffusely distributed and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes with central necrosis, suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. Antituberculous treatment was started but discontinued and the patient was treated as a bronchiolitis obliterans with methylprednisolone pulses and discharged. She was readmitted in shock one week later and died. After her death cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were informed as positive. The clinical picture of the patient is known as sepsis tuberculosa gravissima.

Rafael, Silva; Juan, Jara; Tulio, Soto; Pedro, Sepúlveda.

2011-06-01

151

[Spontaneus abortion caused by Listeria monocytogenes--report of three cases].  

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This paper describes three cases of spontaneous abortion caused by Listeria monocytogenes which were diagnosed during the outbreak of listeriosis in late 2006. Both clinical and morphological features were highly consistent. The abortion between 19 and 20 weeks of gestation was preceded by high maternal fever. The fetal disease was miliary widespread with involvement of adrenals, liver and lungs in particular. There was always present a pustular rash. Histological examination of the placentas revealed acute chorioamnionitis with massive growth of gram-positive rods in the amnion in all cases. Acute villitis and intervillous microabscesses were additionally noted in one case. The diagnosis in all reported cases was not established until fetal autopsy. The final diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological examination using samples submitted during the autopsy examination. PMID:18783138

Jezová, M; Múcková, K; Koukalová, P

2008-07-01

152

Radiographic presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in young children.  

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Ten cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients under 6 years of age occurring between July 1994 and June 1998 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs showed air-space consolidation (n = 4), micronodular (n = 3) and miliary lesions (n = 1). Two patients showed non-specific bronchopneumonic infiltrations. Other uncommon radiographic findings include pneumatocele formation and pleural effusion. Lymphadenopathies were detected in 6 (60%) cases using chest radiographs or computed tomography (CT), commonly with involvement of the paratracheal and hilar lymph nodes. However, most lymph node enlargement was not noted in routine postero-anterior (PA) radiographs and usually required a chest CT scan for confirmation. Since lymphadenopathy is common in children with pulmonary TB in Taiwan, we suggest using chest CT scans to detect such pathology in cases of suspected TB if other diagnostic tests are not conclusive. PMID:10910609

Wong, K S; Huang, Y C; Lin, T Y

1999-01-01

153

Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).  

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A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin. PMID:25000718

Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

2014-06-01

154

Gefitinib and high-dose fractionated radiotherapy for carcinomatous encephalitis from non-small cell lung carcinoma.  

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Carcinomatous encephalitis is a rapidly fatal form of metastasis caused by miliary spread of systemic cancer into the brain parenchyma. The diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment for this disease are not well defined. We report a patient with rapid neurologic deterioration from carcinomatous encephalitis from lung adenocarcinoma. She was treated with gefitinib and high-dose fractionated whole brain radiotherapy, and eventually improved neurologically and was discharged home on hospital day 48. Gefitinib and high-dose fractionated radiotherapy may have synergistic activity in patients with carcinomatous encephalitis from non-small cell lung cancer having favorable prognostic factors. More importantly, timely recognition of this disease and the use of large fraction radiation therapy are necessary to control rapid neurologic deterioration. PMID:19707341

Wong, Eric T; Wu, Julian K; Mahadevan, Anand

2007-09-01

155

Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii in foals with respiratory distress  

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Five 3-month-old foals presenting with fever and respiratory disease were found to have pulmonary abscesses with patchy to diffuse alveolar and interstitial pneumonia on post-mortem examination. All affected foals had evidence of Rhodococcus equi infection and had few to abundant Pneumocystis carinii cysts in the sections of affected lung. Of the 5 foals examined radiographically, 3 had a distinct reticulonodular (miliary) pattern which may aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Leukocyte counts of foals with PCP were significantly greater than in the control group of foals with uncomplicated bacterial pneumonia. Foals with PCP tended to be more tachypnoeic than the control foals and 4 of the 5 PCP+ foals appeared dyspnoeic before death. The ante-mortem recognition of PCP may be expedited by bronchoalveolar lavage and successful treatment of foals with PCP may require the administration of adequate levels of potentiated sulphonamides

156

Cerebral angiography of moyamoya's disease  

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Objective: To study the diagnostic method and bleeding mechanism of the hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. Methods: Head CT, cerebral arteriography for all and partial lumbar CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) centesis was undertaken in 67 cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Results: 67 cases of hemorrhagic moyamoya disease always involved unilateral or bilateral internal carotid and/or vertebral arterial branches with abnormal hyperplasia of small vessels at the same area. CT scan showed intracranial hemorrhagic foci in different parts clearly. Vasculitis caused by immunologic effect led to cerebral arterial stenosis or occlusion with compensatory small vascular hyperplasia. The mechanism of thinning of these vascular walls enlargement of vascular lumen, rupture of miliary or cystic aneurysms and infraependymal infarctions were due to bleeding and rebleeding. Conclusion: Percutaneous pancerebral arteriography is the main diagnostic method for Moyamoyas disease

157

The snake community of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: composition, abundance, richness and diversity in areas with different conservation degrees A comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil: composição, abundância, riqueza e diversidade em áreas com diferentes graus de conservação  

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Full Text Available We studied and compared parameters of the snake community of the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (22º 48'-22º 51' S and 43º 31'-43º 28' W, such as: abundance distribution, richness, species diversity and biomass, between forested areas, areas under regeneration and agriculture areas (banana plantations; to obtain information about the natural history and facilitate the development of future research. For capturing the snakes we used: pitfall traps, drift-fences and visual search (diurnal and nocturnal along four transects for each habitat. The captured snakes were measured with a tape and caliper, weighed with dynamometers and sexed with the use of a catheter. The animals marked (with ventral scales cut were released for posterior recapture. One individual per species was fixed and deposited at the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. We undertook an effort of 840 man/hour, and captured a total of 207 snakes belonging to 25 species (Colubridae 80.2%, Elapidae 12.6%, Viperidae 6.3% and Boidae 0.9%. The most abundant were: Liophis miliaris (n = 33, Micrurus corallinus and Chironius fuscus (both with n = 26; the least abundant: Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus and Tropidodryas serra (all with n = 1. The species that contributed the greatest biomass were Spilotes pullatus (7,925 g, Chironius laevicollis (4,694 g, Liophis miliaris (3,675 g and Pseustes sulphureus (3,050 g; those that contributed the lowest biomass were: Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (both with 4 g and Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g. We found significant differences between the sampled habitats at the Serra do Mendanha (undisturbed forest, secondary forest and banana plantations. The results showed that a great reduction in the abundance, richness, diversity and biomass of the snakes occurs when the native forest is replaced by banana plantations.Estudamos e comparamos parâmetros da comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º 48'-22º 51' S e 43º 28'-43º 31' W, tais como: distribuição de abundância, riqueza e diversidade de espécies e biomassa total, entre áreas florestadas, áreas em regeneração e áreas agrícolas (bananais; para obter informações sobre a história natural e facilitar o desenvolvimento de futuros estudos. Para a captura dos animais foram usadas armadilhas de queda (pitfalls com cercas-guia e procura visual (diurna e noturna ao longo de quatro transectos por ambiente. As serpentes capturadas foram identificadas, medidas com trena e paquímetro, pesadas com dinamômetro e sexadas com uso de cateter. Um exemplar por espécie foi fixado e depositado como material testemunho no Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Os demais indivíduos coletados foram marcados (com corte de escamas ventrais e soltos. Empreendemos um esforço de cerca de 840 h/homem, resultando na captura de 207 serpentes pertencentes a 25 espécies (Colubridae 80,2%, Elapidae 12,6%, Viperidae 6,3% e Boidae 0,9%. As três espécies mais abundantes foram Liophis miliaris (n = 33, Micrurus corallinus e Chironius fuscus (ambas com n = 26, sendo as três menos abundantes Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus e Tropidodryas serra (todas com n = 1. Contribuíram com a maior biomassa Spilotes pullatus (7.925 g, Chironius laevicollis (4.694 g, Liophis miliaris (3.675 g e Pseustes sulphureus (3.050 g. As que menos contribuíram foram Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (ambas com 4 g e Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g. Encontramos diferenças significativas nos parâmetros estudados entre os três tipos de ambientes amostrados na Serra do Mendanha (mata pouco perturbada, mata secundária e monocultura de bananeiras. Os resultados indicaram uma acentuada redução na abundância, riqueza, diversidade e biomassa de serpentes quando a floresta nativa é substituída pela monocultura de bananeiras.

JAL. Pontes

2009-08-01

158

April 2014 imaging case of the month  

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Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Clinical History: A 34-year-old woman presented with complaints of abdominal fullness. The patient described a history of several pneumonias, successfully treated with antibiotics. Liver function testing showed a mild transaminitis. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed. Which of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate? 1. The chest radiograph shows multifocal coarse linear opacities suggesting bronchiectasis; 2. The chest radiograph shows multifocal ground-glass opacity and consolidation; 3. The chest radiograph shows multifocal, somewhat basal predominant linear opacities within diminished lung volumes, suggesting fibrosis; 4. The chest radiograph shows multiple small nodules, suggesting a miliary pattern; 5. The chest radiograph shows symmetric, basal predominant fine linear and reticular abnormalities without architectural distortion...

Eric A. Jensen

2014-04-01

159

Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking Klatskin tumor: a diagnostic dilemma.  

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Tubercular involvement of liver is rare and usually occurs in association with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis, as diffuse involvement without recognizable pulmonary tuberculosis or rarely in a localized form, which presents as a tuberculoma or tubercular abscess. We report the case of a 22-year-old boy presenting with features of obstructive jaundice and a clinico-radiological picture highly suggestive of a perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor), but found to have tubercular involvement of porta hepatis. We review the literature on this unusual presentation, highlight the considerable diagnostic challenge such cases can pose, and also emphasize the need to consider tuberculosis in differential diagnosis of lesions involving the porta hepatis, particularly in areas endemic for the disease. PMID:18723964

Arora, Raman; Sharma, Alok; Bhowate, Prashant; Bansal, Vijender Kumar; Guleria, Sandeep; Dinda, Amit Kumar

2008-01-01

160

Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking Klatskin tumor: A diagnostic dilemma  

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Full Text Available Tubercular involvement of liver is rare and usually occurs in association with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis, as diffuse involvement without recognizable pulmonary tuberculosis or rarely in a localized form, which presents as a tuberculoma or tubercular abscess. We report the case of a 22-year-old boy presenting with features of obstructive jaundice and a clinico-radiological picture highly suggestive of a perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor, but found to have tubercular involvement of porta hepatis. We review the literature on this unusual presentation, highlight the considerable diagnostic challenge such cases can pose, and also emphasize the need to consider tuberculosis in differential diagnosis of lesions involving the porta hepatis, particularly in areas endemic for the disease.

Arora Raman

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to the expected occurrence for the state of Santa Catarina. The four most frequent species were Philodryas patagoniensis (n = 22; 13.33%, Liophis miliaris (n = 21; 12.72%, P. aestiva (n = 13; 7.87% and Bothrops jararaca (n = 12; 7.27%, which represent together about 41% of the snakes found dead on the roads. We extend the known distribution of Imantodes cenchoa by about 60km southward.

Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

2009-06-01

162

Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use : A New World of Defense and Commercial in 21st Century Security  

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Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment that aims at the global protection of the mankind. Aeropsace is also a natural environment for dual use: many of the related enabling technologies have been first developed for the military world and then applied to civil - including commercial - purposes.

2008-01-01

163

[Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis. PMID:24973320

Favrot; Rostaher; Fischer

2014-07-01

164

Combination therapy of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with caspofungin and fluconazole  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The current recommended therapy for diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia involves initial treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate or high-dose fluconazole, followed by an azole after clinical improvement. Amphotericin B is more frequently used as initial therapy if the patient's deterioration is rapid. Case presentation A 31-year-old Korean male with coccidioidomycosis presented to the hospital with miliary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR and skin rash on the face and trunk. Initially, the patient did not respond to amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy. However, following caspofungin and fluconazole combination therapy, the patient showed favourable radiological, serological, and clinical response. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia with skin involvement in an immunocompetent patient who was treated successfully with caspofungin and fluconazole. Combination therapy with caspofungin and fluconazole may, therefore, be an alternative treatment for diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia that does not respond to amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy.

Ja Kim Min

2006-02-01

165

Two Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Dual Scheduling Problems  

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Full Text Available Scheduling problems with mutiple objectives play increasing important roles in solving complicated problems apparing in the fields of economy, management , engineering, miliary affairs and society etc. In this paper, we give two polynomial-time algorithms when all tardy jobs are given for the two binary NP-hard problems 1 **and **. For the problem 1 **, schedule job k last , where **, and ** is the set of jobs which are not tardy even when processed last , L is set of tardy jobs; For the problem 1 **, schedule job k last , where ** if M is empt; else choose any job in M. In the end, we give prooves of the schedule which got from the polynomial-time algorithm is an optimal solution for the scheduling problemwith weighted agreeable condition respretively.(* Indicates a formula, please see the full text

TANG Guo-chun

2010-03-01

166

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS  

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Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Achiléa Bittencourt

2002-12-01

167

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS  

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Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Achiléa Bittencourt

2003-06-01

168

Radiological aspects of intrathoracir paracoccidio mycosis (PS). A review of 170 cases  

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Radiological aspects of intrathoracic paracoccidioidomycosis (PS). A review of 170 cases. A review of chest X-rays of 170 patients with PS showed predominance in males and a greater incidence in the 25-65 age-group. The authors suggest two forms of pulmonary involvement, pure and mixed respectively, each one with different pattern such as: fine reticular, coarse reticular, lymphonodular, nodular, miliary, pseudo-pneumonic and excavated. The late one was found just in association with any of the patterns described. The pure form of PS was predominantly fine reticular. Among the mixed types the reticulum-nodular pattern was most frequently found. Hyperinsulflation was frequently found and the inverted ''Y'' sign was considered important in the differential diagnosis with other fibrotic type of pulmonary infiltrates. (author)

169

A case of calcified intracranial tuberculoma presenting unique MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 41-year-old male patient was admitted in our Ryukyu University Hospital complaining of parosmia. He had a history of miliary tuberculosis 21 years ago. Neurologically he showed left anosmia and hyperreflexia of the right upper extremity. Plain skull X-P and CT scan revealed a calcified mass, 25 mm in diameter, at the left frontal base. In MRI, the mass showed isointensity using the T1 weighted inversion recovery sequence and heterogenously low intensity using the T2 weighted spin echo sequence. Surgery was performed by bifrontal craniotomy. Then the tumor was removed totally including two coexisting small tumors. Histologically, they consisted of calcified caseous tissue and thick collagen capsule, suggesting old calcified tuberculomas. Postoperative course was uneventful and did not result in meningitis. Antituberculous therapy of streptmycin, isoniazid and rifapicin was given for 2 weeks, started on the operative day. MRI findings were presented in detail and the guideline of antituberculous therapy to the tuberculoma was discussed. (author)

170

Chest X-Ray Findings of Sputum Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Rafsanjan City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plain chest x- ray is the first imaging modality for suspected tuberculosis patients because it is available, sensitive and inexpensive . The aim of this study was to identify the plain x- ray findings in sputum positive tuberculosis patients . One hundred and fourteen plain chest films of sputum positive tuberculosis patients that referred to health center of Rafsanjan were evaluated between 1988 and 1996 . This investigation was a retrospective cross sectional study that showed 92% of the cases had positive radiographic findings and 8% had normal chest x- ray. The most commom radiographic findings was exudative (pneumonic tubercolosis of lungs and other radiographic findings with decreasing frequency include: cavitation , fibro productive tuberculosis , pleural effusion, calcification, bronchopneumonia , atelectasis , lymphadenopathy bronchectasis and miliary tuberculosis.

H. Farahmand

2004-01-01

171

November 2012 imaging case of the month  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of first page. Clinical History: A 61-year-old non-smoking man presented with a history of dyspnea on exertion; fatigue; and worsening lower extremity edema. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed.Figure 1. Frontal chest radiographyWhich of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate?1.The frontal chest radiograph is normal 2.The frontal chest radiograph shows a diffuse linear; interstitial pattern3.The frontal chest radiograph shows multilobar consolidation4.The frontal chest radiograph shows numerous thin-walled cysts5.The frontal chest radiograph shows numerous small nodules consistent with a “miliary” pattern…

Gotway MB

2012-11-01

172

May 2014 imaging case of the month  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Clinical History: A 66-year-old woman presented with complaints of cough worsening over the previous several months. Her prior medical history was largely otherwise unremarkable. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed for evaluation. Which of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate? 1. The chest radiograph shows a solitary pulmonary nodule; 2. The chest radiograph shows multifocal airway thickening and bronchiectasis; 3. The chest radiograph shows multifocal, bilateral cavitary nodules and consolidation; 4. The chest radiograph shows multifocal, somewhat basal predominant linear opacities within diminished lung volumes, suggesting fibrosis; 5. The chest radiograph shows multiple small nodules, suggesting a miliary pattern ...

Gotway MB

2014-05-01

173

October 2012 imaging case of the month  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Clinical History: A 65-year-old non-smoking woman presented with a history of cough, exertional dyspnea, and occasional wheezing. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed.Figure 1. Admission chest x-ray.Which of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate?1.The frontal chest radiograph is normal 2.The frontal chest radiograph is non-specifically abnormal3.The frontal chest radiograph shows numerous small nodules, consistent with a “miliary” pattern4. The frontal chest radiograph shows significant right lung volume loss, suggesting endobronchial obstruction5.The frontal chest radiograph shows diffuse fibrotic lung disease

Gotway MB

2012-10-01

174

Diagnosis and standardized report for non-small cell lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the assessment of lung cancer, computed tomography guides the use of bronchoscopy and establishes whether local treatment may be appropriate for the NSCLC or whether it is at an advanced stage. Percutaneous biopsy of a lesion suspected to be a metastasis can provide histological confirmation, allowing staging to be carried out at the same time. The initial presentation depends on the staging and histological type, ranging from an isolated nodule or mass to atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia, isolated lymph node disease or isolated pleural effusion to miliary metastasis in tumors showing EGFR mutation. Tumor (T) status depends on tumor size, distance from the carina, and invasion of the chest wall and mediastinal organs. PET-CT is superior to CT in identifying lymph node invasion (N2 for ipsilateral mediastinal disease and N3 for contralateral or supraclavicular disease). As a general rule, all contraindications for surgery should be confirmed via histological examination, with the exception of cerebral metastases. PMID:25022727

Revel, M-P; Carette, M-F; Torrent, M; Trédaniel, J

2014-01-01

175

Sepsis tuberculosa gravissima: Una presentación infrecuente en paciente con tratamiento inmunosupresor / Severe disseminated tuberculosis in a patient on immunosuppressive treatment: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. We report a 39-year-old female with an ulcerative colitis receiving prednisone, azathioprine and azulfidine that was admitted to hospital due to fever, anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. A chest CT scan showed mu [...] ltiple miliary micronodular images diffusely distributed and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes with central necrosis, suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. Antituberculous treatment was started but discontinued and the patient was treated as a bronchiolitis obliterans with methylprednisolone pulses and discharged. She was readmitted in shock one week later and died. After her death cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were informed as positive. The clinical picture of the patient is known as sepsis tuberculosa gravissima.

Rafael, Silva; Juan, Jara; Tulio, Soto; Pedro, Sepúlveda.

176

Sepsis tuberculosa gravissima: Una presentación infrecuente en paciente con tratamiento inmunosupresor Severe disseminated tuberculosis in a patient on immunosuppressive treatment: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. We report a 39-year-old female with an ulcerative colitis receiving prednisone, azathioprine and azulfidine that was admitted to hospital due to fever, anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. A chest CT scan showed multiple miliary micronodular images diffusely distributed and mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes with central necrosis, suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. Antituberculous treatment was started but discontinued and the patient was treated as a bronchiolitis obliterans with methylprednisolone pulses and discharged. She was readmitted in shock one week later and died. After her death cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were informed as positive. The clinical picture of the patient is known as sepsis tuberculosa gravissima.

Rafael Silva

2011-06-01

177

Encefalitis carcinomatosa / Carcinomatous encephalitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comunica un caso de encefalitis carcinomatosa, en un paciente con diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de pulmón y síndrome confusional. Esta entidad es poco conocida en relación a otras afecciones neurológicas relacionadas al cáncer. Se discute su presentación clínica, se destaca la necesidad de sospec [...] harla aun luego de obtener una tomografía computada normal y sus típicas imágenes miliares en resonancia magnética. Abstract in english We report a case of carcinomatous encephalitis in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma and confusional syndrome. This is a rare form of brain metastases. We discuss its clinical picture, the importance of suspecting it after a normal computed tomography scan and the miliary typical images at magnetic [...] resonance.

Flavio, Sánchez; Marcelo, Zylberman; Shigeru, Kozima; Gabriela, Tossen; Nebil, Larrañaga; Reinaldo, Chacon.

178

The snake community of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: composition, abundance, richness and diversity in areas with different conservation degrees / A comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil: composição, abundância, riqueza e diversidade em áreas com diferentes graus de conservação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudamos e comparamos parâmetros da comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º 48'-22º 51' S e 43º 28'-43º 31' W), tais como: distribuição de abundância, riqueza e diversidade de espécies e biomassa total, entre áreas florestadas, áreas em regeneração e área [...] s agrícolas (bananais); para obter informações sobre a história natural e facilitar o desenvolvimento de futuros estudos. Para a captura dos animais foram usadas armadilhas de queda (pitfalls) com cercas-guia e procura visual (diurna e noturna) ao longo de quatro transectos por ambiente. As serpentes capturadas foram identificadas, medidas com trena e paquímetro, pesadas com dinamômetro e sexadas com uso de cateter. Um exemplar por espécie foi fixado e depositado como material testemunho no Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Os demais indivíduos coletados foram marcados (com corte de escamas ventrais) e soltos. Empreendemos um esforço de cerca de 840 h/homem, resultando na captura de 207 serpentes pertencentes a 25 espécies (Colubridae 80,2%, Elapidae 12,6%, Viperidae 6,3% e Boidae 0,9%). As três espécies mais abundantes foram Liophis miliaris (n = 33), Micrurus corallinus e Chironius fuscus (ambas com n = 26), sendo as três menos abundantes Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus e Tropidodryas serra (todas com n = 1). Contribuíram com a maior biomassa Spilotes pullatus (7.925 g), Chironius laevicollis (4.694 g), Liophis miliaris (3.675 g) e Pseustes sulphureus (3.050 g). As que menos contribuíram foram Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (ambas com 4 g) e Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g). Encontramos diferenças significativas nos parâmetros estudados entre os três tipos de ambientes amostrados na Serra do Mendanha (mata pouco perturbada, mata secundária e monocultura de bananeiras). Os resultados indicaram uma acentuada redução na abundância, riqueza, diversidade e biomassa de serpentes quando a floresta nativa é substituída pela monocultura de bananeiras. Abstract in english We studied and compared parameters of the snake community of the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (22º 48'-22º 51' S and 43º 31'-43º 28' W), such as: abundance distribution, richness, species diversity and biomass, between forested areas, areas under regeneration and agri [...] culture areas (banana plantations); to obtain information about the natural history and facilitate the development of future research. For capturing the snakes we used: pitfall traps, drift-fences and visual search (diurnal and nocturnal) along four transects for each habitat. The captured snakes were measured with a tape and caliper, weighed with dynamometers and sexed with the use of a catheter. The animals marked (with ventral scales cut) were released for posterior recapture. One individual per species was fixed and deposited at the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. We undertook an effort of 840 man/hour, and captured a total of 207 snakes belonging to 25 species (Colubridae 80.2%, Elapidae 12.6%, Viperidae 6.3% and Boidae 0.9%). The most abundant were: Liophis miliaris (n = 33), Micrurus corallinus and Chironius fuscus (both with n = 26); the least abundant: Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus and Tropidodryas serra (all with n = 1). The species that contributed the greatest biomass were Spilotes pullatus (7,925 g), Chironius laevicollis (4,694 g), Liophis miliaris (3,675 g) and Pseustes sulphureus (3,050 g); those that contributed the lowest biomass were: Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (both with 4 g) and Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g). We found significant differences between the sampled habitats at the Serra do Mendanha (undisturbed forest, secondary forest and banana plantations). The results showed that a great reduction in the abundance, richness, diversity and biomass of the snakes occurs when the native forest is replaced by banana plantations.

JAL., Pontes; RC., Pontes; CFD., Rocha.

179

An radiography study of pediatric pulmonary cryptococcosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptococcosis is a cosmopolitan mycotic disease caused by a yeast like fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Respiratory tract, as portal of entry, is the initial focus of infection. Initial pulmonary lesion may heal with or without dissemination of the disease. Authors reviewed 8 cases of confirmed cryptococcosis during Jan. 1973 to June 1981 at Seoul National University Hospital. The results are as follows: Majority of the cases are below 5 years old. The most common symptoms are fever, abdominal pain and distension, and respiratory symptoms in only 2 cases. The involved organs are liver, lymph node, spleen, meninges, and skin in the order of frequency. Chest P-A roentgenograms show both hilar enlargement with perihilar and basilar, linear and small nodular infiltrations. Miliary nodular lesions and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were also noted

180

Criptococose palpebral: relato de caso Palpebral cryptococcosis: case report  

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Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma paciente portadora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida empiricamente tratada com esquema tríplice para tuberculose miliar. Durante a evolução clínica a paciente cursou com lesões comprometendo a pálpebra e conjuntiva tarsal à direita. A hipótese diagnóstica inicial foi de tuberculose ocular com comprometimento conjuntival e palpebral. A biópsia da lesão conjuntival mostrou presença do Criptococcus neoformans. Após o início do tratamento específico com anfotericina B, a paciente apresentou melhora das lesões cutâneas.This paper is about a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome empirically treated for miliary tuberculosis. During the clinical evolution the patient presented lesions compromising the right eyelid and tarsal conjunctiva. The initial diagnostic hypothesis was ocular tuberculosis with conjunctival and eyelid involvement. The biopsy of the conjuctival lesion identified an encapsulated yeast-like fungus: Criptococcus neoformans. After starting treatment with B anfotericin, the cutaneus lesions cleared.

Murilo Barreto Souza

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Criptococose palpebral: relato de caso / Palpebral cryptococcosis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se o caso de uma paciente portadora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida empiricamente tratada com esquema tríplice para tuberculose miliar. Durante a evolução clínica a paciente cursou com lesões comprometendo a pálpebra e conjuntiva tarsal à direita. A hipótese diagnóstica inicial foi [...] de tuberculose ocular com comprometimento conjuntival e palpebral. A biópsia da lesão conjuntival mostrou presença do Criptococcus neoformans. Após o início do tratamento específico com anfotericina B, a paciente apresentou melhora das lesões cutâneas. Abstract in english This paper is about a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome empirically treated for miliary tuberculosis. During the clinical evolution the patient presented lesions compromising the right eyelid and tarsal conjunctiva. The initial diagnostic hypothesis was ocular tuberculosis with conjunc [...] tival and eyelid involvement. The biopsy of the conjuctival lesion identified an encapsulated yeast-like fungus: Criptococcus neoformans. After starting treatment with B anfotericin, the cutaneus lesions cleared.

Murilo Barreto, Souza; Carlos Sergio Nascimento, Melo; Cristiana Silveira, Silva; Ruth Miyuki, Santo; Suzana, Matayoshi.

182

Magnetic resonance imaging in acute intractional tuberculosis; Magnetresonanztomographie bei akuter intrakranieller Tuberkulose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reported three cases of acute intracranial tuberculosis including miliary tuberculosis, basal meningitis, tuberculomas and neuritis of cranial nerves. All patients had native and contrast enhanced CT and MRI scans. MRI revealed more granulomas and a better imaging contrast in the detection of basal meningitis. Neuritis was diagnosed only with the MRI. MRI scans should be prefered as the imaging procedure in clinically presumed intracranial tuberculosis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Befunde von drei Patienten mit intrakranieller Tuberkulose (intrakranielle Miliartuberkulose, Meningitis tuberculosa, Neuritis und Tuberkulome) in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) wurden mit der Computertomographie (CT) verglichen. Sowohl die MRT als auch die CT wurden nativ und nach Kontrastmittelgabe durchgefuehrt. Die MRT zeigte sich im Nachweis von Granulomen insbesondere im Bereich des Hirnstamms ueberlegen. Ebenso wurde ein hoeherer Bildkontrast bei der Darstellung der Meningitis beobachtet. Eine Neuritis der Hirnnerven war nur mit der MRT nachweisbar. Die kontrastmittelunterstuetzte MRT sollte in der bildgebenden Diagnostik einer intrakraniellen Turberkulose primaer zum Einsatz gelangen. (orig.)

Venz, S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Sander, B. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Benndorf, G. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Terstegge, K. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Podrabsky, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Cordes, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-31

183

The snake community of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: composition, abundance, richness and diversity in areas with different conservation degrees / A comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil: composição, abundância, riqueza e diversidade em áreas com diferentes graus de conservação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudamos e comparamos parâmetros da comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (22º 48'-22º 51' S e 43º 28'-43º 31' W), tais como: distribuição de abundância, riqueza e diversidade de espécies e biomassa total, entre áreas florestadas, áreas em regeneração e área [...] s agrícolas (bananais); para obter informações sobre a história natural e facilitar o desenvolvimento de futuros estudos. Para a captura dos animais foram usadas armadilhas de queda (pitfalls) com cercas-guia e procura visual (diurna e noturna) ao longo de quatro transectos por ambiente. As serpentes capturadas foram identificadas, medidas com trena e paquímetro, pesadas com dinamômetro e sexadas com uso de cateter. Um exemplar por espécie foi fixado e depositado como material testemunho no Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Os demais indivíduos coletados foram marcados (com corte de escamas ventrais) e soltos. Empreendemos um esforço de cerca de 840 h/homem, resultando na captura de 207 serpentes pertencentes a 25 espécies (Colubridae 80,2%, Elapidae 12,6%, Viperidae 6,3% e Boidae 0,9%). As três espécies mais abundantes foram Liophis miliaris (n = 33), Micrurus corallinus e Chironius fuscus (ambas com n = 26), sendo as três menos abundantes Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus e Tropidodryas serra (todas com n = 1). Contribuíram com a maior biomassa Spilotes pullatus (7.925 g), Chironius laevicollis (4.694 g), Liophis miliaris (3.675 g) e Pseustes sulphureus (3.050 g). As que menos contribuíram foram Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (ambas com 4 g) e Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g). Encontramos diferenças significativas nos parâmetros estudados entre os três tipos de ambientes amostrados na Serra do Mendanha (mata pouco perturbada, mata secundária e monocultura de bananeiras). Os resultados indicaram uma acentuada redução na abundância, riqueza, diversidade e biomassa de serpentes quando a floresta nativa é substituída pela monocultura de bananeiras. Abstract in english We studied and compared parameters of the snake community of the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (22º 48'-22º 51' S and 43º 31'-43º 28' W), such as: abundance distribution, richness, species diversity and biomass, between forested areas, areas under regeneration and agri [...] culture areas (banana plantations); to obtain information about the natural history and facilitate the development of future research. For capturing the snakes we used: pitfall traps, drift-fences and visual search (diurnal and nocturnal) along four transects for each habitat. The captured snakes were measured with a tape and caliper, weighed with dynamometers and sexed with the use of a catheter. The animals marked (with ventral scales cut) were released for posterior recapture. One individual per species was fixed and deposited at the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. We undertook an effort of 840 man/hour, and captured a total of 207 snakes belonging to 25 species (Colubridae 80.2%, Elapidae 12.6%, Viperidae 6.3% and Boidae 0.9%). The most abundant were: Liophis miliaris (n = 33), Micrurus corallinus and Chironius fuscus (both with n = 26); the least abundant: Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus and Tropidodryas serra (all with n = 1). The species that contributed the greatest biomass were Spilotes pullatus (7,925 g), Chironius laevicollis (4,694 g), Liophis miliaris (3,675 g) and Pseustes sulphureus (3,050 g); those that contributed the lowest biomass were: Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (both with 4 g) and Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g). We found significant differences between the sampled habitats at the Serra do Mendanha (undisturbed forest, secondary forest and banana plantations). The results showed that a great reduction in the abundance, richness, diversity and biomass of the snakes occurs when the native forest is replaced by banana plantations.

JAL., Pontes; RC., Pontes; CFD., Rocha.

2009-08-01

184

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature [...] . We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Achiléa, Bittencourt; Nancy, Silva; Andréa, Straatmann; Victor Luiz Correia, Nunes; Ivonise, Follador; Roberto, Badaró.

2002-12-01

185

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature [...] . We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

Achiléa, Bittencourt; Nancy, Silva; Andréa, Straatmann; Victor Luiz Correia, Nunes; Ivonise, Follador; Roberto, Badaró.

2003-06-01

186

An radiography study of pediatric pulmonary cryptococcosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cryptococcosis is a cosmopolitan mycotic disease caused by a yeast like fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Respiratory tract, as portal of entry, is the initial focus of infection. Initial pulmonary lesion may heal with or without dissemination of the disease. Authors reviewed 8 cases of confirmed cryptococcosis during Jan. 1973 to June 1981 at Seoul National University Hospital. The results are as follows: Majority of the cases are below 5 years old. The most common symptoms are fever, abdominal pain and distension, and respiratory symptoms in only 2 cases. The involved organs are liver, lymph node, spleen, meninges, and skin in the order of frequency. Chest P-A roentgenograms show both hilar enlargement with perihilar and basilar, linear and small nodular infiltrations. Miliary nodular lesions and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were also noted.

Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, In One [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1981-12-15

187

New perspectives on CT in peritoneal carcinomatosis and other peritoneal malignancies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-three abdominopelvic CT studies in 60 patients with peritoneal tumor spread were reviewed. Ascites was the most common CT finding (74%), with loculation occurring in half. A new finding, loculation of fluid out of the cul-de-sac, is described. Parietal peritoneal thickening and enhancement was visible as a thin enhancing line along the peritoneal surface in 62% of studies. This represents the CT correlate of miliary seeding that has progressed to the point of confluence. Tumor involvement of the omentum was manifest as marbled fat, enhancing nodules, or an omental cake. Mucin-producing implants and their progression to pseydomyxoma peritonei were observed. In 26 patients without a known malignancy, a specific diagnosis was possible in 13 (50%) with identification of a primary tumor. Of 13 patients with no visible primary, six (46%) had ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis with normal-sized ovaries or minimal adnexal pathology

188

Middle ear tuberculosis: Diagnostic criteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculous otitis is a diagnostic problem due to the difficulty to obtain microbiological, histomorphological and cytological confirmation of the disease. Objective. Our objective was to compare clinical and radiological characteristic and development of otogenic complications in patients with tuberculous otitis and otitis with cholesteatoma as the most destructive form of chronic nonspecific otitis in the purpose of establishing the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous otitis. Methods. Medical records of 12 patients with tuberculous otitis and 163 patients with cholesteatoma treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery in Belgrade during the eight-year period were analyzed. All of the patients underwent otomicroscopic, audiological and radiological examination of the thorax and temporal bone, microbiological examination of the secretion and histomorphological examination of the tissue taken during middle ear surgery. Statistical analysis was done using ?2 test with Yates correction. Results. Otogenic complication as facial palsy and sensorineural hearing loss were more frequent in tuberculous otitis patients, than in cholesteatoma. Also, fistulas of the labyrinth and facial canal bone destruction were also more frequent in tuberculous otitis than in cholesteatoma. A larger extent of temporal bone destruction was noticed on CT scans of the temporal bone in half of the patents with tuberculous otitis. Coexistence with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in one third of the patients. There were no microbiological or histomorphological confirmations of the disease, except in one case with positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Conclusion. Tuberculous otitis media should be considered in patients with serious otogenic complications and with shorter duration of ear discharge, and in association with diagnosed miliary pulmonary tuberculosis and extensive temporal bone destruction. Polymerase chain reaction still is not reliable for diagnosis.

Ješi? Snežana

2009-01-01

189

Ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis  

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To evaluate the ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic and CT findings of confirmed hepatosplenic tuberculosis in 12 patients. Six were men and six were women ; their average age was 41, and most were in their twenties. Lesions of the liver and spleen, as well as associated findings such as abdominal tuberculosis and other organ involvement of tuberculosis were analyzed. Results : There were three cases of hepatic tuberculosis, seven of splenic tuberculosis, and two of hepatosplenic involvement of tuberculosis. On the basis of the ultrasonographic and CT findings, hepatosplenic tuberculosis was classified as one of two patterns : miliary or micronodular, ormacronodular. The micronodular type was more common (9/12 cases) being characterized by innumerable micronodules,and with easy coalescence in the liver and spleen in five of the nine cases. The macronodular type of low density mass was noted in the other three patients. Splenomegaly was noted in 12 cases and hepatomegaly in ten. Pulmonary tuberculosis-including the miliary type(n=5)-was noted in eight patients. Associated abdominal tuberculosis such as lymphadenopathy with central low density and peripheral rim enhancement (n=6), tuberculous peritonitis(n=3),highly attenuated ascites(n=6), adrenal tuberculosis(n=1), renal tuberculosis(n=1), ovarian abscess(n=1), psoasabscess(n=1), and systemic tuberculosis such as central nervous system tuberculoma(n=2), cervical lymphadenopathy(n=4) and tuberculous spondylitis(n=1) were noted. Conclusion : Ultrasonography and CT were valuable in the detection and diagnosis of hepatosplenic tuberculosis.

Moon, Un Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Seok; Ko, Kang Seok; Park, Byung Ran; Yang, Dong Cheol; Im, Ju Hyeon [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Young [Kwangju Green Cross Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1998-08-01

190

Tuberculosis extrapulmonar en nuestro medio: Formas de presentación / Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in our area: Forms of presentation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Analizar la distribución de las formas de presentación de tuberculosis extrapulmonar (FPE) en nuestro medio. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los casos de tuberculosis extrapulmonar registrados en la Unidad de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis del Área Sanitaria de Santiago de Compos [...] tela en un periodo de tres años. Clasificamos las FPE en: formas extrapulmonares (FE), definida por una localización extrapulmonar; formas mixtas (FM), localización pulmonar y extrapulmonar; formas diseminadas (FD), dos o más localizaciones extrapulmonares; y TB miliares, definida por patrón radiológico miliar y/o enfermedad diseminada en necropsia. Resultados: Se registraron 921 tuberculosis de las cuales 370 (40,2%) fueron extrapulmonares. De ellos 199 eran varones y 171 mujeres. Edad media de 36,9 años (rango, 19 y 68). Se constató infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en 22 casos (25,9%). La distribución de las FPE fue: FE 307 casos (83,0%): pleural 140 (45,6%), ganglionar 87 (28,3%), intestinal 16 (5,2%), osteoarticular 14 (4,5%), genitourinaria 11 (3,6%), cutánea 11 (3,6%), meníngea 10 (3,3%), otras 18 (5,9%); FM 38 (10,3%); FD 8 (2,1%) y TB miliares 17 casos (4,6%). Los pacientes con infección por el VIH presentaron FE en 17 casos (77,3%) en su mayoría ganglionar (64,7%); FD en 4 (18,2%); y TB miliar en 1 (4,5%). Conclusiones: La tuberculosis extrapulmonar supera las expectativas esperables, no en vano refleja un porcentaje próximo a la localización pulmonar. Ello indica por una parte, un cambio significativo en la presentación clásica de la enfermedad, y por otra una extrema sensibilidad en el diagnóstico localizatorio de la enfermedad. Abstract in english Objetive: To analyse the distribution of the extrapulmonary forms of presentation of tuberculosis (EFP) in our health district. Materials and methods: The medical records of patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis attending the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Unit of the Santiago Hea [...] lth District were reviewed over a three years period. The classification of EFP was: extrapulmonary forms (EF), disease outside the lung; mixed forms (MF), the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis; disseminated forms (DF), the pressence of two or more extrapulmonary locations; and miliary TB, which was definied by a diffuse pulmonary radiographic pattern or diagnosis was undertaken by necropsy. Results: A total of 921 tuberculosis infected patients were observed, of which 370 (40.2%) were extrapulmonary forms; of these, 199 were men and 171 women (mean age was 36.9 years, range 19-68). The distribution of EFP was: 307 EF (83%) of which 140 (45.6%) were pleural, 87 (28.3%) ganglionary, 16 (5.2%) intestinal, 14 (4.5%) bone and joint, 11 (3.6%) genitourinary, 11 (3.6%) cutaneous, 10 (3.3%) meningeal, and other locations 18 (5.9); MF 38 cases (10.3%); DF 8 cases (2.1%) and miliary TB 1 cases (4.6%). In HIV infected patients 17 EF (77.3%), which were mainly ganglionary (64.7%); 4 DF (18.2%); and 1miliary TB (4.5%) cases were observed. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the high incidence of extrapulmonary TB, similar to the number of pulmonary forms. Our experience shows a significant modification to the classical presentation of the disease, and thus the need for sensitivity in locating the disease.

F. L., Lado Lado; V., Túñez Bastida; A. L., Golpe Gómez; M. J., Ferreiro Regueiro; A., Cabarcos Ortiz de Barrón.

2000-12-01

191

Alterações fundoscópicas e sua associação clínica empacientes com tuberculose, no Distrito Federal / Posterior eye lesions and their clinical association in patients with tuberculosis, in the Federal District, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de lesões de fundo de olho em pacientes com tuberculose no Distrito Federal e identificar fatores de risco para o aparecimento dessas lesões. MÉTODOS: Em estudo prospectivo, foi realizada oftalmoscopia binocular indireta em 292 pacientes com tuberculose sistêmica. Este [...] s pacientes foram avaliados em cinco diferentes Hospitais Regionais do Distrito Federal, entre 1ºde agosto de 1997 e 30 de julho de 1998. Análise multivariada foi aplicada para identificar associações entre a variável "lesão de fundo de olho" e as variáveis "sexo, idade, baciloscopia, HIV, localização da tuberculose, internação dos pacientes, tempo de sintomas, procedência e experiência anterior com tratamento". RESULTADOS: Os resultados deste estudo mostraram incidência de 5,5% de lesões fundoscópicas em pacientes com tuberculose. Análise multivariada mostrou que a co-infecção pelo HIV, internação dos pacientes e tuberculose miliar foram fatores de risco para a presença de lesões de fundo de olho. Quando essas características estiveram presentes simultaneamente, a probabilidade de um indivíduo apresentar estas lesões foi de 66%. CONCLUSÕES: Na avaliação da incidência de lesões de fundo de olho em pacientes com tuberculose, devem ser levadas em consideração certas características individuais, visto que fatores de risco como a co-infecção pelo HIV, tuberculose miliar, e internação, influenciaram na presença destas lesões. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of eye posterior lesions in patients with tuberculosis in the Federal District, Brazil, and to identify the risk factors for the appearance of these lesions. METHODS: In a prospective study, indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy was performed in 292 patients with syste [...] mic tuberculosis. These patients were examined in five different Regional Hospitals of the Federal District, between August 1st, 1997 and July 30th, 1998. A multiple analysis was applied to identify associations between the variable "eye posterior lesion" and the variables "sex, age, bacilloscopy, HIV, tuberculosis site, patient hospitalization, duration of symptoms, origin of the patient and previous experience with treatment. RESULTS: The results showed a 5,5% incidence of posterior lesions in patients with tuberculosis. A multiple analysis showed that HIV co-infection, patient hospitalization and miliary tuberculosis were risk factors for the presence of eye posterior lesions. When these characteristics were simultaneously present, the probability of a patient to present these lesions was 66%. CONCLUSIONS: In the evaluation of the incidence of eye posterior lesions in patients with tuberculosis, certain individual characteristics should be taken in to account, since risk factors, such as HIV co-infection, miliary tuberculosis, and hospitalization, influenced the presence of these lesions.

Gustavo Federici, Mendes; Rachel Cortinhas, Toríbio; Tomaz Aiza, Alvares; Rosicler Rocha Aiza, Alvares.

2003-06-01

192

Cavitary Lesions and Nodular Infiltration Patterns in Multi-Drug Resistant TB and Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacterium: Comparison of Chest CT  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: By increasing of HIV frequency, MDRTB has also increased. Clinical and laboratory findings of multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB and non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM are very similar. Maybe imaging findings help early differentiation before culture result. This study has compared cavitary lesions and nodular infiltration patterns in the chest CT of MDRTB and NTM."nPatients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 66 hospitalized patients (43 MDRTB and 23 NTM in Masih Daneshvari Hospital (from 2006-2009. Lung CT scans were evaluated by a radiologist and two radiology residents without any information about the culture result. Nodular infiltrations were classified into 6 patterns (tree in bud, scattered nodule, lobar nodular infiltration, cavitary nodule, macronodule, miliary pattern and cavitary lesions to thick and thin, single and multiple with lobar distribution and satellite nodule adjacent to cavity. Chi-square statistics analysis was performed."nResult: Respectively in NTM and MDRTB: Mean age (51.5%-44.8%, sex (34.8% M and 65.2 F, 58.1% M and 41.9% F, treatment history (56.5%,83.7%, scattered nodular infiltration (47.8%, 60.5%, lobar nodular infiltration (13%, 9.3%, TIB (47.8%, 46.5%, miliary pattern (0%, 0%, cavitary nodule (21.7%, 27.9%, macro nodule (nodule?10mm (43.5%, 25.6%, cavity (69.6%, 76.7%, thin wall cavity (65.2%, 46.5%, thick wall cavity (26.1%, 58.1%, satellite nodule adjacent to cavity (39.1%, 9.3%, single cavity (13%, 14%, lobar distribution of single cavity: RUL (8.7%, 4.7%, RML (0%, 0%, RLL (0%, 0%, LUL (4.3%, 4.7%, lingual (0%, 0%, LLL (0%, 4.7%, multiple cavity (56.5%, 60.5%, lobar distribution of multiple cavity: RUL (26.1%, 51.2%, RML (21.7%, 9.3%, RLL (26.1%, 23.3%, LUL (47.8%, 44.2%, lingual (26.1%, 18.6%, LLL (30.4%, 16.3%."nConclusion: Treatment history (p=0.016, satellite nodule adjacent to cavity (p=0.004, thick wall cavity (p=0.013 and multiple cavity in RUL (p=0.05 are more common in NTM with significant difference. Frequency difference in other variables was not significant (p>0.05.

Shahram Kahkouee

2010-05-01

193

Infections caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a twelve year retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous infections in patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant vary in incidence, complications and response to treatment. Methods and materials A retrospective study of patients with various benign and malignant hematological disorders and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant who were treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 and who developed tuberculous infections was conducted. Results Tuberculous infections occurred in eighteen patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The main associated factors were: reduced immunity due to the primary hematological disorder, age more than 50 years and the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids or radiotherapy. These infections frequently involved the lungs and predominantly occurred in males and in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In patients treated with intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, tuberculous infections tended to occur earlier and also tended to be more disseminated compared to infections occurring in patients treated with oral chemotherapy. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given to 16 patients and it was successful in 15 of these patients. Conclusion Tuberculous infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The early administration of anti-tuberculous therapy and compliance with drug treatment are associated with successful outcomes while delayed management, drug resistance and the presence of miliary infections are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates.

Al-Jasser Asma

2007-11-01

194

Pott disease, column instrumentation: report of a case (Instrumentación de columna, en Mal de Pott: a propósito de un caso  

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Full Text Available Less than 1 % of patients with miliary tuberculosis has vertebral tuberculosis or also called Pott Disease. The most important symptomatology is pain, limited function and muscular contracture. When illness is ad- vanced, it presents dorsal hump and neurologic affectation. Now, we present the case of 34 years old feminine patient whom seven months before, she presented pulmonary tuberculosis as a past health with lumbar pain and paresthesia of inferior members such as symptoms. Image studies develop morfophology alterations since T10 to T12. At the beginning, she was treated with Rifampin-Isoniazid-Pyrazinamide-Etambutol, then, she had column instrumentation with a favorable evolution. La tuberculosis vertebral o Mal de Pott, ocurre en menos de 1% de los pacientes, con Tuberculosis Extrapulmonar. Los datos clínicos más comunes son: dolor, limitación funcional, y contractura muscular. En etapas avanzadas presenta una giba dorsal, y alteraciones neurológicas. Ahora presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 34 años, con antecedentes de tuberculosis pulmonar de +/- 7 meses atrás, dentro la sintomatología presentada por la misma, se encuentra: dolor lumbar y parestesia en miembros inferiores. La imagenología revela alteraciones morfológicas desde T10-T12. Ha recibido tratamiento médico con RHZE, y posteriormente instrumentación de la columna, presentando una evolución favorable.

Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

2010-11-01

195

[Multicausal infectious respiratory tract disease of young fattening turkeys].  

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The outbreak of the disease occurred in a large multiple-age farm with about 50,000 meat turkeys, where groups of 6-8000 one-day-old birds were stalled up every 14 days. All the turkey poults housed were affected mostly in the 1.-3. week of the life. The respiratory disease spread rapidly within the flocks and were characterised clinically by inclination of huddle, ruffled feathers, anorexia, stunted growth, swelling of the infraorbital sinus and nasal discharge. The clinical apparent disease lasted 3 to 4 weeks on the average in the affected flocks and were associated with a mortality from 7-20 percent. The main pathoanatomical lesions were catarrhal-fibrinopurulent rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchopneumonia and air sacculitis as well as atrophy of the thymus. Fibrinous adhesive peri- and epicarditis, perihepatitis, miliary necrotic foci in the liver and diarrhea have been found less frequently. The results of cultural and serological examinations of moribund and dead turkey poults of 6 different flocks indicate that Bordetella avium and Chlamydia psittaci are the primary inciting agents of the respiratory disease. However, the following severe course of the disease were mainly caused by concurrent infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In some cases coccidiosis with lesions in ceca were additionally diagnosed. Campylobacter jejuni could be always isolated culturally from the liquid cecal content of diseased birds. PMID:1559465

Hinz, K H; Heffels-Redmann, U; Pöppel, M

1992-02-01

196

Paraparesis in a Golden Retriever.  

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A 7-year-old female spayed Golden Retriever dog presented with fever and a 10-day history of neurological signs, including ambulatory paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia. Neurological examination initially revealed a T3-L3 myelopathy. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse miliary pulmonary pattern. Endotracheal washes and fine-needle aspirates from several organs aimed at identifying a potential infectious agent or neoplastic process were all unsuccessful. Due to worsening of the clinical signs, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included multifocal, pale to dark red, firm nodules infiltrating the lungs, heart, mesentery, pancreas, small intestine, brain, and spinal cord. Cytological examination of impression smears obtained from the pulmonary nodules during necropsy revealed clusters of epithelioid cells admixed with fewer spindle cells, erythrocytes, and scattered leukocytes. Clinical signs and cytological findings initially suggested the possibility of a widespread granulomatous disease or a metastatic epithelial neoplasm as possible clinical differentials in this case. The final diagnosis was based on the gross and histological findings, with confirmation following histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. PMID:24193142

Aschenbroich, S; Woolcock, A; Rissi, D R

2014-09-01

197

Tc-99m erythromycin lactobionate inhalation scintigraphy in parenchymal lung diseases  

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We have investigated Technetium 99m erythromycin lactobionate (Tc 99m EL) clearance from the lungs after inhalation, in the presence of an alveolitis. Eighteen patients (6 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic fibrosis, and 5 miliary tuberculosis) were imaged after the patients inhaled 1,110 MBq of Tc 99m EL. Clearance half time for the first 45 min, for 24 h, and retention at 24 h correlated with percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) (r=.729, r=.883, and r=.826, respectively). There was a positive correlation between peripheral penetration (PP) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (r=.806) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=.781). Retention was more marked in sarcoidosis compared with tuberculosis (0.025< p?0.05). Radioaerosol lung imaging may reflect the pulmonary function impairment in parenchymal lung diseases. Retention of Tc 99m EL may be related to number of BAL cells or presence of a lymphocytic alveolitis. Long residency time of Tc 99m EL in the lungs implies that erythromycin can also be administered by inhalation for therapeutic purposes

198

Mycobacterial tuberculosis superimposed on a Warthin tumor.  

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The concomitant occurrence of tuberculosis infection within a Warthin tumor is extremely rare, as only 6 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. We report a new case in a 92-year-old man, who presented with a 20-year history of a painless swelling in the right infra-auricular area that had recently become painful and larger. The patient had no history of tuberculosis, weight loss, or chronic cough. The fluctuant mass was aspirated, but histopathology and routine culture were negative. Computed tomography identified a 5-cm, heterogeneous, enhancing mass with multiple, variably sized, low-density areas without surrounding edema in the area of the right parotid gland. Complete excision was performed to relieve the patient's symptoms. Histopathology diagnosed an acid-fast bacillus infection within a Warthin tumor. On polymerase chain reaction testing, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was negative for tuberculosis, but subsequent culture identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Initially, the patient refused antituberculosis therapy, but he relented when miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed 11 weeks postoperatively. PMID:22614566

Wu, Kang-Chao; Chen, Bo-Nien

2012-05-01

199

Prime-boost bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination with lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines expressing antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 improves protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.  

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To prevent the global spread of tuberculosis (TB), more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies are urgently needed. As a result of the success of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in protecting children against miliary and meningeal TB, the majority of individuals will have been vaccinated with BCG; hence, boosting BCG-primed immunity will probably be a key component of future vaccine strategies. In this study, we compared the ability of DNA-, protein- and lentiviral vector-based vaccines that express the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost the effects of BCG in the context of immunity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that prime-boost BCG vaccination with a lentiviral vector expressing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 significantly enhanced immune responses, including T helper type 1 and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, compared with DNA- and protein-based vaccines. However, lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines greatly improved the protective efficacy of BCG against M. tuberculosis, as indicated by a lack of weight loss and significantly reduced bacterial loads and histological damage in the lung. Our study suggests that the use of lentiviral or DNA vaccines containing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost BCG is a good choice for the rational design of an efficient vaccination strategy against TB. PMID:24773322

Xu, Ying; Yang, Enzhuo; Wang, Jianguang; Li, Rui; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Guoyuan; Song, Na; Huang, Qi; Kong, Cong; Wang, Honghai

2014-10-01

200

Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT. SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respiratory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90. A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

Alonso Soto

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respir [...] atory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

Alonso, Soto; Lely, Solari; Juan, Agapito; Carlos, Acuna-Villaorduna; Marie-Laurence, Lambert; Eduardo, Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der, Stuyft.

2008-04-01

202

The spectrum of mycobacterial disease in a Dublin teaching hospital.  

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We describe our experience at our combined tuberculosis and public health clinic, which has been in existence since 1991, and compare it to a previous review of tuberculosis at St. Vincent's Hospital from 1974 to 1979. A total of 107 patients were treated, 58 male and 49 female, with a mean age of 53 years. Seventy-seven patients had pulmonary tuberculosis, 23 extrapulmonary and three had both. Four patients had miliary tuberculosis. Our figures reflect the fall in incidence of tuberculosis in Ireland since the 1970's and a rise in smear negative and presumptive cases. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in Ireland is little changed except for an increasing impact of immigration. Problems such as late diagnosis, especially in older patients, and non-compliance remain significant. In addition, there were four deaths from tuberculosis. However, our combined clinic has led to the appropriate management of patients by Respiratory Medicine specialists and a great move to ambulatory diagnosis and management. We believe it is the best model for the effective management of tuberculosis in Ireland. PMID:10394756

O'Reilly, P; McDonnell, T

1999-04-01

203

Cytogenetical studies in five Atlantic Anguilliformes fishes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The order Anguilliformes comprises 15 families, 141 genera and 791 fish species. Eight families had at least one karyotyped species, with a prevalence of 2n = 38 chromosomes and high fundamental numbers (FN). The only exception to this pattern is the family Muraenidae, in which the eight species ana [...] lyzed presented 2n = 42 chromosomes. Despite of the large number of Anguilliformes species, karyotypic reports are available for only a few representatives. In the present work, a species of Ophichthidae, Myrichthys ocellatus (2n = 38; 8m+14sm+10st+6a; FN = 70) and four species of Muraenidae, Enchelycore nigricans (2n = 42; 6m+8sm+12st+16a; FN = 68), Gymnothorax miliaris (2n = 42; 14m+18sm+10st; FN = 84), G. vicinus (2n = 42; 8m+6sm+28a; FN = 56) and Muraena pavonina (2n = 42; 6m+4sm+32a; FN = 52), collected along the Northeastern coast of Brazil and around the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago were analyzed. Typical large metacentric chromosomes were observed in all species. Conspicuous polymorphic heterochromatic regions were observed at the centromeres of most chromosomes and at single ribosomal sites. The data obtained for Ophichthidae corroborate the hypothesis of a karyotypic diversification mainly due to pericentric inversions and Robertsonian rearrangements, while the identification of constant chromosome numbers in Muraenidae (2n = 42) suggests a karyotype diversification through pericentric inversions and heterochromatin processes.

Antonio Jales Moraes, Vasconcelos; Wagner Franco, Molina.

204

SPECTRUM OF EXTRA PULMONARY TUBERCULAR PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL  

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Full Text Available Background: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing day by day. Even it has reversed the epidemiological trend of pulmonary tuberculosis. Over the last several years reported EPTB was increasing in absolute numbers and in proportion of all reported cases of tuberculosis, however similar studies from high burden Etawah district with high prevalence of HIV are lacking .Therefore, we have conducted this study to investigate clinical and pathological features of EPTB. Material & Method: The study was conducted on 925 clinically suspective tubercular patients who attended pathology department. They were compared in terms of age, sex, and site. Result: Out of the 925 clinically suspective extra pulmonary tubercular patients, 900 was diagnosed as EPTB patients. Females had higher proportion (51.77% of EPTB than males (48.22%. EPTB was more common in young age (20-29 years in males, where as in females common in (40-49 years age group. Most common site was lymph node (58% followed by Abdominal (13% urogenital (13%osteoarticular (12%, miliary (2%, CNS (1% and skin(1%. Conclusion: Out data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in young age in males and in latter group in females gender. Lymph node tuberculosis was most common site in both males and females. Tuberculosis control programmed may targets these population for EPTB case finding.

Seema Dayal

2013-01-01

205

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) Disease in Immunocompetent Patients: Expanding Image Findings on Chest CT  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the chest CT features of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease regardless of the specific organisms. This study included 74 consecutive patients (35 men, 39 women; mean age, 63 years; age range, 25-89 years) who were diagnosed with NTM disease according to the American Thoracic Society Guidelines (1997 and 2007) between January 2005 and July 2007. Chest CT images were randomly reviewed by two radiologists with consensus. The most common organism associated with NTM disease is M. avium-intracellulare complex (87.8%), followed by M. abscesses, M. kansasii, and M. chelonae. The most common chest CT finding was a nodular bronchiectatic lesion (n = 35, 46.7%), followed by a cavitary lesion of the upper lobe (n = 21, 28.0%), combined lesions of two prior subtypes (n = 6, 8.0%), consolidative lesion (s) (n = 5, 6.7%), a bronchogenic spreading pulmonary tuberculosis-like lesion (n = 5, 6.7%), a cavitary mass lesion with small satellite nodules (n = 2, 2.7%), and a miliary nodular lesion (n = 1, 1.3%). More than 5 segments were involved in 60 cases (81.1%). The nodular bronchiectatic lesion or cavitary lesion of upper lobe presents with multi-segmental involvement and the occurrence of combined consolidation is indicative of NTM disease

Shin, Hyo Hyun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mok Hee; Choi, Song; Song, Sang Gook; Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

206

Tuberculose hepática pseudotumoral / Pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Tuberculous involvement of the liver is usually a diffuse process, associated with miliary tuberculosis. However localized tuberculosis of the liver producing a macronodular tuberculoma or an abscess is rare. The authors present a case of pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis in a 34-year old woman. Th [...] is patient presented a 2 month history of fever weight loss of 4Kg and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She denied jaundice, choluria, or acholia. Laboratory investigation, including renal and liver function tests. revealed normal levels. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic nodule in the right hepatic lobe. CT scan showed hypodense areas in the same place and no retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Due to the inespecificity of the signs, symptoms and image findings, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, it was however inconclusive. Then, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy with ressection of the lesion. Histological examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous lesion with caseous necrosis. Postoperatively, the patient was placed on antituberculous chemotherapy with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Eight months later the patient is asymptomatic.

Antonio Nocchi, Kalil; Fernanda Alvarez, Coelho; Gislaine Silveira, Olm.

207

Tuberculose hepática pseudotumoral Pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Tuberculous involvement of the liver is usually a diffuse process, associated with miliary tuberculosis. However localized tuberculosis of the liver producing a macronodular tuberculoma or an abscess is rare. The authors present a case of pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis in a 34-year old woman. This patient presented a 2 month history of fever weight loss of 4Kg and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She denied jaundice, choluria, or acholia. Laboratory investigation, including renal and liver function tests. revealed normal levels. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic nodule in the right hepatic lobe. CT scan showed hypodense areas in the same place and no retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Due to the inespecificity of the signs, symptoms and image findings, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, it was however inconclusive. Then, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy with ressection of the lesion. Histological examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous lesion with caseous necrosis. Postoperatively, the patient was placed on antituberculous chemotherapy with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Eight months later the patient is asymptomatic.

Antonio Nocchi Kalil

1999-06-01

208

Acceptance testing design and execution for a large-scale PACS installation  

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The initial installation phase of Large Scale PACS has been completed at three miliary medical centers. As part of the MDIS Project, these PACS have common design characteristics, but differ in implementation. The acceptance test procedure and the results of the test are discussed. Acceptance testing included evaluation of system and component availability over a thirty day period, component and system-wide features and functions, as well as aspects of system integration. Tests were performed using the input and output functions of the PACS. Calibrated signals were injected at various points and system outputs were measured. Differences in component and system performance have been recorded in a database for tracking of status and corrective actions as well as comparison of one system to another. Variation in the performance of a PACS is both observable and measurable. Components such as diagnostic workstations, high performance film digitizers and modality interfaces were tested. Several minor deficiencies were found and are discussed. The variance in component and system performance is traced primarily to the quality of configuration and calibration practices.

Romlein, John R.; Weiser, John C.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Goeringer, Fred; Smith, Suzy; Donnelly, Joseph J.

1994-05-01

209

Múltiplos tuberculomas intracerebrais na vigência de terapia específica para tuberculose pulmonar: a propósito de um caso Intracranial tuberculomas developing during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: case report  

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Full Text Available A forma clássica de apresentação da neurotuberculose é a meningite. Os tuberculomas cerebrais são formas raras de neurotuberculose e resultam da disseminação hematogênica de focos distantes de infecção pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aproximadamente 1% dos pacientes com tuberculose do sistema nervoso central desenvolve tuberculomas intracranianos, poucas semanas ou meses após o início da quimioterapia tuberculostática. A involução das lesões é lenta e não necessariamente significa resistência medicamentosa ou falta de aderência ao tratamento. Descrevemos o caso, diagnosticado e tratado na 25ª Enfermaria da Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, de um paciente imunocompetente que apresentou meningite e tuberculomas múltiplos do sistema nervoso central, durante o tratamento específico de tuberculose miliar. A literatura é revisada e o diagnóstico, terapêutica e possíveis mecanismos imunológicos são discutidos.The classical presentation of neurotuberculosis is meningitis. Intracranial tuberculomas are a rare manifestation of neurotuberculosis and are due to hematogenous dissemination of distant focuses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Around 1% of patients with central nervous system tuberculosis develop intracranial tuberculomas some weeks or months after the beginning of the specific treatment with tuberculostatic chemotherapy. The involution of the lesions is slow and does not mean drug resistance nor lack of adequate treatment. We describe the case, diagnosed and treated at the 25th Infirmary of Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, of an immunocompetent male patient who developed meningitis and multiple intracranial tuberculomas during the specific treatment of miliary tuberculosis. The literature is revised and the diagnosis, treatment and possible immunological mechanisms are discussed.

MARIA LÚCIA VELLUTINI PIMENTEL

2000-06-01

210

Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination in Prevention of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Prospective Study from Kishanganj, Bihar  

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Full Text Available Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were previously BCG vaccinated and not-vaccinated, were included in this study. A total of sixty (60 vaccinated children and sixty non-vaccinated children were selected. These children were followed up prospectively for 24 months, at the end of which, it was seen whether they developed tuberculosis or not. Results: Out of these 60 children in both the cases and control groups, total number of BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 4 (i.e. 6.6% and total number of Non-BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 12 (i.e. 20%. Thus, the efficacy of BCG vaccine calculated in our study was 67%. Conclusion: Most studies in different parts of the world have shown that the efficacy of BCG vaccine varies from zero to eigh-ty percent. This study favors the efficacy of BCG vaccine. This vaccination strategy will be favorable for our children. Creation of awareness among the parents and family members for an early administration of BCG vaccine after child birth can be recom-mended.

Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy

2013-01-01

211

Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens controlled with a combination therapy: systemic antibiosis (metronidazole plus clindamycin), dermatosurgical approach, and high-dose isotretinoin.  

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Folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is a suppurative process that involves the scalp, eventually resulting in extensive scarring and irreversible alopecia. The condition is also known as 'acne necrotica miliaris' or 'Proprionibacterium' folliculitis. Most often the disease affects men of African-American or African-Caribbean descent between 20 and 40 years of age. The clinical picture is determined by fluctuating painful fistule-forming conglomerates of abscesses in the region of the occipital scalp. The cause of scalp folliculitis is not well understood. It is generally considered to be an inflammatory reaction to components of the hair follicle, particularly the micro-organisms. These include: bacteria (especially Propionibacterium acnes, but in severe cases, also Staphylococcus aureus), Yeasts (Malassezia species) and mites (Demodex folliculorum). The initial histopathologic finding is an exclusively neutrophilic infiltration followed by a granulomatous infiltrate. The treatment of the disease is usually difficult and often disappointing. Successful treatment with isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass could be achieved only after regular systematic administration in the course of 3-4 months. Here we describe a patient with eruptive purulent form of the disease, which has been controlled with combination therapy: systemic antibiosis with metronidazole and clindamycin, dermatosurgical removal of single nodular formations, and isotretinoin 1 mg/kg body mass for 3-5 months. PMID:21772598

Tchernev, Georgi

2011-05-01

212

Disseminated mycobacteriosis in a stranded loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).  

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A loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) was found stranded alive along the Adriatic coast close to Ancona, Italy, displaying obtundation, tachypnea, and increased respiratory effort. It died a few hours after admission, and a postmortem examination was immediately performed. Miliary yellowish nodules were evident in the liver, and a lower number in the heart, stomach, and gut wall. Hundreds of whitish nodules were scattered in the lungs, with the majority of the pulmonary parenchyma being replaced by the lesions. Histologically, all nodular lesions consisted of a small central area of necrosis with acid-fast bacilli surrounded by epithelioid cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Giant cells were found in the spleen and the liver. Kidneys, lungs, liver, spleen, brain, and skin lesions were inoculated aseptically onto general isolation media and selective isolation media for mycobacteria. The isolate showed a restriction pattern identical to Mycobacterium chelonae by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a disseminated infection caused by a potentially pathogenic mycobacteria in a stranded, free-ranging loggerhead sea turtle. Veterinary staff and biologists who handle sea turtles with suspected mycobacterial disease should protect themselves appropriately. PMID:25000698

Nardini, Giordano; Florio, Daniela; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Gustinelli, Andrea; Quaglio, Francesco; Fiorentini, Laura; Leopardi, Stefania; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia

2014-06-01

213

[Case of sarcoidosis with myelodysplastic syndrome in an elderly woman].  

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An 85-year-old woman, who had been given a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia 2 years previously and required blood transfusion once a month, was admitted with complaints of fever, general fatigue, and dry cough. A chest X-ray film showed multiple small nodules in bilateral lung fields which were not observed 1 month previously. Although smear and culture tests for acid-fast bacilli in her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, urine, and bone marrow aspiration fluid were all negative, miliary tuberculosis was strongly suspected. Antituberculosis drugs were administered, but neither her symptoms nor chest X-ray findings improved. Five months later, right oculomotor nerve palsy, followed by left abducens nerve paralysis occurred. Lumber puncture examination revealed lymphocytosis, and increased protein and ACE levels, suggesting neurosarcoidosis. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid granulomas. Oral administration of 30 mg/day prednisolone improved her symptoms as well as the chest X-ray findings. PMID:21226301

Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio; Oka, Teruaki

2010-12-01

214

Armillifer armillatus in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria (a village study in Ayogwiri Village, near Auchi, 120 kilometres from Benin City) phase I.  

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Armillifer armillatus (Porocephalosis or tongue worm Disease) in Ayogwiri Village (near Auchi) 120 kilometres from Benin City in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria, first detected by us in 1975, was studied. It was first detected incidentally by X-ray which is usual. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by the radiologist at Benin City Hospital. The focus of this infection was studied by "contact tracing" of the household of the subject. Initially the diagnosis was Miliary Tuberculosis and subsequently multiple calcified nymphs of Armillifer armillatus. Phase one of this study consisted of X-ray of the chest, abdomen and thighs, as well as a history and examination of all ten members of the household. Forty per cent had evidence of calcified nymphs, a finding hitherto regarded as incidental by radiologists. Unlike Paragonomiasis in Eastern Nigeria, the above disease is endemic, largely symptomless, and occurs in snake eating rather than in crab eating communities. There was no increase in snake consumption. Porocephalosis in this part of Nigeria is being reported for the first time. No case of Paragonomiasis has yet been found by us in this area despite a constant search for it since 1972 by sputum examination of all cases of haemoptysis as well as Radiologically in a hospital with a large Pulmonary TB Department where both diseases may occur. PMID:566329

Azinge, N O; Ogidi-Gbegbaje, E G; Osunde, J A; Oduah, D

1978-05-01

215

Increased incidence of tuberculosis in patients of systemic sclerosis on dexamethasone pulse therapy: A short communication from Kashmir  

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Full Text Available Background: Systemic sclerosis is a multi-systemic autoimmune disorder affecting predominantly the skin, lungs, gut and kidneys. Purpose: To report the increased incidence of tuberculosis in patients of systemic sclerosis on dexamethasone pulse (DP therapy. Methods: Forty-seven patients of systemic sclerosis were included in the study. After taking a complete history and doing a detailed physical examination, the patients were submitted to a battery of investigations including complete hemogram(CBC with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR(F, Chest X-ray CXR (PA view Mantoux test and urine analysis. CBC, ESR and urine examination was done monthly and CXR were repeated six-monthly. Findings: Seven patients on DP therapy developed genitourinary tuberculosis. Four had pulmonary tuberculosis. One patient developed tubercular lymphadenitis, one patient succumbed to miliary tuberculosis. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of tuberculosis amongst patients of systemic sclerosis on DP therapy. Limitation of the Study: There was no control group of systemic sclerosis patients not on DP therapy to rule out the confounding effect of the disease per se predisposing to tuberculosis as all our patients as a matter of routine were put on steroid pulse. Also, the increased incidence of tuberculosis was detected incidentally while on monthly follow-up.

Ahmad Qazi

2008-01-01

216

Treatment of myelitis in Behçet's disease with rituximab.  

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Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that involves the parenchymal central nervous system (neuro-BD, NBD) approximately in 5-49% of patients, causing lesions rarely located in the spinal cord (SC). We report the first case of NBD-myelitis treated with intravenous rituximab. A 41-year-old man affected by BD presented with mild paraparesis with a miliary involvement and a 'net-like' gadolinium enhancement (Gde) of the SC. After a therapeutic attempt with pulsed cyclophosphamide and intravenous methylprednisolone, the clinical and neuroradiological course worsened. A progressive improvement was observed after rituximab administration associated with low doses of oral prednisone. No disease activity was detected and the patient reported no adverse event. After six rituximab cycles, cervical MRI was normal while thoracic MRI showed a slight T2-weighted hyperintensity of D4-D10 spinal tract without Gde. A combined use of rituximab and oral steroids resulted in a long-term suppression of NBD activity without any safety concern. PMID:24879733

Messina, Maria Josè; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Scotti, Roberta; Martinelli, Vittorio

2014-01-01

217

[Diagnosis delay of pleural and pulmonary tuberculosis].  

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Tuberculosis (TB) is still being endemic in our country. Time until management determines both evolution and prognosis of this condition. The aim of this work is to evaluate the delay in diagnosis of TB in a respiratory unit from a university hospital series. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study including patients with pulmonary TBC and/or pleural. An evaluation of time management was conducted from the beginning of symptoms and various consultations with reference to the date of hospitalization and treatment set up. One hundred patients were included (pulmonary TB: 68 cases, pleural TB 23 cases, miliary pulmonary TB: 4 cases, pulmonary TB associated with other extrathoracic locations: 5 cases). The mean time of patient delay and total delay institution were respectively 43.6, 25.7 and 69.3 days. Variables responsible for long delays were: number of consultations more than 3 before hospitalization, empirical antibiotic therapy, of a regional hospital first consultation and the presence of extra-respiratory impairment. The patient delay was considered long. A reorganization of the TB control program, in particular by partial decentralization of care and health education is imperative in order to improve the quality of tuberculosis management in our country. PMID:24874402

Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ladhar, A; Toujani, S; Mokadem, S; Louzir, B; Mehiri, N; Béji, M

2014-08-01

218

Tuberkulosis Perinatal Bermanifestasi sebagai Tuberkulosis Milier dan Meningitis  

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Full Text Available Perinatal tuberculosis (TB is rarely reported, because the clinical manifestations are not specific and there is a problem in its laboratory and radiology examination which caused undiagnosed. Perinatal TB is the preferred description that encompasses TB acquired either intra uterine, during or post delivery in early newborn period. A-3- month old baby was transferred to Pediatric Emergency Hasan Sadikin Hospital because of prolong fever and unable to breastfeed. There was no problem with delivery. Lethargic, fever, tachypnea, and hepatosphlenomegali were found on physical examination. Ziehl Neelsen smear of gastric lavage yielded positive acid fast bacilli. Tuberculine test was non reactive, chest x-ray showed a miliary pattern, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis gave tuberculous meningitis interpretation. By active finding, his father and grandfather were detected as a source of TB transmission. In additon to oral antituberculosis regimen, antibiotics and prednison were also given. Septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation were occurred during his illness and the baby died. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was identified from blood culture. In conclusion, although there were no problems during labor, active investigation of perinatal TB possibility is required on the family with a source of TB. Caution on TB in pregnant women is necessary at developing country with high rates of TB.

Heda Melinda D. Nataprawira

2014-10-01

219

Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review.  

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Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming; Li, Tian

2014-06-01

220

Thoracic CT findings of behcet disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To illustrate the thoracic CT findings of Behcet disease and to assess the CT diagnostic role in patients with Behcet disease. Methods: Thoracic CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed in 13 patients with thoracic Behcet disease. The diagnosis was based on the criteria set by the international study group for Behcet disease. Results: Of 13 patients, subpleural patchy consolidations were showed in 3, bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities in 3, left low lobe collapse with a right small nodule in 1, subpleural solitary pulmonary nodule in 1, bilateral pleural effusion in 2, mediastinal lymphoadenopathy in 2, diffuse bilateral miliary lung nodules in 1 during treatment. Thoracic vascular involvement was presented in 8 patients, two with superior vena cava thrombosis, one with left subclavicle artery aneurysm, one with left low pulmonary artery aneurysm and mural thrombosis, one with bilateral low pulmonary arteries and left basilar artery aneurysm, three with right pulmonary artery thrombosis in which there were two with left pulmonary artery occlusion and one with left basilar artery branch aneurysm. Conclusions: Thoracic CT findings of Behcet disease are variable and nonspecific. Contrast-enhanced CT scan can be helpful by showing thrombosis of the superior vena cava and pulmonary artery as well aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. (authors)

 
 
 
 
221

Paradoxical response during antituberculous therapy in a patient discontinuing infliximab: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of the drug infliximab for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease can be complicated by tuberculosis. A paradoxical reaction during antituberculosis chemotherapy and immunologic reconstitution after discontinuation of infliximab can result in severe disseminated tuberculosis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Korean man with severe Crohn's disease presented with fever and diffuse abdominal pain. Infliximab had been started 2 months before admission. A chest X-ray and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed numerous miliary nodules in both lung fields and microabscesses in the spleen. Given the diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis, the infliximab therapy was discontinued and antituberculosis therapy was promptly started. Over the next 3 months, the patient was diagnosed with tuberculosis lymphadenitis on a right supraclavicular lymph node and surgical excision of the lesion was performed. With the diagnosis of a paradoxical response, anti-tuberculous therapy was continued for 12 months. Conclusion Our case suggests that patients who develop tuberculosis after infliximab exposure are at an increased risk of developing a paradoxical reaction. The current recommendation of discontinuing infliximab during tuberculosis treatment should be re-evaluated.

Yoon Young Kyung

2009-04-01

222

A single strain of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum causes fatal typhlohepatitis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to be distinguished from histomonosis.  

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Typhlohepatitis was observed in a flock of 2500 red-legged partridges in Great Britain, characterized by the sudden deaths of 15 birds within 2 days. Necropsy of five dead birds revealed severe lesions in the caeca with thickened caecal walls, a reddened lining and bloody contents. The livers contained multiple miliary lesions and similar pathological changes were found in the spleens of some birds. Microscopic examination of intestinal contents showed the occurrence of coccidial oocysts in two partridges. Different methods for the detection of bacteria from liver and intestine samples were conducted without positive results. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of protozoan parasites in the caecum, liver and spleen of the affected birds. In situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of trichomonads resulted in positive findings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in the lesions. Additionally, archived tissues of red-legged partridges from different flocks suffering from severe typhlohepatitis in Great Britain in 2008 and 2009 were re-investigated by ISH and PCR. Beside the sporadic occurrence of histomonosis, in most of the cases trichomonads were detected by ISH in the caecum and liver of affected birds. Furthermore, dissemination of the flagellate into the lung and bursa of Fabricius could be demonstrated. Analyses of T. gallinarum DNA obtained from the different cases resulted in homologous nucleotide sequences. Altogether, the results demonstrate the circulation of a virulent strain of T. gallinarum in reared red-legged partridges. PMID:25175532

Liebhart, D; Neale, S; Garcia-Rueda, C; Wood, A M; Bilic, I; Wernsdorf, P; Jaskulska, B; Hess, M

2014-10-01

223

Clinical application of PET/CT imaging in search of the primary carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ver having clear edge and uneven distribution. The destroyed bones (L-10, L-11, L-12, T-1 and ala ossis i lii) showed high radioactive uptake. Second patient, 57-year male was diagnosed to have malignant lymphoma. PET/CT fusion showed high radioactive uptake in the marrow of whole body. Few destroyed parts of bones were also seen on CT images. Several cervical and the thoracic vertebrae as well as the ninth rib showed irregular radioactive accumulation with clear edges and well-distributed tracer raising the possibility of multiple myeloma or some other blood system disease. The histopathology from the ninth rib showed diffuse cell malignant lymphoma. Fourth patient with metastasis in the lungs was diagnosed to have primary carcinoma of bronchus. PET/CT showed high radioactive uptake in left supraclavicular and upper mediastinal lymph nodes. Miliary focus of high radioactive accumulation was also seen in both lung, especially in the inferior lobe and the lateral basal segment of the left lung. No other abnormal radioactive accumulation was found in the images. PET/CT whole body scan and fusion images give easy diagnosis of primary carcinoma and metastases than PET alone. Meanwhile, we must possess abundant clinical knowledge and analyze every patient systematically, only then we can expand the clinical value of this new modality. (author)

224

Abnormal chest shadow on CT in immunosuppressed patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An abnormal chest shadow was observed on CT scans in 25 cases of 23 immunosuppressed patients. Pulmonary disease was pathologically confirmed to be pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PC pneumonia) in four patients, cytomegalovirus pneumonia (CMV pneumonia) in one, bacterial pneumonia in seven, fungal infection in three, miliary tuberculosis in one, leukemic infiltration in two, lymphangitis carcinomatosa in three, drug-induced pneumonitis in three, and ARDS in one. In almost all patients, especially those with infectious diseases such as PC pneumonia, CMV pneumonia, and bacterial pneumonia, the abnormal shadow was wide and visible in the bilateral lung fields. We presumed that such findings as lobular shadow, centrilobular shadow, and mosaic pattern reflected the extension of disease via the respiratory tract, and that those findings are typical of infectious diseases. Because such findings as abnormal linear shadow and swelling of a broncho-vascular bundle were very frequently recognized in patients with lymphangitis carcinomatosa and frequently recognized in those with drug-induced pneumonitis, these diseases may be distinguished from other diseases. An area of slightly increased density was frequently recognized in patients with PC pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Such lesions were pathologically confirmed to be located in the interstitium and/or alveolus. CT was extremely useful in comprehending the character and extension of particular diseases among various diseases. As the number of patients studied was small, the utility of CT in immunosuppressed patients requires further investigation in a larger number of patients. (author)

225

[Pulmonary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections in patients with AIDS].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most certainly the major cause of the increased incidence of tuberculosis (TBC). A total of 138 patients (pts) with AIDS were referred to the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Hospital of Pisa, 1990-1991; 14 of them (10.1%) presented pulmonary TBC. In our study, we analyzed the chest films of the latter group of patients. Based on the X-ray patterns, the findings were classified as follows: hilar lymph nodes were observed in 4 pts (28.6%), isolated lymph nodes in 2 cases; associated with parenchymal involvement in 2 pts; acute alveolar TBC was seen in 4 cases (28.6%), with escavations in 3/4 (21.4%). Linear and reticular TBC were found in 4 pts (28.6%), and miliary interstitial involvement in 1 case (7%), extrapulmonary adenopathy in 4 pts (28.6%). In 4 pts (28.6%) chest X-ray findings were negative. All pts underwent serial chest X-rays in the course of therapy. HRCT was performed in 6 patients: our results are in agreement with those reported in literature. Thus, we can conclude that the major diagnostic findings in our series were: frequent isolated involvement of hilar lymph nodes, as observed in primary TBC; the infiltrates are most frequently located in the middle and basal lobes; escavations are uncommon; pleural effusion is unusual; in some pts chest X-ray findings may be negative. PMID:1494676

Pignatelli, V; Savalli, E; Perri, G; Russo, R; Bagnolesi, A; Savino, A

1992-12-01

226

Benthic macrofaunal community structure in the Norwegian Trench, deep skagerrak  

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Benthic communities were studied at 15 stations along two transects at between 144 and 682 m depth in the Norwegian Trench. Communities of the deep accumulation bottoms generally exceeding 400 m depth, and 65 nautic miles apart, had a high similarity in species-dominance composition (Bray-Curtis index). The faunal composition on the slopes also showed high similarities, but was less homogeneous. The average number of species per 0.1 m 2 was significantly higher at the shallow-slope stations (mean 28.6) than at the deep-trench stations (mean 19.8). Among all stations abundance varied between 455 and 6660 ind·m -2 and biomass was generally low, polychaetes and molluscs followed by crustaceans. The tube-building polychaete Spiochaetopterus bergensis was numerically dominant at all deep-trench stations, where the bivalves Thyasira eumyaria and Kelliella miliaris were also abundant. Sediment characteristics, transport and accumulation rates are discussed as structuring factors for the benthic communities.

Rosenberg, Rutger; Hellman, Birthe; Lundberg, Anna

1996-02-01

227

Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the detritivore community and species interactions  

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The fauna associated with sea-bed accumulations of decomposing Laminaria saccharina has been studied by year-round SCUBA diving at two sites in the Clyde Sea area. Seasonal changes in density of 64 species are reported. In the autumn, large quantities of kelp are detached by storms. This weed carries with it to the sea bed a large part of its normal fauna. Additional species settle onto the weed from the plankton whilst others migrate onto it from the surrounding sea bed. Peak densities of associated species were recorded in autumn. Litter bag experiments in situ showed that, except during the summer, weed is lost from sea-bed accumulations at a faster rate when macrofaunal animals are excluded. The macrofauna therefore inhibits decomposition. The relative importance of interactive cropping by three macrodetritivores, Psammechinus miliaris (Echinodermata), Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta) and Gammarus locusta (Amphipoda) was studied by in situ containment of different species combinations. The presence of Gammarus with Psammechinus resulted in less weed being lost than when Psammechinus was isolated. This is because Gammarus selectively crops rotting weed, retarding frond disintegration by microbes. Platynereis retards microbial colonization of frond tissues ruptured during its feeding by repeated cropping of the same region. Weed would decompose very rapidly were it not for macrofaunal cropping. Macroalgal decay thus differs profoundly from that of vascular plants.

Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

1984-01-01

228

Case of calcified intracranial tuberculoma presenting unique MRI findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 41-year-old male patient was admitted in our Ryukyu University Hospital complaining of parosmia. He had a history of miliary tuberculosis 21 years ago. Neurologically he showed left anosmia and hyperreflexia of the right upper extremity. Plain skull X-P and CT scan revealed a calcified mass, 25 mm in diameter, at the left frontal base. In MRI, the mass showed isointensity using the T/sub 1/ weighted inversion recovery sequence and heterogenously low intensity using the T/sub 2/ weighted spin echo sequence. Surgery was performed by bifrontal craniotomy. Then the tumor was removed totally including two coexisting small tumors. Histologically, they consisted of calcified caseous tissue and thick collagen capsule, suggesting old calcified tuberculomas. Postoperative course was uneventful and did not result in meningitis. Antituberculous therapy of streptmycin, isoniazid and rifapicin was given for 2 weeks, started on the operative day. MRI findings were presented in detail and the guideline of antituberculous therapy to the tuberculoma was discussed.

Kinjo, Toshihiko; Mukawa, Jiro; Miyagi, Kouichi; Takara, Eiichi; Mekaru, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yasunari

1988-05-01

229

Tuberculose hepática pseudotumoral / Pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Tuberculous involvement of the liver is usually a diffuse process, associated with miliary tuberculosis. However localized tuberculosis of the liver producing a macronodular tuberculoma or an abscess is rare. The authors present a case of pseudotumoral hepatic tuberculosis in a 34-year old woman. Th [...] is patient presented a 2 month history of fever weight loss of 4Kg and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She denied jaundice, choluria, or acholia. Laboratory investigation, including renal and liver function tests. revealed normal levels. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic nodule in the right hepatic lobe. CT scan showed hypodense areas in the same place and no retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Due to the inespecificity of the signs, symptoms and image findings, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, it was however inconclusive. Then, the patient was submitted to a laparotomy with ressection of the lesion. Histological examination revealed a tuberculoid granulomatous lesion with caseous necrosis. Postoperatively, the patient was placed on antituberculous chemotherapy with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Eight months later the patient is asymptomatic.

Antonio Nocchi, Kalil; Fernanda Alvarez, Coelho; Gislaine Silveira, Olm.

1999-06-01

230

Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution. (orig.)

231

Utility of bone marrow aspiration in extrapulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to look for evidence of acid fast bacilli (AFB in bone marrow (BM in patients of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Fifty cases suspected of extrapulmonary tuberculosis underwent bone marrow aspiration from sternum/illiac crest and were put on a therapeutic trial of antituberculosis therapy. All cases taken in the study responded to the therapy. The pattern of involvement were – abdominal (20, CNS (19, pericardial involvement (5, cervical lymphadenopathy (2, PUO (2, spinal (1 and miliary (1. 52% cases showed evidence of AFB in BM (on Ziehl Neelsen’s (ZN staining whereas only 4% of cases showed evidence of AFB in any other body fluid (CSF/pericardium/peritonium. Besides this, cytomorphological changes of BM showed evidence of lymphocytosis (22%, increased plasma cells (80% and prominence of macrophages (88%, thus signifying infective pathology with macrophage overactivity. So we conclude that bone marrow aspiration has a definite diagnostic value and may prove useful when other investigations are unrewarding. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 148-52 Keywords: bone marrow aspiration, acid fast bacilli, extrapulmonary tuberculosis

H. Singh

2002-08-01

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Tuberculose associada à AIDS: situação de região do Nordeste brasileiro Tuberculosis associated with AIDS: the position in a Northeastern region of Brazil  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os principais aspectos da co-infecção pelo HIV e o Mycobacterium tuberculosis nos pacientes adultos assistidos pelo hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, responsável pela notificação de 89,3% dos casos registrados no Estado, entre 1986-92. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de prontuários de pacientes maiores de 15 anos, com diagnóstico de AIDS, atendidos em hospital de referência estadual, região Nordeste do Brasil. A análise dos dados seguem o critério do Ministério da Saúde, para definição dessa doença. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose apresentou-se em 30,6% dos pacientes estudados (151/493 e foi diagnosticada até o primeiro ano após o diagnóstico da AIDS em 76,8% dos casos. Observou-se um tendência crescente na proporção de casos de tuberculose entre pacientes com AIDS conforme decresce o nível de escolaridade (INTRODUCTION: The main aspects of the HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection in the adult patients attended by the main reference hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Ceará, Brazil, responsible for the notification of 89.3% of the cases registered in the state between 1986 and 1992 were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the case histories of patients of more than 15 years of age with a diagnosis of AIDS, attended in a state reference hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The analysis of the data obeys the criteria of the Ministry of Health for the definition of this disease. RESULTS: Tuberculosis had been present in 30.6% of the patients studied (151/493 and it was diagnosed by the first year after the AIDS diagnosis in 76.8% of the cases. The proportion of AIDS cases with tuberculosis is significantly greater (p=0,032 among men (94.7% than among women (88.3%. An increased linear trend in the proportion of cases with tuberculosis was noticed in the AIDS cases according to the decrease in level of schooling (p<0,001. The direct baciloscopy of the sputum although considered a high priority exam, was made in only 72.9% of the patients, presenting positive results in 28.3% of these. The extrapulmonary form was detected in 23.9% of the cases and, among those, the miliary form in 25% and the meningitis in 16.7%. These results differ in a significant way (p<0,001 for all from the cases with tuberculosis without HIV infection in adults registered in the state in 1992 (9.8% extrapulmonary, 7.2% miliary and 3.3% meningitis. In most cases, death occurred in the presence of tuberculosis (52.3%, and only 10.6% managed to recover from the tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The premature development of tuberculosis in AIDS patients, the presence of a high percentage of extrapulmonary forms and the high lethality are indicators that the prevention and control measures of these two pathologies cannot be considered separately in this State.

Ligia R. S. Kerr-Pontes

1997-08-01

233

Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy carried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9% presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture. In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6 and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6 showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1% confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. CONCLUSIONS: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9% was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.OBJETIVO: Verificar a sensibilidade diagnóstica da análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido (EI para o diagnóstico de tuberculose (TB pulmonar e identificar as variáveis clínicas associadas com o diagnóstico confirmado. Além disso, avaliar o rendimento diagnóstico da broncoscopia realizada se a pesquisa de BAAR for negativa no EI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo de pacientes com suspeita de TB pulmonar ativa, encaminhados ao serviço para a indução de escarro. Foram revisados consecutivamente os registros laboratoriais de todos os pacientes submetidos à indução de escarro entre junho de 2003 e janeiro de 2006, assim como o prontuário eletrônico de cada caso. Também foram revisados os resultados bacteriológicos das amostras broncoscópicas coletadas dos pacientes cujos resultados de BAAR em EI foram negativos. RESULTADOS: Dos 417 pacientes estudados, 83 (19,9% tiveram resultados positivos (BAAR e/ou cultura no EI. Na análise de regressão logística, os achados radiológicos de cavitação pulmonar (OR = 3,8; IC95%: 1,9-7,6 e de infiltrado de padrão miliar (OR = 3,7; IC95%: 1,6-8,6 associaram-se mais significativamente com o diagnóstico de TB pulmonar. A broncoscopia foi realizada, após resultado de BAAR negativo no EI, em 134 pacientes e acrescentou 25 (64,1% diagnósticos confirmados de TB pulmonar. CONCLUSÕES: Na prática clínica, a frequência de diagnósticos confirmados de TB pulmonar por EI (19,9% foi menor do que aquela previamente relatada em ensaios controlados. Cavitação e infiltrado miliar aumentam a probabilidade diagnóstica de TB pulmonar no EI. O uso de broncoscopia quando EI é negativo para BAAR melhora significativamente a sensibilidade para o diagnóstico de TB.

Sabrina Bollmann Garcia

2009-11-01

234

Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital / Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar a sensibilidade diagnóstica da análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido (EI) para o diagnóstico de tuberculose (TB) pulmonar e identificar as variáveis clínicas associadas com o diagnóstico confirmado. Além disso, avaliar o rendimento diagnóstico da broncoscopia realizada se a [...] pesquisa de BAAR for negativa no EI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo de pacientes com suspeita de TB pulmonar ativa, encaminhados ao serviço para a indução de escarro. Foram revisados consecutivamente os registros laboratoriais de todos os pacientes submetidos à indução de escarro entre junho de 2003 e janeiro de 2006, assim como o prontuário eletrônico de cada caso. Também foram revisados os resultados bacteriológicos das amostras broncoscópicas coletadas dos pacientes cujos resultados de BAAR em EI foram negativos. RESULTADOS: Dos 417 pacientes estudados, 83 (19,9%) tiveram resultados positivos (BAAR e/ou cultura) no EI. Na análise de regressão logística, os achados radiológicos de cavitação pulmonar (OR = 3,8; IC95%: 1,9-7,6) e de infiltrado de padrão miliar (OR = 3,7; IC95%: 1,6-8,6) associaram-se mais significativamente com o diagnóstico de TB pulmonar. A broncoscopia foi realizada, após resultado de BAAR negativo no EI, em 134 pacientes e acrescentou 25 (64,1%) diagnósticos confirmados de TB pulmonar. CONCLUSÕES: Na prática clínica, a frequência de diagnósticos confirmados de TB pulmonar por EI (19,9%) foi menor do que aquela previamente relatada em ensaios controlados. Cavitação e infiltrado miliar aumentam a probabilidade diagnóstica de TB pulmonar no EI. O uso de broncoscopia quando EI é negativo para BAAR melhora significativamente a sensibilidade para o diagnóstico de TB. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy ca [...] rried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9%) presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture). In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6) and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6) showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1%) confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. CONCLUSIONS: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9%) was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

Sabrina Bollmann, Garcia; Christiano, Perin; Marcel Muller da, Silveira; Gustavo, Vergani; Sérgio Saldanha, Menna-Barreto; Paulo de Tarso Roth, Dalcin.

1092-10-01

235

Parameters from the community of leaf-litter frogs from Estação Ecológica Estadual Paraíso, Guapimirim, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudamos a comunidade de anuros de folhiço da EstaçãoEcológica Estadual Paraíso, em Guapimirim, estado do Rio de Janeiro, no sudeste do Brasil. Combinamos três métodosde amostragem (plots, transectos e armadilhas de queda) para apresentar dados sobre a composição de espécies, riqueza,abundância rel [...] ativa e densidade. A assembleia local foi composta por 14 espécies de anuros, pertencentes a nove famílias. Haddadus binotatus, espécie de desenvolvimento direto, foi a mais abundante durante o estudo. A densidade de anuros de folhiço estimada com base na amostragem por plots foi de4,3 ind/100m². Haddadus binotatus apresentou a maior densidade (1,1 ind/100m²). Os anuros foram registrados predominantemente durante a noite. Thoropa miliaris apresentou os maiores valores de CRC (39,0 ± 10,3 mm). As menores espécies foram Euparkerella brasiliensis (16,7 ± 2,2 mm) e E. cochranae (16,0 ± 2,7mm). Rhinella ornata apresentou a maior massa corporal média (12,1 ± 7,5 g) e E. cochranae (0,4 ± 0,2 g) a menor. A massa média total foi de 938,6 g/ha. Nossos resultados corroboram com a tendência de maiores densidades de anuros de folhiço na região Neotropical quando comparado com áreas Tropicais do Velho Mundo, tendendo a serem maiores na América Central do que na América do Sul. Abstract in english We studied the leaf-litter frog community of Estação Ecológica Estadual Paraíso, in Guapimirim, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Herein we combined three sampling methods (large plots, visual encounter surveys and pit-fall traps) to present data on species composition, richness, relative a [...] bundance and densities. The local assemblage of frogs associated to the leaf-litter was composed by 14 species, belonging to nine families. Haddadus binotatus, a direct-developing frog, was the most abundant species in the community. The estimated density of the local leaf-litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 4.3 frogs/100 m². Haddadus binotatus had the highest density (1.1 ind/100 m²). Frogs were predominantly found at night. Thoropa miliaris had the largest values of SVL (39.0 ± 10.3 mm), whereas the smallest species were Euparkerella brasiliensis (16.7 ± 2.2 mm) and E. cochranae (16.0 ± 2.7 mm). Rhinella ornata had the highest mean body mass (12.1 ± 7.5 g), and E. cochranae the lowest (0.4 ± 0.2 g). The overall frog mass was 938.6 g/ha. Our data support that higher densities of leaf-litter frogs tend to occur in the Neotropical region compared to the OldWorld tropics, tending to be higher in Central America than in South America.

Carlos F.D., Rocha; Davor, Vrcibradic; Mara C., Kiefer; Carla C., Siqueira; Mauricio, Almeida-Gomes; Vitor N.T., Borges Júnior; Fábio H., Hatano; Angélica F., Fontes; Jorge A.L., Pontes; Thais, Klaion; Lívia O., Gil; Monique Van, Sluys.

1259-12-01

236

Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil / Selecao de habitat por uma comunidade de anuros em um costao rochoso na Mata Atlantica costeira, sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Costões rochosos são morros graníticos distribuídos ao longo da costa do sudeste brasileiro, com vegetação xeromórfica devido ao seu solo raso. O conhecimento sobre comunidades de anfíbios e seus padrões reprodutivos é especialmente reduzido neste tipo de ambiente. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos os [...] resultados de dois anos de monitoramento de uma comunidade de anfíbios em um costão rochoso localizado na área protegida do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, município de Niterói, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Nós fizemos buscas diurnas e noturnas para encontrar anuros em bromélias-tanque, superfície rochosa e vegetação arbustiva. O padrão anual de atividade reprodutiva também foi estimado. Indivíduos da bromélia-tanque mais abundante no local, Alcantarea glaziouana, foram coletados e tiveram diversas variáveis mensuradas a fim de se entender a seleção de bromélias por anuros. Verificamos a influência das condições ambientais sobre a abundância dos anfíbios, e a associação entre as medidas das bromélias e a capacidade de estocar água no seu tanque. Diferenças na utilização de microhábitats e na ocupação de bromélias pelos anuros também foram investigadas, assim como também foi testada a influência das variáveis das bromélias sobre a ocorrência dos anuros nestas plantas. Foram registradas as seguintes espécies: Scinax aff. x-signatus; S. cuspidatus; S. littoreus; Thoropa miliaris e Gastrotheca sp. As bromélias foram o habitat preferido pelos anuros. O hábito noturno foi predominante para todas as espécies. Durante buscas diurnas, os espécimes foram encontrados abrigados nas axilas das folhas das bromélias. O número de machos vocalizando, assim como a abundância de anfíbios, foi associado com o período mais quente e chuvoso. Machos adultos de T. miliaris foram observados vocalizando especialmente na estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a temperatura combinadas foram positivamente correlacionadas com o número total de anfíbios capturados. Entretanto, individualmente, a precipitação não foi significativamente correlacionada, enquanto que a temperatura foi positivamente correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios. A capacidade de armazenamento de água pelas bromélias está correlacionada com as características e tamanho da planta. Na estação chuvosa, a altura da planta e o seu diâmetro foram correlacionados com a ocorrência de anfíbios, enquanto que durante o período seco não existiu correlação entre variáveis e o uso da bromélia pelos anfíbios. As espécies registradas estão fortemente associadas ao domínio da Floresta Atlântica. Entretanto, a ocupação dos costões rochosos por anuros pode estar mais associado com modos reprodutivos especializados apresentados pelas espécies, já que não existem riachos ou poças d'água permanentes disponíveis no local. Abstract in english Rocky seashores are low granitic hills distributed along the southeastern Brazilian coast with xeric-like vegetation due to the shallow soil. Knowledge on amphibian communities and their reproductive patterns is especially reduced on this kind of environment. Herein, we present a framework of two ye [...] ars monitoring an amphibian community at a rocky seashore environment located at the protected area of Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted diurnal and nocturnal searches for frogs in tank bromeliads, rocky surface and shrubby vegetation. Annual pattern of breeding activity of anurans was also estimated. Individuals of the most abundant tank-bromeliad, Alcantarea glaziouana were collected and measured according to several variables to understanding the selection of bromeliads by frogs. We checked the influence of the environmental conditions on amphibian abundance, association between the bromeliads measures, and the water storage in the tank. We recorded the species: Scinax aff. x-signatus; S. cuspidatus; S.

RC., Pontes; RT., Santori; FC. Goncalves e, Cunha; JAL., Pontes.

2013-08-01

237

Tuberculosis en pacientes ancianos: Formas de presentación / Tuberculosis in elderly patients: Forms of presentation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Analizar la distribución de las formas de presentación de tuberculosis (FPT) en pacientes de edad avanzada. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los casos de tuberculosis registrados en la Unidad de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis del Área Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela en un perí [...] odo de seis años. Clasificamos las FPT en: formas pulmonares (P), definida por localización exclusivamente pulmonar; Formas extrapulmonares (FE), caracterizada por una localización extrapulmonar; Formas mixtas (FM), localización pulmonar y extrapulmonar; Formas diseminadas (FD), dos o más localizaciones extrapulmonares; y TB miliares, definida por patrón radiológico miliar y/o enfermedad diseminada en necropsia. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 278 tuberculosis, 156 (56,2%) eran varones y 122 (43,8%) mujeres. La edad media fue de 75,3 años (rango, 65-95). La distribución de FPT resultó ser: 155 (55,8%) pulmonares; 66 (23,7%) FE de las cuales 27 (41,0%) eran de localización ganglionar, 12 (18,2%) osteoarticular, 8 (12,1%) intestinal, 6 (9,1%) peritoneal, 5 (7,6%) meningea y 8 (12,0%) otras localizaciones; FM 47 casos (16,9%); TB miliares 7 casos (2,5%) y FD 3 casos (1,1%). No se observó ningún caso de pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Conclusiones: En estos pacientes, se comprueba una elevada prevalencia de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. Ello nos sugiere, un cambio en la presentación clásica de la enfermedad y una extrema sensibilidad en el diagnóstico localizatorio de la enfermedad. Abstract in english Objetive: To analyse the distribution of the forms of presentation of tuberculosis (TPF) in elderly patients. Material and methods: The medical records of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis attending the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Unit of the Santiago Health District were reviewed over of [...] six years period. The classification of TPF was: pulmonary forms (P), disease confined to the lung; extrapulmonary forms (EF), disease outside the lung; mixed forms (MF), the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis; disseminated forms (DF), the pressence of two or more extrapulmonary locations; and miliary TB, which was definied by a diffuse pulmonary radiographic pattern or diagnosis was undertaken by necropsy. Results: A total of 278 tuberculosis infected patients were observed, 156 (56.2%) were men and 122 (43.8%) women, their mean age was 75.3 years (range 65-95). The distribution of TPF was: 155 (55.8%) P forms; 66 (23.7%) EF, of which 27 (41.0%) were ganglionary location, 12 (18.2%) bone and joint, 8 (12.0%) intestinal, 6 (9.1%) peritoneal, 5 (7.6%) meningeal, and other locations 8 (12.1%); MF 47 cases (16.9%); miliary TB 7 cases (2.5%) and. DF 3 cases (1.1%). None case was observed of HIV infected patient. Conclusions: Our findings confirm high incidence of extrapulmonary TB in elderly patients. Our experience shows a modification to the classical presentation of the disease, and thus the need for sensitivity in locating the disease.

F. L., Lado Lado; V., Tuñez Bastida; A. L., Golpe Gómez; A., Cabarcos Ortiz de Barrón; M. L., Pérez del Molino.

238

Fiebre, derrame pleural y lesión osteolítica en paciente con infección por VIH Fever, pleural effusion and osteolytic lesion in a patient with HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 28 años que consultó por fiebre de hasta 40,8ºC, dolor pleurítico en costado derecho y aparición de una masa dolorosa en la extremidad inferior izquierda de cuatro días de evolución. Mediante tomografía axial computerizada (TAC se objetivó la existencia de una condensación en el lóbulo medio del pulmón derecho con derrame pleural asociado y patrón miliar bilateral. El estudio ecográfico de la extremidad inferior izquierda mostró una masa de partes blandas de aspecto quístico con destrucción de la cortical del peroné y destrucción ósea. La resonancia magnética confirmó la presencia de osteomielitis en el peroné izquierdo y de un absceso de partes blandas asociado. En el material obtenido por punción del citado absceso así como en tres muestras de esputo se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis, estableciéndose el diagnóstico de tuberculosis diseminada con afectación pulmonar miliar, osteomielitis peronea y absceso tuberculoso de partes blandas. Se inició tratamiento antituberculoso (rifampicina, isoniacida y pirazinamida seguido, dos semanas después, de tratamiento antirretroviral (AZT, 3TC y NVP. La paciente desarrolló un cuadro de erupción cutánea generalizada que desapareció tras la sustitución de la rifampicina por etambutol. Ante la persistencia de la masa de partes blandas, tras cinco semanas de tratamiento antituberculoso se procedió al drenaje quirúrgico del absceso. La evolución posterior fue favorable, permaneciendo la paciente asintomática al mes de ser dada de alta.We present the case of a 28 year old patient who came for consultation on a fever of up to 40.8º C, pleuritic pain on the right side and the appearance of a painful mass in the lower left extremity of four days evolution. Computerised axial tomography (CAT showed the existence of a condensation in the middle lobe of the right lung with associated pleural effusion and bilateral miliary pattern. The echographic study of the lower left extremity showed a mass of soft parts with a cystic aspect with destruction of the cortical of the fibula and osseous destruction. Magnetic resonance confirmed the presence of osteomyelitis in the left fibula and of an abscess; Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also isolated in three samples of sputum that led to a diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis with miliary lung affectation, peroneous osteomyelitis and tuberculous abscess of the soft parts. Anti-tuberculosis treatment was started (riphampicine, isoniacide and pirazinamide followed, two weeks later, with antiretroviral treatment (AZT, 3TC and NVP. The patient developed a clinical picture of generalised cutaneous eruption that disappeared following the replacement of the riphampicine by etambutol. Due to the persistence of the mass of soft parts following five weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment, we proceeded to surgical draining of the abscess. The subsequent evolution was favourable, with the patient remaining asymptomatic one month after hospital discharge.

J.I. Aláez

2007-08-01

239

[Case of SIADH caused by ethionamide in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

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Cases of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) associated with tuberculosis have been reported, however, in most of these cases, tuberculosis disease is miliary or severe. Here we report the first case of SIADH induced by ethionamide (TH). The case is a 76 year-old woman. She noticed cough in April 2004 and chest X-ray showed infiltrative shadows on the right upper lung field. Sputum examination revealed positive for TB-PCR, and she was referred to our hospital. Treatment was started with the combination of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin and ethambutol, however susceptibility test showed the bacilli were resistant to INH, then INH was replaced by TH on day 59. Loss of appetite developed 4 days later, the level of consciousness dropped to Japan Coma Scale II-20, and the Na concentration decreased to 113 mEq/l 6 days later. We made the diagnosis of SIADH based on the diagnostic criteria. She recovered from SIADH by the replacement of TH with SM, the restriction of water intake, and the loading of Na. Judging from the coincidence of the administration of TH and the onset of SIADH, no recurrence of SIADH after the cessation of TH, the mildness of tuberculosis, and the onset of SIADH in an already recovered case, we thought that SIADH in this case was causedly TH. Not only adrenal insufficiency but also SIADH should be considered when patients with tuberculosis show hyponatremia, and drugs on use should be reviewed as the possible cause of SIADH. PMID:17240918

Nakashita, Tamao; Motojima, Shinji

2006-12-01

240

Diffuse lung uptake (DLU) on Ga-67 scintigraph: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic correlation  

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Review, analysis and correlation (clinical, radiologic and pathologic) of 29 consecutive adults (16 drug addicts and/or homosexuals) with DLU on Ga-67 scintigraph were made. Diffuse increased uptake of at least 75% of both lungs was considered as DLU. WFOF cameras were used to obtain 24 to 96 hr. scintigraphs after IV injection of 3-5 mCi of Ga-67 citrate. In 26, tissue diagnosis established: pneumocystis carinii (PC) 15, miliary tuberculosis (TB) 3, sarcoidosis (SR) 3, drug-induced toxicity 2, and toxoplasmosis (TX), primary hyperparathyroidism and nonspecific lymphocytic pneumonia-one each. In two with breast and one with esophageal carcinomas, no lung tissue diagnosis was sought. Concurrent chest x-rays were negative in 16, but in 7/16, lung infiltrate was later documented. An average of 31 days elapsed before x-rays became positive in four with PC, 7 days in two with TB, and 22 days in one with TX. In 13, concurrent x-rays showed lung infiltrate, but in 6, only subtle, localized rather than diffuse infiltrate was noted. Fourteen of 29 had at least two Ga-67 studies. In 12 (7 PC, 2 TB, 3 SR) of 14 whose repeat studies showed significant to total disappearance of DLU, all did well clinically. In two whose initial studies were negative or equivocal, they became clinically worse when the repeat study showed DLU. In three others (2 PC, 1 TX) who died, their single studies recorded intense DLU. DLU on gallium scintigraph indicated a variety of pathology. In 55.2%, gallium scintigraph predated x-ray findings by a few days to weeks. In 20.3%, x-ray findings were only subtle or localized. Scintigraphic changes correlated well with the clinical courses in various diseases.

Sy, W.M.; Seo, I.S.; Vieira, J.; Zaman, M.

1985-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Transcriptional profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicating ex vivo in blood from HIV- and HIV+ subjects.  

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Hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) occurs during both primary and reactivated tuberculosis (TB). Although hematogenous dissemination occurs in non-HIV TB patients, in ?80% of these patients, TB manifests exclusively as pulmonary disease. In contrast, extrapulmonary, disseminated, and/or miliary TB is seen in 60-70% of HIV-infected TB patients, suggesting that hematogenous dissemination is likely more common in HIV+ patients. To understand M. tb adaptation to the blood environment during bacteremia, we have studied the transcriptome of M. tb replicating in human whole blood. To investigate if M. tb discriminates between the hematogenous environments of immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals, we compared the M. tb transcriptional profiles during replication in blood from HIV- and HIV+ donors. Our results demonstrate that M. tb survives and replicates in blood from both HIV- and HIV+ donors and enhances its virulence/pathogenic potential in the hematogenous environment. The M. tb blood-specific transcriptome reflects suppression of dormancy, induction of cell-wall remodeling, alteration in mode of iron acquisition, potential evasion of immune surveillance, and enhanced expression of important virulence factors that drive active M. tb infection and dissemination. These changes are accentuated during bacterial replication in blood from HIV+ patients. Furthermore, the expression of ESAT-6, which participates in dissemination of M. tb from the lungs, is upregulated in M. tb growing in blood, especially during growth in blood from HIV+ patients. Preliminary experiments also demonstrate that ESAT-6 promotes HIV replication in U1 cells. These studies provide evidence, for the first time, that during bacteremia, M. tb can adapt to the blood environment by modifying its transcriptome in a manner indicative of an enhanced-virulence phenotype that favors active infection. Additionally, transcriptional modifications in HIV+ blood may further accentuate M. tb virulence and drive both M. tb and HIV infection. PMID:24755630

Ryndak, Michelle B; Singh, Krishna K; Peng, Zhengyu; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Li, Hualin; Meng, Lu; Laal, Suman

2014-01-01

242

Cinco diferentes tipos de imágenes gammagráficas tiroideas en pacientes con enfermedad de graves tratados con 131I en el Paraguay.  

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Full Text Available Thyroid disease is frequent in Paraguay, a country with a prevalence of goiter 48,6% in general population located in the center of South America.Grave’s disease constitutes the most common thyroid hyperfunction observed whose treatment can be carried out with medication (propiltiouracil, metimazol, etc., surgery or iodine 131(131IWe analyzed 70 patients this type of hyperthyroidism treated with the 131I, in its clinical aspect pre and post treatment, ultrasound and nuclear scan findings of the gland thyroid, the hormonal respond Ft4, T3, TSH, thyroid antibodies TPOab, TGab, TRab.Besides the diffuse classic image observed in the thyroid scan and by ultrasonography of the gland, in Grave’s disease, 4 types of images were identified with nodules (multinodular, hot nodule, cold nodule and miliar. The group with diffuse increase in size form was the most numerous (50% continued by the variety multinodular (30%, Marin-Lenhart’s Sx (hot nodule 14%, miliary 3%, and cold nodule 3%.Three months after the treatment with the radioiodine was observed the decrease of the size and thyroid volume in 68% of the patients, thyroid uptake with 131I diminished in 75%. All patients had an increase of weight of 20% and 87% of then were feminineThe signs and symptoms were normalized in 88,5% of the patients. The levels of FT4 were normalized in 73, 8%, T3 in 66%, TSH in 47,7%, TPOab in 83%, TGab in 90%, and TRab in 84%.A received a single dose of 131I was used it in 93% of the patient The cost of the 131I in the Clinic Hospital was half of the cost of the surgery, and at private level the fourth part but cheap.

Jara Yorg J.A.

2006-10-01

243

[Evaluation of the management of tuberculosis in children in Madagascar. Results of a multicentric study].  

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In Madagascar, tuberculosis remains an important cause of morbidity and letality with a Risk of Annual Tubercular Infection about 1% in 1996 in spite of a vaccination rate of 82.6% and tubercular drugs free of charge. In 1995, the National Tubercular Control Program detected 7,000 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and expected more than 12,000 cases per year. This study was carried out in order to review the management and the treatment of the child tuberculosis in Madagascar. This retrospective study was conducted in four pediatric units of the General hospital of Befelatanana (A and B), Ambohimiandra Hospital and Regional Hospital Centre of Toliara for a twenty four months period from January 1997 to December 1998. All the less than 15-year-old children medical files were consulted. 214 cases were suspected of tuberculosis. 133 of them were treated upon clinical presumption basis and/or radiological exams (33 bacteriological and/or histopathological exams were only realized). 56% of the cases were vaccinated by BCG vaccine. Respiratory diseases with fever motive 46% of hospitalization. The majority of these children are living in poor conditions and 38% of them had malnutrition. Were found as clinical manifestations: 47% of pulmonary tuberculosis (among them 20% were smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis), 12% had ganglionar tuberculosis, 10% peritoneal tuberculosis, 8% a tubercular meningitis, 5% a Pott-disease and 2% a miliary-disease. Mortality increases with suffocation. 18% of cases died, especially infants and in tubercular meningitis. The authors conclude that management and treatment of tuberculosis need an early diagnosis. But the diagnosis is difficult in front of non specific clinical manifestations in children and due to lack of means and national agreement which settle up diagnosis and therapy. A scoring system based upon clinical signs in agreement with complementary medical tests is desirable. PMID:12478966

Rasamoelisoa, J M; Tovone, X G; Razoeliarinoro, H V; Rakotoarimanana, D R

1999-01-01

244

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Host Risk Factors in a Large Urban Setting in Brazil  

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Background Factors related to the development of extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (EPTB) are still poorly understood, particularly in high-endemic countries like Brazil. The objective of the paper is to determine host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain-related factors associated with the development of EPTB in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study of new tuberculosis (TB) cases diagnosed in Espírito Santo state, Brazil between 1998 and 2007. We genotyped 612 isolates of MTB from 606 TB patients using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing and compared sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) and EPTB. Among 606 patients, 464 (77%) had PTB, 79 (13%) had EPTB, 51 (8%) had both, and 12 (2%) had miliary TB. The IS6110 RFLP analysis demonstrated that 250 (41%) isolates belonged to clustered RFLP patterns, 27 (11%) of which were from EPTB. We identified 73 clusters including 35 (48%) composed of 2 isolates each. By spoligotyping, 506 (83%) MTB isolates fell into known patterns and 106 (17%) fell into patterns with no family assignment; 297 (48%) isolates belonged to the Latin-American Mediterranean family. Higher school level (4-7 years OR: 0.16 95% CI 0.34-0.73 and > 8 years of education, OR 0.06 95% CI 0.009-0.50) white ethnicity (OR: 2.54 95% CI 1.03-6.25) and HIV infection (OR: 16.83 95% CI 5.23-54.18) were associated with EPTB. No specific strain lineage or percentage of clustering was associated with EPTB. Conclusions These results demonstrate that risk factors for EPTB are related more to host than to MTB strain lineage characteristics. PMID:24098337

Gomes, Teresa; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Reis-Santos, Barbara; Palaci, Moises; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Aguiar, Paola P.; Ribeiro, Fabiola Karla Correa; Marques, Hebert Silva; Dettoni, Valderio do Valle; Johnson, John L.; Riley, Lee W.; Maciel, Ethel Leonor

2013-01-01

245

Relação entre o diagnóstico sorológico (ELISA e a gravidade da tuberculose pulmonar na infância Relationship between serological diagnosis (ELISA and gravity of pulmonary tuberculosis in children  

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Full Text Available Foram estudadas 48 crianças de 0 a 13 anos através da realização do ensaio imunoenzimático ligado a enzima (ELISA para pesquisa de anticorpos da classe IgG antiPPD, visando estabelecer correlação entre a resposta imune humoral medida pela sorologia e a gravidade da tuberculose, segundo formas radiológicas (leve, moderada e grave. A amostra foi composta de 29 crianças com tuberculose e 19 sem tuberculose comunicantes de tuberculose. Os valores médios (medianas da densidade óptica do teste ELISA foram, respectivamente: 0,098 na forma gânglio-pulmonar (leve, 0,092 na forma pneumônica (moderada e 0,134 na tuberculose miliar (grave. Nas crianças não tuberculosas com radiografia de tórax normal, o ELISA foi igual a 0,020. Os achados evidenciam valores mais elevados do teste sorológico relacionados à maior gravidade da doença (p= 0,0007.Forty eight children from 0 to 13 years old were submitted to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA serological test with a view to detect anti PPD IgG antibodies, for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and to establish the relationship between immune response and radiological gravity of pulmonary tuberculosis (mild, moderate and severe. There were 29 children with pulmonary tuberculosis and 19 children without tuberculosis. The median ELISA optical density were: 0.098 in children with primary complex (mild; 0.092 in children with pneumonic pattern (moderate and 0.134 in children with miliary tuberculosis (severe. These data show higher positive serological test results in severe forms of pulmonary tuberculosis (p = 0.0007.

Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

2001-12-01

246

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis in western India  

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Full Text Available Tuberculous involvement of liver as a part of disseminated tuberculosis is seen in up to 50-80% cases, but localized hepatobiliary tuberculosis (HBTB is uncommonly described. During 6 years, a total of 280 consecutive patients with TB were evaluated prospectively for the presence and etiology of liver involvement. Cases with miliary TB or immunosuppression and cases receiving anti-tuberculosis drugs prior to presentation to our unit were excluded (38 cases. Details of clinical, biochemical and imaging findings and histology/microbiology were noted. Of 242 included cases, 38 patients (15.7%; age 38.1 ± 12.5 years; sex ratio 2.5:1 had HBTB, whereas 20 patients (9%; age 39.3 ± 16.3 years; sex ratio 2.1:1 had other liver diseases. Diagnosis of HBTB was based on caseating granuloma on histology (18/23 procedures, positive smear/culture for acid-fast bacilli (21/39 procedures and positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28/29 procedures when diagnostic procedures were guided by imaging results. Thirty-eight cases with HBTB were classified as follows [patients (n, (%]: (A hepatic TB [20 (52.6%]: (1 granulomatous hepatitis - 10 (26.3%, (2 liver abscesses or pseudotumors - 10 (26.3% and (3 calcified hepatic granuloma - 0 (0%; (B biliary TB [15 (39.4%]: (1 biliary strictures - 2 (5.2%, (2 gall bladder involvement - 1 (2.6% and (3 biliary obstruction due to lymph node masses - 12 (31.5%; (C mixed variety [3 (7.8%]: (1 simultaneous granulomatous hepatitis and biliary stricture - 1 (2.6% and (2 simultaneous lymph node involvement and calcified hepatic granuloma - 2 (5.2%. All the cases responded well to standard anti-tuberculosis therapy. HBTB forms an important subgroup in TB cases. It requires a combination of imaging, histological and microbiological procedures to define the diagnosis. HBTB responds well to treatment.

Amarapurkar Deepak

2008-04-01

247

Tuberculosis and liver disease: management issues.  

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Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases in India and has attained epidemic proportions. Tuberculosis and liver are related in many ways. Liver disease can occur due to hepatic tuberculosis or the treatment with various anti-tubercular drugs may precipitate hepatic injury or patients with chronic liver disease may develop tuberculosis and pose special management problems. Tuberculosis per se can affect liver in three forms. The most common form is the diffuse hepatic involvement, seen along with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. The second is granulomatous hepatitis and the third, much rarer form presents as focal/local tuberculoma or abscess. Tubercular disease of liver occurring along with pulmonary involvement as in disseminated tuberculosis is treated with standard regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis. Granulomatous hepatitis and tubercular liver abscess are treated like any other extra-pulmonary tubercular lesions without any extra risk of hepatotoxicity by anti-tubercular drugs. Treatment of tuberculosis in patients who already have a chronic liver disease poses various clinical challenges. There is an increased risk of drug induced hepatitis in these patients and its implications are potentially more serious in these patients as their hepatic reserve is already depleted. However, hepatotoxic anti-tubercular drugs can be safely used in these patients if the number of drugs used is adjusted appropriately. Thus, the main principle is to closely monitor the patient for signs of worsening liver disease and to reduce the number of hepatotoxic drugs in the anti-tubercular regimen according to the severity of underlying liver disease. PMID:23025055

Sonika, Ujjwal; Kar, Premashis

2012-01-01

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CUTANEOUS TB PROFILE IN NORTH WEST PUNJAB, INDIA: A RETROSPECTIVE DATA ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies from India concluded that the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has fallen from 2% to 0.15%, whereas more recent reports suggest that cutaneous tuberculosis is again becoming more prevalent. Aims: To study the patterns of clinical presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis, to correlate them with histopathology, Mantoux reactivity and BCG vaccination status in the north-west region of Punjab. Methods: Analysis of the records of patients with cutaneous tuberculosis who attended the hospital between Jan 2009 to Dec 2012. Results: A total of 36 (0.02% of dermatology patients had cutaneous tuberculosis. The type of cutaneous tuberculosis in decreasing order of incidence was lupus vulgaris 16 (44.44% followed by tuberculosis verrucosa cutis 10 (27.77%, scrofuloderma 7 (19.44% and tuberculids 3 (8.33%. There were no cases of erythema nodosum or miliary tuberculosis. Multiple sites were involved in 17 (47.22% patients. Face and neck were the most common sites affectedMost of the patients (52.77% presented with single lesion. Active tuberculosis in other organs were observed in 8 (22.22% patients. Mantoux test was positive in 23 (63.88%. BCG scar was present in 23 (63.8% patients. 29 cases (80.55% showed characteristic histopathological changes of cutaneous tuberculosis. Conclusions: The incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis in the present study was found to be 0.02% which is far lower as compared to previous reports. Reason for this observation could be the effective implementation of the National Program for tuberculosis at primary and secondary level leading to early diagnosis and treatment, hence lesser number of cases reaching to a tertiary center. This study also depicts the histopathological correlation evident in 80.55% of the histopathological specimens which is highly significant.

Tejinder Kaur

2013-10-01

249

Urogenital tuberculosis: patient classification in seven different groups according to clinical and radiological presentation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To describe and classify 80 cases of urogenital tuberculosis in seven groups of similar clinical and radiological presentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 patients (56 males, 70%; median age 34 years; age range 12 to 75) with urogenital tuberculosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patient [...] s were divided in seven groups: 1) Bilateral parenchymatous renal lesions; 2) No or minimal changes on radiographic examination; 3) Unilateral renal tuberculosis; 4) Contracted bladder; 5) Contracted bladder with renal failure; 6) Tuberculosis on a transplanted kidney; 7) Isolated genital tuberculosis. RESULTS: 1) Seven (8.8%) patients had multiple bilateral parenchymatous renal lesions with fever and malaise, characteristic of miliary tuberculosis. Three of these patients had AIDS. 2) Six (7.5%) cases had an early diagnosis, with minimal or no radiographic lesions. Two did not have any urologic symptoms. 3) Twelve (15%) patients had unilateral renal tuberculosis with partial (1 case) or total non-function kidney. 4) Thirty-seven (46.3%) patients had contracted bladder associated with unilateral partial (1 case) or total non-function kidney. 5) Ten (12.5%) patients had end stage renal disease due to tuberculosis with contracted bladder. 6) Four (5.0%) patients had tuberculosis on a transplanted kidney, with graft loss in half the cases. 7) Four (5.0%) patients had prostate or epididymis tuberculosis without associated renal lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Urogenital tuberculosis is a destructive disease of the urogenital tract with variable clinical and radiographic presentation. A classification according to similar patterns correlating with disease stage is feasible although early diagnosis is the only prevention of the most severe forms.

Andre A., Figueiredo; Antonio M., Lucon; Cristiano M., Gomes; Miguel, Srougi.

250

Urogenital tuberculosis: patient classification in seven different groups according to clinical and radiological presentation  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe and classify 80 cases of urogenital tuberculosis in seven groups of similar clinical and radiological presentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 patients (56 males, 70%; median age 34 years; age range 12 to 75 with urogenital tuberculosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided in seven groups: 1 Bilateral parenchymatous renal lesions; 2 No or minimal changes on radiographic examination; 3 Unilateral renal tuberculosis; 4 Contracted bladder; 5 Contracted bladder with renal failure; 6 Tuberculosis on a transplanted kidney; 7 Isolated genital tuberculosis. RESULTS: 1 Seven (8.8% patients had multiple bilateral parenchymatous renal lesions with fever and malaise, characteristic of miliary tuberculosis. Three of these patients had AIDS. 2 Six (7.5% cases had an early diagnosis, with minimal or no radiographic lesions. Two did not have any urologic symptoms. 3 Twelve (15% patients had unilateral renal tuberculosis with partial (1 case or total non-function kidney. 4 Thirty-seven (46.3% patients had contracted bladder associated with unilateral partial (1 case or total non-function kidney. 5 Ten (12.5% patients had end stage renal disease due to tuberculosis with contracted bladder. 6 Four (5.0% patients had tuberculosis on a transplanted kidney, with graft loss in half the cases. 7 Four (5.0% patients had prostate or epididymis tuberculosis without associated renal lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Urogenital tuberculosis is a destructive disease of the urogenital tract with variable clinical and radiographic presentation. A classification according to similar patterns correlating with disease stage is feasible although early diagnosis is the only prevention of the most severe forms.

Andre A. Figueiredo

2008-08-01

251

Detection rate and prognostic value of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA in metastatic uveal melanoma.  

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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) have been recently investigated in several cancer types, but their respective clinical significance remains to be determined. In our prospective study, we compared the detection rate and the prognostic value of these two circulating biomarkers in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. GNAQ/GNA11 mutations were characterized in archived tumor tissue. Using a highly sensitive and mutation-specific bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (bi-PAP) technique, GNAQ c.626A>T, GNAQ c.626A>C and GNA11 c.626A>T copy numbers were quantified in plasma from 12 mL of blood. CTCs were detected at the same time in 7.5 mL of blood by the CellSearch technique. Patient characteristics and outcome were prospectively collected. CTCs (?1) were detected in 12 of the 40 included patients (30%, range 1-20). Among the 26 patients with known detectable mutations, ctDNA was detected and quantified in 22 (84%, range 4-11,421 copies/mL). CTC count and ctDNA levels were associated with the presence of miliary hepatic metastasis (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively), with metastasis volume (p = 0.005 and 0.004) and with each other (p < 0.0001). CTC count and ctDNA levels were both strongly associated with progression-free survival (p = 0.003 and 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.0009 and <0.0001). In multivariate analyses, ctDNA appeared to be a better prognostic marker than CTC. In conclusion, ctDNA and CTC are correlated and both have poor prognostic significance. CTC detection can be performed in every patient but, in patients with detectable mutations, ctDNA was more frequently detected than CTC and has possibly more prognostic value. PMID:23934701

Bidard, François-Clément; Madic, Jordan; Mariani, Pascale; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Rampanou, Aurore; Servois, Vincent; Cassoux, Nathalie; Desjardins, Laurence; Milder, Maud; Vaucher, Isabelle; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Lebofsky, Ronald; Stern, Marc-Henri; Lantz, Olivier

2014-03-01

252

Thoracic radiographic features of silicosis in 19 horses  

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Clinical records and thoracic radiographs of 19 horses with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of silicosis were reviewed. These horses had histories of varying degrees of chronic weight loss, exercise intolerance, and respiratory distress. At the time of presentation, two horses were asymptomatic. Ten horses were geldings and nine were female. The mean age of the 19 horses was 10.7 +/- 5.5 years. Fourteen horses were identified as being from the Monterey-Carmel Peninsula of midcoastal California. An abnormal, structured interstitial pulmonary pattern was identified on thoracic radiographs in each horse. The interstitial pulmonary changes were classified as miliary (13 horses), reticulonodular (4), or linear interstitial (2), and were best visualized dorsally and caudodorsally. In addition to the abnormal interstitial pulmonary pattern, areas of pulmonary consolidation were evident caudodorsally in seven horses. Other thoracic radiographic features included: hilar lymphadenopathy (4 horses), pleural effusion/thickening (4), cranial mediastinal lymphadenopathy (2), hyperinflation (1), and a discrete pulmonary mass (1). Necropsy findings in eight horses and results of lung biopsies in an additional five horses showed a diffuse, multifocal, granulomatous pneumonia with areas of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular infiltrates included predominantly macrophages with intracellular and/or extracellular crystalline material, occasional lymphocytes, and giant cells. Similar cellular changes were also identified, during necropsy, in the hilar and tracheobronchial lymph nodes in each of the eight horses, although gross enlargement of the lymph nodes was present in only six horses. The radiographic and pathologic findings of these 19 horses are consistent with chronic or the accelerated forms of silicosis that are recognized in humans

253

Detection of Pulmonary tuberculosis: comparing MR imaging with HRCT  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer Tomography (CT is considered the gold standard for assessing the morphological changes of lung parenchyma. Although novel CT techniques have substantially decreased the radiation dose, radiation exposure is still high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been established as a radiation- free alternative to CT for several lung diseases, but its role in infectious diseases still needs to be explored further. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to compare MRI with high resolution CT (HRCT for assessing pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods 50 patients with culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis underwent chest HRCT as the standard of reference and were evaluated by MRI within 24 h after HRCT. Altogether we performed 60 CT and MRI examinations, because 10 patients were also examined by CT and MRI at follow- up. Pulmonary abnormalities, their characteristics, location and distribution were analyzed by two readers who were blinded to the HRCT results. Results Artifacts did not interfere with the diagnostic value of MRI. Both HRCT and MRI correctly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and identified pulmonary abnormalities in all patients. There were no significant differences between the two techniques in terms of identifying the location and distribution of the lung lesions, though the higher resolution of MRI did allow for better identification of parenchymal dishomogeneity, caseosis, and pleural or nodal involvement. Conclusion Technical developments and the refinement of pulse sequences have improved the quality and speed of MRI. Our data indicate that in terms of identifying lung lesions in non-AIDS patients with non- miliary pulmonary tuberculosis, MRI achieves diagnostic performances comparable to those obtained by HRCT but with better and more rapid identification of pulmonary tissue abnormalities due to the excellent contrast resolution.

Lauria Francesco N

2011-09-01

254

Relação entre o diagnóstico sorológico (ELISA) e a gravidade da tuberculose pulmonar na infância / Relationship between serological diagnosis (ELISA) and gravity of pulmonary tuberculosis in children  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram estudadas 48 crianças de 0 a 13 anos através da realização do ensaio imunoenzimático ligado a enzima (ELISA) para pesquisa de anticorpos da classe IgG antiPPD, visando estabelecer correlação entre a resposta imune humoral medida pela sorologia e a gravidade da tuberculose, segundo formas radio [...] lógicas (leve, moderada e grave). A amostra foi composta de 29 crianças com tuberculose e 19 sem tuberculose comunicantes de tuberculose). Os valores médios (medianas) da densidade óptica do teste ELISA foram, respectivamente: 0,098 na forma gânglio-pulmonar (leve), 0,092 na forma pneumônica (moderada) e 0,134 na tuberculose miliar (grave). Nas crianças não tuberculosas com radiografia de tórax normal, o ELISA foi igual a 0,020. Os achados evidenciam valores mais elevados do teste sorológico relacionados à maior gravidade da doença (p= 0,0007). Abstract in english Forty eight children from 0 to 13 years old were submitted to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serological test with a view to detect anti PPD IgG antibodies, for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and to establish the relationship between immune response and radiological gravity of pu [...] lmonary tuberculosis (mild, moderate and severe). There were 29 children with pulmonary tuberculosis and 19 children without tuberculosis. The median ELISA optical density were: 0.098 in children with primary complex (mild); 0.092 in children with pneumonic pattern (moderate) and 0.134 in children with miliary tuberculosis (severe). These data show higher positive serological test results in severe forms of pulmonary tuberculosis (p = 0.0007).

Clemax Couto, Sant' Anna; Leila de Souza, Fonseca; Maria Helena Féres, Saad.

255

Pulmonary tuberculosis: relationship between sputum bacilloscopy and radiological lesions  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of radiological manifestations of chest tuberculosis among the tuberculosis outpatients at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo Hospital, and to correlate these radiological findings with the sputum bacilloscopy. SAMPLE AND METHODS: A review was made of the medical record cards and chest X-rays of all patients attended between January 1996 and December 1998. Patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis who presented intrathoracic manifestations of the disease and negative anti-HIV serology were selected. RESULTS: The selection included 153 patients, with an average age of 37.5 years, who were predominantly male (60.8% and white (56.9%. Pulmonary lesions were present in 121 (79.9% and extrapulmonary lesions in 32 (20.1%. Parenchymal-infiltrate lesions appeared in 56 patients (36.6%, cavity lesions in 55 (36.0%, pleural effusion in 28 (18.3%, isolated nodules in 6 (3.9%, mediastinal enlargement in 4 (2.6% and miliary pattern in 4 (2.6%. Cavities were present in 45.5% of the patients with pulmonary lesions, generally in association with the parenchymal-infiltrate lesions. Parenchymal infiltrate was present in 86.8% of the patients with pulmonary lesions. There was significant presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacillus in the sputum of patients with cavities (76.4%, in comparison with those without cavities (50% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Parenchymal-infiltrate lesions are the most frequent radiological manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis, and they are generally associated with cavities. There is a relationship between the presence of acid fast bacilli in sputum and pulmonary cavity lesions.

Gomes Mauro

2003-01-01

256

Radiographic Findings of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Tehran in Comparison with Other Institutional Studies  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most common worldwide infections, especially in developing countries. Early diagnosis is very important for prevention of the chronic form of the disease and sequel formation. Chest x-ray (CXR is an easy, feasible, non-expensive and quick tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. "nPatients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 200 chest x-rays of secondary pulmonary TB cases in university-affiliated hospitals. These cases were all proved by a positive sputum smear or culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis. "nResults: In this study, we correlated CXR findings of 100 male and 100 female patients. The peak age of involvement in both groups was 61-80 years. None of the chest x-rays were normal. The main radiographic findings were consolidation-infiltration, fibrosis, pleural effusion, cavitation, pleural thickening and bronchiectasis. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was detected in 9% of the cases. Pulmonary infiltration with consolidation was the most common finding (55%. Miliary shadowing, atelectasis and pneumomediastinum were the least common presentations. Lymphadenopathy was more common in 40 to 60-year-old women. Right lung involvement was more common than the left side and the upper zones were involved in most cases. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Infiltration in diabetic patients and fibrotic appearances in hypertensive patients were common findings. "nConclusion: There was no significant difference between our data and the other studies carried out in Iran. The patients were younger in the studies from other countries. However, cavitary lesions were more common in other studies than this study, which seems to be due to the higher prevalence of underlying diseases such as HIV or diabetes.

A. Jamzad

2009-11-01

257

The role of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of recurrent colorectal cancer  

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The conventional diagnostic techniques used to assess recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRCR) often yield unspecific findings. Integrated FDG-PET/CT seems to offer promise for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the value of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the detection of CRCR subsequent to colonic resection or rectal amputation. The population for this retrospective study comprised 84 patients with suspected CRCR. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET and PET/CT were calculated for (a) intra-abdominal extrahepatic recurrences, (b) extra-abdominal and/or hepatic recurrences and (c) all recurrences, and tumour marker levels were analysed. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of PET in detecting intra-abdominal extrahepatic CRCR were 82%, 88% and 86%, respectively, compared with 88%, 94% and 92%, respectively, for PET/CT. The corresponding figures for detection of extra-abdominal and/or hepatic CRCR were 74%, 88% and 85% for PET and 95%, 100% and 99% for PET/CT. Considering the entire population, the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of PET were 80%, 69% and 75%, respectively, compared with 89%, 92% and 90%, respectively, for PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT examination correctly detected 40 out of a total of 45 patients with CRCR. Two of five patients with falsely negative FDG-PET/CT findings had local microscopic recurrences and one had miliary liver metastases. Of 39 patients without CRCR, three showed false positive FDG-PET/CT results. Two of these cases were due to increased accumulation in inflammatory foci in the bowel wall, while one was due to haemorrhaging into the adrenal gland. FDG-PET/CT appears to be a very promising method for distinguishing a viable tumour from fibrous changes, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. (orig.)

Votrubova, Jana; Belohlavek, Otakar; Jaruskova, Monika [Na Homolce Hospital, PET Centre, Prague (Czech Republic); Oliverius, Martin [Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Lohynska, Radka [University Hospital Motol, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Trskova, Kristina [Na Homolce Hospital, Department of Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, Eva [General Teaching Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic); Lipska, Ludmila [Thomayer' s Teaching Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Prague (Czech Republic); Stahalova, Vladimira [Na Bulovce Teaching Hospital, Institute of Radiation Oncology, Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-07-15

258

Space: A non-limiting resource in the niches of some abundant coral reef gastropods  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the importance attributed to the occupation of space in benthic coral reef communities, this study asks the question: are any particular microhabitat types limiting resources for an assemblage of worm-eating gastropods on Heron reef (Great Barrier Reef). Microhabitat resource use was measured on three occasions, separated by 12 and 20-month periods. The gastropod populations were typical of those of other Indo-Pacific sites with respect to mean shell size and density. Fluctuations in species' size and density are assumed to have not significantly influenced availability of microhabitat resources. Gastropods occurred mainly in the structurally complex “refuge” microhabitats during the day and showed an increased abundance in smooth, exposed, “foraging” microhabitat nocturnally. Nassarius gaudiosus is the most extreme microhabitat specialist diurnally and the most extreme microhabitat generalist nocturnally. A similar, although less pronounced trend was exhibited by other gastropod species. Microhabitat niche overlap was high for Conus coronatus, C. miliaris, C. flavidus, Vasum turbinellus and N. gaudiosus at night and was also high during the day for all these species except N. gaudiosus, which showed little overlap with other gastropod species diurnally. Using gastropod abundance data from all samples, and independently derived microhabitat abundance data, multiple regression analysis demonstrated: 1) A significant relationship between the abundances of N. gaudiosus, C. coronatus, and C. flavidus and the abundance of microhabitat 2 (sand under rocks=“refuge”). 2) No positive association between gastropod abundance and the abundance of microhabitat 7a (thin layer of algal-bound sand on reef limestone). Only N. gaudiosus is abundant in microhabitat 2. Therefore it is concluded that, with some exceptions, microhabitat abundance does not have a significant influence, directly or indirectly, on gastropod abundance. It is possible that density-independent mortality is maintaining gastropod densities below that at which competitive interactions, with respect to microhabitats, have significant effects on the gastropods' use of those resources.

Reichelt, R. E.

1982-06-01

259

Lung nodule detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, negative 131I whole body scan, and undetectable serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels: two case reports  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction When a pulmonary nodular lesion is detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with post-surgical papillary thyroid carcinoma with undetectable serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels and negative 131I whole body scan, diagnosis and management of the nodule may be confusing. Case presentation We describe two post-surgical patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who showed pulmonary nodular lesions detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In both cases serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels were undetectable and nodular lesions were not detected by 131I whole body scan. In the first case, a 64-year-old Asian woman showed one focal increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake lesion in the right lower lobe of one of her lungs. Based on the histologic study, the pulmonary nodular lesion was diagnosed as a solitary pulmonary metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the second case, a 59-year-old Asian woman showed a new pulmonary nodule in the right lower lobe. The computed tomography scan of her chest revealed a 9mm nodule in the anterior basal segment and another tiny nodule in the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe. Six months later, both nodules had increased in size and miliary disseminated nodules were also seen in both lungs. Based on their histology, the pulmonary nodular lesions were considered to be primary lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions The present cases emphasize that physicians should be cautious and make efforts for an accurate diagnosis of pulmonary nodules detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with no evidence of metastasis such as negative 131I whole body scan and undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin levels.

Jung Chan-Hee

2012-10-01

260

Clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients: differences between public and private hospitals in Jakarta  

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Full Text Available The aims of this study is to determine the demographic data, risk factors, clinical presentations, opportunistic/co-infections and its difference between public and private hospitals. A retrospective -descriptive study was conducted in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital (public hospital and Medistra Hospital (private hospital, Jakarta. The inclusion criteria were new HIV/AIDS cases admitted in year 2002-2003 and positive HIV serology (Elisa method. Secondary data were collected form medical record. Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in this study (public hospital 30 subjects and private hospital 36 subjects, consist of 59 male (89.4% and 7 female (10.6%. Thirty-seven percent subjects were defined as HIV and 62% AIDS. Risk factors obtained include drug user (59.1%, homosexual (13.6%, heterosexual (21.1%, transfusion (1.5% and maternal-child (perinatal (1.5%. The clinical symptoms mainly present as acute fever (56.2%, weight loss (39.4%, cough (38.8%, shortness of breath (27.2%, chronic diarrhea (22.8%, prolong fever (19.7%, loss of conciousness (15.3%, anorexia (15.3%. Significant differences between public and private hospitals were seen in fever and cough symptoms. Clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS patients during admission were : pneumonia (56%, oral trush (22.6%, anemia (56.5%, leucopenia (32.3%, lymphopenia (55.9%, elevated AST/ALT (66.1%, hypoalbuminemia (46.9%, limphadenopathy (10.6%, brain space occuping lesion (7.6%, encephalopathy (6.0%, pulmonary tb and pleural effusion (10.6%. The opportunistic and co-infections present were candidiasis (25.8%, chronic hepatitis C (24.2%, chronic hepatitis B and C (4.5%, pulmonary tb, lymphadenitis and miliary tb. Candidiasis and pulmonary tb were frequently found in public hospital. In conclusion from this study that clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS were young man or woman, with one or more possible risk factor, had fever, respiratory complain, loss of body weight, chronic diarrhea, fatique, oral trush, anemia, leucopenia, lymphopenia. Patients admitted in private hospital had varied complain; and patients that admitted in public hospital had more severe and advance condition. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 232-6Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Clinical Manifestation

Herdiman T. Pohan

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Postmortem Investigations Following Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

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Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS is a global disease and despite intensive research it is one of the main causes of human death. Postmortem studies have proven accurate in determining the various pathologies in these patients. Aims & Objectives: Our aim was to analyze the post mortem results of individuals who died after HIV infection in the same geographical region. We evaluated the most frequent opportunistic diseases and their clinical and morphological outcomes. Methods: We studied case reports and autopsy research data from 32 patients who died after HIV infection in Smolensk, Russian Federation, between 2003 and 2008. All patients had been diagnosed with HIV infection before death, using HIV-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting. Autopsy specimens of various organs were examined histologically and microbiologically. Findings: The mean survival period from the moment of detection of seropositivity in all the patients was less than five years. Twelve patients had a parenteral mode of contact, six had been infected by sexual contact, and 14 patients had unknown modes of infection. Most patients (69% had chronic hepatitis C. The main causes of death were various infectious diseases. The most common were generalized miliary tuberculosis and progressive secondary tuberculosis of the lungs. Three (9% patients had tuberculosis of the meninges and five (16% had peritoneal infections, but tuberculous peritonitis had not been diagnosed before death. Six patients had pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia simultaneously. Two (6% patients died from bacterial sepsis as a result of cervical lymphadenitis, and eight (12.5% from abscess-forming pneumonia. The opportunistic infections revealed were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (eight patients, cytomegaloviral pneumonia (three, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (one and mucosal candidiasis (three. In three patients, the causes of death were advanced neoplastic processes: two cases of leukemia and one case of cervical cancer. Conclusions: Tuberculosis was the most widespread among the opportunistic infections, which often had affected the entire lung and had a destructive form. In the morphological picture of tuberculous inflammation, alterative and exudative changes dominated. Moreover, HIV infection had a characteristically broad spectrum of causative agents of pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

Andrey V. Bychkov

2009-04-01

262

Tuberculous biliary strictures: uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculous biliary stricture is a very rare cause of obstructive jaundice. A case of a man who had had pulmonary tuberculosis 20 years ago is reported. He now presented with obstructive jaundice due to multiple strictures just below the confluence of the hepatic ducts and in the right hepatic duct. At surgery, these turned out to be tuberculous in origin. There was also tuberculous involvement of the gall bladder and cystic duct. The commonest differential diagnosis in such cases is cholangiocarcinoma (as in the present case). Imaging helps in defining the extent of bile duct obstruction. Suspicion of the disease and establishing a tissue diagnosis is very important in treating this potentially curable condition, especially with the worldwide resurgence of tuberculosis. Imaging modalities such as US and CT may be useful in demonstrating the dilated bile ducts. As there are no specific radiological features of tuberculous biliary strictures, the radiologist should search for any associated findings in abdominal imaging, especially focal hepatic lesions, abdominal lymphadenopathy and abdominal calcification. Tuberculous hepatic involvement can have miliary, nodular and solitary abscess forms. Solitary tuberculous abscesses may be readily detected by sectional imaging such as US, CT or MRI. Ultrasound appearances encountered include well-defined hypoechoic lesions, mixed hyper/hypoechoic masses or almost solid masses. On CT, tuberculous liver abscesses have been describerculous liver abscesses have been described as having a rosette appearance or being a hypodense mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of a tuberculous solitary mass has been described as hypointense on T1-weighted images and iso- or hypointense on T2-weighted images. However, none of these findings are specific or diagnostic of tuberculous origin and, therefore, the lesions have to be sampled percutaneously to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Abdominal lymphadenopathy (mainly periductal, hepatoduodenal ligament and at the porta hepatis) can be seen in up to 35% of cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis. Finding calcification on abdominal X-ray is another important observation which is reported to be present in 50% of cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis. The patterns described are 'chalky' and confluent hepatic calcifications or nodal-type calcifications along the course of the CBD. It is also important to examine a recent chest X-ray as associated chest X-ray abnormalities may be seen in up to 65% of cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis. The likelihood of having a positive yield of AFB in bile aspirate cytology from ERCP is low. Of the total 12 cases of biliary tuberculosis reported, bile cytology was done in seven, of which only two were positive for AFB. Only one of these 12 cases showed associated hepatic calcification. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

263

Following-up the efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (excluding medullary) - Moroccan situation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since 1985, the department of nuclear medicine of IBN SINA Hospital in the Rabat University hospital centre is the only centre in Morocco, where all patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery are treated with 3.7 GBq of Iodine-131. The number of patients on follow-up is more than two thousands. The endemic zone represents the main origin of thyroid carcinoma. The sex ratio (F/M) is 3.5/1; the mean age is 42.5 years. The papillary carcinoma constitutes about 65.5% of the 26% of well-differentiated carcinoma and 12.5 of moderately differentiated carcinoma (MDC). The tumour size at diagnosis was more than 2 cm in 70% of cases. Prognosis factors are the age, the histology and tumour size. After the surgery, the patients receive 131-Iodine therapy (3.7 GBq) and a regular follow-up by clinical examination, neck ultrasonography and thyroglobulin (Tg) blood level. The aim is to obtain a negative whole body scan (WBS) and undetectable Tg. All the patients also receive a suppressive hormone therapy (thyroxin: 2.4 ?g/kg/day). In the same patient, the Tg level is also compared with and without suppression therapy, but taking TSH levels into account. The efficiency of 131-Iodine treatment and the following up, depends on the type of patients: (a) Patients without metastasis: the success of Iodine-131 therapy depended on surgery and it was more than 92% (b) Patients with local metastasis to lymph nodes: the success of 131-Iodine therapy depended of nodals of 131-Iodine therapy depended of nodal status and complete dissection is possible in 70% cases only. (c) Patients with distant metastasis: The efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy depended on the uptake, the homogeneity and the size of metastasis. In lung metastasis, the efficiency of 131-Iodine is about 40-42% (70%: miliary and micro nodules) and only 6.6% in bone metastasis. After treatment, the patients were regularly followed-up clinically till the next WBS and Tg estimation. In some cases, it was interesting to compare WBS and MIBI scintigraphy where the Tg levels were high but no iodine uptake. In Morocco, we have only one university centre with two special rooms of iodine therapy and when Iodine-131 therapy is recommended to a patient, he is to wait for one to two years to receive the same. To optimise the efficiency of Iodine-131 therapy, we must increase the number of centres in our country. (author)

264

Disseminated tuberculosis in a pregnant woman presenting with numerous brain tuberculomas: case report Tuberculose disseminada em uma paciente grávida apresentando múltiplos tuberculomas cerebrais: relato de caso  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has the pulmonary form as the most common presentation. Dissemination of the disease is common in immunocompromised patients, but immunodeficiency related to pregnancy severe enough to cause dissemination of the Mycobacteria is exceedingly rare. When dissemination occurs, any organ may be affected and in central nervous system, the infection presents as meningitis and single brain parenchyma tuberculomas. We report the case of a 17 year-old woman at the 34th week of pregnancy with respiratory and high intracranial pressure symptoms. On the day before admission she had a sudden onset of paraparesis and urinary retention and ten hours after the delivery she presented with paraplegia . The chest X-ray and CT scan were compatible with miliary tuberculosis. The cranial CT scan revealed numerous rounded hypodense lesions located at cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, which presented ring-like enhancement after contrast injection. The patient underwent a craniotomy with biopsy of the lesions confirming the diagnosis of brain tuberculomas. The three-drug regimen was started and the cranial CT scan performed a year after diagnosis showed no brain lesions. We emphasize the aggressive dissemination of the disease in this case associated with pregnancy and the importance of early diagnosis and institution of therapy resulting in regression of the lesions.A tuberculose é doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis e tem na forma pulmonar a sua apresentação mais comum. A disseminação da doença é comum em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Entretanto, imunodeficiência relacionada à gravidez suficientemente severa para causar disseminação da micobactéria é rara. Quando a disseminação ocorre, qualquer órgão pode ser afetado e, quando ela se faz para o sistema nervoso central, apresenta-se mais comumente como meningite ou tuberculoma único. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 17 anos na 34ª semana de gestação com sintomas pulmonares e hipertensão intracraniana. No dia anterior ao internamento a paciente apresentou episódio súbito de paraparesia e retenção urinária. A paciente evoluiu para parto normal e dez horas após apresentou paraplegia. A radiografia simples e a tomografia de tórax foram compatíveis com tuderculose miliar. A tomografia de crânio mostrou múltiplas lesões hipodensas arredondadas nos hemisférios cerebrais e cerebelares, as quais apresentaram realce anelar após injeção de contraste. A paciente foi submetida à craniotomia com biópsia de uma das lesões, que confirmou o diagnóstico de tuberculoma. Iniciou-se tratamento com regime tríplice e a tomografia de crânio realizada um ano após o diagnóstico foi normal.

Emerson L. Gasparetto

2003-09-01

265

Disseminated tuberculosis in a pregnant woman presenting with numerous brain tuberculomas: case report / Tuberculose disseminada em uma paciente grávida apresentando múltiplos tuberculomas cerebrais: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A tuberculose é doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis e tem na forma pulmonar a sua apresentação mais comum. A disseminação da doença é comum em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Entretanto, imunodeficiência relacionada à gravidez suficientemente severa para causar disseminação da micob [...] actéria é rara. Quando a disseminação ocorre, qualquer órgão pode ser afetado e, quando ela se faz para o sistema nervoso central, apresenta-se mais comumente como meningite ou tuberculoma único. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 17 anos na 34ª semana de gestação com sintomas pulmonares e hipertensão intracraniana. No dia anterior ao internamento a paciente apresentou episódio súbito de paraparesia e retenção urinária. A paciente evoluiu para parto normal e dez horas após apresentou paraplegia. A radiografia simples e a tomografia de tórax foram compatíveis com tuderculose miliar. A tomografia de crânio mostrou múltiplas lesões hipodensas arredondadas nos hemisférios cerebrais e cerebelares, as quais apresentaram realce anelar após injeção de contraste. A paciente foi submetida à craniotomia com biópsia de uma das lesões, que confirmou o diagnóstico de tuberculoma. Iniciou-se tratamento com regime tríplice e a tomografia de crânio realizada um ano após o diagnóstico foi normal. Abstract in english Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has the pulmonary form as the most common presentation. Dissemination of the disease is common in immunocompromised patients, but immunodeficiency related to pregnancy severe enough to cause dissemination of the Mycoba [...] cteria is exceedingly rare. When dissemination occurs, any organ may be affected and in central nervous system, the infection presents as meningitis and single brain parenchyma tuberculomas. We report the case of a 17 year-old woman at the 34th week of pregnancy with respiratory and high intracranial pressure symptoms. On the day before admission she had a sudden onset of paraparesis and urinary retention and ten hours after the delivery she presented with paraplegia . The chest X-ray and CT scan were compatible with miliary tuberculosis. The cranial CT scan revealed numerous rounded hypodense lesions located at cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, which presented ring-like enhancement after contrast injection. The patient underwent a craniotomy with biopsy of the lesions confirming the diagnosis of brain tuberculomas. The three-drug regimen was started and the cranial CT scan performed a year after diagnosis showed no brain lesions. We emphasize the aggressive dissemination of the disease in this case associated with pregnancy and the importance of early diagnosis and institution of therapy resulting in regression of the lesions.

Emerson L., Gasparetto; Priscilla, Tazoniero; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto.

266

Effects of tissue handling and processing steps on PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples Efeitos das etapas de tratamento e processamento do tecido na PCR para detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras fixadas em formalina e incluídas em parafina  

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Full Text Available Development and standardization of reliable methods for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples is an important goal in laboratories throughout the world. In this work, lung and spleen fragments from a patient who died with the diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis were used to evaluate the influence of the type of fixative as well as the fixation and paraffin inclusion protocols on PCR performance in paraffin embedded specimens. Tissue fragments were fixed for four h to 48 h, using either 10% non-buffered or 10% buffered formalin, and embedded in pure paraffin or paraffin mixed with bee wax. Specimens were submitted to PCR for amplification of the human beta-actin gene and separately for amplification of the insertion sequence IS6110, specific from the M. tuberculosis complex. Amplification of the beta-actin gene was positive in all samples. No amplicons were generated by PCR-IS6110 when lung tissue fragments were fixed using 10% non-buffered formalin and were embedded in paraffin containing bee wax. In conclusion, combined inhibitory factors interfere in the detection of M. tuberculosis in stored material. It is important to control these inhibitory factors in order to implement molecular diagnosis in pathology laboratories.O desenvolvimento e a padronização de métodos confiáveis para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras clínicas é um objetivo importante nos laboratórios de todo o mundo. Neste trabalho, fragmentos de pulmão e baço de paciente que morreu com o diagnóstico de tuberculose miliar foram usados para avaliar a influência do tipo de fixador e dos protocolos de fixação e inclusão em parafina na performance da PCR. Fragmentos de tecido foram fixados por quatro h a 48 h, usando formalina não tamponada a 10% ou formalina tamponada a 10% e incluídos em parafina pura ou misturada a cera de abelha. As amostras foram submetidas a PCR para amplificação do gene da beta-actina humana e, separadamente, para amplificação da sequência de inserção IS6110, específica do complexo M. tuberculosis. O resultado da amplificação do gene da beta-actina foi positivo em todas as amostras. Não foram gerados amplicons na PCR-IS6110 em amostras de tecido pulmonar fixadas usando formalina não tamponada a 10% e incluídas em parafina com cera de abelha. Em conclusão, fatores inibitórios combinados interferiram na detecção de M. tuberculosis em material de arquivo. É importante controlar estes fatores inibitórios para poder implementar o diagnóstico molecular em laboratórios de patologia.

Denise Barcelos

2008-12-01

267

Vacina BCG contra tuberculose: efeito protetor e políticas de vacinação BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas.OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case-control studies and meta-analyses presented separately. RESULTS: The protective effect of the first dose of the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in its miliary and meningeal forms is high. However, the results vary in relation to the pulmonary form of the disease, with some indicating zero effect and others levels of nearly 80%. Research is being carried out to develop new vaccines that could substitute the BCG or be used as a booster. CONCLUSIONS: There are evidences that the protective effect of the BCG vaccine does not increase with a second dose. In spite of its limitations and the expectation that a new tuberculosis vaccine will be developed in the future, the BCG vaccine remains an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, particularly in countries with medium or high incidence levels of the disease.

Susan M Pereira

2007-09-01

268

Effects of tissue handling and processing steps on PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples / Efeitos das etapas de tratamento e processamento do tecido na PCR para detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras fixadas em formalina e incluídas em parafina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento e a padronização de métodos confiáveis para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras clínicas é um objetivo importante nos laboratórios de todo o mundo. Neste trabalho, fragmentos de pulmão e baço de paciente que morreu com o diagnóstico de tuberculose miliar foram usad [...] os para avaliar a influência do tipo de fixador e dos protocolos de fixação e inclusão em parafina na performance da PCR. Fragmentos de tecido foram fixados por quatro h a 48 h, usando formalina não tamponada a 10% ou formalina tamponada a 10% e incluídos em parafina pura ou misturada a cera de abelha. As amostras foram submetidas a PCR para amplificação do gene da beta-actina humana e, separadamente, para amplificação da sequência de inserção IS6110, específica do complexo M. tuberculosis. O resultado da amplificação do gene da beta-actina foi positivo em todas as amostras. Não foram gerados amplicons na PCR-IS6110 em amostras de tecido pulmonar fixadas usando formalina não tamponada a 10% e incluídas em parafina com cera de abelha. Em conclusão, fatores inibitórios combinados interferiram na detecção de M. tuberculosis em material de arquivo. É importante controlar estes fatores inibitórios para poder implementar o diagnóstico molecular em laboratórios de patologia. Abstract in english Development and standardization of reliable methods for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples is an important goal in laboratories throughout the world. In this work, lung and spleen fragments from a patient who died with the diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis were used to evalu [...] ate the influence of the type of fixative as well as the fixation and paraffin inclusion protocols on PCR performance in paraffin embedded specimens. Tissue fragments were fixed for four h to 48 h, using either 10% non-buffered or 10% buffered formalin, and embedded in pure paraffin or paraffin mixed with bee wax. Specimens were submitted to PCR for amplification of the human beta-actin gene and separately for amplification of the insertion sequence IS6110, specific from the M. tuberculosis complex. Amplification of the beta-actin gene was positive in all samples. No amplicons were generated by PCR-IS6110 when lung tissue fragments were fixed using 10% non-buffered formalin and were embedded in paraffin containing bee wax. In conclusion, combined inhibitory factors interfere in the detection of M. tuberculosis in stored material. It is important to control these inhibitory factors in order to implement molecular diagnosis in pathology laboratories.

Denise, Barcelos; Marcello F., Franco; Sylvia Cardoso, Leão.

2008-12-01

269

Radiographic findings in adult pulmonary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the period from March, 1980 to February, 1981 in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University Hospital, we reviewed the radiologic findings of 879 cases newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and 56 cases diagnosed tuberculous pleural effusion without lung parenchymal lesion on initial chest P-A film in the adult (older than 16 years). The results were as follows. 1. Sex distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis was 668 cases (76%) in male, 211 cases (24%) in female, the average age 44.6, and the highest incidence in the third and sixth decade with similarity. 2. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was highest in the springtime (29.5%) and its peak particularly in May. 3. Classifying the extent of pulmonary tuberculosis into minimal, moderately advanced and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, their ratio was 6 : 1.5 : 1 with the concrete date of 553 cases (70.8%), 136 cases (17.4%) and 92 cases (11.8%) respectively. 4. In the case of minimal pulmonary tuberculosis the location of TB-lesion incidence were right upper, left upper and both upper lobes in the ratio of 45 : 27 :28 (%) 5. The radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared various, but the ill-defined patchy density of exudative reaction signifying an initial lesion were than the most (35%). 6. As an unusual type of tuberculosis, cavitary TB was 38 cases (4.3%), among them, in 3 cases (7.9%) there appeared air-fluid level. Miliary TB was 8 cases (0.9%), mostly abundant in the ys 8 cases (0.9%), mostly abundant in the youngsters (esp. in the third decade), and female immensely outnumbered male. Tuberculoma was 10 cases (1.4%), female preceded male in the ratio of 7 : 3, and in right upper lobe in the incidence was highest (50%). 7. Without lung parenchymal lesion, the cases to have caused an tuberculous pleural effusion were 56 (6.0%), and in the years of 16 to 29 it was the most frequent with 26 cases (46.4%). 8. With complicated pulmonary tuberculosis, 78 cases (9.5%) showed to combine with other diseases. Among them pleural effusion was 14 cases (1.7%) and pneumothorax 14 cases (1.7%), which were the most frequent. 9. Spread of tuberculosis beyond the lung to other organ was 28 cases (3.1%) and frequent in female characteristically. Among them, bone and joint TB was 16 cases and the most abundant in number, in particular, spine TB was the most frequent with 10 cases (36%)

270

Disseminated tuberculosis in a pregnant woman presenting with numerous brain tuberculomas: case report / Tuberculose disseminada em uma paciente grávida apresentando múltiplos tuberculomas cerebrais: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A tuberculose é doença infecciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis e tem na forma pulmonar a sua apresentação mais comum. A disseminação da doença é comum em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Entretanto, imunodeficiência relacionada à gravidez suficientemente severa para causar disseminação da micob [...] actéria é rara. Quando a disseminação ocorre, qualquer órgão pode ser afetado e, quando ela se faz para o sistema nervoso central, apresenta-se mais comumente como meningite ou tuberculoma único. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 17 anos na 34ª semana de gestação com sintomas pulmonares e hipertensão intracraniana. No dia anterior ao internamento a paciente apresentou episódio súbito de paraparesia e retenção urinária. A paciente evoluiu para parto normal e dez horas após apresentou paraplegia. A radiografia simples e a tomografia de tórax foram compatíveis com tuderculose miliar. A tomografia de crânio mostrou múltiplas lesões hipodensas arredondadas nos hemisférios cerebrais e cerebelares, as quais apresentaram realce anelar após injeção de contraste. A paciente foi submetida à craniotomia com biópsia de uma das lesões, que confirmou o diagnóstico de tuberculoma. Iniciou-se tratamento com regime tríplice e a tomografia de crânio realizada um ano após o diagnóstico foi normal. Abstract in english Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has the pulmonary form as the most common presentation. Dissemination of the disease is common in immunocompromised patients, but immunodeficiency related to pregnancy severe enough to cause dissemination of the Mycoba [...] cteria is exceedingly rare. When dissemination occurs, any organ may be affected and in central nervous system, the infection presents as meningitis and single brain parenchyma tuberculomas. We report the case of a 17 year-old woman at the 34th week of pregnancy with respiratory and high intracranial pressure symptoms. On the day before admission she had a sudden onset of paraparesis and urinary retention and ten hours after the delivery she presented with paraplegia . The chest X-ray and CT scan were compatible with miliary tuberculosis. The cranial CT scan revealed numerous rounded hypodense lesions located at cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, which presented ring-like enhancement after contrast injection. The patient underwent a craniotomy with biopsy of the lesions confirming the diagnosis of brain tuberculomas. The three-drug regimen was started and the cranial CT scan performed a year after diagnosis showed no brain lesions. We emphasize the aggressive dissemination of the disease in this case associated with pregnancy and the importance of early diagnosis and institution of therapy resulting in regression of the lesions.

Emerson L., Gasparetto; Priscilla, Tazoniero; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto.

2003-09-01

271

Tuberculosis Frequency in Patients Taking TNF-alpha Blokers  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate tuberculosis frequency in patients who take tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? inhibitors for Collagen Vascular Disease (CVD.Materials and Methods: Patients who actively use or were planned to use TNF-? inhibitors for CVD between June 2007-February 2010 were prospectively included in the study.All patients had a physical examination, chest x-ray and the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST. Sputum smear and culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB was performed in patients with a suspicious lesion on chest x-ray. During follow-up, physical examination, chest x-ray and sputum smear for AFB in indicated cases were performed every 3 months. Tuberculosis was diagnosed with microbiological, radiological and histopathological methods.In case of pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis,TNF-? inhibitor medication was stopped and anti-tuberculosis therapy was began.Results: A total of 179 patients were included in the study, 91 were female and 88 were male wth a mean age of 42.8±12.0. In 141 patients, TNF-? inhibitor therapy was begun in the study although 38 were taking TNF-? inhibitor medication at the beginning of the study. The median follow-up period was 17 months and 2 (1.1% patients were diagnosed to have active tuberculosis during the study period. The TST was found to be 5-9 mm in 15% and >10 mm in 53.3% of the patients.There was a successful tuberculosis therapy history in 5 patients and at least 1 BCG scar was seen in 67 patients.In our series, 70.9% of the patients had chemoprophylaxis during the study period and new tuberculosis was diagnosed in 2 patients, consisting of one miliary tuberculosis and one pleural tuberculosis. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 1.1% of TNF-alpha taking patients in our series. Conclusion: It is recomended that the patients taking anti TNF treatment should be evaluated and followed up regularly for tuberculosis during the treatment.

Co?kun Do?an

2012-08-01

272

Evaluation of Tl-201 lung uptake and impairment of pulmonary perfusion on scintigraphies in pulmonary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tl-201 lung uptake in 74 patients (85 lesions) and pulmonary perfusion in 105 patients were studied to evaluate clinical usefulness of Tl-201 lung uptake and perfusion lung scintigraphy in pulmonary tuberculosis, using a scintillation camera with a mini-computer system. As indices of Tl-201 lung uptake, lung (lesion) to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and visual grading were used. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.96±0.66, which was significantly larger than 1.04±0.24 in healthy controls and lower than that in heart diseases with left heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and showed no significant differences with that in acute pneumonia, pyothorax, primary lung cancer and malignant mediastinal tumor. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis did not correlate with CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Gaffky number of sputum and body temperature. It correlated with the type of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the Gakken Classification reflecting the disease activity. It was larger in the exudative type, caseo-infiltrative one, disseminated one, one with cavity in infiltrative lesion than the fibro-caseous one. On perfusion lung scintigram, impairment of pulmonary perfusion larger than area of the entire unilateral lung was observed in 68 cases (64.8%). Area of hypoperfused lung field, which correlated with % vital capacity (r=0.60, p=0.0002) and PaO2 (r=0.39,p=0.0024), was significantly larger in patients with silicosis and those with bilaterts with silicosis and those with bilateral pleural involvements such as pleural callosity than in those with type III according to the Gakkai Classification. Most of the patients showed decreased pulmonary perfusion and Tl-201 accumulation of which grade reflects the disease activity in active tuberculous lesion. Patients with miliary tuberculosis and those with silicotuberculosis showed diffuse Tl-201 accumulation in the both lungs. Tl-201 lung scintigraphy seems to be useful for visualizing active tuberculous lesions, particularly the ones that could not be detected by the chest radiograph in patients with destroyed lung and with pleural callosity. Joint use of Tl-201 and perfusion lung scintigraphies provides useful informations about the pathophysiology and disease process in pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

273

Evaluation of Tl-201 lung uptake and impairment of pulmonary perfusion on scintigraphies in pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Tl-201 lung uptake in 74 patients (85 lesions) and pulmonary perfusion in 105 patients were studied to evaluate clinical usefulness of Tl-201 lung uptake and perfusion lung scintigraphy in pulmonary tuberculosis, using a scintillation camera with a mini-computer system. As indices of Tl-201 lung uptake, lung (lesion) to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and visual grading were used. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.96{+-}0.66, which was significantly larger than 1.04{+-}0.24 in healthy controls and lower than that in heart diseases with left heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and showed no significant differences with that in acute pneumonia, pyothorax, primary lung cancer and malignant mediastinal tumor. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis did not correlate with CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Gaffky number of sputum and body temperature. It correlated with the type of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the Gakken Classification reflecting the disease activity. It was larger in the exudative type, caseo-infiltrative one, disseminated one, one with cavity in infiltrative lesion than the fibro-caseous one. On perfusion lung scintigram, impairment of pulmonary perfusion larger than area of the entire unilateral lung was observed in 68 cases (64.8%). Area of hypoperfused lung field, which correlated with % vital capacity (r=0.60, p=0.0002) and PaO{sub 2} (r=0.39,p=0.0024), was significantly larger in patients with silicosis and those with bilateral pleural involvements such as pleural callosity than in those with type III according to the Gakkai Classification. Most of the patients showed decreased pulmonary perfusion and Tl-201 accumulation of which grade reflects the disease activity in active tuberculous lesion. Patients with miliary tuberculosis and those with silicotuberculosis showed diffuse Tl-201 accumulation in the both lungs. Tl-201 lung scintigraphy seems to be useful for visualizing active tuberculous lesions, particularly the ones that could not be detected by the chest radiograph in patients with destroyed lung and with pleural callosity. Joint use of Tl-201 and perfusion lung scintigraphies provides useful informations about the pathophysiology and disease process in pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keishi

2000-02-01

274

Adiaspiromicose humana. Relato de um caso tratado com cetoconazol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É descrito um caso de adiaspiromicose humana, da forma pulmonar disseminada, no qual se empregou o cetoconazol. O paciente, oriundo de Goianésia, GO, referia tosse produtiva, dispnéia e emagrecimento. Doente há dois meses, já fizera uso do esquema tríplice tuberculostático, devido a um radiograma do [...] tórax ter acusado lesões sugestivas de tuberculose miliar. Esse tratamento não surtiu o efeito esperado, pelo que foi ele submetido a uma biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto. A medida permitiu o reconhecimento da natureza fúngica da doença. Passou-se, então, ao emprego do cetoconazol, quando o processo já completara três meses de evolução. Dois meses depois, foi o paciente novamente visto, para controle do tratamento: todas as manifestações respiratórias haviam cessado e um novo radiograma mostrou regressão completa das alterações pulmonares. Apesar disso, é discutida a eficácia do cetoconazol contra C. parvum var crescens, tendo-se em conta o fato de o microrganismo não se reproduzir no hospedeiro. Abstract in english A case of human disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis is reported. The patient, from Goianesia, GO, was admitted to the Brasilia University Hospital, in November 1992, with wet cough, dyspnea and weight loss3/4manifestations that had appeared two months before. Prior to admission, he had been trea [...] ted for a suspected miliary tuberculosis, because a chest roentgenogram had shown a diffuse reticulonodular infiltrate in both lungs. This therapy brought no improvement to the patient status. An open chest biopsy was then performed, and the microscopic examination of the lung tissue revealed the fungal nature of the disease. Ketoconazole, 400mg/day, was started and the patient discharged from the hospital. He was seen again two months later: the respiratory manifestations had disappeared and a new chest roentgenogram showed complete resolution of the pulmonary lesions. The usefulness of ketoconazole is, however, questioned, since, as there is no multiplication of the fungus in the host organism3/4adiaspiromycosis. is believed to be, usually, a self-healing disease -, the efficacy of this imidazole derivative against the agent in animal tissues remains to be confirmed.

Ricardo Luiz M., Martins; Clarice G. F., Santos; Filomena Rita F.C., França; Mário A.P., Moraes.

275

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study of recurrence, survival and morbidity.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall survival (OS) and to investigate the influence of steroid dose on acute toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2010 a total of 118 consecutive patients underwent PCI (25 Gray in 10 fractions). In total, 114/118 received full PCI dose, all 118 were included in the study. Data were analyzed retrospectively with regard to disease stage, treatment, date of PCI, steroid dose during PCI, toxicity, time to recurrence, site of recurrence and time of death. The median follow up time was 16.6months (range 3-54months). RESULTS: Of the 118 patients undergoing PCI, 74 had limited disease (LD-SCLC) and 44 had extensive disease (ED-SCLC). The median age was 65years (range 46-80years). The median overall survival of all patients from the time of diagnosis was 16.0months (CI 95% 13.0-19.0), in LD-SCLC it was 24.0months (CI 95% 19.6-28.3), and in ED-SCLC it was 12.0months (CI 95% 9.6-14.4). Twenty-one patients (17.8%) were diagnosed with cerebral recurrence. Five of these presented with metastatic disease within the limbic system. Of these five patients, four had miliary cerebral disease and one had non-oligometastatic disease. The time from PCI to cerebral recurrence ranged from 4 to 27months. Prednisolone administration varied from 0 to 100mg/day. Forty-eight patients were not treated with steroids, 64.6% of these patients reported acute toxicity. Of the 36 patients receiving 50mg prednisolone, only 22.2% had side effects. The most common symptoms during PCI were nausea and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-one patients out of 118 developed brain metastases after PCI: five of the twenty-one had metastases located in the limbic system. The study showed that prophylactic steroid use might reduce acute toxicity to PCI. Survival data and recurrence rates are comparable to other clinical studies.

Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna

2012-01-01

276

Fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O A. faz um estudo panorâmico sobre a fase aguda da esquistossomose mansoni, abordando o quadro clínico e seu diagnóstico, os exames subsidiários, o diagnóstico diferencial, a terapêutica e os aspectos evolutivos. As manifestações clinicas dos períodos de incubação, de estado e de supressão são abor [...] dados. O diagnóstico da fase aguda é baseado em dado epidemiológico, 110 exame fisico e em exames subsidiários. O dado epidemiológico. em geral, é positivo, com menção a banho infectante, comumente 30 a 40 dias antes do início do quadro clínico e ao exame físico, encontramos hipertermia (38 - 4G°C), prostração, micropoliadenia hepatomegalia dolorosa em 95%, dos casos e esplenomegalia em 70% dos casos. Os exames prioritários para o diagnóstico são o exame parasiiológico de fezes seriado, que é positivo para ovos viáveis de S. mansoni e o leucograma seriado, que, geralmente, acusa leucocitose com eosinofilia. Em caso de dúvida ou para complementação diagnostica, podemos recorrer à endoscovia retal, ao oograma e á biópsia hepática. A endoscopia acusa, comumente, mucosa hiperêmica, edemaciada, friável, granulosa, com pontos hemorrágicos e o exame colhido por punção biópsia revela, entre outros achados, granulomas na fase necrótica-exsudativa. O diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com as seguintes entidades clínicas: gastroenterites. febre tifóide, disenteria bacilar, amebíase aguda, salmonelose septicêrnica prolongada, devendo, ainda, figurar a tuberculose miliar, abdome agudo, a G.N.D.A., a mononucleose infecciosa, a leptospirose, a hepatite e as poaneurites. A terapeutica é baseada nos cuidados gerais, na córticoterapia e na terapêutica específica. Observamos regressão dramática do quadro toxinfeccioso. nas primeiras 24 a 48 horas com a córticoterapia (prednisona) que tem duração aproximada de 7 a 10 dias. A terapêutica específica (derivado nitrotiazolico = ambilhar e derivado hidroximetílico do miracil D = hycanthone) é empregada após remissão do quadro toxiinfeccioso ou em plena fase aguda; nesta eventualidade os sintomas gerais e os distúrbios intestinais desaparecem a partir do 5.° dia de terapêutica. Quando empregamos ambilhar ou hycanthone, em apenas um esquema terapêutico, observamos 40% de cura; esta cifra atinge a 80-90%, quando repetimos a medicação específica, após verificarmos recidiva. Abstract in english In this panoramic study about the acute phase of schistosomiasis mansoni the author describe its clinical picture and diagnosis, the complementary tests, the author describes its clinical picture and diagnosis, the complementary tests, ical pictures of the incubation, fastigium and suppression perio [...] ds are described. The diagnosis of the acute phase is based on epidemiologic data are often positive, there being mention to an infective bath, usually 30 to 40 days prior to the onset of the disease. Fever (38-40°C) is noticed at the physical examination, as well as prostation and microlymphadenopathy. Enlargement and tenderness of the liver are found in 95 percent and splenomegaly in 70 per cent of the cases. The most important laboratory tests for the diagnosis are: repeated direct examination in stool specimens for the detection of viable S. mansoni eggs, and repeated leukocyte count that generally shows leukocytosis and eosinophilia. When in doubt or for diagnostic complementary one may always recourse to the rectal endoscopy, the ocgrama and the liver biopsy. The endoscopy usually reveals hyperemic, edematous, friable and granulous mucosa with bleeding points. The needle-biopsy of the liver followed by the histopathologic examination of the hepatic tissue discloses granulomas in the necrotic-exudative phase, among other findings. The differential diagnosis must be made with diseases as follows: gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, bacilar disentery, acute amebiasis, and prolonged septicaemic salmonellosis, although one should also include miliary tub

Edward, Tonelli.

277

[Comparison of the performances of MTD Gene-Probe® test, BACTEC 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen culture methods in the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the results of nucleic acid amplification-based MTD (Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test) Gene-Probe® method in samples obtained from acid-fast bacilli (ARB) smear-negative patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB), with the culture results obtained from automated BACTEC 960™ (MGIT) system and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. In addition, the contribution of molecular methods in early diagnosis of pulmonary TB and the effect of radiological prevalence of the disease associated with or without cavity to the molecular diagnosis and/or growth time in culture media have been evaluated. A total of 107 patients (86 male, 21 female; mean age: 49.89 ± 17.1 years, age range: 18-81 years) who were clinically and radiologically suspected of having pulmonary TB and/or TB pleurisy, were included in the study. Of the samples 65 (60.7%) were sputum, 32 (29.9%) were bronchial aspiration, 5 (4.7%) were pleural fluid, and 5 (4.7%) were transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy materials. Patient samples were cultured in solid LJ media and liquid-based BACTEC 960 system (Becton Dickinson Co., USA) in the same working day. Meanwhile, MTD Gen-Probe test (Gen-Probe Inc., USA) was studied in two separate working days of the week as specified by the laboratory. The samples were incubated until positivity was determined in BACTEC 960 system and/or growth was detected in LJ medium. Negative cultures were incubated for 42 days and were finalized. When mycobacterial growth was determined in the culture, identification of M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and differentiation from nontuberculous mycobacteria were performed by conventional methods and BACTEC 460 NAP test. Forty five (42%) patients were diagnosed as pulmonary paranchimal TB (40 were active pulmonary TB, 1 was miliary TB and 4 were culture-negative pulmonary TB), while 4 (3.7%) patients diagnosed as extrapulmonary TB and 58 (57.9%) patients were diagnosed as other pulmonary diseases unrelated with TB. LJ cultures yielded positive results in 32 of 45 (71%) pulmonary TB patients, and BACTEC 960 were found positive in 84.4% (38/45) of those patients. On the other hand the positivity rate of MTD Gen-Probe test was detected as 37.4% (40/107). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MTD Gen-Probe test were estimated as 89%, 100%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Those values for BACTEC 960 system were found as 82%, 98%, 97% and 88%, and for LJ culture method as 71%, 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. Average periods to make a decision for diagnosis of TB by MTD Gen-Probe, BACTEC 960 (MGIT) and LJ culture methods were calculated as 2.36 days, 20.11 days and 32.49 days, respectively. In comparison of the methods in terms of turnaround times, MTD Gen-Probe test was found superior to LJ culture method, however the turnaround times for BACTEC 960 and LJ culture methods were similar. When the clinical data were evaluated, no effect of radiological density of lesion was identified on the diagnosis time of molecular test and time of growth in liquid based automated BACTEC system and/or LJ culture method. However, LJ culture demonstrated earlier reactivity in patients with cavitary lesions. As a result, MTD Gene-Probe test was observed as a reliable and rapid method for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB patients, early initiation of therapy, prevention of disease progression and transmission. PMID:23971920

Kundurac?o?lu, Ayperen; Karasu, I??l; Biçmen, Can; Ozsöz, Ay?e; Erbaycu, Ahmet Emin

2013-07-01

278

[Tuberculosis annual report 2012 --(2) Childhood and elderly tuberculosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2012, there were 63 newly notified childhood tuberculosis (TB) patients (patients aged 0-14 years) in Japan, corresponding to a notification rate of 0.38 per 100,000. The annual number of notified childhood TB patients was less than 100 in 2006, since then the numbers and rates (per 100,000 population) decreased steadily. Of the 63 patients with childhood TB notified in 2012, 30 (47.6%) were aged 0-4 years, 12 (19.0%) were aged 5-9 years, and 21 (33.3%) were aged 10-14 years. Thus, the proportion of TB patients aged 0-4 years was the highest among children. In 2012, only one patient of TB meningitis and no patient of miliary TB were reported in children. On the point of case detection, similar to percentages reported in previous years, 22 patients (34.9%) were identified at medical institutions and 32 patients (50.8%) were detected by contact investigation of household members. Since 1999, the notification rates of TB in Japan have been consistently higher among patients aged 85 years and above than among those aged 65-84 years in Japan. The annual rate of reduction in the notification rates of TB patients aged 65 years and above in 2012 (13,307 cases) was 3.3%, compared to 2011 (13,756 cases). The proportion of TB patients aged 65 years and above has consistently increased, reaching up to 62.5% in 2012; notably, the proportion of TB patients aged 80 years and above has increased to 34.0%. The proportion of bacteriologically positive TB patients among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients was higher among those aged 65 years and above than among those aged 15-64 years. The proportion of PTB patients with only non-respiratory symptoms increased with age, reaching 27.6% among those aged 85 years and above. The proportion of TB patients associated with patient delay of two months or longer was lower among the patients aged 65 years and above than among those aged 15-64 years (14.5% vs. 26.7%), whereas the proportion of TB patients associated with doctor delay of one month or longer was slightly higher among patients aged 65 years and above than among those aged 15-64 years (22.9% vs. 20.2%). Of the newly notified TB patients aged 65 years and above in 2011 whose treatment outcomes were available at the time of reporting, 31.3% died within a year after the initiation of TB treatment; of these, 18.4% died within three months. The proportion of deaths within three months after the initiation of TB treatment among patients aged 65 years and above increased substantially with age from 8.1% in the 65-69 years age group to 31.9% in the 90 years and above age group. PMID:25195303

2014-07-01

279

Neurotuberculosis: Hallazgos intracraneanos en RM / Neurotuberculosis: Intracranial MRI findings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Mostrar nuestra casuística de pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis intracraneana y describir los diferentes tipos de lesiones documentadas en Resonancia Magnética (RM) que caracterizan a esta entidad. Materiales y Métodos. Para el presente trabajo fueron seleccionados, de forma retro [...] spectiva, 20 pacientes con hallazgos positivos de tuberculosis intracraneana. Doce eran de sexo masculino y 8 de sexo femenino, con un rango etario de 8 meses a 49 años de edad (edad media: 21 años). El diagnóstico clínico fue realizado con punción lumbar y cultivo de LCR. Once pacientes presentaron serología positiva para VIH. Las RM fueron realizadas en resonadores de 0.5T y 1.5T, complementadas en dos casos con Tomografía Computada (TC) de cerebro. A dos pacientes se les realizó difusión (DWI) y a un paciente espectroscopía. Resultados. Del total de pacientes (n=20), 14 presentaron compromiso subaracnoideo en la convexidad y 13 compromiso subaracnoideo cisternal basal (afectación leptomeníngea). En 13 se observaron tuberculomas y 11 presentaron angeítis de grandes vasos; mientras que 7 tuvieron angeítis de pequeños vasos, 7 hidrocefalia, 6 infartos parenquimatosos y 1 afectación paquimeníngea. Quince pacientes tenían lesiones combinadas. Conclusión. La localización más frecuente de neurotuberculosis en esta serie fue meníngea con compromiso leptomeníngeo (14 pacientes con afectación subaracnoidea, seguido de afectación cisternal en 13 pacientes) y sólo en un caso fue paquimeníngea. La manifestación parenquimatosa más frecuente fue el tuberculoma (granulomas tuberculosos) con 13 casos. De estos, 5 presentaron un patrón miliar y sólo uno comportamiento pseudotumoral. Abstract in english Purposes. To report our case series of patients with a diagnosis of intracranial tuberculosis and to describe the different types of lesions characterizing this entity on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods. For the present study, we retrospectively selected 20 patients with posi [...] tive MRI findings of intracranial tuberculosis. Twelve of them were males and 8 were females, with an age range of between 8 months and 49 years (mean age: 21years). Clinical diagnosis was obtained by lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. Eleven patients presented positive HIV serology. MRIs were performed using 0.5T and 1.5 T scanners and computed tomography (CT) of the brain was also performed in two patients. Diffusion-weighted technique was performed in two patients and spectroscopy in one patient. Results. Of the total patients studied (n=20), 14 presented convexity subarachnoid involvement and 13 subarachnoid basal cystern involvement (leptomeningeal involvement), 13 presented tuberculomas, 11 large-vessel angiitis, 7 smallvessel angiitis, 7 hydrocephalia, 6 parenchymatous infarction and one pachymeningeal involvement. Combined lesions were observed in 15 patients. Conclusion. The most frequent location of neurotuberculosis in this series was meningeal with leptomeningeal involvement (14 patients with subarachnoid involvement, followed by cysternal involvement in 13 patients), and only one patient had pachymeningeal involvement. The most frequent parenchymatous finding of tuberculosis was tuberculoma in 13 patients, 5 with a miliary pattern and only one with pseudo-tumoral behavior.

Jorge, Docampo; Carolina, Mariluis; Nadia, González; Carlos, Morales; Claudio, Bruno.

2012-06-01

280

[Progress in management of severe tuberculosis or tuberculosis with severe complication].  

Science.gov (United States)

The management and therapy of miliary tuberculosis: Nobuharu OHSHIMA (Asthma and Allergy Center, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital). Treatment and management of severe pulmonary tuberculosis: Yuta HAYASHI, Kenji OGAWA (Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital). Death of a young (non-elderly) patient may become a large psychological burden not only for patient's family but also for medical staff. We analyzed non-elderly cases with severe pulmonary tuberculosis by comparing 13 patients who died of tuberculosis in the hospital (death group) and 31 patients who survived and were discharged from hospital (survivor group). The mean age was older and there were more patients who were out of employment in the death group compared to the survivor group. Among the factors related to the general condition evaluated on the admission, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory insufficiency, impairment in the ADL, poor dietary intake, and decubitus ulcer were more observed in the death group. Chest X-ray finding was not a predictive factor of poor prognosis. Among the laboratory findings, the numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes, red blood cells, and thrombocytes significantly decreased in the death group. Serum level of total cholesterol, cholinesterase, and albumin were also significantly lower in the death group, indicating that malnutrition was related to the death of severe tuberculosis. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal nutritional management and evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive use of steroid for severe tuberculosis patients. Invasive fungal infection complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis: Akira WATANABE, Katsuhiko KAMEI (Division of Clinical Research, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University). Among the invasive mycoses, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is the most frequent disease as a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. However, identifying CPA early in patient with persistent pulmonary shadows from pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult. Serum microbiological tests such as Aspergillus precipitans (principally for Aspergillus IgG antibodies) are useful but sensitivity and specificity of this test are not high. Even treated, CPA has a case mortality rate of 50% over a span of 5 years. Morbidity is marked by both systemic and respiratory symptom and hemoptysis. Loss of lung function and life-threatening hemoptysis are common. As invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, early diagnosis and treatment of CPA might improve the outcome. Regarding the treatment, concomitant use of some anti-tubercular agents and antifungals is contradicted. Treatment and management for pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and interstitial pneumonia: Shinji TAMAKI, Takashi KUGE, Midori TAMURA, Sayuri TANAKA, Eiko YOSHINO, Mouka TAMURA (National Hospital Organization Nara Medical Center), Hiroshi KIMURA (Second Department of Internal Medicine and Respiratory Medicine, Nara Medical University) Recently, patients of pulmonary tuberculosis have many complications especially in the elderly population. It is recognized that patients with COPD and interstitial pneumonia (IP) have an increased risk for developing active tuberculosis. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and IP. We reviewed 327 patients who were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-six cases were complicated with COPD. All patients were male, and had smoking history. Cavitary lesions were observed only in 5 cases. Acute exacerbation of COPD occurred in one fatal case. Ten cases were complicated with IP. Cavitary lesions were observed in 3 cases. Acute exacerbation of IP were observed in 7 cases, and 4 patients died during the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Careful evaluation and treatment are necessary for tuberculosis patients complicated with COPD and IP. PMID:24979949

Kimura, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998 / Multiple-causes-of-death related to tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1998  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo segundo causas múltiplas de morte, e suas inter-relações com outras causas básicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os óbitos ocorridos e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998, tendo como causa a tuberculose. Os dados foram obtidos [...] na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE). As causas de morte pelas formas clínicas da tuberculose foram codificadas no agrupamento A15-A19 e suas seqüelas na categoria B90, segundo as disposições da Décima Revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. As causas associadas de morte foram processadas pelo Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas (TCM). Para análise estatística, foram usados o teste de variância, o teste t de Student e qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose foi considerada a causa básica em 1.644 óbitos, correspondendo ao coeficiente de mortalidade de 4,6/100.000 habitantes. As principais causas associadas forami a insuficiência respiratória (46,9%), pneumonias (16,5%), outros sintomas e sinais especificados relativos aos aparelhos circulatório e respiratório (13,9%), caquexia (12,9%), doenças do sistema circulatório (10,3%), afecções devidas ao uso do álcool (8,4%), septicemias (7,2%) e desnutrição (7,1%). Como causa associada, a tuberculose ocorreu em outras 1.388 mortes. O coeficiente de mortalidade, incluindo a tuberculose como causa básica ou associada, foi de 8,9/100.000 habitantes, praticamente o dobro do valor do coeficiente clássico. As mortes em que a tuberculose foi mencionada como causa associada teve como principal causa básica a Aids (65,3%). As formas clínicas de tuberculose do sistema nervoso e miliar foram mais freqüentes como causas associadas de Aids que nos óbitos devido a outras causas básicas de morte (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to investigate mortality related to tuberculosis in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, according to multiple causes of death and their interrelation with other underlying causes. METHODS: The study investigated deaths related to tuberculosis that occur [...] red in the state of São Paulo in 1998. Data were obtained from the Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (State System for Data Analysis Foundation - SEADE) database. Causes of death by clinical forms of TB were coded in block A15-A19, and by its sequelae in category B90, according to the guidelines proposed by the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas (Multiple Cause Tabulator - TCM) software was used for processing associated causes of death. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Student's t -distribution, and chi-squared tests. RESULTS: TB was the underlying cause of 1,644 deaths, a 4.6/100,000 population mortality rate. Main associated causes were respiratory failure (46,9%), pneumonias (16.5%), other specified symptoms and signs involving circulatory and respiratory systems (13.9%), cachexia (12.9%), diseases of the circulatory system (10.3%), conditions due to alcohol use (8.4%), septicemias (7.2%) and malnutrition (7.1%). Tuberculosis occurred as an associated cause in another 1,388 deaths. The mortality rate including TB as a both underlying and associated cause was 8.9/100,000 population, practically twice the classical rate. Deaths whose associated cause was reported as being TB had as underlying causes: AIDS (65.3%), diseases of the circulatory system (8.9%), neoplasms (7.5%), and diseases of the digestive system (4.8%). Clinical forms of nervous system and miliary TB were more frequent as a cause associated with AIDS than with other underlying causes (p

Augusto Hasiak, Santo; Celso Escobar, Pinheiro; Margarete Silva, Jordani.

282

Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998 / Multiple-causes-of-death related to tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1998  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo segundo causas múltiplas de morte, e suas inter-relações com outras causas básicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os óbitos ocorridos e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998, tendo como causa a tuberculose. Os dados foram obtidos [...] na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE). As causas de morte pelas formas clínicas da tuberculose foram codificadas no agrupamento A15-A19 e suas seqüelas na categoria B90, segundo as disposições da Décima Revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. As causas associadas de morte foram processadas pelo Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas (TCM). Para análise estatística, foram usados o teste de variância, o teste t de Student e qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose foi considerada a causa básica em 1.644 óbitos, correspondendo ao coeficiente de mortalidade de 4,6/100.000 habitantes. As principais causas associadas forami a insuficiência respiratória (46,9%), pneumonias (16,5%), outros sintomas e sinais especificados relativos aos aparelhos circulatório e respiratório (13,9%), caquexia (12,9%), doenças do sistema circulatório (10,3%), afecções devidas ao uso do álcool (8,4%), septicemias (7,2%) e desnutrição (7,1%). Como causa associada, a tuberculose ocorreu em outras 1.388 mortes. O coeficiente de mortalidade, incluindo a tuberculose como causa básica ou associada, foi de 8,9/100.000 habitantes, praticamente o dobro do valor do coeficiente clássico. As mortes em que a tuberculose foi mencionada como causa associada teve como principal causa básica a Aids (65,3%). As formas clínicas de tuberculose do sistema nervoso e miliar foram mais freqüentes como causas associadas de Aids que nos óbitos devido a outras causas básicas de morte (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to investigate mortality related to tuberculosis in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, according to multiple causes of death and their interrelation with other underlying causes. METHODS: The study investigated deaths related to tuberculosis that occur [...] red in the state of São Paulo in 1998. Data were obtained from the Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (State System for Data Analysis Foundation - SEADE) database. Causes of death by clinical forms of TB were coded in block A15-A19, and by its sequelae in category B90, according to the guidelines proposed by the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas (Multiple Cause Tabulator - TCM) software was used for processing associated causes of death. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Student's t -distribution, and chi-squared tests. RESULTS: TB was the underlying cause of 1,644 deaths, a 4.6/100,000 population mortality rate. Main associated causes were respiratory failure (46,9%), pneumonias (16.5%), other specified symptoms and signs involving circulatory and respiratory systems (13.9%), cachexia (12.9%), diseases of the circulatory system (10.3%), conditions due to alcohol use (8.4%), septicemias (7.2%) and malnutrition (7.1%). Tuberculosis occurred as an associated cause in another 1,388 deaths. The mortality rate including TB as a both underlying and associated cause was 8.9/100,000 population, practically twice the classical rate. Deaths whose associated cause was reported as being TB had as underlying causes: AIDS (65.3%), diseases of the circulatory system (8.9%), neoplasms (7.5%), and diseases of the digestive system (4.8%). Clinical forms of nervous system and miliary TB were more frequent as a cause associated with AIDS than with other underlying causes (p

Augusto Hasiak, Santo; Celso Escobar, Pinheiro; Margarete Silva, Jordani.

283

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in domestic environments (Domestic allergic alveolitis) caused by mouldy tapestry  

Science.gov (United States)

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis often occures as bird fancier's lung or is caused by occupational treatment with antigenic materials. In housing environments antigens of allergic alveolitis are also found, especially mould fungi. lf a source of antigens is absent in the anamnesis and the clinical picture as well as the clinical findings are ambiguous, the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolits is delayed or unobtained. The following example shows that in spite of a detailed allergic anamnesis the source of antigens may remain occult and only an inspection of the dwelling rooms leads to an elucidation. - A sixty-one year old non-smoking women was twice admitted to hospital with a temperature of more than 39 degrees C, intense dyspnea on exertion and a strong dry cough under the persumed diagnosis pneumonia. The laboratory values showed nonspecific signs of inflammation, the blood gas analysis was changed to a heavy hypoxemia (pO subset2 49.2 mmHg) and in the chest x-ray there were seen miliary and partly reticular alterations. The chest computed tomography showed extensive densities in both upper and lower parts of the lungs and the pulmonary function test corresponded with a low-grade to middle-grade restriction (VC subsetin = 67%, TLC = 69%). A high dose of corticosteroids produced an improvement of the radiological findings and of the pulmonary function. Also the specialized diagnostic in a hospital for pulmonary diseases yielded no new knowledge, and an interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Only the new formation of an acute pneumonic clinical picture on the day of returning to the patients own habitation suggested a noxious substance in the domestic environment. The inspection of the rooms finally showed the source of antigen to be from a condensation water soaked, moulded tapestry on the embrasure of a small unopenable window in the bedroom just on the head of the bed. The nutritive mediums left in the rooms furnished evidence of the mould-species Penicillium, Cladosporium and Botrytis, in the bedroom however mostly Penicillium. The RAST of specific IgG proved a positive result of all three mould species (Penicillium sp. 1 : 100, Cladosporium sp. 1 : 200 and Botrytis sp. 1 : 200). The diagnosis of an extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by mould was confirmed by a controlled re-exposure test, which promptly gave rise to a relapse and forced the patient to change habitation with the result of no further ailments. - Characteristic for the extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the described case is the inefficiency of antibiotic therapy, the immediate recovery by corticosteroids and furthermore the outbreak of relapses caused by re-exposure. If the source of antigens is unclear, the inspection of the habitation by an experienced allergologist may lead to success. PMID:10756168

Schwarz; Wettengel; Kramer

2000-03-27

284

Vacina BCG: eficácia e indicações da vacinação e da revacinação / BCG vaccine: efficacy and indications for vaccination and revaccination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Revisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e discutir as suas principais indicações e contra-indicações. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizando o PubMed, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura abrangendo um período de, aproximadamente, 50 [...] anos. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e meta-análises. Outros tópicos relevantes, como a BCG e HIV/AIDS, o uso do teste tuberculínico, aspectos relacionados à cicatriz vacinal e ao desenvolvimento de novas vacinas, dentre outros, foram também revistos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921. Apesar disso, ainda apresenta controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é bastante significativa. No entanto, em relação à forma pulmonar, os resultados são discordantes, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Há evidências de que uma segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Estudos demonstram proteção da vacina contra a hanseníase. Pesquisas sobre novas vacinas que, no futuro, poderão vir a substituir a BCG estão sendo realizadas. CONCLUSÕES:Apesar da expectativa de que, no futuro, venhamos a ter uma nova vacina para a tuberculose, no presente e ainda por muitos anos, a vacina BCG, apesar de suas deficiências, mantém-se como um importante instrumento nos esforços para controle dos efeitos danosos da tuberculose, sobretudo em países em que essa doença ocorre em médias e elevadas taxas de incidência. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To review the protective efficacy of the first and second doses of BCG vaccine and to assess its major indications and contraindications. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic review of the literature was made by searching PubMed and selecting studies carried out in the last 50 years. The studie [...] s were grouped according to their design (clinical trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses) and the results were presented separately for each type of study. Other relevant topics such as BCG and HIV/AIDS, use of tuberculin skin test, issues related to vaccine scars and to the development of new vaccines were also reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: BCG vaccine has been used since 1921. However, the data concerning its use are variable and inconsistent. The protective efficacy of the first dose of BCG vaccine against miliary tuberculosis or tuberculous meningitis is remarkably important. Nevertheless, results regarding pulmonary tuberculosis have been inconsistent, either showing no efficacy or a protective efficacy rate around 80%. There is some evidence that a second dose of BCG vaccine does not increase its protective efficacy. Studies have shown that BCG vaccine protects against leprosy. The development of new vaccines to replace BCG in the future has been investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the hope that a new vaccine against tuberculosis will be available in the future, BCG vaccine, in spite of its deficiencies, is today and will still be for many years to come an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, especially in countries where this disease has moderate to high levels of incidence.

Mauricio L., Barreto; Susan M., Pereira; Arlan A., Ferreira.

285

Development of Pacing, Electrophysiology and Defibrillation in India  

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Full Text Available History of cardiac pacing in India dates back to late 1960s. Kar1 reported that cardiac pacing was introduced in India in 1966. Basu2 while discussing on cardiac pacemaking in Calcutta, mentions that the first pacing was performed in April 1967 at the Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGME&R. Bhatia et al3 started pacemaker implantation at AIIMS, New Delhi in 1968. Their first patient was a doctor from Assam and the pulse generator was supplied by Medtronic Inc. The pulse generator was powered by a mercury-iodide battery which lasted for about 2 ½ years, after which the patient underwent pulse generator replacement. Unfortunately he succumbed to miliary tuberculosis about a year after that. Currently around 8000 pacemakers are being implanted annually in India, in various centers around the country. G.B. Pant Hospital New Delhi has been the pioneering center in the field of Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiology in the country. Bhatia M.L et al9 and Khalilullah M et al 10,11,12,13 were the pioneers in His bundle electrography in the country. Prof. K.K. Sethi was the first to perform catheter ablation in the country. Direct Current ablation was started in 1988 followed by Radio Frequency (RF ablation later on. The number of centres having electrophysiology setup in the country has increased from about 10 in 1997 to around 30 in 2001 (Fig 4. The number of RF ablations being performed in the country has gone up from 800 to 2000 during the same period. Newer insights in the field of atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease have been obtained by electrophysiological studies from the country. Atrial disease due to rheumatic carditis is an important parameter, in addition to valvular involvement in the genesis of atrial fibrillation. Multiple substrates for atrial fibrillation are present in these cases, namely: stretch, fibrosis, raised pressures, increased atrial size and increased anisotropy. Atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease is generally of long duration and affects a younger population. Control of Rate versus Rhythm in Rheumatic Atrial Fibrillation Trial -?CRRAFT? conducted at Mumbai has documented the effectiveness of amiodarone in the treatment of rheumatic atrial fibrillation. Surgical RF pulmonary vein isolation using Thermaline Multi-Electrode Catheter [EP Technologies] has been done in 27 patients with rheumatic atrial fibrillation of more than one year duration. Lesions were as follows: bilateral pulmonary vein isolation, isolation of the left atrial appendage and connection lesion between left atrial appendage and pulmonary veins.Prof. K.K. Talwar, AIIMS, New Delhi and Dr. T.S. Kler, Escorts Heart Institute & Research Centre, New Delhi were the first to implant Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD in India. Current annual ICD implantation rates stand at 60 per year.

Mohan Nair

2002-04-01

286

Aspectos tomográficos da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes adultos com AIDS / Computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como finalidade descrever os achados tomográficos da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes adultos com AIDS atendidos no serviço de radiologia de um hospital de referência em doenças infecciosas, procurar associações desses achados e a contagem de CD4. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Fo [...] ram estudados 45 pacientes por meio de tomografia computadorizada de tórax durante quatro anos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados linfonodomegalia mediastinal e/ou hilar em 31 (68,8%) dos casos, derrame pleural em 29 (64,4%), nódulos centrolobulares de distribuição segmentar em 26 (57,7%), consolidação em 24 (53,3%), confluência de micronódulos em 17 (37,7%), nódulos mal definidos com distribuição centrolobular em 16 (35,5%), padrão de "árvore em brotamento" em 13 (28,9%), espessamento de parede brônquica em 12 (26,6%), cavidade de parede espessa em 10 (22,2%), nódulos miliares em 9 (20%) e bronquiectasias cilíndricas em 6 (13,3%). Dos 45 pacientes, 35 (77,8%) apresentaram CD4 200 cel/mm³. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que neste estudo, diversamente do descrito na literatura, linfonodomegalia mediastinal e/ou hilar e consolidação foram significativamente mais frequentes em pacientes com CD4 > 200 cel/mm³. No entanto, linfonodos com centro hipodenso foram mais frequentemente observados em pacientes com severa imunodepressão, ou seja, CD4 Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study is aimed at describing computed tomography findings pulmonary tuberculosis in adult AIDS patients assisted at a radiology unit of a reference infectious diseases hospital, in an attempt to establish the association between such findings and CD4 count. MATERIALS AND METHO [...] DS: Forty-five patients were evaluated by chest computed tomography over a four-year period. RESULTS: Mediastinal and/or hilar lymph node enlargement was found in 31 (68.8%) cases, pleural effusion in 29 (64.4%), centrilobular nodules with segmental distribution in 26 (57.7%), consolidation in 24 (53.3%), confluent micronodules in 17 (37.7%), poorly defined nodules with centrilobular distribution in 16 (35.5%), tree-in-bud pattern in 13 (28.9%), bronchial wall thickening in 12 (26.6%), thick-walled cavity in 10 (22.2%), miliary nodules in 9 (20%), and cylindrical bronchiectasis in 6 (13.3%). Among the 45 patients, 35 (77.8%) presented CD4 count 200 cel/mm³. CONCLUSION: Differently from reports in the literature, the authors conclude that mediastinal and/or hilar lymph node enlargement and consolidation were significantly most frequent in patients with CD4 count > 200 cel/mm³. However, lymph nodes with hypodense center were most often observed in severely immunosuppressed patients with CD4 count

Lanamar Aparecida de, Almeida; Mario Flores, Barba; Fernando Alves, Moreira; Sidney, Bombarda; Sebastião André de, Felice; Edenilson Eduardo, Calore.

287

Vacina BCG: eficácia e indicações da vacinação e da revacinação BCG vaccine: efficacy and indications for vaccination and revaccination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e discutir as suas principais indicações e contra-indicações. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizando o PubMed, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura abrangendo um período de, aproximadamente, 50 anos. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e meta-análises. Outros tópicos relevantes, como a BCG e HIV/AIDS, o uso do teste tuberculínico, aspectos relacionados à cicatriz vacinal e ao desenvolvimento de novas vacinas, dentre outros, foram também revistos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921. Apesar disso, ainda apresenta controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é bastante significativa. No entanto, em relação à forma pulmonar, os resultados são discordantes, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Há evidências de que uma segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Estudos demonstram proteção da vacina contra a hanseníase. Pesquisas sobre novas vacinas que, no futuro, poderão vir a substituir a BCG estão sendo realizadas. CONCLUSÕES:Apesar da expectativa de que, no futuro, venhamos a ter uma nova vacina para a tuberculose, no presente e ainda por muitos anos, a vacina BCG, apesar de suas deficiências, mantém-se como um importante instrumento nos esforços para controle dos efeitos danosos da tuberculose, sobretudo em países em que essa doença ocorre em médias e elevadas taxas de incidência.OBJECTIVES: To review the protective efficacy of the first and second doses of BCG vaccine and to assess its major indications and contraindications. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic review of the literature was made by searching PubMed and selecting studies carried out in the last 50 years. The studies were grouped according to their design (clinical trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses and the results were presented separately for each type of study. Other relevant topics such as BCG and HIV/AIDS, use of tuberculin skin test, issues related to vaccine scars and to the development of new vaccines were also reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: BCG vaccine has been used since 1921. However, the data concerning its use are variable and inconsistent. The protective efficacy of the first dose of BCG vaccine against miliary tuberculosis or tuberculous meningitis is remarkably important. Nevertheless, results regarding pulmonary tuberculosis have been inconsistent, either showing no efficacy or a protective efficacy rate around 80%. There is some evidence that a second dose of BCG vaccine does not increase its protective efficacy. Studies have shown that BCG vaccine protects against leprosy. The development of new vaccines to replace BCG in the future has been investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the hope that a new vaccine against tuberculosis will be available in the future, BCG vaccine, in spite of its deficiencies, is today and will still be for many years to come an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, especially in countries where this disease has moderate to high levels of incidence.

Mauricio L. Barreto

2006-07-01

288

Vacina BCG: eficácia e indicações da vacinação e da revacinação / BCG vaccine: efficacy and indications for vaccination and revaccination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Revisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e discutir as suas principais indicações e contra-indicações. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizando o PubMed, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura abrangendo um período de, aproximadamente, 50 [...] anos. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e meta-análises. Outros tópicos relevantes, como a BCG e HIV/AIDS, o uso do teste tuberculínico, aspectos relacionados à cicatriz vacinal e ao desenvolvimento de novas vacinas, dentre outros, foram também revistos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921. Apesar disso, ainda apresenta controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é bastante significativa. No entanto, em relação à forma pulmonar, os resultados são discordantes, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Há evidências de que uma segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Estudos demonstram proteção da vacina contra a hanseníase. Pesquisas sobre novas vacinas que, no futuro, poderão vir a substituir a BCG estão sendo realizadas. CONCLUSÕES:Apesar da expectativa de que, no futuro, venhamos a ter uma nova vacina para a tuberculose, no presente e ainda por muitos anos, a vacina BCG, apesar de suas deficiências, mantém-se como um importante instrumento nos esforços para controle dos efeitos danosos da tuberculose, sobretudo em países em que essa doença ocorre em médias e elevadas taxas de incidência. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To review the protective efficacy of the first and second doses of BCG vaccine and to assess its major indications and contraindications. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic review of the literature was made by searching PubMed and selecting studies carried out in the last 50 years. The studie [...] s were grouped according to their design (clinical trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses) and the results were presented separately for each type of study. Other relevant topics such as BCG and HIV/AIDS, use of tuberculin skin test, issues related to vaccine scars and to the development of new vaccines were also reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: BCG vaccine has been used since 1921. However, the data concerning its use are variable and inconsistent. The protective efficacy of the first dose of BCG vaccine against miliary tuberculosis or tuberculous meningitis is remarkably important. Nevertheless, results regarding pulmonary tuberculosis have been inconsistent, either showing no efficacy or a protective efficacy rate around 80%. There is some evidence that a second dose of BCG vaccine does not increase its protective efficacy. Studies have shown that BCG vaccine protects against leprosy. The development of new vaccines to replace BCG in the future has been investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the hope that a new vaccine against tuberculosis will be available in the future, BCG vaccine, in spite of its deficiencies, is today and will still be for many years to come an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, especially in countries where this disease has moderate to high levels of incidence.

Mauricio L., Barreto; Susan M., Pereira; Arlan A., Ferreira.

2006-07-01

289

 

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil and Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão s [...] istemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in bot [...] h English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case-control studies and meta-analyses presented separately. RESULTS: The protective effect of the first dose of the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in its miliary and meningeal forms is high. However, the results vary in relation to the pulmonary form of the disease, with some indicating zero effect and others levels of nearly 80%. Research is being carried out to develop new vaccines that could substitute the BCG or be used as a booster. CONCLUSIONS: There are evidences that the protective effect of the BCG vaccine does not increase with a second dose. In spite of its limitations and the expectation that a new tuberculosis vaccine will be developed in the future, the BCG vaccine remains an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, particularly in countries with medium or high incidence levels of the disease.

Susan M, Pereira; Odimariles Maria Souza, Dantas; Ricardo, Ximenes; Mauricio L, Barreto.

2007-09-01

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Incidencia de la resistencia a drogas en tuberculosis y su asociación a comorbilidades en pacientes tratados en un hospital universitario  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La tuberculosis constituye un problema de salud pública con mayor incidencia en países pobres y presenta dos aspectos a considerar. Las comorbilidades que se comportan como factores de riesgo predisponentes de enfermedad tuberculosa, que pueden complicar su evolución y tratamiento. Por otra parte la [...] resistencia a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea constituye una amenaza para el control de la TB. Con el objetivo de determinar la incidencia de las entidades comórbidas en pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis y la frecuencia de casos con resistencia a drogas se incluyeron en el estudio los pacientes mayores de 16 años con tuberculosis confirmada en el Hospital de Clínicas "San José de San Martín". Se utilizó el programa SSPS 15 para el análisis estadístico. Entre abril de 1997 y marzo del 2010, 687 pacientes fueron tratados por TB confirmada. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: tabaquismo 14%; enolismo 4.8%; neoplasias 3.3%; EPOC y asma 5.6%; enfermedades hematológicas 2%; enfermedades autoinmunes 3.3%; diabetes 3%; VIH 6.5%; IRC 1.2%. El tabaquismo se presentó más frecuentemente asociado a la forma pulmonar estricta (p = 0.079), a diferencia de las enfermedades autoinmunes y hematológicas que se presentaron como formas miliares (p = 0.001) y VIH como formas mixtas (p = 0.002). La resistencia se presentó más frecuentemente en enfermedades autoinmunes (4%) y HIV (2%), sin valor significativo (p = 0.779). Del total de los pacientes, se detectó un n = 47 (6.8%) con algún tipo de resistencia a las drogas. En los últimos 4 años se detectaron 2 casos de XDR. No se encontró asociación significativa entre los diferentes tipos de resistencias con la presencia de comorbilidades. Sólo se registró un óbito en un paciente con XDR. La presencia de tratamiento previo (p = 0.001) y las formas bacilíferas (p = 0.016) fueron los factores asociados a un incremento de la resistencia. Abstract in english Tuberculosis is a public health problem with a higher incidence in poor countries. There are two aspects to consider: co-morbidities which are risk factors for tuberculosis, complicating its evolution and treatment, and resistance to first line drugs which is a threat to tuberculosis control. The ob [...] jective of the paper was to identify the co-morbidities and the frequency of drug resistance in tuberculosis patients. The study included patients older than 16 years of age with diagnosis of tuberculosis at the Hospital de Clinicas San Jose de San Martin in Buenos Aires. The SSPS 15 program was used for the statistical analysis. From April 1997 to March 2010, 687 patients were treated for confirmed tuberculosis. The most frequent co-morbidities were: tobacco smoking habit 14%; alcoholism 4.8%; cancer 3.3%; COPD and asthma 5.6%; blood diseases 2%; autoimmune diseases 3.3%; diabetes 3%; HIV infection 6.5%; IRC 1.2%. The tobacco smoking habit was more frequently associated to pulmonary tuberculosis (p = 0.079), instead the autoimmune and blood diseases were mostly associated to miliary tuberculosis (p = 0.001) and the HIV infection to tuberculosis in several organs (p = 0.002). Drug resistance was more frequent when autoimmune diseases (4%) and HIV infection (2%) were present, but without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.779). Resistance to at least one drug was present in 47 patients (6.8%). In the last 4 years, 2 cases of extremely drug resistant tuberculosis were detected. There was no significant association between the type of drug resistance and the co-morbidities. Only one death was registered in a patient with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis. Previous treatment (p = 0.001) and sputum positive tuberculosis (p = 0.016) were factors associated to increased drug resistance.

Pablo Martín, Fescina; Evangelina, Membriani; Leticia, Limongi; Ana, Putruele.

2013-06-01

291

Aspectos tomográficos da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes adultos com AIDS / Computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como finalidade descrever os achados tomográficos da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes adultos com AIDS atendidos no serviço de radiologia de um hospital de referência em doenças infecciosas, procurar associações desses achados e a contagem de CD4. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Fo [...] ram estudados 45 pacientes por meio de tomografia computadorizada de tórax durante quatro anos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados linfonodomegalia mediastinal e/ou hilar em 31 (68,8%) dos casos, derrame pleural em 29 (64,4%), nódulos centrolobulares de distribuição segmentar em 26 (57,7%), consolidação em 24 (53,3%), confluência de micronódulos em 17 (37,7%), nódulos mal definidos com distribuição centrolobular em 16 (35,5%), padrão de "árvore em brotamento" em 13 (28,9%), espessamento de parede brônquica em 12 (26,6%), cavidade de parede espessa em 10 (22,2%), nódulos miliares em 9 (20%) e bronquiectasias cilíndricas em 6 (13,3%). Dos 45 pacientes, 35 (77,8%) apresentaram CD4 200 cel/mm³. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que neste estudo, diversamente do descrito na literatura, linfonodomegalia mediastinal e/ou hilar e consolidação foram significativamente mais frequentes em pacientes com CD4 > 200 cel/mm³. No entanto, linfonodos com centro hipodenso foram mais frequentemente observados em pacientes com severa imunodepressão, ou seja, CD4 Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study is aimed at describing computed tomography findings pulmonary tuberculosis in adult AIDS patients assisted at a radiology unit of a reference infectious diseases hospital, in an attempt to establish the association between such findings and CD4 count. MATERIALS AND METHO [...] DS: Forty-five patients were evaluated by chest computed tomography over a four-year period. RESULTS: Mediastinal and/or hilar lymph node enlargement was found in 31 (68.8%) cases, pleural effusion in 29 (64.4%), centrilobular nodules with segmental distribution in 26 (57.7%), consolidation in 24 (53.3%), confluent micronodules in 17 (37.7%), poorly defined nodules with centrilobular distribution in 16 (35.5%), tree-in-bud pattern in 13 (28.9%), bronchial wall thickening in 12 (26.6%), thick-walled cavity in 10 (22.2%), miliary nodules in 9 (20%), and cylindrical bronchiectasis in 6 (13.3%). Among the 45 patients, 35 (77.8%) presented CD4 count 200 cel/mm³. CONCLUSION: Differently from reports in the literature, the authors conclude that mediastinal and/or hilar lymph node enlargement and consolidation were significantly most frequent in patients with CD4 count > 200 cel/mm³. However, lymph nodes with hypodense center were most often observed in severely immunosuppressed patients with CD4 count

Lanamar Aparecida de, Almeida; Mario Flores, Barba; Fernando Alves, Moreira; Sidney, Bombarda; Sebastião André de, Felice; Edenilson Eduardo, Calore.

2011-02-01

292

Doença pulmonar por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e micobactérias não-tuberculosas entre pacientes recém-diagnosticados como HIV positivos em Moçambique, África / Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates among patients with recent HIV infection in Mozambique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A micobacteriose é frequentemente diagnosticada entre pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Em Moçambique, onde apenas um pequeno número de pacientes encontra-se sob tratamento anti-retroviral, e a tuberculose tem alta prevalência, existe a necessidade de melhor caracterização destes agentes bact [...] erianos, em nível de espécie, bem como de se caracterizar os padrões de resistência às drogas antituberculosas. MÉTODOS: Em uma coorte de 503 indivíduos HIV positivos suspeitos de tuberculose pulmonar, 320 apresentaram positividade para baciloscopia ou cultura no escarro e no lavado brônquico. RESULTADOS: Bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes foram detectados no escarro em 73% dos casos com cultura positiva. De 277 isolados em cultura, apenas 3 mostraram-se tratar de micobactérias não-tuberculosas: 2 Mycobacterium avium e uma M. simiae. Todos os isolados de M. tuberculosis inicialmente caracterizados através de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RCP) do gene hsp65 foram posteriormente caracterizados como tal através de RCP do gene gyrB. Resistência à isoniazida foi encontrada em 14% dos casos; à rifampicina em 6%; e multirresistência em 5%. Pacientes previamente tratados para tuberculose mostraram tendência a taxas maiores de resistência às drogas de primeira linha. O padrão radiológico mais freqüente encontrado foi o infiltrado intersticial (67%), seguido da presença de linfonodos mediastinais (30%), bronquiectasias (28%), padrão miliar (18%) e cavidades (12%). Os pacientes infectados por micobactérias não-tuberculosas não apresentaram manifestações clínicas distintas das apresentadas pelos outros pacientes. A mediana de linfócitos CD4 entre todos os pacientes foi de 134 células/mm³. CONCLUSÕES: Tuberculose e AIDS em Moçambique estão fortemente associadas, como é de se esperar em países com alta prevalência de tuberculose. Embora as taxas de resistência a drogas sejam altas, o esquema isoniazida-rifampicina continua sendo a escolha apropriada para o início do tratamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Mycobacteriosis is frequently diagnosed among HIV-infected patients. In Mozambique, where few patients are under antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, there is need for better characterization of mycobacteria at the species level, as well as for the identifica [...] tion of patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs. METHODS: We studied a sample of 503 HIV-infected individuals suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis. Of those 503, 320 tested positive for mycobacteria through sputum smear microscopy or culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Acid-fast bacilli were observed in the sputum of 73% of the individuals presenting positive cultures. Of 277 isolates tested, only 3 were nontuberculous mycobacteria: 2 were identified as Mycobacterium avium and one was identified as M. simiae. Strains initially characterized as M. tuberculosis complex through polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene were later confirmed as such through PRA of the gyrB gene. Among the M. tuberculosis isolates, resistance patterns were as follows: to isoniazid, 14%; to rifampin, 6%; and multidrug resistance, 5%. Previously treated cases showed significantly higher rates of resistance to first-line antituberculous drugs. The most common radiological pattern was interstitial infiltrate (in 67%), followed by mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 30%), bronchiectasis (in 28%), miliary nodules (in 18%) and cavitation (in 12%). Patients infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria presented clinical profiles indistinguishable from those of other patients. The median CD4 lymphocyte count in this group was 134 cells/mm³. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between tuberculosis and AIDS in Mozambique, as expected in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Although drug resistance rates are high, the isoniazid-rifampin regimen continues to be the appr

Elizabete Abrantes, Nunes; Eduardo Mello, De Capitani; Elizabete, Coelho; Alessandra Costa, Panunto; Orvalho Augusto, Joaquim; Marcelo de Carvalho, Ramos.

2008-10-01