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Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

2010-05-01

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Microbial community analysis using MEGAN.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metagenomics, the study of microbes in the environment using DNA sequencing, depends upon dedicated software tools for processing and analyzing very large sequencing datasets. One such tool is MEGAN (MEtaGenome ANalyzer), which can be used to interactively analyze and compare metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data, both taxonomically and functionally. To perform a taxonomic analysis, the program places the reads onto the NCBI taxonomy, while functional analysis is performed by mapping reads to the SEED, COG, and KEGG classifications. Samples can be compared taxonomically and functionally, using a wide range of different charting and visualization techniques. PCoA analysis and clustering methods allow high-level comparison of large numbers of samples. Different attributes of the samples can be captured and used within analysis. The program supports various input formats for loading data and can export analysis results in different text-based and graphical formats. The program is designed to work with very large samples containing many millions of reads. It is written in Java and installers for the three major computer operating systems are available from http://www-ab.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de. PMID:24060133

Huson, Daniel H; Weber, Nico

2013-01-01

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Evolutionary conceptual analysis: faith community nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to report an evolutionary concept analysis of faith community nursing (FCN). FCN is a source of healthcare delivery in the USA which has grown in comprehensiveness and complexity. With increasing healthcare cost and a focus on access and prevention, FCN has extended beyond the physical walls of the faith community building. Faith communities and healthcare organizations invest in FCN and standardized training programs exist. Using Rodgers' evolutionary analysis, the literature was examined for antecedents, attributes, and consequences of the concept. This design allows for understanding the historical and social nature of the concept and how it changes over time. A search of databases using the keywords FCN, faith community nurse, parish nursing, and parish nurse was done. The concept of FCN was explored using research and theoretical literature. A theoretical definition and model were developed with relevant implications. The search results netted a sample of 124 reports of research and theoretical articles from multiple disciplines: medicine, education, religion and philosophy, international health, and nursing. Theoretical definition: FCN is a method of healthcare delivery that is centered in a relationship between the nurse and client (client as person, family, group, or community). The relationship occurs in an iterative motion over time when the client seeks or is targeted for wholistic health care with the goal of optimal wholistic health functioning. Faith integrating is a continuous occurring attribute. Health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering and accessing health care are other essential attributes. All essential attributes occur with intentionality in a faith community, home, health institution and other community settings with fluidity as part of a community, national, or global health initiative. A new theoretical definition and corresponding conceptual model of FCN provides a basis for future nursing knowledge and model-based applications for evidence-based practice and research. PMID:25097106

Ziebarth, Deborah

2014-12-01

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Multivariate Analysis of a Tropical Insect Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A tropical insect community was analysed from March to August, 1990. The observed abundance pattern usually did not fit MacArthur`s broken stick model. Species diversity (H` was highest in June and July (1.0235, 1.0290 and 101162 and lowest in April and May (0.8078 and 0.8281. Agglomerative cluster analysis showed two groups of samples with the exception of samples collected in May. First group consisted of March to April samples and 2nd group had the samples of May to August. This clustering revealed that community changes were correlated with the environmental factors i.e. humidity, temperature and rainfall.

Raees Hussain Zaidi

2000-01-01

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Link Analysis for Communities Detection on Facebook  

CERN Document Server

Social networks have become a part in the daily life of millions of users, which offer wide range of interests and practices. The main characteristic of social networks is its ability to gather different individuals around a common point of view or collective beliefs. Among the current social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular, which has the highest number of users. However, in Facebook, the existence of communities (groups)is a critical question; thus, many researchers focus on potential communities by using techniques like data mining and web mining. In this work, we present four approaches based on link analysis techniques to detect prospective groups and their members

Mellah, Mohamed Adnane; Hamou, Reda Mohamed; Kumar, A V Senthil

2014-01-01

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Community Detecting in Bipartite Network Based on Principal Components Analysis  

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Full Text Available The identification of communities is significant for the understanding of network structures and functions. In this study, we propose a framework to address the problem of community detection in bipartite networks based on principal components analysis. We apply the algorithm to real-world network data, showing that the algorithm successfully finds meaningful community structures of bipartite networks.

Wei Liu

2013-01-01

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ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS: A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKING  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions about land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in Oregon's Willamette River Basin. Three alternative future landscapes for the year 2050 were depicted and compare...

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Dawson Community College Needs Assessment Survey Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1983, a study was conducted by Dawson Community College (DCC) to gather information for program development at off-campus sites in Sidney and Baker, Montana, and to evaluate the services provided by the main campus to the communities in the Dawson area. The study, conducted in all three geographic areas, involved surveys of: (1) high school…

Ensrud, Peter R.; Edgar, Patrick B.

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Tailoring Community-Based Wellness Initiatives With Latent Class Analysis -- Massachusetts Community Transformation Grant Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Community-based approaches to preventing chronic diseases are attractive because of their broad reach and low costs, and as such, are integral components of health care reform efforts. Implementing community-based initiatives across Massachusetts’ municipalities presents both programmatic and evaluation challenges. For effective delivery and evaluation of the interventions, establishing a community typology that groups similar municipalities provides a balanced and cost-effective approach. Methods Through a series of key informant interviews and exploratory data analysis, we identified 55 municipal-level indicators of 6 domains for the typology analysis. The domains were health behaviors and health outcomes, housing and land use, transportation, retail environment, socioeconomics, and demographic composition. A latent class analysis was used to identify 10 groups of municipalities based on similar patterns of municipal-level indicators across the domains. Results Our model with 10 latent classes yielded excellent classification certainty (relative entropy = .995, minimum class probability for any class = .871), and differentiated distinct groups of municipalities based on health-relevant needs and resources. The classes differentiated healthy and racially and ethnically diverse urban areas from cities with similar population densities and diversity but worse health outcomes, affluent communities from lower-income rural communities, and mature suburban areas from rapidly suburbanizing communities with different healthy-living challenges. Conclusion Latent class analysis is a tool that may aid in the planning, communication, and evaluation of community-based wellness initiatives such as Community Transformation Grants projects administrated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24524425

Reardon, Timothy; Vogel, Joshua; Andrews, Bonnie K.; Li, Wenjun; Land, Thomas

2014-01-01

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An Analysis of Chinese Community Education Policy  

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Full Text Available Based on the systematic review of the government- issued regulatory documents related to community education using the leading Chinese data base of WanFang, the article maps the terrain of community education in china from 1992 to present. It is found that community education in China has experienced a fundamental change from being responsible merely for out-of-school ethic education for primary and secondary school students before 21st century to training and education activities for adults in need of them under social transformation. In addition, it grows from mere community education committee responsible for its work to a comparatively complete system capable of rallying necessary human and material resources to ensure its function. The changes of community education policy were directly motivated by the domestic socioeconomic development in the past 30 years and the global educational notion of lifelong learning and building a learning society. Finally, the problems such as the absence of national laws and some others in current community education in China are discussed.

Xiaoqing PAN

2014-03-01

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Vulnerability metrics and analysis for communities in complex networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper applies the problem of community detection in complex networks to identify sets of network elements that are critical to the connectivity of the network and its communities. Specifically, the paper defines a vulnerability set and value for each of the communities in a complex network. Also, for each community it identifies a value of relative vulnerability in comparison with the remaining communities. The approach allows to visualize/identify the critical elements of a complex network. This is an important first step for many recent problems arising in social networks, critical infrastructures and homeland security. By identifying these elements one can prioritize resource allocation to protect, interdict or improve performance in these types of systems. The sets and metrics introduced are illustrated with numerous examples and discussions. Based on the analysis of the examples the manuscript provides an intuitive description of a community's presence in the interior or periphery of a network.

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Community Analysis of Social Network in MMOG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) have attracted millions of players in recent years. In MMOG, players organize themselves voluntarily and fulfill collective tasks together. Because each player can join different activities, one player may show different social relationship with others in different activities. In the paper we proposed the incremental label propagation algorithm to search the cliques accurately and quickly. Then we analyzed community structure characteristics on multi-ac...

Pang, Sheng; Chen, Changjia

2010-01-01

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Metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total soil bacteria. Using universal bacteria - specific primers 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from metagenomic DNAs and two libraries were constructed. The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RLFP method was used in library screening. Amongst 192 clones, 35 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined from the rhizosphere of R. nathaliae, and 13 OTUs out of 80 clones in total from the library of R. serbica. Representative clones from each OTU were sequenced. The majority of sequences from metagenomes showed very little similarity to any cultured bacteria. In conclusion, the bacterial communities in the studied soil samples showed quite poor diversity. .

?oki? Lidija

2010-01-01

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Resolution of natural microbial community dynamics by community fingerprinting, flow cytometry, and trend interpretation analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural microbial communities generally have an unknown structure and composition because of their still not yet cultivable members. Therefore, understanding the relationships among the bacterial members, prediction of their behaviour, and controlling their functions are difficult and often only partly successful endeavours to date. This study aims to test a new idea that allows to follow community dynamics on the basis of a simple concept. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to describe a community profile that we define as composition of a community. Flow cytometry and analysis of DNA contents and forward scatter characteristics of the single cells were used to describe a community profile, which we define as structure of a community. Both approaches were brought together by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (n-MDS) for trend interpretation of changes in the complex community data sets. This was done on the basis of a graphical evaluation of the cytometric data, leading to the newly developed Dalmatian plot tool, which gave an unexpected insight into the dynamics of the unknown bacterial members of the investigated natural microbial community. The approach presented here was compared with other techniques described in the literature. The microbial community investigated in this study was obtained from a BTEX contaminated anoxic aquifer. The indigenous bacteria were allowed to colonise in situ microcosms consisting of activated carbon. These microcosms were amended with benzene and one of the electron acceptors nitrate, sulphate or ferric iron to stimulate microbial growth. The data obtained in this study indicated that the composition (via T-RFLP) and structure (via flow cytometry) of the natural bacterial community were influenced by the hydro-geochemical conditions in the test site, but also by the supplied electron acceptors, which led to distinct shifts in relative abundances of specific community members. It was concluded that engineered environments can be successfully monitored by single cell analytics in combination with established molecular tools and sophisticated statistical analyses, a combination that holds great promise for studying and monitoring natural microbial community behaviour. PMID:21072701

Bombach, Petra; Hübschmann, Thomas; Fetzer, Ingo; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Geyer, Roland; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

2011-01-01

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[Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

Rusinek, O T

2006-01-01

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Sensitivity analysis of coexistence in ecological communities: theory and application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitivity analysis, the study of how ecological variables of interest respond to changes in external conditions, is a theoretically well-developed and widely applied approach in population ecology. Though the application of sensitivity analysis to predicting the response of species-rich communities to disturbances also has a long history, derivation of a mathematical framework for understanding the factors leading to robust coexistence has only been a recent undertaking. Here we suggest that this development opens up a new perspective, providing advances ranging from the applied to the theoretical. First, it yields a framework to be applied in specific cases for assessing the extinction risk of community modules in the face of environmental change. Second, it can be used to determine trait combinations allowing for coexistence that is robust to environmental variation, and limits to diversity in the presence of environmental variation, for specific community types. Third, it offers general insights into the nature of communities that are robust to environmental variation. We apply recent community-level extensions of mathematical sensitivity analysis to example models for illustration. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, and some of the empirical questions the theoretical framework could help answer. PMID:25252135

Barabás, György; Pásztor, Liz; Meszéna, Géza; Ostling, Annette

2014-12-01

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Microbial communities of the Costa Rica Margin: contamination controls and community analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Most microbiology work in marine subsurface sediments has been focused in the upper 100-200 meters of sediment, as the switchover from advanced piston coring (APC) to extended core barrel coring (XCB) generally occurs around this depth. This leads to large increases in drilling-induced contamination and interferes in molecular studies. Here, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from both the subsurface sediments and the drilling fluid as a strategy for separating sequence information originating from drill-fluid contamination from that which represents the indigenous microbial communities of the sediments. This permitted a characterization of both sediment microbial communities and drilling-fluid communities that was thorough enough to confidently show the differences in the communities. Examination of the results suggests that sequences originating from drilling fluid may be only a minor portion of the data obtained from even the deepest XCB cores examined, and further that the different community composition of the drilling fluid should permit the subtraction of contaminating lineages from the analysis. As part of this work, we also show an extensive community composition analysis of multiple samples from two drilling sites of IODP Expedition 334, on the upper plate of the subduction zone between the Cocos plate and the Caribbean plate, off the Costa Rica Margin. Preliminary analysis of the sequence data suggests that the bacterial communities at both the upper slope site (1379) and the mid-slope site (1378) are dominated by Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, while Archaeal communities are dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. Using universal primers revealed that the relative dominance of Bacteria to Archaea differs between the two sites, and the trends of increasing and decreasing abundance with depth are nearly opposite between the sites. At site 1379, the Bacterial to Archaeal relationship seems to be controlled largely by Nitrospirae and the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, suggesting a possible connection to nitrogen chemistry. From around 45 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to around 212 mbsf, the two groups have an inverse linear relationship (R2=0.96), and together account for 45×5% of the classified sequences.

Martino, A. J.; Biddle, J.; House, C. H.

2013-12-01

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[A psychosocial analysis of community experiences of health education].  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiences in health education in communities located in the state of Lara in Venezuela were analyzed from a sociopsychological perspective. Under a qualitative approach, the information was obtained from three sources: documentary analysis of didactic material; participant observation in workshops, and interviews to leaders and participants. PMID:7940010

Hernández, M; Alvarado, M L; Soto, V; Rodríguez, G

1994-01-01

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Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community in kefir grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kefir grains as a probiotic have been subject to microbial community identification using culture-dependent and independent methods that target specific strains in the community, or that are based on limited 16S rRNA analysis. We performed whole genome shotgun pyrosequencing using two Turkish Kefir grains. Sequencing generated 3,682,455 high quality reads for a total of ?1.6 Gbp of data assembled into 6151 contigs with a total length of ?24 Mbp. Species identification mapped 88.16% and 93.81% of the reads rendering 4 Mpb of assembly that did not show any homology to known bacterial sequences. Identified communities in the two grains showed high concordance where Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus with a mapped abundance of 99.42% and 99.79%. This genus was dominantly represented by three species Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus helveticus with a total mapped abundance of 97.63% and 98.74%. We compared and verified our findings with 16S pyrosequencing and model based 16S data analysis. Our results suggest that microbial community profiling using whole genome shotgun data is feasible, can identify novel species data, and has the potential to generate a more accurate and detailed assessment of the underlying bacterial community, especially for low abundance species. PMID:24750812

Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Cakar, Atilla; Dogan, Haluk; Abaci, Neslihan; Ustek, Duran; Sayood, Khalid; Can, Handan

2014-08-01

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Bayesian model-based cluster analysis for predicting macrofaunal communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To predict macrofaunal community composition from environmental data a two-step approach is often followed: (1) the water samples are clustered into groups on the basis of the macrofauna data and (2) the groups are related to the environmental data, e.g. by discriminant analysis. For the cluster analysis in step 1 many hard, seemingly arbitrary choices have to be made that nevertheless influence the solution (similarity measure, clustering strategy, number of clusters). The stability of the s...

Ter Braak, C. J. F.; Hoijtink, H. J. A.; Akkermans, W.; Verdonschot, P. F. M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

2010-07-01

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The community Analysis of User Behaviors Network for Web Traffic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding the structure and dynamics of the user behavior networks for web traffic (To be convenient in next sections, we refer to replace it as UBNWT that connect users with servers across the Internet is a key to modeling the network and designing future application. The Web-visited bipartite networks, called the user behavioral networks, display a natural bipartite structure: two kinds of nodes coexist with links only between nodes of different types. We obtained the result that the out-degree distribution of clients (the host initiating the connection, the in-degree distribution of servers (the host receiving the connection and the strength distribution (the exchange bytes between clients and servers are approximately power-law, whose exponential is between 1.7 and 3.4. The clustering coefficient of clients and servers is larger than that in randomized, degree preserving versions of the same graph, which indicate a modular structure of UBNWT. Finally, based on the algorithm of finding the community structure in bipartite network, we divided the clients into different communities, through manual examination of hosts in these communities, the typical normal (interest and abnormal (DOS communities were found. Interestingly, the loyalty of clients belonging to the same community in different time is higher than 80%. The structure analysis of UBNWT is very helpful for the network management, resource allocation, traffic engineering and security.

Jun Cai

2011-11-01

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Microarray-based analysis of microbial community RNAs by whole-community RNA amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach, termed whole-community RNA amplification (WCRA), was developed to provide sufficient amounts of mRNAs from environmental samples for microarray analysis. This method employs fusion primers (six to nine random nucleotides with an attached T7 promoter) for the first-strand synthesis. The shortest primer (T7N6S) gave the best results in terms of the yield and representativeness of amplification. About 1,200- to 1,800-fold amplification was obtained with amounts of the RNA templates ranging from 10 to 100 ng, and very representative detection was obtained with 50 to 100 ng total RNA. Evaluation with a Shewanella oneidensis Deltafur strain revealed that the amplification method which we developed could preserve the original abundance relationships of mRNAs. In addition, to determine whether representative detection of RNAs can be achieved with mixed community samples, amplification biases were evaluated with a mixture containing equal quantities of RNAs (100 ng each) from four bacterial species, and representative amplification was also obtained. Finally, the method which we developed was applied to the active microbial populations in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor used for denitrification of contaminated groundwater and ethanol-stimulated groundwater samples for uranium reduction. The genes expressed were consistent with the expected functions of the bioreactor and groundwater system, suggesting that this approach is useful for analyzing the functional activities of microbial communities. This is one of the first demonstrations that microarray-based technology can be used to successfully detect the activities of microbial communities from real environmental samples in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:17098911

Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin K; Gentry, Terry J; Wu, Liyou; Schadt, Christopher W; Zhou, Jizhong

2007-01-01

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[Application of geostatistical analysis in study of macrophytes community's pattern].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the Log-log semivariogram and theoretical models of Geostatistics and fractal theory were applied to study the mosaic spatial pattern of macrophytes community and its different characters on different scales in littoral zone of the Baoan Lake, Hubei Province. The macrophytes in the littoral zone with a square area of 25,600 m2, which was divided in to 1,024 grids, were investigated, and the macrophytes species in every grid were recorded. If the species was discovered in the grid, the variable of the grid had a value of 1, otherwise, it was 0. The community had a value of the total species discovered in the grid. By the method, the sampling results of Vallisneria spiralis, Ceratophyllum oryzetorum, Myriophyllum spicatum and the community were made into four worksheets. With help of the software GS+ for Windows to treat these worksheets, we got their log-log semivariogram, isotropic model, anisotropic model, isotropic fractal dimension and anisotropic fractal dimension. According to the results of isotropic models, the exponential models of Vallisneria spiralis and Myriophyllum spicatum indicated their contagious distribution with a high proportion of spatial structure, which indicated that their distribution changed lesser at microscale. In their range of 48.6 m and 34.2 m respectively, they had a spatial autocorrelation. Isotropic models of Ceratophyllum oryzetorum and the community were linear, and their proportions of spatial structure were low, indicating their great change at microscale and their moderate contagious distribution. The isotropic fractal dimension and anisotropic fractal dimension results indicated the dominant pattern of Vallisneria spiralis in the direction of NE-SW, the dominant patterns of Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum oryzetorum in the direction of N-S, and the community's dominant pattern in the direction of NW-SE. Compared with other analysis tools, the method had advantages in deciding whether the community components had a spatial autocorrelation and in quantitatively classifying the aggregation density. It provides us a new way to quantitatively describe the pattern of the macrophytes community. PMID:14986367

Pan, Wenbin; Deng, Hongbing; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qinghua

2003-10-01

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Analysis of community structure in networks of correlated data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a reformulation of modularity that allows the analysis of the community structure in networks of correlated data. The new modularity preserves the probabilistic semantics of the original definition even when the network is directed, weighted, signed, and has self-loops. This is the most general condition one can find in the study of any network, in particular those defined from correlated data. We apply our results to a real network of correlated data between stores in the city of Lyon (France).

Gomez, S.; Jensen, P.; Arenas, A.

2008-12-25

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Microbial community analysis in biotrickling filters treating isopropanol air emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of the microbial community was analysed over one year in two biotrickling filters operating under intermittent feeding conditions and treating isopropanol emissions, a pollutant typically found in the flexography sector. Each reactor was packed with one media: plastic cross-flow-structured material or polypropylene rings. The communities were monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA region. After inoculation with activated sludge, the biotrickling filters were operated using inlet loads (ILs) from 20 to 65 g C m(-3) h(-1) and empty-bed residence times (EBRTs) from 14 to 160 s. Removal efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained with ILs up to 35 g C m(-3) h(-1) working at EBRTs as low as 24 s. There was an increase in the total percentage of the target domains of up to around 80% at the end of the experiment. Specifically, the Gammaproteobacteria domain group, which includes the well-known volatile organic compound (VOC)-degrading species such as Pseudomonas putida, showed a noticeable rise in the two biotrickling filters of 26% and 27%, respectively. DGGE pattern band analysis revealed a stable band of Pseudomonas putida in all the samples monitored, even in the lower diversity communities. In addition, at similar operational conditions, the biotrickling filter with a greater relative abundance of Pseudomonas sp. (19.2% vs. 8%) showed higher removal efficiency (90% vs. 79%). Results indicate the importance of undertaking a further in-depth study of the involved species in the biofiltration process and their specific function. PMID:24527643

Pérez, M Carmen; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; San-Valero, Pau; Marzal, Paula; Gabaldón, Carmen

2013-01-01

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Seasonal and Spatial Changes of Microorganism Communities in Constructed Wetlands: A Community Level Physiological Profiling Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In constructed wetlands, microorganisms associated with plants are assumed to play a major role. A one-year survey was conducted in five vertical flow constructed wetland systems that had been operating from 2 months to 8 years in small French villages (100–500 People Equivalent to provide a better understanding of microbiological activity. The objective of our study was to highlight the most important factor generating variability between microorganisms communities compared to treatment performances. Results of community level physiological profiling using Biolog Ecoplates were analyzed using principal component analysis. The greatest microbial activity was observed in the oldest wetland during summer. Profiles of fed and rest bed were differentiated by the nature of the main carbon source metabolized. Whereas carbohydrates and carboxylic acids appeared to be better assimilated with fed beds, it seemed that phosphate compounds as well as amines allowed better growth in the plates inoculated with samples of rest beds. In all fed beds, the most important parameters affecting the diversity were the season and the age of the wetlands. There were only slight profile differences between surface and subsurface samples and between the first and second stage samples.

Gérard Merlin

2010-01-01

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CORSSA: The Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical seismology is the application of rigorous statistical methods to earthquake science with the goal of improving our knowledge of how the earth works. Within statistical seismology there is a strong emphasis on the analysis of seismicity data in order to improve our scientific understanding of earthquakes and to improve the evaluation and testing of earthquake forecasts, earthquake early warning, and seismic hazards assessments. Given the societal importance of these applications, statistical seismology must be done well. Unfortunately, a lack of educational resources and available software tools make it difficult for students and new practitioners to learn about this discipline. The goal of the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis (CORSSA) is to promote excellence in statistical seismology by providing the knowledge and resources necessary to understand and implement the best practices, so that the reader can apply these methods to their own research. This introduction describes the motivation for and vision of CORRSA. It also describes its structure and contents.

Michael, Andrew J.; Wiemer, Stefan

2010-01-01

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community -  

...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Uncategorized | Also tagged Big Society Bank, Communities First, delivery, evaluation, funding | Comments (0) The trouble with community funding June 8, 2010 - 1:59 pm Current funding mechanisms make ...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Uncategorized | Also tagged Big Green Challenge, funding, NESTA, third sector | Comments (1) A community portal for London? May 6, 2010 - 3:05 pm As Jon discussed in his ...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Communities, evaluation, Uncategorized | Also tagged carbon emissions, CCF, Climate Challenge Fund, climate change, Daily Mail, evaluation, Taxpayers' Alliance | Comments (1) «Older posts Search for: ...

30

Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

2010-01-01

31

Metaproteome analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural biogas plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In biogas plants agricultural waste and energy crops are converted by complex microbial communities to methane for the production of renewable energy. In Germany, this process is widely applied namely in context of agricultural production systems. However, process disturbances, are one of the major causes for economic losses. In addition, the conversion of biomass, in particular of cellulose, is in most cases incomplete and, hence, insufficient. Besides technical aspects, a more profound characterization concerning the functionality of the microbial communities involved would strongly support the improvement of yield and stability in biogas production. To monitor these communities on the functional level, metaproteome analysis was applied in this study to full-scale agricultural biogas plants. Proteins were extracted directly from sludge for separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequent identification with mass spectrometry. Protein profiles obtained with SDS-PAGE were specific for different biogas plants and often stable for several months. Differences of protein profiles were visualized by clustering, which allowed not only the discrimination between mesophilic and thermophilic operated biogas plants but also the detection of process disturbances such as acidification. In particular, acidification of a biogas plant was detected in advance by disappearance of major bands in SDS-PAGE. Identification of proteins from SDS-PAGE gels revealed that methyl CoM reductase, which is responsible for the release of methane during methanogenesis, from the order Methanosarcinales was significantly decreased. Hence, it is assumed that this enzyme might be a promising candidate to serve as a predictive biomarker for acidification. PMID:23369865

Heyer, R; Kohrs, F; Benndorf, D; Rapp, E; Kausmann, R; Heiermann, M; Klocke, M; Reichl, U

2013-09-25

32

The local community development and the community-based tourism : a comparative conceptual analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launching of development initiatives liable to counter the devitalization and impoverishment process which characterizes certain mass tourism oriented places.

Sylvie PARENT

2009-01-01

33

A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

2005-05-20

34

Bacterial community analysis of contaminant soils from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows: Shortly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, vegetation, contaminated soil and other radioactive debris were buried in situ in trenches. The aims of this work are to analyse the structure of bacterial communities evolving in this environment since 20 years, and to evaluate the potential role of microorganisms in radionuclide migration in soils. Therefore, soil samples exhibiting contrasted radionuclides content were collected in and around the trench number 22. Bacterial communities were examined using a genetic fingerprinting method that allowed a comparative profiling of the samples (DGGE), with universal and group-specific PCR primers. Our results indicate that Chernobyl soil samples host a wide diversity of Bacteria, with stable patterns for Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and more variable for Proteobacteria. A collection of 650 aerobic and anaerobic culturable isolates was also constructed. A phylogenetic analysis of 250 heterotrophic aerobic isolates revealed that 5 phyla are represented: Beta-, Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and spore-forming Firmicutes, which is largely dominant. These collection will be screened for the presence of radionuclide-accumulating species in order to estimate the potential influence of microorganisms in radionuclides migration in soils

35

GeoChips for Analysis of Microbial Functional Communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional gene arrays (FGA) are microarrays that contain probes for genes encoding proteins or enzymes involved in functions of interest and allow for the study of thousands of genes at one time. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip, which contains ~;;24,000 probes for ~;;10,000 genes involved in the geochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, as well as genes involved in metal resistance and reduction and contaminant degradation. This chapter details the methods necessary for GeoChip analysis. Methods covered include preparation of DNA (whole community genome amplification and labeling), array setup (prehybridization steps), hybridization (sample and hybridization buffers), and post hybridization steps (slide washing and array scanning).

Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

2008-09-30

36

A Collaboration and Productiveness Analysis of the BPM Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The main scientific event for academics working in the field of Business Process Management is the International BPM Conference. In this paper, social network analysis techniques are used to unveil the co-authorship networks that can be derived from the papers presented at this conference. Links between two researchers are established by their co-authorship of a paper at one of the conference editions throughout the years 2003-2008. Beyond the relations between individual authors, aggregated analyses are presented of the interactions between the institutes that the authors are affiliated with as well as their country of residence. Additionally, the output of individual authors is measured. All analyses are carried out for the individual conference years and at cumulative levels. In this way, this paper identifies the hotbeds of BPM research and maps the progressive collaboration patterns within the BPM community.

Reijers, Hajo A.; Song, Minseok; Romero, Heidi; Dayal, Umeshwar; Eder, Johann; Koehler, Jana

37

Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

1996-11-01

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Community College Student Engagement Patterns: A Typology Revealed through Exploratory Cluster Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study employs survey data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement to examine the similarities and differences that exist across student-level domains in terms of student engagement in community colleges. In total, the sample used in the analysis pools data from 663 community colleges and includes more than 320,000 students.…

Saenz, Victor B.; Hatch, Deryl; Bukoski, Beth E.; Kim, Suyun; Lee, Kye-hyoung; Valdez, Patrick

2011-01-01

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Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

2014-01-01

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Community Analysis of Dynamic Microbial Mat Communities from Actively Erupting Seamounts (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The actively erupting deep-sea volcanoes NW Rota-1 and W Mata have multiple diffuse low-temperature (Tmax= 20-30 degrees) vent sites which harbor dense populations of microbial mat communities driven by chemoautotrophy. These microbial mats were often composed of white filamentous bacteria growing in close proximity to focused hydrothermal flow. Eight microbial mats were sampled from discrete hydrothermal vents on NW Rota-1 and W Mata volcanoes in 2009. The microbial mat communities were analyzed with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community fingerprinting. All of the sampled microbial mats were dominated by the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The microbial mat at Iceberg Vent contained 13.5% Archaea, while all other microbial mats contained less than 1% Archaea. Bacterial community fingerprints from NW Rota-1 and W Mata formed distinct clusters that were well separated from clusters formed by hydrothermal communities from Axial and Eifuku Seamounts that were also dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria. Iceberg vent communities from NW Rota-1 have transitioned from being dominated by Caminibacter phylotypes to Sulfuimonas group phylotypes since 2004. These data suggest that microbial communities found on actively erupting volcanoes are geographically distinct and provide a natural laboratory to study microbial colonization and community succession at hydrothermal systems.

Davis, R.; Tebo, B.; Moyer, C. L.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term community in the English language can be traced back to the 14th century and originates from the French word comuneté and the Latin word communitatem. In English the term initially came to denote five distinct senses. Community served as a distinction of the common people from those of rank (1, as a denotation of a state or organized society (2, the people of a district (3, as a designation for the community of shared interests (4 and as a sense of common identity and characteristics (5. In these early meanings of the term it is important to note the distinction between the designation of actual social groups on the one hand and the indication of a particular relational quality on the other.

2008-07-01

42

Analysis of factors affecting the accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of microbial community carbon source utilization patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined factors that affect responses of bacterial isolates and model bacterial communities to the 95 carbon substrates in Biolog microliter plates. For isolates and communities of three to six bacterial strains, substrate oxidation rates were typically nonlinear and were delayed by dilution of the inoculum. When inoculum density was controlled, patterns of positive and negative responses exhibited by microbial communities to each of the carbon sources were reproducible. Rates and extents of substrate oxidation by the communities were also reproducible but were not simply the sum of those exhibited by community members when tested separately. Replicates of the same model community clustered when analyzed by principal- components analysis (PCA), and model communities with different compositions were clearly separated un the first PCA axis, which accounted for >60% of the dataset variation. PCA discrimination among different model communities depended on the extent to which specific substrates were oxidized. However, the substrates interpreted by PCA to be most significant in distinguishing the communities changed with reading time, reflecting the nonlinearity of substrate oxidation rates. Although whole-community substrate utilization profiles were reproducible signatures for a given community, the extent of oxidation of specific substrates and the numbers or activities of microorganisms using those substrates in a given community were not correlated. Replicate soil samples varied significantly in the rate and extent of oxidation of seven tested substrates, suggesting microscale heterogeneity in composition of the soil microbial community.

Haack, S.K.; Garchow, H.; Klug, M.J.; Forney, L.J.

1995-01-01

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Analysis on Influencing Factors of Community Safety Culture Based on the Structural Equation Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research community safety culture building train of thought through the analysis of the influence factors of community safety culture, This study employs a Likert scale method for the design of questionnaire, investigate community through questionnaire, obtain the relevant data, and by use of the structural equation model (SEM of statistics, puts forward that the factors including economy, society, education, since and technology, and management form important influence factors on community safety culture. Thus we should take comprehensive measures from the above aspects in the community safety culture construction.

Zhixin LI

2013-05-01

44

Clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia among younger patients: an analysis of 18 years at a community hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia whose outcomes are markedly affected by their background characteristics, it appears that the severity of the infection itself contributes to outcomes in younger patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In order to identify clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in younger patients under 60 years old, among such cases prospectively collected at our hospital over a period of 18 years, those meeting the criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia, as defined in the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia, were retrospectively examined and compared to elderly patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Younger patients with severe pneumonia accounted for 12.9% of younger hospitalized patients. Although the incidence of severe pneumonia in younger patients was lower than that in elderly patients, its severity may be underestimated by severity assessment based on the conventional guidelines. Thus, attention is required. While Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella species were important causative pathogens, atypical pathogens and viruses were also frequently detected. There were only 11 deaths over a period of 18 years. Based on multivariate analysis, the risk factors for aggravation of community-acquired pneumonia among younger patients were age 50 years or older, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, and Legionella pneumonia. Although the mortality rate from community-acquired pneumonia is extremely low in previously healthy younger patients, outcomes might be poor for patients with underlying diseases and those with rapid progression. Multimodal treatments including respiratory management may be appropriate. PMID:24951291

Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Furuta, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Niwa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Hashimoto, Toru

2014-08-01

45

Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community resources, community networks, institutions and services, people–place connections, active agents, and learning; are activated in processes and activities in the village to respond to current challenges. Although this corroborates findings from other community resilience research, this research suggests that community resilience is both complex and dynamic over time. Although communities may consider themselves resilient to today’s challenges, the rate and magnitude of expected systemic global changes, especially climate change, means that future resilience cannot be taken for granted. This work concludes that there is a risk that community resilience may be an illusion, leading to complacency about the need for adaption to multiple factors of change. Hence, the ability of communities to actively engage in reflexive learning processes is of importance for both adaptation and future resilience.

Helene Amundsen

2012-12-01

46

Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with the physician population and show which characteristics of a community determine its "attractiveness" to physicians. Methods Associations between the number of physicians and selected demographic/economic/life-related variables of all of Japan's 3132 municipalities were examined. In order to exclude the confounding effect of community size, correlations between the physician-to-population ratio and other variable-to-population ratios or variable-to-area ratios were evaluated with simple correlation and multiple regression analyses. The equity of physician distribution against each variable was evaluated by the orenz curve and Gini index. Results Among the 21 variables selected, the service industry workers-to-population ratio (0.543, commercial land price (0.527, sales of goods per person (0.472, and daytime population density (0.451 were better correlated with the physician-to-population ratio than was population density (0.409. Multiple regression analysis showed that the service industry worker-to-population ratio, the daytime population density, and the elderly rate were each independently correlated with the physician-to-population ratio (standardized regression coefficient 0.393, 0.355, 0.089 respectively; each p Conclusion Daytime population and service industry population in a municipality are better parameters of community attractiveness to physicians than population. Because attractiveness is supposed to consist of medical demand and the amenities of urban life, the two parameters may represent the amount of medical demand and/or the extent of urban amenities of the community more precisely than population does. The conventional demand-supply analysis based solely on population as the demand parameter may overestimate the inequity of the physician distribution among communities.

Toyokawa Satoshi

2009-02-01

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A Unified Community Detection, Visualization and Analysis method  

CERN Document Server

Community detection in social graphs has attracted researchers' interest for a long time. With the widespread of social networks on the Internet it has recently become an important research domain. Most contributions focus upon the definition of algorithms for optimizing the so-called modularity function. In the first place interest was limited to unipartite graph inputs and partitioned community outputs. Recently bipartite graphs, directed graphs and overlapping communities have been investigated. Few contributions embrace at the same time the three types of nodes. In this paper we present a method which unifies commmunity detection for the three types of nodes and at the same time merges partitionned and overlapping communities. Moreover results are visualized in such a way that they can be analyzed and semantically interpreted. For validation we experiment this method on well known simple benchmarks. It is then applied to real data in three cases. In two examples of photos sets with tagged people we reveal...

Crampes, Michel

2013-01-01

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Analysis of weeds communities using selected biological indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper analyses the weeds community in oats cultivated at different position in two crop rotations: after potato (in the rotation system with 25% share of oats) and twice after oats (with its 75% share) during the years 1990-2000, using the diversity of species indicators (by Simpson and by Shannon-Wiener), homogeneity of species by Simpson and communities similarity ratios. The dependence of biological indicators on the weather conditions and the dependence of oats grain yield on the numb...

Janusz Nowicki; Kostrzewska, Marta K.; Magdalena Jastrz?bska; Maria Wanic

2005-01-01

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Impact analysis and community development needs at the salt site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) has developed a socioeconomic program for a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt. The program is comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation, and impact monitoring. The first element, impact assessment, is the focus of ONWI's current activities. Socioeconomic data has been collected for seven salt sites in Texas, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana. Demographic, economic, community service, governmental and social structure information has been assembled into data base reports for each site area. These socioeconomic reports will be the basis for analyzing community-related impacts. Socioeconomic effects are currently being evaluated for the environmental assessment document required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The approach to evaluating socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment impact includes developing the data base necessary for evaluation; assessing impacts of baseline population projected by the states; assessing project-related impacts through the use of an inmigration model and responding to socioeconomic issues raised in public meetings and hearings. The siting, construction, and operation of nuclear repositories will involve an extended period of time and an increased workforce, which can result in some impacts similar to those of other large development projects. The communities affected by a repository site will face increased demands for housing, community services (tremands for housing, community services (transportation, sewer and water, schools, etc.) and land, as well as a desire to maintain the community's ''character''. The management of this expansion and other related community impacts should be structured to meet community needs and goals. The management process should include the formation of an impact management comment, a public participation program, and a technical assistance program

50

Community College Finance: A Cost Analysis of Community College Expenditures Related to Maintenance and Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a costing model for maintenance and operations expenditures among 16 single-campus California community college districts and assess the impact of a variety of variables including size of student enrollment, physical plant age, acreage, gross square footage, and general obligation facility bonds on district…

Collins, Michael T.

2011-01-01

51

Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses social network analysis (SNA) in an innovative way to describe interaction and explain how interaction influences sense of community of students in online learning environments. The findings reveal differences on sense of community between two similarly structured online courses, and show unique interaction patterns for students in…

Shen, Demei; Nuankhieo, Piyanan; Huang, Xinxin; Amelung, Christopher; Laffey, James

2008-01-01

52

University-Community Engagement: A grid-group analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available University-community engagement involves complex issues, entangling multiple and interacting points of view, all of which operate in a wider dynamic evolving social environment. For this reason, there is often disagreement about why engagement is necessary or desirable, and whether there is one optimal method to practice it. To address this issue, I argue that university-community engagement can be examined as a form of enquiry. In this view, engagement is viewed as a system that arises through the recognition of the dissent it embodies. As such, enquiry functions to process disagreements into diverse methods of communication. Most of the disagreements utilised by universities are derived from external sources, thus university-based enquiry must necessarily involve a dialogue with a broader community or environment. In this sense, university-community engagement can be viewed most generally as a method that processes disagreements into shared understandings through enquiry. To demonstrate how university-community engagement functions from an enquiry point of view, I use Mary Douglas’ grid-group diagramming method to develop a critical typology for classifying university-community engagement. My modified grid-group diagram provides a structured typological space within which four distinct methods of university-community engagement can be identified and discussed – both in relation to their internal communicational characteristics, and in relation to each other. The university-engagement grid-group diagram is constructed by locating each of Douglas’ four quadrants within Charles Peirce’s four methods of enquiry. Peirce’s work is introduced because each of his four methods of enquiry deals specifically with how disagreements are processed and resolved. When Peirce’s methods for fixing belief are located in Douglas’ grid-group diagram, they create a sense-making framework for university-community engagement. It is argued that the model offers a heuristic structure through which to view the diversity of university-community engagement and create shared understandings of the appropriateness of a wide range of possible engagement methods.

David Low

2008-09-01

53

University-Community Engagement: A grid-group analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available University-community engagement involves complex issues, entangling multiple and interacting points of view, all of which operate in a wider dynamic evolving social environment. For this reason, there is often disagreement about why engagement is necessary or desirable, and whether there is one optimal method to practice it. To address this issue, I argue that university-community engagement can be examined as a form of enquiry. In this view, engagement is viewed as a system that arises through the recognition of the dissent it embodies. As such, enquiry functions to process disagreements into diverse methods of communication. Most of the disagreements utilised by universities are derived from external sources, thus university-based enquiry must necessarily involve a dialogue with a broader community or environment. In this sense, university-community engagement can be viewed most generally as a method that processes disagreements into shared understandings through enquiry. To demonstrate how university-community engagement functions from an enquiry point of view, I use Mary Douglas’ grid-group diagramming method to develop a critical typology for classifying university-community engagement. My modified grid-group diagram provides a structured typological space within which four distinct methods of university-community engagement can be identified and discussed – both in relation to their internal communicational characteristics, and in relation to each other. The university-engagement grid-group diagram is constructed by locating each of Douglas’ four quadrants within Charles Peirce’s four methods of enquiry. Peirce’s work is introduced because each of his four methods of enquiry deals specifically with how disagreements are processed and resolved. When Peirce’s methods for fixing belief are located in Douglas’ grid-group diagram, they create a sense-making framework for university-community engagement. It is argued that the model offers a heuristic structure through which to view the diversity of university-community engagement and create shared understandings of the appropriateness of a wide range of possible engagement methods.

David Low

2008-09-01

54

Analysis of Computer Science Communities Based on DBLP  

CERN Document Server

It is popular nowadays to bring techniques from bibliometrics and scientometrics into the world of digital libraries to analyze the collaboration patterns and explore mechanisms which underlie community development. In this paper we use the DBLP data to investigate the author's scientific career and provide an in-depth exploration of some of the computer science communities. We compare them in terms of productivity, population stability and collaboration trends.Besides we use these features to compare the sets of topranked conferences with their lower ranked counterparts.

Biryukov, Maria; 10.1007/978-3-642-15464-5_24

2010-01-01

55

Covariation in community- and individual-based community capacity and health behavior: a multilevel analysis of populations in Seoul, South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community capacity is defined as the degree to which the human, physical, and potential resources of a neighborhood are organized based on mutual solidarity among the residents. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between community capacity and health behaviors in Seoul, South Korea. Multilevel models controlling for socioeconomic variables were used to measure the association between community capacity and health behaviors in 25 districts and 404 subdistricts (n = 14 228). Community capacity was determined to be significant at the more local community level, as it was a significant variable in the subdistrict analysis for explaining health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and exercising. Community capacity exists not only at the individual level but also at the community level. High community capacity further enhanced the positive effects of individual capacity on health behavior and further weakened the negative effects. PMID:23111482

Jung, Minsoo

2012-01-01

56

Analysis of weeds communities using selected biological indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses the weeds community in oats cultivated at different position in two crop rotations: after potato (in the rotation system with 25% share of oats and twice after oats (with its 75% share during the years 1990-2000, using the diversity of species indicators (by Simpson and by Shannon-Wiener, homogeneity of species by Simpson and communities similarity ratios. The dependence of biological indicators on the weather conditions and the dependence of oats grain yield on the number and diversity of species were assessed. Diversity and homogeneity of species in communities of weeds in the field of oats showed high differences from year to year of studies and dates of measurements (stage of oats tillering, end of its vegetation. To a lesser degree they changed under the influence of the position in the rotation system. With the passage of years the number of weeds during the spring period gradually increased. The analyzed parameters showed the differentiated dependence on the weather conditions. The communities form years with similar weather conditions did not show analogy in individual density and species. No significant dependence between the yield and the diversity of weeds was confirmed.

Maria Wanic

2005-06-01

57

An Analysis of the Community Safety Scale: A Brief Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent years, there has been increased interest in the relationship between neighborhood environments and social deviancy. This article reports on the development of an index of neighborhoods, which is built upon community features of social and physical incivilities (Wandersman & Nation, 1998). Factor structure and internal consistency of…

Shoffner, Marie F.; Vacc, Nicholas A.

2002-01-01

58

Pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community in drinking water wells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wells used for drinking water often have a large biomass and a high bacterial diversity. Current technologies are not always able to reduce the bacterial population, and the threat of pathogen proliferation in drinking water sources is omnipresent. The environmental conditions that shape the microbial communities in drinking water sources have to be elucidated, so that pathogen proliferation can be foreseen. In this work, the bacterial community in nine water wells of a groundwater aquifer in Northern Mexico were characterized and correlated to environmental characteristics that might control them. Although a large variation was observed between the water samples, temperature and iron concentration were the characteristics that affected the bacterial community structure and composition in groundwater wells. Small increases in the concentration of iron in water modified the bacterial communities and promoted the growth of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Acidovorax. The abundance of the genera Flavobacterium and Duganella was correlated positively with temperature and the Acidobacteria Gp4 and Gp1, and the genus Acidovorax with iron concentrations in the well water. Large percentages of Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas bacteria were found, and this is of special concern as bacteria belonging to both genera are often biofilm developers, where pathogens survival increases. PMID:23563631

Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Suárez-Arriaga, Mayra C; Rojas-Valdes, Aketzally; Montoya-Ciriaco, Nina M; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; Dendooven, Luc

2013-07-01

59

Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

2011-01-01

60

Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of Jewish communities in the territory of contemporary Portugal is archaeologically documented since the 3rd century CE, but their settlement in Trás-os-Montes (NE Portugal) has not been proved before the 12th century. The Decree of Expulsion followed by the establishment of the Inquisition, both around the beginning of the 16th century, accounted for a significant exodus, as well as the establishment of crypto-Jewish communities. Previous Y chromosome studies have shown that different Jewish communities share a common origin in the Near East, although they can be quite heterogeneous as a consequence of genetic drift and different levels of admixture with their respective host populations. To characterize the genetic composition of the Portuguese Jewish communities from Trás-os-Montes, we have examined 57 unrelated Jewish males, with a high-resolution Y-chromosome typing strategy, comprising 16 STRs and 23 SNPs. A high lineage diversity was found, at both haplotype and haplogroup levels (98.74 and 82.83%, respectively), demonstrating the absence of either strong drift or founder effects. A deeper and more detailed investigation is required to clarify how these communities avoided the expected inbreeding caused by over four centuries of religious repression. Concerning haplogroup lineages, we detected some admixture with the Western European non-Jewish populations (R1b1b2-M269, approximately 28%), along with a strong ancestral component reflecting their origin in the Middle East [J1(xJ1a-M267), approximately 12%; J2-M172, approximately 25%; T-M70, approximately 16%] and in consequence Trás-os-Montes Jews were found to be more closely related with other Jewish groups, rather than with the Portuguese non-Jewish population. PMID:19918998

Nogueiro, Inês; Manco, Licínio; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition.

Bælum, Jacob

2014-01-01

62

High-resolution melt analysis for rapid comparison of bacterial community compositions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition. PMID:24610853

Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Baelum, Jacob; Feld, Louise; Holben, William E; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

2014-06-01

63

Transcriptomic analysis of a marine bacterial community enriched with dimethylsulfoniopropionate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important source of reduced sulfur and carbon for marine microbial communities, as well as the precursor of the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In this study, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to analyze gene expression profiles of a bacterial assemblage from surface waters at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station with and without a short-term enrichment of DMSP (25?nm for 30?min). An average of 303?143 reads were obt...

Vila-costa, Maria; Rinta-kanto, J. M.; Sun, S.; Sharma, S.; Poretsky, R.; Moran, M. A.

2010-01-01

64

Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Community Patent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For more than 40 years, governments and professional associations have acted, voted or lobbied against the implementation of the Community Patent (COMPAT, officially called the EU Patent). The econometric results and simulations presented in this paper suggest that, thanks to its attractiveness in terms of market size and a sound renewal fee structure, the COMPAT would drastically reduce the relative patenting costs for applicants while generating more income for the European Patent Office an...

Danguy, Je?ro?me; Pottelsberghe, Bruno

2011-01-01

65

THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SAMPLE CONCENTRATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES USING PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID ANALYSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a powerful tool for determination of microbial community structures in soils and sediments. However, accurate determination of total microbial biomass and structure of the microbial community may be dependent on the concentration of the...

66

[Dianchi Lake macroinvertebrate community succession trends and retrogressive analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical records and data from yield surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 were used to investigate macroinvertebrate community succession trends in Dianchi Lake. Species richness has declined from 57 in the 1980s to 32 in 2010, representing a species loss of 44%. Among the major benthic groups, the highest rate of loss was recorded for mollusks (75%) and aquatic insects (39%). Surveys in 2009 and 2010 across the lake revealed that the total density was 1776 ind/m2, comprising oligochaetes (1706 ind/m2) and chironomids (68 ind/m2). Over a nearly twenty-year span (1992-2010), the density and biomass of oligochaetes first increased sharply (1992-2002) and then declined gradually (2002-2010). Further, chironomids have decreased gradually while the proportion of abundant species has increased. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri became the sole dominant species with an average relative abundance of 74.1%. Cosmopolitan species, such as Einfeldia sp., disappeared across the lake; instead, tolerant species such as Chironomus plumosus, Ch. attenuatus and Tanypus chinensis became the common. Mollusk community structure has become simpler and many native species have gone extinct. Species of concern include Margarya melanioides, M. mondi, M. mansugi and Cipangopaludina dianchiensis, all rated as critically endangered by the IUCN. We found that the Shannon-Wiener index declined in Dianchi Lake, particularly in Caohai Lake, from 2.70 in the 1950s to 0.30 in 2009 and 2010. Species richness and biodiversity was significantly negative correlated with total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Factors responsible for the benthic community retrogression described here include habitat destruction, lowering of water quality, outbreaks of blue-green algae, extinction of submerged plants and lack of germplasm resources. PMID:21509969

Wang, Chou-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Cai; Song, Li-Rong; Xiao, Bang-Ding; Li, Gen-Bao; Li, Lin

2011-04-01

67

Conceptualisation of community-based basic nursing education in South Africa: a grounded theory analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based education is about a decade old in basic nursing education in South Africa, An extensive review of literature revealed that although CBE was a familiar concept in South Africa, there was however, limited understanding of what this phenomenon means. The purpose of the study was to analyse the concept ‘community-based education’ with the aim of discovering shared understanding of this phenomenon in basic nursing education within the South African context. Strauss and Corbin’s (1990 grounded theory approach was used to guide the research process. The South African Nursing Council’s (SANC education committee, the National Department of Health, human resources division representatives as well as seven nursing education institutions with well-established CBE programmes participated in the study. The data was collected by means o f observations, interviews and document analysis. Purposive sampling and later theoretical sampling was used for selecting interviewees. This resulted in a total o f 45 interviewees. The data collection and initial data analysis took place concurrently. Descriptive analysis followed by conceptual analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin’s model. The findings in this study revealed that community-based education is education that uses the community extensively, especially the under-developed and under-resourced settings, for learning purposes in order to enhance relevance of nursing education to the needs of the South African population. The core discriminatory characteristics o f CBE were found to include; primacy of the community as a learning environment; the early exposure of students to community-based learning experiences; community-based learning experiences dominating the curriculum, exposure to community-based learning experiences throughout the curriculum, vertical sequencing of community-based learning experiences in a curriculum, starting from primary settings to secondary and later tertiary health care settings to facilitate the development of competencies required when serving in all these settings, and lastly, learning through providing service to the underresourced communities. Community involvement and partnership, problem-centred learning, valid assessment of learning emanated as important characteristics of CBE but which were identified as gaps in the existing programmes. Recommendations focused on these gaps as well as to the problem of community-based learning experiences which were mainly concentrated in first and/or second year levels in most o f the programmes.

Gloria Mtshali

2005-09-01

68

The use of robustness analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on the use of Robustness Analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community. The focus is on food and agricultural production and the project is based on a participatory approach incorporating both community-driven development and sustainability in food production. A comparison is made with other soft Operations Research (OR) methodologies and first actions and results are reported.Este artigo propõe o uso da Análise de Robustez para o planejamento de ações...

Anderson Amendoeira Namen; Cláudio Thomás Bornstein; Jonathan Rosenhead

2010-01-01

69

Systems-level analysis of microbial community organization through combinatorial labeling and spectral imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbes in nature frequently function as members of complex multitaxon communities, but the structural organization of these communities at the micrometer level is poorly understood because of limitations in labeling and imaging technology. We report here a combinatorial labeling strategy coupled with spectral image acquisition and analysis that greatly expands the number of fluorescent signatures distinguishable in a single image. As an imaging proof of principle, we first demonstrated visu...

Valm, Alex M.; Welch, Jessica L. Mark; Rieken, Christopher W.; Hasegawa, Yuko; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Borisy, Gary G.

2011-01-01

70

Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination across Plasmid Communities Classified by Network Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global clustering of gene families through network analysis has been demonstrated in whole genome, plasmid, and microbiome analyses. In this study, we carried out a plasmidome network analysis of all available complete bacterial plasmids to determine plasmid associations. A blastp clustering search at 100% aa identity cut-off and sharing at least one gene between plasmids, followed by a multilevel community network analysis revealed that a surprisingly large number of the plasmids were connected by one largest connected component (LCC, with dozens of community sub-groupings. The LCC consisted mainly of Bacilli and Gammaproteobacteria plasmids. Intriguingly, horizontal gene transfer (HGT was noted between different phyla (i.e., Staphylococcus and Pasteurellaceae, suggesting that Pasteurellaceae can acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR genes from closely contacting Staphylococcus spp., which produce the external supplement of V-factor (NAD. Such community network analysis facilitate displaying possible recent HGTs like a class 1 integron, str and tet resistance markers between communities. Furthermore, the distribution of the Inc replicon type and AMR genes, such as the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL CTX-M or the carbapenemases KPC NDM-1, implies that such genes generally circulate within limited communities belonging to typical bacterial genera. Thus, plasmidome network analysis provides a remarkable discriminatory power for plasmid-related HGT and evolution.

Akifumi Yamashita

2014-04-01

71

Structural analysis of shrub and arboreal community of a cerradão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the structure and growth stocks in an area of “cerradão” (arboreal savanna absent from anthropogenic interference for four decades. The phytosociological stratification used was: canopy (h>3,0m e DLB>6,0cm, inferior (h<1.0m and DLB>1.0cm at the base, medium (1.0 3.0m and DLB<6.0cm. We identified heterogeneity in the vertical structure of the community. Most populations show a high number of individuals from the superior and medium strata. These results suggest that the structural stability is mostly due to the maintenance of the process of establishment, growth and survival of the species, resulting from the absence of human activities in this area.

Erico Fernando Lopes Pereira-Silva

2012-11-01

72

Investigating Student Communities with Network Analysis of Interactions in a Physics Learning Center  

CERN Document Server

Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. Finn and Rock [1] link the academic and social integration of students to increased rates of retention. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University's Physics Learning Center (PLC) that support the development of academic and social integration,. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions, and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors which contribute to participation in the learning community. ...

Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti

2011-01-01

73

48 CFR 1616.7001 - Clause-contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community rated).  

Science.gov (United States)

...true Clause-contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community...7001 Clause—contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community...inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis...

2010-10-01

74

Regional-scale analysis of subtidal rocky shore community  

Science.gov (United States)

The French monitoring network, REseau BENThique (REBENT), was launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 2003 following the 1999 Erika oil spill. REBENT aimed to acquire baseline knowledge of coastal benthic habitat distributions with a special focus on biological diversity. This study analyzed data from 38 subtidal rocky reef sites collected by a single diving team of marine biologists along the coast of Brittany from 2004 to 2010. At each site, the depth limits of the algal belts were determined between 0 and -40 m Chart Datum (CD); the flora and fauna compositions and abundances were sampled at -3 and -8 m CD. A total of 364 taxa (156 flora and 208 fauna), belonging to 12 phyla, were identified. The results showed that the depth limit and density of kelp beds increased as water turbidity decreased; moreover, several changes in community structure could be related to water turbidity and temperature. Thus, northern and southern Brittany showed strong differences in diversity and structure of the dominant kelp species ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides). The results from this kelp habitat composition survey (dominant kelp species and indicator species) provided important information for local pressure assessments, like increases in turbidity. The data also provided a reference that could be useful for detecting changes in coastal water temperatures due to global warming.

Derrien-Courtel, Sandrine; Le Gal, Aodren; Grall, Jacques

2013-12-01

75

Archaeal and bacterial community analysis of several Yellowstone National Park hot springs  

Science.gov (United States)

The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are home to a diverse assemblage of microorganisms. Culture-independent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of the diversity of both Bacteria and Archaea present in YNP springs as well as the geochemical and ecological controls on communities. While the ecological analysis of Bacteria among the physicochemically heterogenous springs of YNP has been previously conducted, less is known about the extent of diversity of Archaeal communities and the chemical and ecological controls on their populations. Here we report a culture-independent analysis of 31 hot spring archaeal and bacterial communities of YNP springs using next generation sequencing. We found the phylogenetic diversity of Archaea to be generally comparable to that of co-occurring bacterial communities although overall, in the springs we investigated, diversity was higher for Bacteria than Archaea. Chemical and physical controls were similar for both domains with pH correlating most strongly with community composition. Community differences reflected the partitioning of taxonomic groups in low or high pH springs for both domains. Results will be discussed in a geochemical and ecological context.

Colman, D. R.; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D.

2012-12-01

76

Community Service and User Support for the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) Data Assimilation and Analysis System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is a unified variational data assimilation and analysis system for both global and regional applications. It is currently used as a data assimilation system by various operational centers, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (e.g., Global Forecasting System (GFS), North American Mesoscale (NAM) system, the Hurricane WRF (HWRF), and the RAPid Refresh (RAP) system), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model), and the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). This analysis system is also used to generate certain analysis products, such as output from NOAA's GFS reanalysis and the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) (e.g., 2m temperature, 10m winds gust, surface pressure and surface visibility). GSI can also be used to generate analyses for climate studies (e.g., ozone and sea surface temperature (SST) analyses) or assimilate non-'traditional' fields (e.g., aerosol data assimilation) for air quality studies (e.g., dust storms). Lately, an effort was initiated to use GSI for data assimilation throughout the entire atmosphere. One example of such an effort is the development of a data assimilation system for the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) at NCEP. Over the past few years, GSI has been transitioned to a community resource through a joint effort led by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC), in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) and other GSI partners. The DTC is a distributed facility with a goal of serving as a bridge between the research and operational communities by transitioning the operational capability to a community resource and committing the contributions from the research community to the operational repository. The DTC has hosted four Community GSI tutorials and released five versions of the community GSI system with a corresponding User's Guide. The DTC has built and continues to maintain a community GSI User's Page to provide GSI code, documentation, and on-line tutorials for the research community. The DTC staff has been providing support to GSI users through the GSI help desk since the release of version 1 of the community code in 2009. This paper will briefly describe the GSI system and emphasize the GSI community services and support available from the DTC and other developers.

Shao, H.; Hu, M.; Stark, D.; Newman, K.; Zhou, C.; Derber, J.; Lueken, M.

2013-12-01

77

Conceptualizing the impact of special events on community health service levels: an operational analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass gatherings (MG) impact their host and surrounding communities and with inadequate planning, may impair baseline emergency health services. Mass gatherings do not occur in a vacuum; they have both consumptive and disruptive effects that extend beyond the event itself. Mass gatherings occur in real geographic locations that include not only the event site, but also the surrounding neighborhoods and communities. In addition, the impact of small, medium, or large special events may be felt for days, or even months, prior to and following the actual events. Current MG reports tend to focus on the events themselves during published event dates and may underestimate the full impact of a given MG on its host community. In order to account for, and mitigate, the full effects of MGs on community health services, researchers would benefit from a common model of community impact. Using an operations lens, two concepts are presented, the "vortex" and the "ripple," as metaphors and a theoretical model for exploring the broader impact of MGs on host communities. Special events and MGs impact host communities by drawing upon resources (vortex) and by disrupting normal, baseline services (ripple). These effects are felt with diminishing impact as one moves geographically further from the event center, and can be felt before, during, and after the event dates. Well executed medical and safety plans for events with appropriate, comprehensive risk assessments and stakeholder engagement have the best chance of ameliorating the potential negative impact of MGs on communities. Lund A , Turris SA , Bowles R . Conceptualizing the impact of special events on community health service levels: an operational analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-7 . PMID:25188753

Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A; Bowles, Ron

2014-10-01

78

Sport participation analysis: an empirical study on two small communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information about Sport Participation Index (SPI) is a critical factor in the sport development process. Sociodemographic data can be a cost effective instrument to increase effi ciency of local policies that promote sport participation (SP). Although bibliography about SP is vast, the analysis and comparison of previous works is complex due to heterogeneity in methodologies. There is an enormous disparity in SP results in Portugal: Marivoet (2001) refers that SPI in Portugal is 2...

Rodrigues, Pedro Miguel Monteiro; Outeiro, Miguel; Miguel Da?vila, Jose? A?ngel

2007-01-01

79

Sandhills-turkey oak (Quercus laevis) ecosystem: community analysis and a model of radiocesium cycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ecosystem analysis focusing on cycling of radiocesium (via an in situ 134Cs label) was undertaken in a sandhills-turkey oak forest. Study objectives included community analysis, rates of cesium cycling, and a simulation model of cesium cycling. The turkey oak community appears to be at biomass steady-state and maintains maximum bimass through a strategy of energy and nutrient conservation. Radiocesium is rapidly cycled through turkey oaks. In the turkey oak community, vegetation burden of radiocesium is regulated by the availability of radiocesium for uptake and not rate of uptake. Among several possible models, a 5-compartment, donor controlled model employing annual transfer rates most accurately reproduced the observed distribution of fallout 137Cs

80

Multivariate geometry as an approach to algal community analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate analyses are put in the context of more usual approaches to phycological investigations. The intuitive common-sense involved in methods of ordination, classification and discrimination are emphasised by simple geometric accounts which avoid jargon and matrix algebra. Warnings are given that artifacts result from technique abuses by the naive or over-enthusiastic. An analysis of a simple periphyton data set is presented as an example of the approach. Suggestions are made as to situations in phycological investigations, where the techniques could be appropriate. The discipline is reprimanded for its neglect of the multivariate approach.

Allen, T. F. H.; Skagen, S.

1973-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation for Community-Based Programs: The Integration of Logic Models and Factor Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To discuss the utility of and value of the use of logic models for program evaluation of community-based programs and more specifically, the integration of logic models and factor analysis to develop and revise a survey as part of an effective evaluation plan. Principal results: Diverse stakeholders with varying outlooks used a logic…

Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne; Van Deusen, Ian

2010-01-01

82

The Columbia Impairment Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Community Mental Health Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the parent version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) in a sample of mothers who brought their children for community mental health (CMH) services (n = 280). Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure…

Singer, Jonathan B.; Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

83

Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

84

Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Lime Concretion Black Soil upon the Incorporation of Crop Residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To analyze the bacterial communities in lime concretion black soil upon the incorporation of crop residues for two years in wheat-maize system, total DNA was directly extracted and PCR-amplified with the F357GC and R518 primers targeting the 16S rRNA genes of V3 region. The amplified fragments were analyzed by perpendicular DGGE. Analyzing of species richness index S and Shannon diversity index H revealed that there was a high diversity of soil bacterial community compositions among all treatments after incorporation of crop residues and fertilizing under field conditions. Eleven DGGE bands recovered were re-amplified, sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the representative DGGE fingerprints identified four groups of the prokaryotic communities in the soil by returning wheat residues and fertilizing under field conditions. The bacterial communities belonged to gamma proteobacterium, Cupriavidus sp, halophilic eubacterium, Acidobacterium sp, Sorangium sp, delta proteobacterium, Streptococcus sp and Streptococcus agalactiae were main bacterial communities. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that there were the differences in DNA profiles among the six treatments. It showed that wheat residue returning, maize residue returning and fertilizing all can improve bacterial diversity in varying degrees. As far as improvement of bacterial diversity was concerned, wheat residue returning was higher than fertilizing, and fertilizing higher than maize residue returning.

Shao-Qiang Tao

2012-09-01

85

Metagenomic analysis of fungal communities inhabiting the fairy ring zone of Tricholoma matsutake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricholoma matsutake, an ectomycorrhiza that has mutual relationships with the rootlet of Pinus denisflora, forms a fruiting body that serves as a valuable food in Asia. However, the artificial culture of this fungus has not been successful. Soil fungi, including T. matsutake, coexist with many other microorganisms and plants; therefore, complex microbial communities have an influence on the fruiting body formation of T. matsutake. Here, we report on the structures of fungal communities associated with the fairy ring of T. matsutake through the pyrosequencing method. Soil samples were collected inside the fairy ring zone, in the fairy ring zone, and outside the fairy ring zone. A total of 37,125 sequencing reads were obtained and 728 to 1,962 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in the sampling zones. The fairy ring zone had the lowest OTUs and the lowest fungal diversity of all sampling zones. The number of OTUs and fungal taxa inside and outside the fairy ring zone was, respectively, about 2 times and 1.5 times higher than the fairy ring. Taxonomic analysis showed that each sampling zone has different fungal communities. In particular, out of 209 genera total, 6 genera in the fairy ring zone, such as Hemimycena, were uniquely present and 31 genera, such as Mycena, Boletopsis, and Repetophragma, were specifically absent. The results of metagenomic analysis based on the pyrosequencing indicate a decrease of fungal communities in the fairy ring zone and changes of fungal communities depending on the fairy ring growth of T. matsutake. PMID:23949332

Kim, Miae; Yoon, Hyeokjun; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Ye-Eun; Woo, Ju-Ri; Seo, Yeonggyo; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Kim, Young Ja; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk

2013-10-28

86

Separation of the bacterial species, Escherichia coli, from mixed-species microbial communities for transcriptome analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of bacterial species interactions in a mixed-species community can be facilitated by transcriptome analysis of one species in the community using cDNA microarray technology. However, current applications of microarrays are mostly limited to single species studies. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to separate one species, Escherichia coli as an example, from mixed-species communities for transcriptome analysis. Results E. coli cells were separated from a dual-species (E. coli and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia community using immuno-magnetic separation (IMS. High recovery rates of E. coli were achieved. The purity of E. coli cells was as high as 95.0% separated from suspended mixtures consisting of 1.1 - 71.3% E. coli, and as high as 96.0% separated from biofilms with 8.1% E. coli cells. Biofilms were pre-dispersed into single-cell suspensions. The reagent RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, TX was used during biofilm dispersion and IMS to preserve the transcriptome of E. coli. A microarray study and quantitative PCR confirmed that very few E. coli genes (only about eight out of 4,289 ORFs exhibited a significant change in expression during dispersion and separation, indicating that transcriptional profiles of E. coli were well preserved. Conclusions A method based on immuno-magnetic separation (IMS and application of RNAlater was developed to separate a bacterial species, E. coli as an example, from mixed-species communities while preserving its transcriptome. The method combined with cDNA microarray analysis should be very useful to study species interactions in mixed-species communities.

Holder Diane

2011-03-01

87

Learning Communities in Undergraduate STEM Education: A Quantitative Analysis of how Sense of Community Influences Retention of Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Countless programs are aimed at retaining first year college students in their majors and at their institutions. Additionally, first year students in STEM majors are retained at lower rates, than non-STEM majors. Previous research has shown that students who leave the institution are not as academically and socially integrated into the campus community than students who persist at an institution. Residential learning communities can be thought of as a retention tool by enhancing the academic and social integration of their participants. Academic integration has historically been measured by academic success as indicated by GPA, while social integration has been more difficult to measure. We adapted the Sense of Community Index (SCI) as a measure of social integration. Sense of community (SOC) has been defined as ''a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together''. This quantitative study examines sense of community as a means of social integration and explores the relationship between learning communities, students' sense of community, and their intent to persist at a large public university and within their current major. An online survey of 60 first-year college students in a Natural Resources College, examined the relationships between learning community participation, sense of community, and student retention. A logistic regression of sense of community was very effective in predicting students' intent to stay or leave the institution. Structural equation models showed that sense of community was strongly positively related to a students' intent to stay or leave the institution for non-learning community participants, but not for learning community participants. We hypothesized that learning community participants sense of community needs would be more fully met than non-learning community participants. Learning community students showed a weak correlation between sense of community and intent to persist in their major, indicating that these students' departure decisions were based on factors other than sense of community. These finding were consistent with previous research of sense of community which has supported this construct as a needs based hierarchical theory. For example, if students' sense of community needs are met, then they can focus on higher level needs, such as academic success. Conversely, if students' sense of community needs are not being fully met, then this factor remains salient in terms of influencing their departure decision. Our results suggest that learning communities fulfill students' sense of community needs, thus this factor has less influence on learning community participants' decision to leave the institution than their counterparts who do not participate in a learning community. Our results suggest that learning communities are effective in fulfilling students' sense of community needs, thus allowing them to focus their energies on higher order needs such as academic success.

Archie, T.; Newman, P.

2012-12-01

88

Attitudes towards Autonomous Data Collection and Analysis in the Planetary Science Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As missions are planned to targets further away from Earth, it becomes all but required to increase the role of autonomy in the mission. An investigation of what aspects of mission operations and decision making autonomy will be accepted in by the planetary science community is thus required to aid in development planning. This paper presents a data set collected regarding attitudes towards autonomous data collection and analysis in the planetary science community and initial analysis of this data. A survey, conducted at the 2013 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, asked respondents to identify whether or not they would accept conclusions drawn by autonomous data collection techniques and what factors would impact this acceptance. It also looked at the acceptance of computers and computer software in the data collection and analysis process.

Jeremy Straub

2013-06-01

89

Seasonal changes in the microbial community of a salt marsh, measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microbial activity within the environment can have distinct geochemical effects, and so changes in a microbial community structure can result in geochemical change. We examined seasonal changes in both the microbial community and the geochemistry of an inter-tidal salt marsh in north-west England to characterise biogeochemical processes occurring at this site. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis of sediment samples collected at monthly intervals was used to measure seasonal changes in microbial biomass and community structure. The PLFA data were analysed using multivariate techniques (Ward's method and the Mahalanobis distance metric), and we show that the use of the Mahalanobis distance metric improves the statistical analysis by providing detailed information on the reasons samples cluster together and identifying the distinguishing features between the separate clusters. Five clusters of like samples were defined, showing differences in the community structure over the course of a year. At all times, the microbial community was dominated by PLFA associated with aerobic bacteria, but this was most pronounced in summer (August). The abundance of branched fatty acids, a measure of the biomass of anaerobes, started to increase later in the year than did those associated with aerobes and the fungal biomarker 18:2omega6 showed a brief late-summer peak. The salt marsh remained mildly oxic throughout the year despite the increase in microbial respiration, suggested by the large increases in the abundance of PLFA, in the warmer months. The conditions therefore remained most favourable for aerobic species throughout the year, explaining their continual dominance at this site. However, as the abundance of PLFA synthesised by anaerobes increased, increases in dissolved Mn concentrations were observed, which we suggest were due to anaerobic respiration of Mn(IV) to Mn(II). Overall, the geochemical conditions were consistent with the microbial community structure and changes within it.

Keith-Roach, Miranda

2002-01-01

90

Habitat niche community-level analysis of an amphibian assemblage at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda  

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Full Text Available Community structure was studied across six different habitat types in an amphibian assemblage constituted by 24 species belonging to five families, from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We employed a suite of different statistical methods, including univariate, multivariate, and Monte Carlo procedures to investigate the randomness/nonrandomness and the seasonal effects (wet versus dry season of the community assembly. We calculated for each species in each habitat type an index of relative abundance by using a time constrained counting technique, with 48 1-h counts for each habitat type. Co-occurrence was analysed by C score with 30 000 simulations; resource partitioning patterns by RA2 and RA3 algorithms with 30 000 simulations; and apparent dissimilarity among species in terms of habitat use by UPGMA dendrograms. After pooling data from wet and dry seasons, it resulted that the amphibian community was non-randomly assembled according to C-score analyses, but both RA2 and RA3 were unable to uncover any competitive structure for the dataset. Seasonal effects were evident, and although C score analyses confirmed a nonrandom structure for the community under study (particularly in wet season, RA3 showed that species with high relative abundance tended to significantly concentrate in one habitat type (swamp forest rather than to partition the habitat resource. UPGMA dendrograms grouped the species differently in dry versus wet seasons. Overall, the comparative evidence of 1 non-random community structure according to C-score analysis, and 2 absence of resource partitioning according to niche overlap null models analysis, suggests that community organization in Lake Nabugabo amphibians is generated by habitat affinities rather than by interspecific competition.

M. Behangana

2008-11-01

91

Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

Wang Xiaohang

2006-08-01

92

Fungal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplified markers--a user's guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel high-throughput sequencing methods outperform earlier approaches in terms of resolution and magnitude. They enable identification and relative quantification of community members and offer new insights into fungal community ecology. These methods are currently taking over as the primary tool to assess fungal communities of plant-associated endophytes, pathogens, and mycorrhizal symbionts, as well as free-living saprotrophs. Taking advantage of the collective experience of six research groups, we here review the different stages involved in fungal community analysis, from field sampling via laboratory procedures to bioinformatics and data interpretation. We discuss potential pitfalls, alternatives, and solutions. Highlighted topics are challenges involved in: obtaining representative DNA/RNA samples and replicates that encompass the targeted variation in community composition, selection of marker regions and primers, options for amplification and multiplexing, handling of sequencing errors, and taxonomic identification. Without awareness of methodological biases, limitations of markers, and bioinformatics challenges, large-scale sequencing projects risk yielding artificial results and misleading conclusions. PMID:23534863

Lindahl, Björn D; Nilsson, R Henrik; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Carlsen, Tor; Kjøller, Rasmus; Kõljalg, Urmas; Pennanen, Taina; Rosendahl, Søren; Stenlid, Jan; Kauserud, Håvard

2013-07-01

93

Zooplankton diversity analysis through single-gene sequencing of a community sample  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface and are critical for the homeostasis of the environment. Among the components of the ocean ecosystem, zooplankton play vital roles in energy and matter transfer through the system. Despite their importance, understanding of zooplankton biodiversity is limited because of their fragile nature, small body size, and the large number of species from various taxonomic phyla. Here we present the results of single-gene zooplankton community analysis using a method that determines a large number of mitochondrial COI gene sequences from a bulk zooplankton sample. This approach will enable us to estimate the species richness of almost the entire zooplankton community. Results A sample was collected from a depth of 721 m to the surface in the western equatorial Pacific off Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, with a plankton net equipped with a 2-m2 mouth opening. A total of 1,336 mitochondrial COI gene sequences were determined from the cDNA library made from the sample. From the determined sequences, the occurrence of 189 species of zooplankton was estimated. BLASTN search results showed high degrees of similarity (>98% between the query and database for 10 species, including holozooplankton and merozooplankton. Conclusion In conjunction with the Census of Marine Zooplankton and Barcode of Life projects, single-gene zooplankton community analysis will be a powerful tool for estimating the species richness of zooplankton communities.

Nishida Mutsumi

2009-09-01

94

Zooplankton community analysis in the Changjiang River estuary by single-gene-targeted metagenomics  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA barcoding provides accurate identification of zooplankton species through all life stages. Single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis based on DNA barcode databases can facilitate longterm monitoring of zooplankton communities. With the help of the available zooplankton databases, the zooplankton community of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was studied using a single-gene-targeted metagenomic method to estimate the species richness of this community. A total of 856 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were determined. The environmental barcodes were clustered into 70 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Forty-two MOTUs matched barcoded marine organisms with more than 90% similarity and were assigned to either the species (similarity>96%) or genus level (similarity<96%). Sibling species could also be distinguished. Many species that were overlooked by morphological methods were identified by molecular methods, especially gelatinous zooplankton and merozooplankton that were likely sampled at different life history phases. Zooplankton community structures differed significantly among all of the samples. The MOTU spatial distributions were influenced by the ecological habits of the corresponding species. In conclusion, single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis is a useful tool for zooplankton studies, with which specimens from all life history stages can be identified quickly and effectively with a comprehensive database.

Cheng, Fangping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song

2014-07-01

95

Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

96

Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition.

Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

2006-02-01

97

The role of reflection in the effects of community service on adolescent development: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analysis assessed the effect of community service on adolescent development and the moderation of this effect by reflection, community service, and adolescent characteristics to explicate the mechanisms underlying community service effects. Random effects analyses, based on 49 studies (24,477 participants, 12-20 years old), revealed that community service had positive effects on academic, personal, social, and civic outcomes. Moderation analyses indicated that reflection was essential; the effect for studies that include reflection was substantial (mean ES = .41) while community service in the absence of reflection yielded negligible benefits (mean ES = .05). Effects increased when studies include more frequent reflection and community service, reflection on academic content, and older adolescents. These findings have implications for understanding and improving community service. PMID:25056762

van Goethem, Anne; van Hoof, Anne; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Van Aken, Marcel; Hart, Daniel

2014-11-01

98

Determinants of Success for Online Communities: An Analysis of Three Communities in Terms of Members' Perceived Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent empirical evidence suggests that the updated DeLone and McLean's information systems (D&M IS) model can identify the determinants of success of online communities in terms of member loyalty (Lin and Lee 2006). This study is similarly concerned with the challenge of identifying the determinants of success of online communities, but it…

Hew, Khe Foon

2009-01-01

99

A comparison of fungal communities from four salt marsh plants using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal decomposers are important contributors to the detritus-based food webs of salt marsh ecosystems. Knowing the composition of salt marsh fungal communities is essential in understanding how detritus processing is affected by changes in community dynamics. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was used to examine the composition of fungal communities associated with four temperate salt marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora (short and tall forms), Juncus roemerianus, Distichlis spicata and Sarcocornia perennis. Plant tissues were homogenized and subjected to a particle-filtration protocol that yielded 106 microm particulate fractions, which were used as a source of fungal isolates and fungal DNA. Genera identified from sporulating cultures demonstrated that the 106 microm particles from each host plant were reliable sources of fungal DNA for ARISA. Analysis of ARISA data by principal component analysis (PCA), principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and species diversity comparisons indicated that the fungal communities from the two grasses, S. alterniflora and D. spicata were more similar to each other than they were to the distinct communities associated with J. roemerianus and S. perennis. Principal component analysis also showed no consistent, seasonal pattern in the composition of these fungal communities. Comparisons of ARISA fingerprints from the different fungal communities and those from pure cultures of selected Spartina ascomycetes supported the host/substrate specificity observed for the fungal communities. PMID:17256573

Torzilli, Albert P; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Chalkley, David; Gillevet, Patrick M

2006-01-01

100

E-Community System towards First Class Mentality Development: An Infrastructure Requirements Analysis  

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Full Text Available E-Community portal can be classifed as an extension of normal type of knowledge management system (KMS development towards first class mentality. It servers varities of expects in term of capabilities and services especially for the benefits of community. Most of the community today are looking on this matter as a very important issue and try to search the best way to manage or organize this community system for sustain a high rate of continuous improvement. While e-community system (ECS or portal is a system that related to the process of knowledge capture, re-use, searching and representation to the user in a variety of form. The role of system could be determined by looking on the issues on how knowledge can be applied at the right time in the faster ways that based on the simplest command or agent given to the system in order to get the relevant knowledge from the portal. Besides that, system also could be looked on how the best element of infrastructure requirement could be used for, in the benefits of users in order to stored and captured as well as presenting the knowledge portal. The paper presents the analysis of the ECS infrastructure requirement, and its system implementation in a community of practise (CoP especially towards first class mentality development as well as discussing a variety issues that related to its involvement, so that it will help CoPs to increase their productivity and quality as well as to gain return on investment (ROI. 

Rusli Abdullah

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community in hypersaline petroleum produced water from the Campos Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work the archaea and eubacteria community of a hypersaline produced water from the Campos Basin that had been transported and discharged to an onshore storage facility was evaluated by 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The produced water had a hypersaline salt content of 10 (w/v), had a carbon oxygen demand (COD) of 4,300 mg/l and contains phenol and other aromatic compounds. The high salt and COD content and the presence of toxic phenolic compounds present a problem for conventional discharge to open seawater. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the COD and phenolic content could be largely removed under aerobic conditions, without dilution, by either addition of phenol degrading Haloarchaea or the addition of nutrients alone. In this study our goal was to characterize the microbial community to gain further insight into the persistence of reservoir community members in the produced water and the potential for bioremediation of COD and toxic contaminants. Members of the archaea community were consistent with previously identified communities from mesothermic reservoirs. All identified archaea were located within the phylum Euryarchaeota, with 98 % being identified as methanogens while 2 % could not be affiliated with any known genus. Of the identified archaea, 37 % were identified as members of the strictly carbon-dioxide-reducing genus Methanoplanus and 59 % as members of the acetoclastic genus Methanosaeta. No Haloarchaea were detected, consistent with the need to add these organisms for COD and aromatic removal. Marinobacter and Halomonas dominated the eubacterial community. The presence of these genera is consistent with the ability to stimulate COD and aromatic removal with nutrient addition. In addition, anaerobic members of the phyla Thermotogae, Firmicutes, and unclassified eubacteria were identified and may represent reservoir organisms associated with the conversion hydrocarbons to methane. PMID:24920265

Piubeli, Francine; Grossman, Matthew J; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Durrant, Lucia R

2014-10-01

102

Analysis of domestic tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities: specialization and competitive advantage  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of shift share analysis ofnational tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities withovernight stays in hotels data. Thus, it achieves a more complete interpretation ofthe available statistical information. Among other things, it allows us to know theposition which each region has in terms of specialization and competitive advantageand, hence, the potential markets for development can be identified.

José J. Benítez Rochel

2011-01-01

103

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stake...

Simmons, A.; Mavoa, H. M.; Bell, A. C.; Courten, M.; Schaaf, D.; Schultz, J.; Swinburn, B. A.

2009-01-01

104

A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

2014-06-01

105

Prediction of symptomatic depression by discriminant analysis in Japanese community-dwelling elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a number of studies have examined depression risk factors for elderly persons, little attention has been paid to the prediction of individuals at risk. This study constructed a predictive model for discrimination between individuals at a higher risk of depression and normal subjects in Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons, using linear discriminant analysis. Data were collected from 754 non-institutionalized elderly men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community in Japan, using face-to-face interviews in 2002. Stepwise linear discrimination analysis was used to construct a predictive model to select individuals who have a higher risk of depression. The stepwise discriminant analysis selected the five predictor variables (frequent hearing problems, poor appetite, less financial leeway, low emotional support and less subjective usefulness) and yielded a statistically significant function (?=0.816; ?2=113.0, df=5, pdepressed. The calculated discriminate function based on the above five predictor variables (hearing problem, less appetite, less financial leeway, low emotional support and less subjective usefulness) is useful for detecting individuals at high risk of depression and preventing its development among community-dwelling elderly persons. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the validity and feasibility of the model for earlier screening for depression among such people. PMID:20399517

Okamoto, Kazushi; Harasawa, Yuko

2011-01-01

106

Molecular analysis of the bacterial communities in crude oil samples from two brazilian offshore petroleum platforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat. PMID:22319534

Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

2012-01-01

107

What reassurances do the community need regarding life extension? Evidence from studies of community attitudes and an analysis of film portrayals.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is increasingly recognized that community attitudes impact on the research trajectory, entry, and reception of new biotechnologies. Yet biogerontologists have generally been dismissive of public concerns about life extension. There is some evidence that biogerontological research agendas have not been communicated effectively, with studies finding that most community members have little or no knowledge of life extension research. In the absence of knowledge, community members' attitudes may well be shaped by issues raised in popular portrayals of life extension (e.g., in movies). To investigate how popular portrayals of life extension may influence community attitudes, I conducted an analysis of 19 films depicting human life extension across different genres. I focussed on how the pursuit of life extension was depicted, how life extension was achieved, the levels of interest in life extension shown by characters in the films, and the experiences of extended life depicted both at an individual and societal level. This paper compares the results of this analysis with the literature on community attitudes to life extension and makes recommendations about the issues in which the public may require reassurance if they are to support and accept life extension technologies. PMID:23931761

Underwood, Mair

2014-04-01

108

Use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA for supporting community forest management  

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Full Text Available Sustainable forest management usually involves the use of criteria and indicators (C&I allowing the monitoring, reporting and assessment of management activities at national, regional and forest management unit levels. Experiences of such concepts are scarce in Nepal, particularly with regard to the evaluation of management activities within a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA framework. In this contribution we describe how a MCA approach can be used to efficiently exploit information, knowledge, and preferences of stakeholders to address community forest management problems. Beside rating and ranking techniques, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to examine the importance of six criteria and forty-four indicators in a sustainable forest management context with a broad range of stakeholder groups. An evaluation of four management strategies in the Shree Gyneshwar community forest user group allows to demonstrate the relevance of changing priorities for different criteria. A passive adaptive management strategy focusing on a multiple use of natural resources and the introduction of production-oriented measures were identified as the most preferable option. The results of this study show that the multi-criteria analysis approach, and in particular the AHP, can assist decision-makers in efficiently evaluating management problems and generating ideas for the long-term strategic planning process of community forest management, even under complex socio-economic and ecological conditions. In that context, compromise solutions enjoy a higher possibility of being successful, taking into account the different views of stakeholder groups.

Khadka C

2012-04-01

109

Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors ranging from presence of different host species (cattle or sheep/goats), presence of small woody areas or wetlands in the surrounding landscape, and agricultural practice (organic or conventional) were included in the community analysis. Only differences in the Culicoides communities between conventional and organic practices were tested significantly different. Total numbers of Culicoides individuals were higher on the organic farms than on the conventional farms. The larger loads of biting midges on the organic farms may be due to free-ranging animals that attracted the midges on pastures and carried them to the stable environment (the cattle of the conventional farms were held inside the stables). Presence of deciduous trees within 500 m of the farms resulted in higher numbers of Culicoides obsoletus s.s., while presence of wetlands increased the numbers of Culicoides punctatus and Culicoides pulicaris. Furthermore, Culicoides riethi and Culicoides puncticollis (subgenus Monoculicoides) were recorded in high numbers on individual farms. C. puncticollis was found for the first time in Denmark and so far only recorded from Zealand. PMID:25326377

Nielsen, S A; Banta, G; Rasmussen, A-M; Skovgård, H

2014-12-01

110

Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors ranging from presence of different host species (cattle or sheep/goats), presence of small woody areas or wetlands in the surrounding landscape, and agricultural practice (organic or conventional) were included in the community analysis. Only differences in the Culicoides communities between conventional and organic practices were tested significantly different. Total numbers of Culicoides individuals were higher on the organic farms than on the conventional farms. The larger loads of biting midges on the organic farms may be due to free-ranging animals that attracted the midges on pastures and carried them to the stable environment (the cattle of the conventional farms were held inside the stables). Presence of deciduoustrees within 500 m of the farms resulted in higher numbers of Culicoides obsoletus s.s., while presence of wetlands increased the numbers of Culicoides punctatus and Culicoides pulicaris. Furthermore, Culicoides riethi and Culicoides puncticollis (subgenus Monoculicoides) were recorded in high numbers on individual farms. C. puncticollis was found for the first time in Denmark and so far only recorded from Zealand.

Banta, Gary Thomas; Rasmussen, A.-M.

2014-01-01

111

Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Analysis in Indonesian Tempe Employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis  

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Full Text Available Tempe fermentation involved complex microbial communities which are only revealed partially through culture dependent methods. Culture-independent methods would be potential to unravel this complex microbial fermentation. Appropriate DNA extraction is an essential tool to obtain reliable data from culture independent method. In this study, we employed two commercial DNA extraction methods to find the best one for microbial community characterization employing amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA. Our result showed that PowerFood Microbial DNA Isolation Kit-MOBIO (PFMDIK is an excellent method for microbial DNA extraction from tempe. It gave high quantity and quality of DNA suitable for PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer to yield a diverse and reproducible ARISA profile.

CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

2012-06-01

112

The use of robustness analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of Robustness Analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community. The focus is on food and agricultural production and the project is based on a participatory approach incorporating both community-driven development and sustainability in food production. A comparison is made with other soft Operations Research (OR methodologies and first actions and results are reported.Este artigo propõe o uso da Análise de Robustez para o planejamento de ações em uma comunidade de baixa renda no Brasil. O foco está na produção agrícola e de alimentos e o projeto fundamenta-se em uma abordagem participativa incorporando tanto o desenvolvimento voltado para a comunidade quanto a sustentabilidade na produção de alimentos. Apresenta-se uma comparação com outras metodologias de PO soft e relatam-se alguns resultados e ações.

Anderson Amendoeira Namen

2010-08-01

113

An Analysis of Interactions Within and Between Extreme Right Communities in Social Media  

CERN Document Server

Many extreme right groups have had an online presence for some time through the use of dedicated websites. This has been accompanied by increased activity in social media websites in recent years, which may enable the dissemination of extreme right content to a wider audience. In this paper, we present exploratory analysis of the activity of a selection of such groups on Twitter, using network representations based on reciprocal follower and mentions interactions. We find that stable communities of related users are present within individual country networks, where these communities are usually associated with variants of extreme right ideology. Furthermore, we also identify the presence of international relationships between certain groups across geopolitical boundaries.

O'Callaghan, Derek; Conway, Maura; Carthy, Joe; Cunningham, Pádraig

2012-01-01

114

Preparation of microbial community cDNA for metatranscriptomic analysis in marine plankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-throughput sequencing and analysis of microbial community cDNA (metatranscriptomics) are providing valuable insight into in situ microbial activity and metabolism in the oceans. A critical first step in metatranscriptomic studies is the preparation of high-quality cDNA. At the minimum, preparing cDNA for sequencing involves steps of biomass collection, RNA preservation, total RNA extraction, and cDNA synthesis. Each of these steps may present unique challenges for marine microbial samples, particularly for deep-sea samples whose transcriptional profiles may change between water collection and RNA preservation. Because bacterioplankton community RNA yields may be relatively low (metatranscriptomics methods as they become widespread in marine microbiology research. PMID:24060122

Stewart, Frank J

2013-01-01

115

Metagenome analysis of a complex community reveals the metabolic blueprint of anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anammox bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for up to 50% of global nitrogen loss. Because of their cost effective application in anaerobic nitrogen removal, the anammox bacteria are widely implemented in wastewater treatment. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium- Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants, but metagenomic information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of an enrichment dominated by ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’. The whole microbial community o\tf a granular sludge anammox reactor was sequenced using both illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The sludge was previously shown to have a ~50% enrichment of the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’ by 16S rRNA gene analysis. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571 nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase NirS that is responsible for the nitrite reduction of ‘Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. Scalindua profunda’. Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methane producing microorganisms and denitrifying methanotroph 'Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera'.

ZiyeHu

2012-10-01

116

Clustering of ant communities and indicator species analysis using self-organizing maps.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the complex relationships that exist between ant assemblages and their habitats, we performed a self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to clarify the interactions among ant diversity, spatial distribution, and land use types in Fukuoka City, Japan. A total of 52 species from 12 study sites with nine land use types were collected from 1998 to 2012. A SOM was used to classify the collected data into three clusters based on the similarities between the ant communities. Consequently, each cluster reflected both the species composition and habitat characteristics in the study area. A detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) corroborated these findings, but removal of unique and duplicate species from the dataset in order to avoid sampling errors had a marked effect on the results; specifically, the clusters produced by DCA before and after the exclusion of specific data points were very different, while the clusters produced by the SOM were consistent. In addition, while the indicator value associated with SOMs clearly illustrated the importance of individual species in each cluster, the DCA scatterplot generated for species was not clear. The results suggested that SOM analysis was better suited for understanding the relationships between ant communities and species and habitat characteristics. PMID:25242693

Park, Sang-Hyun; Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo; Kuboki, Yuzuru

2014-09-01

117

Strainer: software for analysis of population variation in community genomic datasets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomic analyses of microbial communities that are comprehensive enough to provide multiple samples of most loci in the genomes of the dominant organism types will also reveal patterns of genetic variation within natural populations. New bioinformatic tools will enable visualization and comprehensive analysis of this sequence variation and inference of recent evolutionary and ecological processes. Results We have developed a software package for analysis and visualization of genetic variation in populations and reconstruction of strain variants from otherwise co-assembled sequences. Sequencing reads can be clustered by matching patterns of single nucleotide polymorphisms to generate predicted gene and protein variant sequences, identify conserved intergenic regulatory sequences, and determine the quantity and distribution of recombination events. Conclusion The Strainer software, a first generation metagenomic bioinformatics tool, facilitates comprehension and analysis of heterogeneity intrinsic in natural communities. The program reveals the degree of clustering among closely related sequence variants and provides a rapid means to generate gene and protein sequences for functional, ecological, and evolutionary analyses.

Tyson Gene W

2007-10-01

118

PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability

119

PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability.

Clemente, Eligia E-mail: bebeng@up.edu.ph; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S. E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp

2004-06-01

120

Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment. PMID:24600849

Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer. PMID:25384534

Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

2014-01-01

122

Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiversity of marine ecosystems is integral to their stability and function and is threatened by anthropogenic processes. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of 216 studies to understand the effects of common contaminants upon diversity in various marine communities. The most common diversity measures were species richness, the Shannon-Wiener index (H') and Pielou evenness (J). Largest effect sizes were observed for species richness, which tended to be the most sensitive index. Pollution was associated with marine communities containing fewer species or taxa than their pristine counterparts. Marine habitats did not vary in their susceptibility to contamination, rather a ?40% reduction in richness occurred across all habitats. No class of contaminant was associated with significantly greater impacts on diversity than any other. Survey studies identified larger effects than laboratory or field experiments. Anthropogenic contamination is strongly associated with reductions in the species richness and evenness of marine habitats. - Contamination substantially reduces the biodiversity of marine communities in all major habitat types and across all major contaminant classes.

123

A peptide-based method for 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis in microbial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of intracellular metabolic fluxes and inter-species metabolite exchange for microbial communities is of crucial importance to understand and predict their behaviour. The most authoritative method of measuring intracellular fluxes, 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C MFA), uses the labeling pattern obtained from metabolites (typically amino acids) during 13C labeling experiments to derive intracellular fluxes. However, these metabolite labeling patterns cannot easily be obtained for each of the members of the community. Here we propose a new type of 13C MFA that infers fluxes based on peptide labeling, instead of amino acid labeling. The advantage of this method resides in the fact that the peptide sequence can be used to identify the microbial species it originates from and, simultaneously, the peptide labeling can be used to infer intracellular metabolic fluxes. Peptide identity and labeling patterns can be obtained in a high-throughput manner from modern proteomics techniques. We show that, using this method, it is theoretically possible to recover intracellular metabolic fluxes in the same way as through the standard amino acid based 13C MFA, and quantify the amount of information lost as a consequence of using peptides instead of amino acids. We show that by using a relatively small number of peptides we can counter this information loss. We computationally tested this method with a well-characterized simple microbial community consisting of two species. PMID:25188426

Ghosh, Amit; Nilmeier, Jerome; Weaver, Daniel; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Martín, Héctor García

2014-09-01

124

Context based Expert Finding in Online Communities using Social Network Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, online communities are one of the most popular collaborative environments in the Internet where people are free to express their opinions. These communities provide facilities for knowledge sharing in which, people can share their experience with each other. The main problem regarding to the knowledge sharing on online communities is the wide range of information on them without any mechanism to determine their validity. So, for knowledge seekers, it is important to recognize the expertise of each member based on contexts to find the best answers among all replies to his question. Although, lots of researches have been conducted so far to determine the level of people’s expertise, none of them has had context based approach to the problem. In this research a novel method based on social network analysis is proposed to find the experts in different contexts. For evaluation process of the proposed method, Metafilter Forum was chosen and the data has been processed in several steps. First, data were gathered by our crawling program and then extracted, transformed and loaded to data base by ETL operations. Then, experts on specified context were found by applying the proposed method on the processed data. Finally, accuracy of the method was calculated and compared with other methods.

Mojtaba Behzadi

2012-01-01

125

A Peptide-Based Method for 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis in Microbial Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of intracellular metabolic fluxes and inter-species metabolite exchange for microbial communities is of crucial importance to understand and predict their behaviour. The most authoritative method of measuring intracellular fluxes, 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C MFA), uses the labeling pattern obtained from metabolites (typically amino acids) during 13C labeling experiments to derive intracellular fluxes. However, these metabolite labeling patterns cannot easily be obtained for each of the members of the community. Here we propose a new type of 13C MFA that infers fluxes based on peptide labeling, instead of amino acid labeling. The advantage of this method resides in the fact that the peptide sequence can be used to identify the microbial species it originates from and, simultaneously, the peptide labeling can be used to infer intracellular metabolic fluxes. Peptide identity and labeling patterns can be obtained in a high-throughput manner from modern proteomics techniques. We show that, using this method, it is theoretically possible to recover intracellular metabolic fluxes in the same way as through the standard amino acid based 13C MFA, and quantify the amount of information lost as a consequence of using peptides instead of amino acids. We show that by using a relatively small number of peptides we can counter this information loss. We computationally tested this method with a well-characterized simple microbial community consisting of two species. PMID:25188426

Ghosh, Amit; Nilmeier, Jerome; Weaver, Daniel; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J.; Martin, Hector Garcia

2014-01-01

126

Interaction analysis of change in social performance and personality functioning in a therapeutic community introduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an introductory presentation of research carried out at the Henderson Hospital, London, England. The hospital is a therapeutic community for young people diagnosed as personality disorders [24,32]. The sample includes all patients admitted to the hospital during one year commencing 1/3/1971. Rather than studying either personality or performance separately this study is an attempt to learn more how social performance is relevant to personality change. This is done through interaction analysis. Within the scope of this paper I shall also attempt a brief description of the focal problems, examined, their operationalization in research methods, expected results, and a preliminary discussion of three demonstrative cases. PMID:1232516

Manor, O

1975-01-01

127

Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam : a stakeholder analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP.A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis.Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP.It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of healthin multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve future RHSP in Vietnam and are also of relevance for health promotion in other minority population groups in the region and globally.

Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi

2012-01-01

128

Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve future RHSP in Vietnam and are also of relevance for health promotion in other minority population groups in the region and globally. PMID:22258471

Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

2012-10-01

129

Lipid and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Gypsum-hosted Endoevaporitic Microbial Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Gypsum evaporites host diverse, productive and volumetrically significant microbial communities and are relevant modern-day analogs to both Precambrian sabkha deposits and, potentially, Martian evaporites. Extensive evaporites form in subaqueous environments of high salinity ponds (>150 permil) maintained by the Exportadora de Sal, S. A. (ESSA) in Guerrero Negro, B.C.S., Mexico. A gypsarenite (reworked clastic gypsum) crust found along the southeast margin of ESSA's Pond 9 was collected in February 2004 and each vibrantly colored layer in the top centimeter was sampled. Extant microbial communities from each layer were characterized using complementary culture-independent molecular techniques, lipid biomarker analysis, and compound specific isotopic analysis. Coupling molecular analysis with lipid biomarker analysis revealed that oxygenic photosynthetic organisms dominate the surface layers (top 3 mm). Polar lipids from the surface layers consisted predominantly of glycolipids, which are characteristic of algae, cyanobacteria and green anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Consistent with prior analyses of gypsum evaporites, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicate that cyanobacterial populations belong primarily to the genus Cyanothece. The bacterial community below the surface layers is more diverse and dominated by anaerobic organisms. Phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and Bacteroidetes were particularly abundant. The relative abundances of SRB increased with depth; Desulfobacteraceae clones were distributed throughout the crust, but not at the surface, while Desulfovibrionaceae clones were found predominantly in the deepest layers. These molecular results are consistent with fatty acid biomarker analysis. ?13C values of major lipid classes in the crust and sediment range from 14 to 36‰, which is considerably lower than corresponding values for benthic Microcoleus-dominated cyanobacterial mats found at lower salinities at ESSA (65-100‰). A mass balance calculation yields ?13C values of approximately 20‰ for the fatty acid fraction in surface layers, only slightly depleted relative to the surface 2 mm of the Microcoleus mat (?13C ~ -17 ‰). The fatty acid fractions in lower anoxic layers are significantly depleted relative to surface crust, with ?13C values approaching -26 permil. In contrast, the Microcoleus mats do not exhibit a substantial trend with depth. The isotopic trend with depth in the crusts may reflect isotopic discrimination associated with carbon fixation by non-oxygenic phototrophs and/or chemautotrophs, or changes in the network of carbon flows within the ecosystem.

Turk, K. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Green, S. J.; Kubo, M. D.; Vogel, M. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

2007-12-01

130

Integrated Community Energy Systems: engineering analysis and design bibliography. [368 citations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography cites 368 documents that may be helpful in the planning, analysis, and design of Integrated Community Energy Systems. It has been prepared for use primarily by engineers and others involved in the development and implementation of ICES concepts. These documents include products of a number of Government research, development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected studies and references from the literature of various technical societies and institutions; and other selected material. The key programs which have produced cited reports are the Department of Energy Community Systems Program (DOE/CSP), the Department of Housing and Urban Development Modular Integrated Utility Systems Program (HUD/MIUS), and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Integrated Utility Systems Program (HEW/IUS). The cited documents address experience gained both in the U.S. and in other countries. Several general engineering references and bibliographies pertaining to technologies or analytical methods that may be helpful in the analysis and design of ICES are also included. The body of relevant literature is rapidly growing and future updates are therefore planned. Each citation includes identifying information, a source, descriptive information, and an abstract. The citations are indexed both by subjects and authors, and the subject index is extensively cross-referenced to simplify its use.

Calm, J.M.; Sapienza, G.R.

1979-05-01

131

[Geographical analysis of cancer incidence in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of improving knowledge about the geographical distribution of malignant tumors in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, incidence rates standardized by age of the 13 most frequent cancer types in each sex were analyzed, in relation to the 27 geographical regions the Community was divided into. In order to carry out this population based descriptive study correspondence analysis was used. By retaining the first two factors 42% of the variance was explained in the case of men, and 40% in the case of women. The main finding in the male sex was the marked inequality between Rural Alava and the Mining Area of Bizkaia. The latter was characterized by lymphomas and neoplasms of larynx, and the former by neoplasms of pancreas and prostate and leukaemias. It was also found a geographical pattern distinguished by the difference among regions located in the coast and those located in the inner. This last pattern was the most relevant result in the female sex, cancer of oral cavity, malignant melanoma of skin and leukaemias being responsible for the coast pattern, and neoplasms of gallbladder, lung and stomach for the inner pattern. The findings of this study confirm the interest of Correspondence Analysis as an exploratory method and may encourage other investigators to use it much more frequently. PMID:7860184

Elexpe Uriarte, X; Aldasoro Unamuno, E; Pozueta Fernández, L

1994-01-01

132

Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

Itaevaara, M.; Suihko, M.-L.; Kapanen, A.; Piskonen, R.; Juvonen, R. [VTT Biotechnology, Espoo (Finland)

2005-11-15

133

Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

134

The current status of community drug testing via the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites in sewage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past few years the analysis of drug residues in sewage has been promoted as a means of estimating the level of drug use in communities. Measured drug residue concentrations in the sewage are used to determine the load (total mass) of the drug being used by the entire community. Knowledge of the size or population of the community then allows for the calculation of drug-use relative to population (typically drug-mass/day/1000 inhabitants) which facilitates comparisons between differin...

Thomas, Kevin V.; Merete Grung; Christopher Harman; Reid, Malcolm J.

2011-01-01

135

Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community and assembly in activated sludge samples from different geographic regions in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate if there are geographic differences of bacterial community in the activated sludge collected from different geographic regions (eastern, northwestern, and northern parts) of China and to determine the co-occurrence patterns of bacterial community, activated sludge samples were collected from 10 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in 8 cities in China. High-throughput pyrosequencing combined with the bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the bacterial community compositions in the activated sludge samples. The result of taxonomy classifier indicated that a total of 76 genera were commonly shared by more than 7 samples, which accounted for 62 to 96 % of the classified sequences in each sample. Even though some core genera existed in all examined activated sludge samples regardless of the sampling geographic location and treatment process, significant geographic differences of bacterial community compositions among the activated sludge samples were revealed by the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and analyses of similarity (ANOSIM) analysis. A total of 165 pairs of significant and robust correlations (positive and negative) were identified from 61 bacterial genera based on the network analysis. The data obtained in this study could provide useful information to understand the bacterial community composition in geographically distributed wastewater treatment plants and discern the co-occurrence patterns of bacterial community. PMID:25022664

Zhao, Dayong; Huang, Rui; Zeng, Jin; Yu, Zhongbo; Liu, Peng; Cheng, Shupei; Wu, Qinglong L

2014-11-01

136

Metagenome Analysis of a Complex Community Reveals the Metabolic Blueprint of Anammox Bacterium "Candidatus Jettenia asiatica".  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for significant global nitrogen loss. Moreover, the anammox process is widely implemented for nitrogen removal from wastewaters as a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep-branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium-Chlamydiae superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants and have been enriched in lab-scale bioreactors, but genome information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of a granular sludge anammox reactor dominated (?50%) by "Candidatus Jettenia asiatica." The metagenome was sequenced using both Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571?nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd(1)-type nitrite reductase (NirS, present in "Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" and "Ca. Scalindua profunda"). Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methanogens, and the denitrifying methanotroph "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera", indicating a possible active methane and nitrogen cycle in the bioreactor under the prevailing operational conditions. PMID:23112795

Hu, Ziye; Speth, D R; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Jetten, M S M

2012-01-01

137

Diversity Analysis of Bacterial Community from Permafrost Soil of Mo-he in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The permafrost soil of Mo-he in Northeast China presents a typical cold environment colonized by psychrophilic microorganisms. This study is aimed at assessing the bacterial communities of permafrost soil of Mo-he in China by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes and Mothur analysis. PCR products with universal 16S rRNA gene primers were cloned and partially sequenced, and bacterial identification at the species was performed by comparative analysis with the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ database. A total of 266 clones were obtained with the average length of 1,050 bp. Mothur analysis showed that the coverage value of clone library was 53.78 %, Shannon diversity (H) was 4.03, Simpson diversity value was 0.018, and 74 operational taxonomic units were generated. Through phylogenetic assignment using BLASTN by more than 97 % similarity, a total of 87 tentative taxa were identified. The majority of bacterial sequences recovered in this study belonged to the Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. Among them, Acidobacteria are dominant community, accounting for 30.1 % of total bacteria, followed by Proteobacteria which accounted for 22.2 %. This result reflected the acidic characteristics of the permafrost soil of which pH value was 6.0. Our study indicated that the permafrost soil of Mo-he in China has a high diversity of bacteria and represents a vast potential resource of novel bacteria. As far as we knew, this is the first report on bacterial diversity of permafrost soil of Mo-he in China. PMID:24426176

Dan, Dong; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Cai-Ge; Zhang, Tao-Tao

2014-03-01

138

Cambio: a file format translation and analysis application for the nuclear response emergency community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cambio is an application intended to automatically read and display any spectrum file of any format in the world that the nuclear emergency response community might encounter. Cambio also provides an analysis capability suitable for HPGe spectra when detector response and scattering environment are not well known. Why is Cambio needed: (1) Cambio solves the following problem - With over 50 types of formats from instruments used in the field and new format variations appearing frequently, it is impractical for every responder to have current versions of the manufacturer's software from every instrument used in the field; (2) Cambio converts field spectra to any one of several common formats that are used for analysis, saving valuable time in an emergency situation; (3) Cambio provides basic tools for comparing spectra, calibrating spectra, and isotope identification with analysis suited especially for HPGe spectra; and (4) Cambio has a batch processing capability to automatically translate a large number of archival spectral files of any format to one of several common formats, such as the IAEA SPE or the DHS N42. Currently over 540 analysts and members of the nuclear emergency response community worldwide are on the distribution list for updates to Cambio. Cambio users come from all levels of government, university, and commercial partners around the world that support efforts to counter terrorist nuclear activities. Cambio is Unclassified Unlimited Release (UUR) and distributed by internet downloads with email notifications whenever a new build of Cambio provides for new formats, bug fixes, or new or improved capabilities. Cambio is also provided as a DLL to the Karlsruhe Institute for Transuranium Elements so that Cambio's automatic file-reading capability can be included at the Nucleonica web site.

139

Voluntary Participation in Community Economic Development in Canada: An Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is an empirical analysis of an individual's decision to participate in community economic development (CED initiatives in Canada. The objective of the analysis is to better understand how individuals make decisions to volunteer time toward CED initiatives and to determine whether the determinants of participation in CED are unique when compared to those of participation in volunteer activities in general. The dataset employed is Statistics Canada's 2004 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP. To date, there has been no prior econometric analysis of the decision to participate in community economic development initiatives in Canada. Results suggest a role for both public policymakers and practitioners in influencing participation in CED. / Cet article constitue une analyse empirique du processus de prise de décision chez les individus en ce qui a trait à la participation aux initiatives canadiennes de développement économique communautaire (DÉC. Le but de l'analyse est de mieux comprendre la façon dont les individus prennent la décision de consacrer du temps au bénévolat dans les initiatives de DÉC. Elle sert aussi à trancher la question de savoir si les facteurs de participation aux initiatives de développement économique communautaire sont uniques ou communs à la participation à des activités bénévoles en général. Les données employées dans le cadre de cette analyse sont puisées de l'Enquête canadienne sur le don, le bénévolat et la participation effectuée par Statistique Canada en 2004. À ce jour, aucune analyse économétrique n'a été menée sur la décision de participer aux initiatives canadiennes de DÉC. Les résultats suggèrent que les responsables de l'élaboration des politiques ainsi que les praticiens influencent tous deux la participation aux initiatives de DÉC.

Laura Lamb

2011-01-01

140

Standardizing methylation method during phospholipid fatty acid analysis to profile soil microbial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) as biomarkers, is widely used to profile microbial communities in environmental samples. However, PLFA extraction and derivatization protocols are not standardized and have widely varied among published studies. Specifically investigators have used either HCl/MeOH or KOH/MeOH or both for the methylation step of PLFA analysis, without justification or research to support either one. It seems likely that each method could have very different outcomes and conclusions for PLFA based studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of catalyst type for methylation on detecting PLFAs and implications for interpreting microbial profiling in soil. Fatty acid samples extracted from soils obtained from a wetland, an intermittently flooded site, and an adjacent upland site were subjected to HCl/MeOH or KOH/MeOH catalyzed methylation procedures during PLFA analyses. The methylation method using HCl/MeOH resulted in significantly higher concentrations of most PLFAs than the KOH/MeOH method. Another important outcome was that fatty acids with a methyl group (18:1?,7c 11Me, TBSA 10Me 18:0, 10Me 18:0, 17:0 10Me and 16:0 10Me being an actinomycetes biomarker) could not be detected by HCl/MeOH catalyzed methylation but were found in appreciable concentrations with KOH/MeOH method. From our results, because the HCl/MeOH method did not detect the fatty acids containing methyl groups that could strongly influence the microbial community profile, we recommend that the KOH/MeOH catalyzed transesterification method should become the standard procedure for PLFA profiling of soil microbial communities. PMID:22212759

Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Dick, Richard P

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Molecular and lipid biomarker analysis of a gypsum-hosted endoevaporitic microbial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern evaporitic microbial ecosystems are important analogs for understanding the record of earliest life on Earth. Although mineral-depositing shallow-marine environments were prevalent during the Precambrian, few such environments are now available today for study. We investigated the molecular and lipid biomarker composition of an endoevaporitic gypsarenite microbial mat community in Guerrero Negro, Mexico. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses of this mat corroborate prior observations indicating that characteristic layered microbial communities colonize gypsum deposits world-wide despite considerable textural and morphological variability. Membrane fatty acid analysis of the surface tan/orange and lower green mat crust layers indicated cell densities of 1.6 × 10(9) and 4.2 × 10(9)  cells cm(-3) , respectively. Several biomarker fatty acids, ?7,10-hexadecadienoic, iso-heptadecenoic, 10-methylhexadecanoic, and a ?12-methyloctadecenoic, correlated well with distributions of Euhalothece, Stenotrophomonas, Desulfohalobium, and Rhodobacterales, respectively, revealed by the phylogenetic analyses. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and cyanobacterial phylotypes were present at all depths in the mat. Bacteriochlorophyl (Bchl) a and Bchl c were first detected in the oxic-anoxic transition zone and increased with depth. A series of monomethylalkanes (MMA), 8-methylhexadecane, 8-methylheptadecane, and 9-methyloctadecane were present in the surface crust but increased in abundance in the lower anoxic layers. The MMA structures are similar to those identified previously in cultures of the marine Chloroflexus-like organism 'Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila' gen. nov., sp. nov., and may represent the Bchl c community. Novel 3-methylhopanoids were identified in cultures of marine purple non-sulfur bacteria and serve as a probable biomarker for this group in the lower anoxic purple and olive-black layers. Together microbial culture and environmental analyses support novel sources for lipid biomarkers in gypsum crust mats. PMID:24325308

Jahnke, L L; Turk-Kubo, K A; N Parenteau, M; Green, S J; Kubo, M D Y; Vogel, M; Summons, R E; Des Marais, D J

2014-01-01

142

Ammonia biofiltration and community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biofilters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological removal of ammonia was investigated using compost and sludge as packing materials in laboratory-scale biofilters. The aim of this study is to characterize the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in two biofilters designed to remove ammonia. Experimental tests and measurements included analysis of removal efficiency and metabolic products. The inlet concentration of ammonia applied was 20-100 mg m(-3). Removal efficiencies of BFC and BFS were in the range of 97-99% and 95-99%, respectively. Periodic analysis of the biofilter packing materials showed ammonia was removed from air stream by nitrification and by the improved absorption of NH(3) in the resultant acidity. Nitrate was the dominant product of NH(3) transformation. Changes in the composition of AOB were examined by using nested PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of DGGE bands. DGGE analysis of biofilter samples revealed that shifts in the community structure of AOB were observed in the experiment; however, the idle phase did not cause the structural shift of AOB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the population of AOB showed Nitrosospira sp. remains the predominant population in BFC, while Nitrosomonas sp. is the predominant population in BFS. PMID:19359165

Jun, Yin; Wenfeng, Xu

2009-09-01

143

Cytobank: providing an analytics platform for community cytometry data analysis and collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytometry is used extensively in clinical and laboratory settings to diagnose and track cell subsets in blood and tissue. High-throughput, single-cell approaches leveraging cytometry are developed and applied in the computational and systems biology communities by researchers, who seek to improve the diagnosis of human diseases, map the structures of cell signaling networks, and identify new cell types. Data analysis and management present a bottleneck in the flow of knowledge from bench to clinic. Multi-parameter flow and mass cytometry enable identification of signaling profiles of patient cell samples. Currently, this process is manual, requiring hours of work to summarize multi-dimensional data and translate these data for input into other analysis programs. In addition, the increase in the number and size of collaborative cytometry studies as well as the computational complexity of analytical tools require the ability to assemble sufficient and appropriately configured computing capacity on demand. There is a critical need for platforms that can be used by both clinical and basic researchers who routinely rely on cytometry. Recent advances provide a unique opportunity to facilitate collaboration and analysis and management of cytometry data. Specifically, advances in cloud computing and virtualization are enabling efficient use of large computing resources for analysis and backup. An example is Cytobank, a platform that allows researchers to annotate, analyze, and share results along with the underlying single-cell data. PMID:24590675

Chen, Tiffany J; Kotecha, Nikesh

2014-01-01

144

GeoChip-based analysis of the functional gene diversity and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities of mangroves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves are unique and highly productive ecosystems and harbor very special microbial communities. Although the phylogenetic diversity of sediment microbial communities of mangrove habitats has been examined extensively, little is known regarding their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 4.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of microbial communities in mangrove habitats from mangrove national nature reserves in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 4.0 were detected in the mangrove microbial communities, including carbon (C) fixation, C degradation, methane generation, nitrogen (N) fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, N reduction, sulfur (S) metabolism, metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that Spartina alterniflora (HH), an invasive species, did not harbor significantly different microbial communities from Aegiceras corniculatum (THY), a native species, but did differ from other species, Kenaelia candel (QQ), Aricennia marina (BGR), and mangrove-free mud flat (GT). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results indicated the microbial community structure was largely shaped by surrounding environmental variables, such as total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), pH, C/N ratio, and especially salinity. This study presents a comprehensive survey of functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from different mangrove habitats/species and provides new insights into our understanding of the functional potential of microbial communities in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:23135227

Bai, Shijie; Li, Jiangwei; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Tian, Yun; Lin, Guanghui; Zhou, Jizhong; Zheng, Tianling

2013-08-01

145

Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning. PMID:25217145

Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

2014-10-01

146

Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. ? Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. ? Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. ? Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of ?-proteobacteria; 16.6% of ?-proteobacteria; 8.3% of ?-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

147

Ethylene removal evaluation and bacterial community analysis of vermicompost as biofilter material.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofiltration of ethylene provides an environmentally friendly and economically beneficial option relative to physical/chemical removal, where selection of appropriate bed material is crucial. Here the vermicompost with indigenous microorganisms as bed material was evaluated for ethylene removal through batch test and biofilter experiment. Temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterial community in the vermicompost-biofilter under different ethylene loads were characterized by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The results showed that ethylene was effectively degraded by the vermicompost under conditions of 25-50% moisture content and 25-35°C temperature. The vermicompost-biofilter achieved nearly 100% ethylene removal up to an inlet load of 11mg m(-3)h(-1). Local nitrogen lack of the vermicompost in the biofilter was observed over operation time, but the change of pH was slight. DGGE analysis demonstrated that the bacterial abundance and community structure of vermicompost-biofilter varied with the height of biofilter under different ethylene loads. Pseudomonads and Actinobacteria were predominant in the biofilter throughout the whole experiment. PMID:21665363

Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hui; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2011-08-30

148

Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of {gamma}-proteobacteria; 16.6% of {beta}-proteobacteria; 8.3% of {alpha}-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

Reddy, M. Venkateswar; Devi, M. Prathima; Chandrasekhar, K.; Goud, R. Kannaiah [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India); Mohan, S. Venkata, E-mail: vmohan_s@yahoo.com [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India)

2011-12-15

149

[Removal of BTEX by a biotrickling filter and analysis of corresponding bacterial communities].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pre-acclimated microbial consortium and the activated sludge were used as start inoculums of a bench-scale biotrickling filter (BTF). The performance of the biotrickling filter on the removal of BTEX mixture was evaluated, and the changes in the bacterial community structure of the BTF were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the BTF could be acclimated within a short time, the biomass that adhered to the surface of packing materials increased rapidly from 5.7 mg x g(-1) at 10th day to 112 mg x g(-1) at 30th day. BTF could simultaneously remove all components of the BTEX mixture efficiently. The maximum removal capacity of the BTF was 216.6 g x (m3 x h)(-1), which was achieved with an inlet loading rate of 269.7 g x (m3 x h)(-1) and an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 39 s. DGGE analysis indicated that the dominant microorganisms may be derived from the pre-acclimated microbial consortiums rather than the activated sludge. Although the bacterial community changed with run time, the spatial distribution was very uniform. PMID:24027982

Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

2013-07-01

150

Comparative community gene expression analysis of Aquificales-dominated geothermal springs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of Sulfurihydrogenibium are often observed as visible filamentous biomass in circumneutral hot springs and play roles in sulfur-cycling, hydrogen oxidation and iron mineralization. To gain insight into the ecophysiology of Sulfurihydrogenibium populations, we conducted preliminary metatranscriptomic analysis of three distinct thermal springs; Calcite Springs (YNP-CS) and Mammoth Springs (YNP-MHS) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, and Furnas Springs (AZ) in Azores, Portugal. Genes to which transcripts were assigned revealed commonly expressed functions among the sites, while several differences were also observed. All three sites, Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. dominate and are obtaining energy via metabolism of sulfur compounds under microaerophilic conditions. Cell motility was one of the expressed functions in two sites (YNP-CS and AZ) with slower stream flow rates and thicker well-formed biofilms. The transcripts from YNP-CS and -MHS exhibited varying levels of sequence divergence from the reference genomes and corresponding metagenomes, suggesting the presence of microdiversity among Sulfurihydrogenibium populations in situ. Conversely, the majority of the AZ transcripts were identical to the S.?azorense genome. Our initial results show that the metatranscriptomes in these similar Aquificales-dominated communities can reveal community-level gene function in geochemically distinct thermal environments. PMID:23279131

Hamamura, Natsuko; Meneghin, Jennifer; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

2013-04-01

151

Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Results Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 103 to 5.5 × 108 CFU g-1. The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 103 to 5.8 × 105 CFU g-1. Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by traditional culture-dependent methods. Conclusions The use of pyrosequencing allowed for the identification of low abundance bacteria in leaf salad vegetables not detected by culture-dependent methods. The presence of a range of bacterial populations as endophytes presents an interesting phenomenon as these microorganisms cannot be removed by washing and are thus ingested during salad consumption. PMID:24289725

2013-01-01

152

Multiple deprivation, income and poverty in Italy: an analysis based on European Community Household Panel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine both the diffusion and intensity of poverty in Italy by utilising two kinds of approach. The first is the usual one, which employs a threshold defined in terms of income in order to identify the poor families. The second, referring to the definition of functioning introduced by Sen, identifies the poor families on the basis of living conditions. The use of this specific approach allows us to take into account new aspects of the phenomenon that the income approach overcame. Our analyses refer to the results of the second wave of the European Community Household Panel, which was delivered in 1995. Regarding income poverty, a logistic discriminant analysis has been performed in order to detect the significantly connected variables, as for the living conditions approach. The latter approach is more effective in the detection of the family state of privation than the former.

Sergio Brasini

2007-10-01

153

A study of microbial communities in selected samples using phospholipid fatty acids analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids were determined in different environmental samples using phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) in order to characterise microbial community structures. Hyporheic gravel-sand sediment samples were collected from Sitka Stream, muddy sediment samples from several weirs on Morava River, activated and digested sludge from Olomouc water purification plant and sand samples from filters in Olomouc-Cernovir water treatment plant. Profiles of PLFA indicate a clear difference between these types of samples. The muddy sediments showed high percentages of ester-linked polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed by river phytoplankton. The longer chain fatty acids (26 - 30 grad C), indicators for organic matter of allochthonous origin, increased in the hyporheic sediments. Activated and digested sludge contain much poorer profiles than other samples, probably because of the lower occurrence of bacteria. (authors)

154

SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has formed a Geoscience/IT partnership to develop an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This SCEC/ITR partnership comprises SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. This collaboration recently completed the second year in a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ITR project called the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME). The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed by project collaborators include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA [Field et al., this meeting]. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERF's). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. A Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) has also been developed that couples a rupture dynamics simulation into an anelastic wave model. The collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based system utilizing Globus software [Kesselman et al., this meeting]. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC, NPACI and Teragrid High Performance Computing Centers. We have developed a SCEC Community Velocity Model server based on Internet standards (XML, SOAP, and WSDL) to provide access to the SCEC Community Velocity Model. We have also continued development of the SCEC Fault Information System (SCEC/FIS) to provide access to the SCEC Community Fault Model and the SCEC Fault Activity Database. Data generated and archived by the SCEC/CME is stored in a digital library system, the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) [Minster et al., this meeting]. This system provides a robust and secure system for maintaining the association between the data sets and their metadata. A browser-based computational pathway assembly web site has been developed [Gupta et al., this meeting]. Users can compose SHA calculations and call SCEC/CME computational programs to process the data and the output. By assembling a series of computational steps, users can develop complex computational pathways the validity of which can be verified with an ontology-based pathway assembly tool. Data visualization software developed by the collaboration to support analysis and validation of data sets includes 4D wave propagation visualization software based on OpenGL [Thiebaux et al., this meeting] and 3D Geowall-based visualization of earthquakes and faults.

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

2003-12-01

155

Analysis of the microbial community structure in a membrane bioreactor during initial stages of filtration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Membrane biofouling was investigated during the early stages of filtration in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor operated on molasses wastewater. The bacterial diversity and composition of the membrane biofilm and activated sludge were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism coupled with 16S rRNA clone library construction and sequencing. The amount of extracellular polymeric substances produced by bacteria was investigated using spectroscopic methods. The results reveal that the bacterial community of activated sludge differs significantly from that of the membrane biofilm, especially at the initial phase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 25 pioneer OTUs responsible for membrane surface colonization. Also, the relationship between the identified bacterial strains and the system specifications was explored. PMID:22353160

Piasecka, Anna; Souffreau, Caroline; Vandepitte, Katrien; Vanysacker, Louise; Bilad, Roil M; Bie, Tom De; Hellemans, Bart; Meester, Luc De; Yan, Xinxin; Declerck, Priscilla; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2012-01-01

156

Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

Childs Kevin L

2010-11-01

157

Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

158

Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: ason@auburn.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Schmidt, Carl J. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Shin, Hyejin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Cha, Daniel K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2011-01-30

159

Data transformations in the analysis of community-level substrate utilization data from microplates.  

Science.gov (United States)

BIOLOG EcoPlates provide one method for determination of functional diversity indices and community-level physiological profiling of microbial populations based on carbon substrate utilization. In this study, the effect of data transformation on BIOLOG EcoPlate data derived from wetland mesocosms and biofiltration systems was examined. Homoscedasticity, normality, and the number of linear correlations between variables were quantified and evaluated for data that had been transformed using either Taylor or logarithmic transforms. Subsequent multivariate analysis was implemented using the untransformed, Taylor transformed and logarithmic transformed data sets. The effect of data transformation and its effect on principle component analysis are presented. The transforms are shown to help increase homogeneity of variance, increase normality of the data, and increase the number of significant linear correlations for the data. Separate principle component analyses and ordinations of the data showed the transforms to be well suited to this type of data and in particular illustrate the ability of the logarithmic transform to reduce the influence of high leverage or outlying observations on the overall analysis and its robustness in terms of treating data from different ecological systems. Although BIOLOG EcoPlates were used in this study to illustrate the use of transformations on multivariate data, the techniques described may be employed on similar microplate data. In addition, if homoscedasticity, normality and the number of linear correlations within a data set are not evaluated and the possibility of transforming the data, using the Taylor, logarithmic or another transform, is not considered, erroneous analysis and misleading conclusions may be attained when performing multivariate analysis on microplate data. PMID:17399829

Weber, Kela P; Grove, Jason A; Gehder, Matthias; Anderson, William A; Legge, Raymond L

2007-06-01

160

A Statistical Analysis of the Community Structure of a Weighted Collaboration Network Among Rappers  

CERN Document Server

The social network formed by the collaboration between rappers is studied using standard statistical techniques for analyzing complex networks. In addition, the community structure of the rap music community is analyzed using a new method that uses weighted edges to determine which connections are most important and revealing among all the communities. The results of this method as well as possible reasons for the structure of the rap music community are discussed.

Smith, R D

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Community Placement for Persons with Significant Cognitive Challenges: An Outcome Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcome indices were compared across groups of individuals with mental retardation who either remained in institutional settings or transferred from an institutional setting to various community living arrangements. The community group exceeded or matched institution groups with respect to service hours, community integration, and adaptive…

Spreat, Scott; Conroy, James W.

2001-01-01

162

Employment and Status of Teachers in State Schools in the European Community. Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The educational systems of the European Community Member States vary considerably and comprise a wealth of information about innovations in these nations. Tables on the employment and status of teachers in state schools in the European Community were compiled at the request of the Commission of the European Communities. The information collected…

EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

163

Community-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests engaging in regular physical activity (PA) can have beneficial outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes (TD2), including weight loss, reduction of medication usage and improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)/fasting glucose. While a number of clinical-based PA interventions exist, community-based approaches are limited. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of community-based PA interventions for the treatment of TD2 in adult populations. A search of peer-reviewed publications from 2002 to June 2012 was conducted across several electronic databases to identify interventions evaluated in community settings. Twenty-two studies were identified, and 11 studies reporting HbA1c as an outcome measure were pooled in the meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessment was also conducted. The findings demonstrate community-based PA interventions can be effective in producing increases in PA. Meta-analysis revealed a lowering of HbA1c levels by ?0.32% [95% CI ?0.65, 0.01], which approached statistical significance (p?community-based interventions in adult populations diagnosed with TD2. PMID:23372566

Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Karunamuni, Nandini D.; Lubans, David R.

2012-01-01

164

Rapid comparison and correlation analysis among massive number of microbial community samples based on MDV data model  

Science.gov (United States)

The research in microbial communities would potentially impact a vast number of applications in ``bio''-related disciplines. Large-scale analyses became a clear trend in microbial community studies, thus it is increasingly important to perform efficient and in-depth data mining for insightful biological principles from large number of samples. However, as microbial communities are from different sources and of different structures, comparison and data-mining from large number of samples become quite difficult. In this work, we have proposed a data model to represent large-scale comparison of microbial community samples, namely the ``Multi-Dimensional View'' data model (the MDV model) that should at least include 3 aspects: samples profile (S), taxa profile (T) and meta-data profile (V). We have also proposed a method for rapid data analysis based on the MDV model and applied it on the case studies with samples from various environmental conditions. Results have shown that though sampling environments usually define key variables, the analysis could detect bio-makers and even subtle variables based on large number of samples, which might be used to discover novel principles that drive the development of communities. The efficiency and effectiveness of data analysis method based on the MDV model have been validated by the results.

Su, Xiaoquan; Hu, Jianqiang; Huang, Shi; Ning, Kang

2014-09-01

165

Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining companies are faced with growing societal demands that a sufficient portion of the benefits from mining should flow to local communities to ensure they are adequately compensated for the negative social impacts they experience. This paper considers how a more equitable benefit distribution system can be achieved through voluntary initiatives, recognising companies as potential agents for social development through the provision of improved services and infrastructure, capacity-building, employment and local economic development initiatives. Social Development Needs Analysis is introduced as an enhancement to participatory Social Impact Assessment methods to give practical guidance to site managers in evaluating community investment alternatives. Social Development Needs Analysis aims to identify the priority social issues that need to be addressed in order for a company to contribute to a net positive impact in the community while building assets for the business

166

Changing perspectives on community identity and function: A remote sensing and artifactual re-analysis of Barton Ramie, Belize  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the results of the remote sensing and artifact re-analysis of the archaeological site of Barton Ramie, Belize. The site was the focus of Dr. Gordon R. Willey's innovative archaeological program in the Belize River Valley to study ancient Maya settlement, environment, and population in 1954-1956. Through the use of artifact analysis combined with the examination of high-resolution Worldview-1 imagery and a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis, I consider how the inhabitants of Barton Ramie forged community functioning and identity. I focus on the range of intra-site diversity including differential access to labor, goods, land, and the activities evidenced in households and non-domestic structures. Using a community theory framework, emphasizing the many practices that tied the community together, I underscore the variability expressed in architectural elaboration, sumptuary goods, ritual, and specialization. That variability has profound implications for understanding community diversity and economic, social, and ritual functioning. High-resolution panchromatic Worldview-1 satellite imagery successfully detected the remains of Barton Ramie settlement. Surface archaeology has been largely destroyed due to extensive agricultural activities in recent decades. GIS analysis and ground-truthing determined that mound size is the primary factor enabling detection of ancient features. The confirmation of features in an intensively plowed environment has implications including settlement, survey, and population for other disturbed environments. I argue that the Barton Ramie community developed from a complex interaction of networks and practices. These include activities at the household level, articulation between households to form sub-communities (or neighborhoods), and a larger imagined community of the Barton Ramie polity. Individual households articulated to form seven discrete sub-communities, bounded by landscape features and indicated by interaction spheres in my GIS analysis. This analysis confirmed Dr. Willey's original observations on neighborhoods and settlement. Each subcommunity had a local ritual structure to integrate the households and mitigate the clear status differences. These differences are seen in high status households on prized land, using architectural elaboration, sumptuary goods, and ritual to maintain their status. Once Barton Ramie is understood as a heterogeneous polity connected to a wider economic network, it can be placed into the wider political interaction of the Belize Valley.

Weller, Errin Teresa

167

Medicina comunitaria: introducción a un análisis crítico / Community medicine: introduction to a critical analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo de Jairnilson Silva Paim, publicado originalmente en 1976 en la revista Saúde em Debate del Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), realiza un análisis del concepto "comunidad", como así también de la utilización de las expresiones "salud comunitaria" y "medicina comunitaria" re [...] lacionadas a la propuesta de medicina integral y medicina preventiva. Su publicación en español en la sección Textos fundacionales, apunta a la reconstrucción histórica de un movimiento originado en América Latina como medicina social y/o salud colectiva hace más de cuatro décadas y que en el caso de Brasil tiene como claros antecedentes la obra de Sergio Arouca O Dilema preventivista: contribuição para a compreensão e crítica da medicina preventiva y las de Cecília Donnangelo Medicina e sociedade: o médico e seu mercado de trabalho y Medicina e estrutura social: o campo da emergência da medicina comunitária. Estos tres textos son producto de tesis de doctorado y libre docencia, escritos en el primer lustro de los años '70 al igual que este artículo que estamos publicando, y otros que el CEBES recupera en su número especial del año 2008, titulado Saúde em Debate: Fundamentos da Reforma Sanitária. Abstract in english This article by Jairnilson Silva Paim, originally published in 1976 in the journal Saúde em Debate belonging to the Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), makes an analysis of the concept of "community", together with the use of the expressions "community health" and "community medicine" rel [...] ated to the proposal of integral medicine and preventive medicine. Its publication in Spanish in the Founding Texts section points at the historical reconstruction of a movement originated in Latin America as social and/or collective medicine more than four decades ago. In the case of Brazil, it has, as clear antecedents, the work of Sergio Arouca O Dilema preventivista: contribuição para a compreensão e crítica da medicina preventiva and Cecília Donnangelo's ones Medicina e sociedade: o médico e seu mercado de trabalho and Medicina e estrutura social: o campo da emergência da medicina comunitária. These three texts are the product of a PhD. thesis and free teaching, written in the early seventies as well as the articles we are publishing and others that the CEBES recovers in its 2008 special issue with the title Saúde em Debate: Fundamentos da Reforma Sanitária.

Jairnilson, Silva Paim.

168

Medicina comunitaria: introducción a un análisis crítico / Community medicine: introduction to a critical analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo de Jairnilson Silva Paim, publicado originalmente en 1976 en la revista Saúde em Debate del Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), realiza un análisis del concepto "comunidad", como así también de la utilización de las expresiones "salud comunitaria" y "medicina comunitaria" re [...] lacionadas a la propuesta de medicina integral y medicina preventiva. Su publicación en español en la sección Textos fundacionales, apunta a la reconstrucción histórica de un movimiento originado en América Latina como medicina social y/o salud colectiva hace más de cuatro décadas y que en el caso de Brasil tiene como claros antecedentes la obra de Sergio Arouca O Dilema preventivista: contribuição para a compreensão e crítica da medicina preventiva y las de Cecília Donnangelo Medicina e sociedade: o médico e seu mercado de trabalho y Medicina e estrutura social: o campo da emergência da medicina comunitária. Estos tres textos son producto de tesis de doctorado y libre docencia, escritos en el primer lustro de los años '70 al igual que este artículo que estamos publicando, y otros que el CEBES recupera en su número especial del año 2008, titulado Saúde em Debate: Fundamentos da Reforma Sanitária. Abstract in english This article by Jairnilson Silva Paim, originally published in 1976 in the journal Saúde em Debate belonging to the Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), makes an analysis of the concept of "community", together with the use of the expressions "community health" and "community medicine" rel [...] ated to the proposal of integral medicine and preventive medicine. Its publication in Spanish in the Founding Texts section points at the historical reconstruction of a movement originated in Latin America as social and/or collective medicine more than four decades ago. In the case of Brazil, it has, as clear antecedents, the work of Sergio Arouca O Dilema preventivista: contribuição para a compreensão e crítica da medicina preventiva and Cecília Donnangelo's ones Medicina e sociedade: o médico e seu mercado de trabalho and Medicina e estrutura social: o campo da emergência da medicina comunitária. These three texts are the product of a PhD. thesis and free teaching, written in the early seventies as well as the articles we are publishing and others that the CEBES recovers in its 2008 special issue with the title Saúde em Debate: Fundamentos da Reforma Sanitária.

Jairnilson Silva, Paim.

169

Pyrosequencing analysis of the protist communities in a High Arctic meromictic lake: DNA preservation and change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Arctic meromictic lakes are extreme environments characterized by cold temperatures, low nutrient inputs from their polar desert catchments and prolonged periods of low irradiance and darkness. These lakes are permanently stratified with an oxygenated freshwater layer (mixolimnion overlying a saline, anoxic water column (monimolimnion. The physical and chemical properties of the deepest known lake of this type in the circumpolar Arctic, Lake A, on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, have been studied over the last 15 years, but little is known about the lake’s biological communities. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to investigate the protist communities down the water column at three sampling times: under the ice at the end of winter in 2008, during an unusual period of warming and ice-out the same year, and again under the ice in mid-summer 2009. Sequences of many protist taxa occurred throughout the water column at all sampling times, including in the deep anoxic layer where growth is highly unlikely. Furthermore, there were sequences for taxonomic groups including diatoms and marine taxa, which have never been observed in Lake A by microscopic analysis. However the sequences of other taxa such as ciliates, chrysophytes, Cercozoa and Telonema varied with depth, between years and during the transition to ice-free conditions. These results imply that there are seasonally active taxa in the surface waters of the lake that are sensitive to depth and change with time. DNA from these taxa is superimposed upon background DNA from multiple internal and external sources that is preserved in the deep, cold, largely anoxic water column.

ConnieLovejoy

2012-12-01

170

Resource partitioning in freshwater turtle communities: A null model meta-analysis of available data  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource partitioning is one of the most intensely studied issues in ecology since the mid-1900s, nonetheless this issue has never been examined in detail for several important animal groups, including the freshwater turtles. In this paper I re-analyze by null models several studies on resource partitioning by freshwater turtles published in the peer-reviewed literature. These studies originated from all continents and from a variety of climatic and habitat conditions. I used data given in the original papers to recalculate dietary overlap between species. Then, the true datasets were compared to randomly generated datasets produced by 3 × 10 4 Monte Carlo permutations, by using two different randomization algorithms (RA2 and RA3 of Lawlor, 1980). Datasets were inspected to find non-random structure of the various communities along four resource dimensions: macro-habitat, micro-habitat, food, and time. Based on my meta-analysis, I concluded that the micro-habitat resource is the most important dimension (it was the resource partitioned in nearly 80% of the study cases), followed by the food resource dimension (nearly 70%), whereas macro-habitat and time were clearly less important. In relation to micro-habitat dimension, the selection of basking site typology is perhaps the main aspect of the microhabitat niche to be partitioned. Logistic regression models indicated that the presence of a resource partitioning structure in the dataset was influenced only by matrix size, and not by number of species, continent, presence of substantial body size differences among coexisting species, or tropical versus non-tropical origin. A combination of causes may explain the observed patterns: interspecific competition is likely important in shaping several turtle communities, but intrinsic and extrinsic constraints and predation are also relevant.

Luiselli, Luca

2008-07-01

171

Community perspectives on public health biobanking: an analysis of community meetings on the Michigan BioTrust for Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biobanks raise challenges for developing ethically sound and practicable consent policies. Biobanks comprised of dried bloodspots (DBS) left over from newborn screening, maintained for long-term storage, and potential secondary research applications are no exception. Michigan has been a leader in transforming its DBS collection, marketing its biobank of de-identified samples for health research use. The Michigan BioTrust for Health includes approximately 4 million unconsented retrospective samples collected as early as 1984 and prospective samples added since the fall of 2010 with blanket parental consent. We engaged Michigan citizens to ascertain public attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the BioTrust and informed consent. A convenience sampling of 393 participants from communities around the state of Michigan (oversampling for minority populations) participated in meetings addressing newborn screening, the BioTrust and informed consent, yielding quantitative and qualitative survey and discussion data. Participants affirmed the principle of voluntary informed participation in research and advocated for greater public awareness of the existence of the BioTrust. Most expressed support for the use of DBS for research and a desire for greater involvement in granting permission for research use. Opinions varied as to which specific research uses were acceptable. Participants indicated a desire for greater engagement, public awareness, and more active decision making on the part of biobank participants and parents. Diversity of opinion over which research areas were deemed acceptable problematizes the blanket consent model that currently applies to the BioTrust's prospective DBS collection and that could become the new norm for research using de-identified data under proposed changes to the Common Rule. PMID:23893769

Thiel, Daniel B; Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; King, Susan B; Kardia, Sharon L R

2014-04-01

172

The Roles of Government Agency in Assisting CSR Project for Community Development: Analysis from the Recipients Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate Social responsibility (CSR initiatives by the corporations are playing increasingly significant role in the effort of contributing to community development particularly in the developing country. The international prominence of the initiatives in this area can be traced to the objectives of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs that established corporations as partners of development. However, realizing the corporate sectors constraints in playing the roles as agents of development, the CSR initiatives need to be implemented with the involvement of the government agency to assist community development. This paper will explore the roles played by government agency in CSR project through a case study of successful CSR initiative in Bukit Awang, PasirPuteh Kelantan in Malaysia. A qualitative research strategy that explores the perspective of social actors that involved in the project and thematic data analysis are undertaken for that purpose. The result from the analysis reveals two main roles played by the government agency in CSR project by the corporation to the community. The roles are as the supporting agency and as leader in the community. These roles have assisted in the implementation of the CSR project with the objectives to develop the community involved.

Sarmila M. S.

2013-05-01

173

Analysis of composition and structure of coastal to mesopelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 16S rRNA gene amplicons were pyrosequenced to assess bacterioplankton community composition, diversity and phylogenetic community structure for 17 stations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM sampled in March 2010. Statistical analyses showed that samples from depths ? 100 m differed distinctly from deeper samples. SAR 11 ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at depths ? 100 m, which were characterized by high ?-Proteobacteria/?-Proteobacteria ratios (?/? > 1.7. Thaumarchaeota, Firmicutes and ?-Proteobacteria were relatively abundant in deeper waters, and ?/? ratios were low (< 1. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, Thaumarchaeota and Firmicutes correlated positively with depth; ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes correlated positively with temperature and dissolved oxygen; Actinobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia correlated positively with a measure of suspended particles. Diversity indices did not vary with depth or other factors, which indicated that richness and evenness elements of bacterioplankton communities might develop independently of nGoM physical-chemical variables. Phylogenetic community structure as measured by the net relatedness (NRI and nearest taxon (NTI indices also did not vary with depth. NRI values indicated that most of the communities were comprised of OTUs more distantly related to each other in whole community comparisons than expected by chance. NTI values derived from phylogenetic distances of the closest neighbor for each OTU in a given community indicated that OTUs tended to occur in clusters to a greater extent than expected by chance. This indicates that “habitat filtering” might play an important role in nGoM bacterioplankton species assembly, and that such filtering occurs throughout the water column.

GaryMKing

2013-01-01

174

A socio-political analysis of policies and incentives applicable to community wind in Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a new type of ownership structure, community owned wind projects are becoming more and more important in today's wind energy generation in the U.S. Unlike traditional large wind farms, community wind features local ownership and small-scale generation capacity. The goal of this paper is to identify policies, incentives, and regulations in place that are applicable to community wind projects in Oregon by interviewing project representatives and governmental officials and to depict the Oregon context from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives for researchers, farmers, private businesses, government entities, and others who are interested in learning about the community wind in the state. - Highlights: ? We identified policies, incentives, and regulations applicable to community wind in Oregon. ? We interviewed project representatives and governmental officials. ? Results were analyzed from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives. ? We concluded the paper by proposing policy prescriptions for community wind development.

175

Fungal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplified markers - a user's guide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Novel high-throughput sequencing methods outperform earlier approaches in terms of resolution and magnitude. They enable identification and relative quantification of community members and offer new insights into fungal community ecology. These methods are currently taking over as the primary tool to assess fungal communities of plant-associated endophytes, pathogens, and mycorrhizal symbionts, as well as free-living saprotrophs. Taking advantage of the collective experience of six research g...

Lindahl, Bjo?rn; Nilsson, Henrik; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Carlsen, Tor; Kjøller, Rasmus; Ko?ljalg, Urmas; Pennanen, Taina; Rosendahl, Søren; Stenlid, Jan; Kauserud, Ha?vard

2013-01-01

176

Community-level analysis of psbA gene sequences and irgarol tolerance in marine periphyton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. ...

Eriksson, K. M.; Clarke, A. K.; Franzen, L. -g; Kuylenstierna, M.; Martinez Guijarro, Karell; Blanck, H.

2009-01-01

177

Context based Expert Finding in Online Communities using Social Network Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, online communities are one of the most popular collaborative environments in the Internet where people are free to express their opinions. These communities provide facilities for knowledge sharing in which, people can share their experience with each other. The main problem regarding to the knowledge sharing on online communities is the wide range of information on them without any mechanism to determine their validity. So, for knowledge seekers, it is important to recognize the ex...

Mojtaba Behzadi; Amin Omidvar; Kardan, Ahmad A.

2012-01-01

178

Analysis of microbial community in Japanese vineyard soils by culture-independent molecular approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Keiko Fujita, Seiichi Furuya, Minako Kohno, Shunji Suzuki, Tsutomu TakayanagiInstitute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi, JapanAbstract: Soil microbes play an important role in the management of soil environment. They form various microbial communities in response to environmental factors, including soil texture and chemical components. Because of this, it is difficult to determine the microbial community structure of soil. In vineyard soils, the overall microbial community structure has yet to be unraveled. To understand the microbial community in vineyard soil, we surveyed comprehensively microbial communities in Japanese vineyard soils by using a culture-independent molecular approach. We identified 681 fungal clone sequences and 1076 bacterial clone sequences in soil samples collected from nine independent Japanese vineyards, and the results suggested that Ascomycota is the dominant group in the fungal community, whereas Proteobacterium and Acidobacterium are the dominant groups in the bacterial community. DNA was directly extracted from the soil samples, and the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1 region or the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The recovered fungal clones were sorted into 225 operational taxonomic units and the majority of the clone sequences were assigned to Ascomycota. Meanwhile, the recovered bacterial clones were sorted into 17 phyla, and the abundant phyla were Proteobacterium and Acidobacterium. These results differed from the reported fungal and bacterial community structures in forest and agricultural soils. Moreover, we preliminarily generated a catalog of Japanese vineyard soils. The microbial community structures in the vineyard soils were extremely complex, suggesting that the microbial community structure in each vineyard soil has individual characteristics. Our study comprehensively showed for the first time fungal and bacterial community structures in Japanese vineyard soils, and is most likely to provide a clue to understand the nature of Japanese vineyard soils.Keywords: Japanese vineyard, soil microbe, microbial community structure, 16S rDNA

Keiko Fujita

2010-09-01

179

Conceptual Analysis for the Strategic and Operational Knowledge Man-agement of a Port Community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ports working in a network-community that is composed of a group of associative enterprises and logistic chains require managing their strategic and operational knowledge for achieving the efficiency of their activities at both levels. A conceptual model is presented that allows the development of a strategy for a port community through a strategic planning approach using operational knowledge. The different actors that participate in the community, their roles, and the main processes in whic...

2012-01-01

180

Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

What Goes in Must Come out: Testing for Biases in Molecular Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widely distributed microbes that form obligate symbioses with the majority of terrestrial plants, altering nutrient transfers between soils and plants, thereby profoundly affecting plant growth and ecosystem properties. Molecular methods are commonly used in the study of AM fungal communities. However, the biases associated with PCR amplification of these organisms and their ability to be utilized quantitatively has never been fully tested. We used Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis to characterise artificial community templates containing known quantities of defined AM fungal genotypes. This was compared to a parallel in silico analysis that predicted the results of this experiment in the absence of bias. The data suggest that when used quantitatively the TRFLP protocol tested is a powerful, repeatable method for AM fungal community analysis. However, we suggest some limitations to its use for population-level analyses. We found no evidence of PCR bias, supporting the quantitative use of other PCR-based methods for the study of AM fungi such as next generation amplicon sequencing. This finding greatly improves our confidence in methods that quantitatively examine AM fungal communities, providing a greater understanding of the ecology of these important fungi. PMID:25275629

Cotton, T. E. Anne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Helgason, Thorunn

2014-01-01

182

Analysis of a microbial community associated with polychlorinated biphenyl degradation in anaerobic batch reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated under fermentative-methanogenic conditions for up to 60 days in the presence of anaerobic biomass from a full-scale UASB reactor. The low methane yields in the PCBs-spiked batch reactors suggested that the biomass had an inhibitory effect on the methanogenic community. Reactors containing PCBs and co-substrates (ethanol/sodium formate) exhibited substantial PCB reductions from 0.7 to 0.2 mg mL(-1). For the Bacteria domain, the PCBs-spiked reactors were grouped with the PCB-free reactors with a similarity of 55 %, which suggested the selection of a specific population in the presence of PCBs. Three genera of bacteria were found exclusively in the PCB-spiked reactors and were identified using pyrosequencing analysis, Sedimentibacter, Tissierela and Fusibacter. Interestingly, the Sedimentibacter, which was previously correlated with the reductive dechlorination of PCBs, had the highest relative abundance in the RCS-PCB (7.4 %) and RCS-PCB-PF (12.4 %) reactors. Thus, the anaerobic sludge from the UASB reactor contains bacteria from the Firmicutes phylum that are capable of degrading PCBs. PMID:25104219

Gomes, B C; Adorno, M A T; Okada, D Y; Delforno, T P; Lima Gomes, P C F; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B A

2014-11-01

183

Multisubstrate Isotope Labeling and Metagenomic Analysis of Active Soil Bacterial Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Soil microbial diversity represents the largest global reservoir of novel microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, we coupled functional metagenomics and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using multiple plant-derived carbon substrates and diverse soils to characterize active soil bacterial communities and their glycoside hydrolase genes, which have value for industrial applications. We incubated samples from three disparate Canadian soils (tundra, temperate rainforest, and agricultural) with five native carbon (12C) or stable-isotope-labeled (13C) carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, arabinose, and cellulose). Indicator species analysis revealed high specificity and fidelity for many uncultured and unclassified bacterial taxa in the heavy DNA for all soils and substrates. Among characterized taxa, Actinomycetales (Salinibacterium), Rhizobiales (Devosia), Rhodospirillales (Telmatospirillum), and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium and Asticcacaulis) were bacterial indicator species for the heavy substrates and soils tested. Both Actinomycetales and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium) were associated with metabolism of cellulose, and Alphaproteobacteria were associated with the metabolism of arabinose; members of the order Rhizobiales were strongly associated with the metabolism of xylose. Annotated metagenomic data suggested diverse glycoside hydrolase gene representation within the pooled heavy DNA. By screening 2,876 cloned fragments derived from the 13C-labeled DNA isolated from soils incubated with cellulose, we demonstrate the power of combining DNA-SIP, multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), and functional metagenomics by efficiently isolating multiple clones with activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and fluorogenic proxy substrates for carbohydrate-active enzymes. PMID:25028422

Verastegui, Y.; Cheng, J.; Engel, K.; Kolczynski, D.; Mortimer, S.; Lavigne, J.; Montalibet, J.; Romantsov, T.; Hall, M.; McConkey, B. J.; Rose, D. R.; Tomashek, J. J.; Scott, B. R.

2014-01-01

184

Molecular Analysis of the Microbial Communities of Mars Analog Lakes in Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Unique, shallow interdune lakes and groundwaters with extremely low pH and high salinity exist in Australia, along with nearby lakes that possess higher pH values. These acidic hypersaline environments are possibly the best modern terrestrial analogues for past martian environments. However, no previous microbiological analyses of these lakes have been conducted. During the Australian winter of 2005, water samples were taken from several hypersaline lakes located in southern Western Australia that possessed acidic to slightly alkaline pH. These samples were subjected to molecular analysis to identify bacterial communities. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, by using universal bacterial primers, were also performed on the samples. Extracted DNA was amplified with 1070 forward and 1392 GC-clamped reverse primers and analyzed by using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In addition, libraries were developed from DNA retrieved from four lakes, including a marginal marine neutral lake, an inland neutral lake, and two inland acid lakes, and selected clones with distinct operational taxonomic units were sequenced. The DGGE profiles and clone sequence data indicate that there are distinct, abundant, and diverse microbial populations in these Australian hypersaline environments, especially the acidic ones. These results are significant for two reasons: (1) they provide the first microbiological survey of natural acid saline lakes and (2) they hint at the possibility that there could have been a diverse microbial population in acidic hypersaline environments on Mars.

Mormile, Melanie R.; Hong, Bo-Young; Benison, Kathleen C.

2009-12-01

185

Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Tempeh as Reveal by Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tempeh is an Indonesian traditional fermented food produced using Rhizopus as a starter culture. In practice, however, the starter culture as well as fermentation processes would yield a polymicrobial fermentation, which generated a unique tempeh flavor and texture. This condition makes Indonesian tempeh as one of the most complex fermented food, while at the same time would make it difficult to scale up tempeh production with uniform quality and consistency. The aim of this study was to compare a number of tempeh microbial communities employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis (ARISA. Fresh tempeh samples were obtained from tempeh producers in Java and Moluccas. 16S rRNA gene libraries and DNA sequencing were employed to analyze further the nature of bacterial diversity in two selected tempeh samples. The results of our study showed that different tempeh producer possessed different Bacterial ARISA (BARISA or fungi ARISA (FARISA profiles. However, BARISA profiles were found to be more discriminative than FARISA, and therefore BARISA would be more useful for tempeh genetic fingerprint or barcoding.

CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

2013-06-01

186

Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|Speedshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peta-scale computing environments pose significant challenges for both system and application developers and addressing them required more than simply scaling up existing tera-scale solutions. Performance analysis tools play an important role in gaining this understanding, but previous monolithic tools with fixed feature sets have not sufficed. Instead, this project worked on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a general, flexible tool infrastructure supporting the construction of performance tools as “pipelines” of high-quality tool building blocks. These tool building blocks provide common performance tool functionality, and are designed for scalability, lightweight data acquisition and analysis, and interoperability. For this project, we built on Open|SpeedShop, a modular and extensible open source performance analysis tool set. The design and implementation of such a general and reusable infrastructure targeted for petascale systems required us to address several challenging research issues. All components needed to be designed for scale, a task made more difficult by the need to provide general modules. The infrastructure needed to support online data aggregation to cope with the large amounts of performance and debugging data. We needed to be able to map any combination of tool components to each target architecture. And we needed to design interoperable tool APIs and workflows that were concrete enough to support the required functionality, yet provide the necessary flexibility to address a wide range of tools. A major result of this project is the ability to use this scalable infrastructure to quickly create tools that match with a machine architecture and a performance problem that needs to be understood. Another benefit is the ability for application engineers to use the highly scalable, interoperable version of Open|SpeedShop, which are reassembled from the tool building blocks into a flexible, multi-user interface set of tools. This set of tools targeted at Office of Science Leadership Class computer systems and selected Office of Science application codes. We describe the contributions made by the team at the University of Wisconsin. The project built on the efforts in Open|SpeedShop funded by DOE/NNSA and the DOE/NNSA Tri-Lab community, extended Open|Speedshop to the Office of Science Leadership Class Computing Facilities, and addressed new challenges found on these cutting edge systems. Work done under this project at Wisconsin can be divided into two categories, new algorithms and techniques for debugging, and foundation infrastructure work on our Dyninst binary analysis and instrumentation toolkits and MRNet scalability infrastructure.

Miller, Barton

2014-06-30

187

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potential behavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan. PMID:19759046

Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; De Courten, M; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A

2009-12-01

188

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potentialbehavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan.

Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M

2009-01-01

189

Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986-2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

2012-09-01

190

Investigating Student Communities with Network Analysis of Interactions in a Physics Learning Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and…

Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird; Sawtelle, Vashti

2012-01-01

191

A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

2011-01-01

192

Structure in Community College Career-Technical Programs: A Qualitative Analysis. CCRC Working Paper No. 50  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data obtained from interviews and program websites at Washington community and technical colleges, the authors of this study examine the structure of community college career-technical programs in allied health, business and marketing, computer and information studies, and mechanics and repair. A framework for structure with four…

Van Noy, Michelle; Weiss, Madeline Joy; Jenkins, Davis; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Wachen, John

2012-01-01

193

Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

194

Constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis: hints from community sampling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A set of methodology for constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis of community sampling data was presented in this study. Nearly 30 data sets at different levels of taxa for different sampling seasons and locations were used to construct networks and find network properties. I defined the network constructed by Pearson linear correlation is the linear network, and the network constructed by quasi-linear correlation measure (e.g., Spearman correlation is the quasi-linear network. Two taxa with statistically significant linear or quasi-linear correlation are determined to interact. The quasi-linear network is more general than linear network.The results reveled that correlation distributions of Pearson linear correlation and partial linear correlation constructed networks are unimodal functions and most of them are short-head (mostly negative correlations and long-tailed (mostly positive correlations. Spearman correlation distributions are either long-head and short-tailed unimodal functions or monotonically increasing functions. It was found that both mean partial linear correlation and mean Pearson linear correlation were approximately 0. The proportion of positive (partial linear correlations declined significantly with the increase in taxa. The mean (partial linear correlation declined significantly with the increase of taxa. More than 90% of network interactions are positive interactions. The average connectance was 9.8% (9.3% for (partial linear correlation constructed network. The parameter ? in power low distribution (L(x=x-? increased as the decline of taxon level (from functional group to species for the partial linear correlation constructed network. ? is in average 0.8 to 0.9. The number of (positive interactions increased with the number of taxa for both linear and partial linear correlations constructed networks. The addition of a taxon would result in an increase of 0.4 (0.3 interactions (positive interactions in the partial linear correlation constructed network. And the addition of a taxon would result in an increase of 3 interactions (positive interactions in the linear correlation constructed network. For partial linear correlation constructed network, the network connectance decreased as the number of taxa. The constant connectance hypothesis did not hold for our networks. It was found that network structure changed with season and location. The same taxon in the network would connect to different taxa as the change of season and location. A higher level of species aggregation may used to find a more stable network structure. Positive interactions were considered to be caused mainly by mutualism, predation/parasitism, etc. the number and portion of positive interactions may be the most important indices for community stability and functionality. Mutualism is the most significant trophic relationship, seconded by predation/parasitism, and competition is the worst for community stability.

WenJun Zhang

2011-09-01

195

Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis Análisis de las comunidades de innovación abierta desde la perspectiva del Análisis de Redes Sociales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Open innovation represents an emergent paradigm by which organizations make use of internal and external resources to drive their innovation processes. The growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the emergence of online open innovation communities which allow a direct contact with customers and users. The aim of this work consists of analyzing the behavior of open innovation community members from the perspective of social network anal...

Rocio Martinez-Torres

2013-01-01

196

Análisis de las comunidades de innovación abierta desde la perspectiva del Análisis de Redes Sociales Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Open innovation represents an emergent paradigm by which organizations make use of internal and external resources to drive their innovation processes. The growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the emergence of online open innovation communities which allow a direct contact with customers and users. The aim of this work consists of analyzing the behavior of open innovation community members from the perspective of social network anal...

Rocio Martinez-Torres

2013-01-01

197

A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR. CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership development, policy making, creating connections and utilizing existing community resources. Evaluating community capacity created as a result of a CBPR project is one way to measure its effectiveness. This paper is a retrospective analysis of the capacity built during a CBPR study of diabetes and obesity in East and South Los Angeles which are two low-income and minority neighborhoods. Four people, who were heavily involved in the project, completed a retrospective analysis of the capacity built utilizing a validated instrument. There was consensus about the capacity built, which included: excellent participation by community members, inclusion of members’ ideas to leverage additional funding, and pride of community members in their participation in the project. One area that could have been strengthened was increased access for leadership and research experience among community members, especially since the project ended prematurely. There were differences among the two community groups with East Los Angeles members focusing more on tangible interventions and grant writing, while South Los Angeles members had a greater policy focus. Communities and researchers who are embarking on a CBPR project can learn from those who have implemented the strategy. Measuring capacity built during and after the project, can be one way to understanding the contributions of a project in a community. CBPR is an empowering research methodology which, done correctly, can build community capacity and have long-term impacts on individuals and communities.

Kathryn Hillstrom

2014-06-01

198

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

Koichi Fujie

2012-03-01

199

ClimatePipes: User-Friendly Data Access, Manipulation, Analysis & Visualization of Community Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of climate change will resonate through a broad range of fields including public health, infrastructure, water resources, and many others. Long-term coordinated planning, funding, and action are required for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Unfortunately, widespread use of climate data (simulated and observed) in non-climate science communities is impeded by factors such as large data size, lack of adequate metadata, poor documentation, and lack of sufficient computational and visualization resources. We present ClimatePipes to address many of these challenges by creating an open source platform that provides state-of-the-art, user-friendly data access, analysis, and visualization for climate and other relevant geospatial datasets, making the climate data available to non-researchers, decision-makers, and other stakeholders. The overarching goals of ClimatePipes are: - Enable users to explore real-world questions related to climate change. - Provide tools for data access, analysis, and visualization. - Facilitate collaboration by enabling users to share datasets, workflows, and visualization. ClimatePipes uses a web-based application platform for its widespread support on mainstream operating systems, ease-of-use, and inherent collaboration support. The front-end of ClimatePipes uses HTML5 (WebGL, Canvas2D, CSS3) to deliver state-of-the-art visualization and to provide a best-in-class user experience. The back-end of the ClimatePipes is built around Python using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK, http://vtk.org), Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT, http://uv-cdat.llnl.gov), and other climate and geospatial data processing tools such as GDAL and PROJ4. ClimatePipes web-interface to query and access data from remote sources (such as ESGF). Shown in the figure is climate data layer from ESGF on top of map data layer from OpenStreetMap. The ClimatePipes workflow editor provides flexibility and fine grained control, and uses the VisTrails (http://www.vistrails.org) workflow engine in the backend.

Chaudhary, A.; DeMarle, D.; Burnett, B.; Harris, C.; Silva, W.; Osmari, D.; Geveci, B.; Silva, C.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

2013-12-01

200

Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of microbial community structure and gene expression of activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study applied both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to characterize microbial structure and gene expression of an activated sludge community from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. DNA and cDNA were sequenced by Illumina Hi-seq2000 at a depth of 2.4 Gbp. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST showed bacteria were dominant in both DNA and cDNA datasets. The taxonomic profile obtained by BLAST against SILVA SSUref database and annotation by MEGAN showed that activated sludge was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia phyla in both DNA and cDNA datasets. Global gene expression annotation based on KEGG metabolism pathway displayed slight disagreement between the DNA and cDNA datasets. Further gene expression annotation focusing on nitrogen removal revealed that denitrification-related genes sequences dominated in both DNA and cDNA datasets, while nitrifying genes were also expressed in relative high levels. Specially, ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidase demonstrated the high cDNA/DNA ratios in the present study, indicating strong nitrification activity. Enzyme subunits gene sequences annotation discovered that subunits of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA, amoB, amoC) and hydroxylamine oxygenase had higher expression levels compared with subunits of the other enzymes genes. Taxonomic profiles of selected enzymes (ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxygenase) showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria present mainly belonged to Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira species and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea sequences were detected in both DNA and cDNA datasets. PMID:22666477

Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Determinants of participation restriction among community dwelling stroke survivors: A path analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke survivors into their family and community. The identification of key factors influencing long-term outcome are essential in developing more effective rehabilitation measures for reducing stroke-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of predictors of participation restriction which included the direct and indirect effects between psychosocial outcomes, physical outcome, and socio-demographic variables at 12 months after stroke. Methods Data were collected from 188 stroke survivors at 12 months following their discharge from one of the two rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong. The settings included patients' homes and residential care facilities. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model of participation restriction at 12 months. Results The path coefficients show functional ability having the largest direct effect on participation restriction (? = 0.51. The results also show that more depressive symptoms (? = -0.27, low state self-esteem (? = 0.20, female gender (? = 0.13, older age (? = -0.11 and living in a residential care facility (? = -0.12 have a direct effect on participation restriction. The explanatory variables accounted for 71% of the variance in explaining participation restriction at 12 months. Conclusion Identification of stroke survivors at risk of high levels of participation restriction, depressive symptoms and low self-esteem will assist health professionals to devise appropriate rehabilitation interventions that target improving both physical and psychosocial functioning.

Chang Anne M

2009-09-01

202

Comparative Human Health Risk Analysis of Coastal Community Water and Waste Service Options  

Science.gov (United States)

As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years ...

203

Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection  

CERN Document Server

We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspaces and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of three community detection algorithms, also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

Gurtner, Gérald; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

2013-01-01

204

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacter...

Illeghems, Koen; Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

205

Characterization of Microbial Community Structure in the Surface Sediment of Osaka Bay, Japan, by Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-eight sediment samples collected from Osaka Bay, Japan, were analyzed for phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA) to determine regional differences in microbial community structure of the bay. The abundance of three major groups of C10 to C19 PLFA (saturated, branched, and monounsaturated PLFA), which accounted for 84 to 97% of the total PLFA, indicated the predominance of prokaryotes in the sediment. The distribution of six clusters obtained by similarity analysis in the bay reve...

Rajendran, Narasimmalu; Matsuda, Osamu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Simidu, Usio

1994-01-01

206

Conceptualisation of community-based basic nursing education in South Africa: a grounded theory analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based education is about a decade old in basic nursing education in South Africa, An extensive review of literature revealed that although CBE was a familiar concept in South Africa, there was however, limited understanding of what this phenomenon means. The purpose of the study was to analyse the concept ‘community-based education’ with the aim of discovering shared understanding of this phenomenon in basic nursing education within the South African context. Strauss and C...

Gloria Mtshali

2005-01-01

207

Blended Learning and Sense of Community: A Comparative Analysis with Traditional and Fully Online Graduate Courses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blended learning is a hybrid of classroom and online learning that includes some of the conveniences of online courses without the complete loss of face-to-face contact. The present study used a causal-comparative design to examine the relationship of sense of community between traditional classroom, blended, and fully online higher education learning environments. Evidence is provided to suggest that blended courses produce a stronger sense of community among students than either traditional or fully online courses.

Fred Rovai and Hope Jordan

2004-08-01

208

Litter quality versus soil microbial community controls over decomposition: a quantitative analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible effects of soil microbial community structure on organic matter decomposition rates have been widely acknowledged, but are poorly understood. Understanding these relationships is complicated by the fact that microbial community structure and function are likely to both affect and be affected by organic matter quality and chemistry, thus it is difficult to draw mechanistic conclusions from field studies. We conducted a reciprocal soil inoculum × litter transplant laboratory incubation experiment using samples collected from a set of sites that have similar climate and plant species composition but vary significantly in bacterial community structure and litter quality. The results showed that litter quality explained the majority of variation in decomposition rates under controlled laboratory conditions: over the course of the 162-day incubation, litter quality explained nearly two-thirds (64 %) of variation in decomposition rates, and a smaller proportion (25 %) was explained by variation in the inoculum type. In addition, the relative importance of inoculum type on soil respiration increased over the course of the experiment, and was significantly higher in microcosms with lower litter quality relative to those with higher quality litter. We also used molecular phylogenetics to examine the relationships between bacterial community composition and soil respiration in samples through time. Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial community composition explained 32 % of the variation in respiration rates. However, equal portions (i.e., 16 %) of the variation in bacterial community composition were explained by inoculum type and litter quality, reflecting the importance of both the meta-community and the environment in bacterial assembly. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of changing microbial community composition on decomposition are likely to be smaller than the potential effects of climate change and/or litter quality changes in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations or atmospheric nutrient deposition.

Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Keller, Adrienne B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; O'Neill, Sean P.; Ostertag, Rebecca; Vitousek, Peter M.

2014-01-01

209

Litter quality versus soil microbial community controls over decomposition: a quantitative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible effects of soil microbial community structure on organic matter decomposition rates have been widely acknowledged, but are poorly understood. Understanding these relationships is complicated by the fact that microbial community structure and function are likely to both affect and be affected by organic matter quality and chemistry, thus it is difficult to draw mechanistic conclusions from field studies. We conducted a reciprocal soil inoculum × litter transplant laboratory incubation experiment using samples collected from a set of sites that have similar climate and plant species composition but vary significantly in bacterial community structure and litter quality. The results showed that litter quality explained the majority of variation in decomposition rates under controlled laboratory conditions: over the course of the 162-day incubation, litter quality explained nearly two-thirds (64%) of variation in decomposition rates, and a smaller proportion (25%) was explained by variation in the inoculum type. In addition, the relative importance of inoculum type on soil respiration increased over the course of the experiment, and was significantly higher in microcosms with lower litter quality relative to those with higher quality litter. We also used molecular phylogenetics to examine the relationships between bacterial community composition and soil respiration in samples through time. Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial community composition explained 32 % of the variation in respiration rates. However, equal portions (i.e., 16%) of the variation in bacterial community composition were explained by inoculum type and litter quality, reflecting the importance of both the meta-community and the environment in bacterial assembly. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of changing microbial community composition on decomposition are likely to be smaller than the potential effects of climate change and/or litter quality changes in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations or atmospheric nutrient deposition. PMID:24022257

Cleveland, Cory C; Reed, Sasha C; Keller, Adrienne B; Nemergut, Diana R; O'Neill, Sean P; Ostertag, Rebecca; Vitousek, Peter M

2014-01-01

210

Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravihe past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

211

Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popula...

Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R.; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

212

Multiple simultaneous detection of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) through a high throughput bead array technology, with potential use in phytoplankton community analysis  

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As an alternative to traditional, morphology-based methods, molecular techniques can provide detection of multiple species within the HAB community and, more widely, the phytoplankton community in a rapid, accurate and simultaneous qualitative analysis. These methods require detailed knowledge of the molecular diversity within taxa in order to design efficient specific primers and specific probes able to avoid cross-reaction with non-target sequences. Isolates from Florida coastal communities...

Scorzetti, G.; Brand, L. E.; Hitchcock, G. L.; Rein, K. S.; Sinigalliano, C. D.; Fell, J. W.

2009-01-01

213

Multisubstrate isotope labeling and metagenomic analysis of active soil bacterial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil microbial diversity represents the largest global reservoir of novel microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, we coupled functional metagenomics and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using multiple plant-derived carbon substrates and diverse soils to characterize active soil bacterial communities and their glycoside hydrolase genes, which have value for industrial applications. We incubated samples from three disparate Canadian soils (tundra, temperate rainforest, and agricultural) with five native carbon ((12)C) or stable-isotope-labeled ((13)C) carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, arabinose, and cellulose). Indicator species analysis revealed high specificity and fidelity for many uncultured and unclassified bacterial taxa in the heavy DNA for all soils and substrates. Among characterized taxa, Actinomycetales (Salinibacterium), Rhizobiales (Devosia), Rhodospirillales (Telmatospirillum), and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium and Asticcacaulis) were bacterial indicator species for the heavy substrates and soils tested. Both Actinomycetales and Caulobacterales (Phenylobacterium) were associated with metabolism of cellulose, and Alphaproteobacteria were associated with the metabolism of arabinose; members of the order Rhizobiales were strongly associated with the metabolism of xylose. Annotated metagenomic data suggested diverse glycoside hydrolase gene representation within the pooled heavy DNA. By screening 2,876 cloned fragments derived from the (13)C-labeled DNA isolated from soils incubated with cellulose, we demonstrate the power of combining DNA-SIP, multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), and functional metagenomics by efficiently isolating multiple clones with activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and fluorogenic proxy substrates for carbohydrate-active enzymes. Importance: The ability to identify genes based on function, instead of sequence homology, allows the discovery of genes that would not be identified through sequence alone. This is arguably the most powerful application of metagenomics for the recovery of novel genes and a natural partner of the stable-isotope-probing approach for targeting active-yet-uncultured microorganisms. We expanded on previous efforts to combine stable-isotope probing and metagenomics, enriching microorganisms from multiple soils that were active in degrading plant-derived carbohydrates, followed by construction of a cellulose-based metagenomic library and recovery of glycoside hydrolases through functional metagenomics. The major advance of our study was the discovery of active-yet-uncultivated soil microorganisms and enrichment of their glycoside hydrolases. We recovered positive cosmid clones in a higher frequency than would be expected with direct metagenomic analysis of soil DNA. This study has generated an invaluable metagenomic resource that future research will exploit for genetic and enzymatic potential. PMID:25028422

Verastegui, Y; Cheng, J; Engel, K; Kolczynski, D; Mortimer, S; Lavigne, J; Montalibet, J; Romantsov, T; Hall, M; McConkey, B J; Rose, D R; Tomashek, J J; Scott, B R; Charles, T C; Neufeld, J D

2014-01-01

214

Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR?=?1.9, those who reported myocardial infarction (OR?=?3.8, urinary incontinence (OR?=?2.7, those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR?=?3.2, and those who did not use dental services (OR?=?2.1. For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail.

Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

2012-09-01

215

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

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Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

AK Gregg

2013-07-01

216

Integration of culture-based and molecular analysis of a complex sponge-associated bacterial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial communities of sponges have been studied using molecular techniques as well as culture-based techniques, but the communities described by these two methods are remarkably distinct. Culture-based methods describe communities dominated by Proteobacteria, and Actinomycetes while molecular methods describe communities dominated by predominantly uncultivated groups such as the Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Acidimicrobidae. In this study, we used a wide range of culture media to increase the diversity of cultivable bacteria from the closely related giant barrel sponges, Xestospongia muta collected from the Florida Keys, Atlantic Ocean and Xestospongia testudinaria, collected from Indonesia, Pacific Ocean. Over 400 pure cultures were isolated and identified from X. muta and X. testudinaria and over 90 bacterial species were represented. Over 16,000 pyrosequences were analyzed and assigned to 976 OTUs. We employed both cultured-based methods and pyrosequencing to look for patterns of overlap between the culturable and molecular communities. Only one OTU was found in both the molecular and culturable communities, revealing limitations inherent in both approaches. PMID:24618773

Montalvo, Naomi F; Davis, Jeanette; Vicente, Jan; Pittiglio, Raquel; Ravel, Jacques; Hill, Russell T

2014-01-01

217

Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Results Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. Conclusions The approach described in this study enables for the first time the analysis of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial communities within biogas reactors by Flow-FISH. PMID:24304697

2013-01-01

218

Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States : Comparative Analysis and Specificities of Context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most-similar case selection was applied to data from eight EU Member States. Data from semi-structured key informant qualitative interviews, focus group interviews with experts and policy-makers, as well as document analysis were linked to corresponding Eurobarometer data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The framework on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework application and comparative analysis indicates how to relate theory to empirical research and complex data sets. In-depth analysis of country-specific contexts and longitudinal observation on changes within and between countries might advise on how to integrate the framework into intervention research.

Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika

2014-01-01

219

Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. PMID:23622816

Ayache, C; Manes, C; Pidou, M; Croué, J P; Gernjak, W

2013-06-15

220

Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
221

Home visitation program effectiveness and the influence of community behavioral norms: a propensity score matched analysis of prenatal smoking cessation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of community context on the effectiveness of evidence-based maternal and child home visitation programs following implementation is poorly understood. This study compared prenatal smoking cessation between home visitation program recipients and local-area comparison women across 24 implementation sites within one state, while also estimating the independent effect of community smoking norms on smoking cessation behavior. Methods Retrospective cohort design using propensity score matching of Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP clients and local-area matched comparison women who smoked cigarettes in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth certificate data were used to classify smoking status. The main outcome measure was smoking cessation in the third trimester of pregnancy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined, over two time periods, the association of NFP exposure and the association of baseline county prenatal smoking rate on prenatal smoking cessation. Results The association of NFP participation and prenatal smoking cessation was stronger in a later implementation period (35.5% for NFP clients vs. 27.5% for comparison women, p? Conclusions Following a statewide implementation, program recipients of NFP demonstrated increased smoking cessation compared to comparison women, with a stronger program effect in later years. The significant association of county smoking rate with cessation suggests that community behavioral norms may present a challenge for evidence-based programs as models are translated into diverse communities.

Matone Meredith

2012-11-01

222

Democracy (In)Action: A Critical Policy Analysis of New York City Public School Closings by Teachers, Students, Administrators, and Community Members  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I serve as a secretary for the critical policy analysis presented by hundreds of teachers, parents, students, and community members during 19 public hearings on school closures in New York City. In testimony at hearings, community members rejected the narrow, statistical approach they felt the Department of Education was using to…

Kretchmar, Kerry

2014-01-01

223

Community analysis of bacteria colonizing intestinal tissue of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in newborn neonates. Bacteria are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of NEC but bacterial characterization has only been done on human faecal samples and experimental animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial composition and the relative number of bacteria in inflamed intestinal tissue surgically removed from neonates diagnosed with NEC (n = 24). The bacterial populations in the specimens were characterized by laser capture microdissection and subsequent sequencing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using bacterial rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes. RESULTS: Bacteria were detected in 22 of the 24 specimens, 71% had moderate to high densities of bacteria. The phyla detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were: Proteobacteria (49.0%), Firmicutes (30.4%), Actinobacteria (17.1%) and Bacteroidetes (3.6%). A major detected class of the phylum Proteobacteria belonged to ?-proteobacteria. Surprisingly, Clostridium species were only detected in 4 of the specimens by FISH, but two of these specimens exhibited histological pneumatosis intestinalis and both specimens had a moderate to a high density of C. butyricum and C. parputrificum detected by using species specific FISH probes. A 16S rRNA gene sequence tag similar to Ralstonia species was detected in most of the neonatal tissues and members of this genus have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens but their role in NEC has still to be clarified. CONCLUSION: In this study, in situ identification and community analysis of bacteria found in tissue specimens from neonates with NEC, were analysed for the first time. Although a large variability of bacteria was found in most of the analyzed specimens, no single or combination of known potential pathogenic bacteria species was dominating the samples suggestive NEC as non-infectious syndrome. However there was a significant correlation between the presence of C. butyricum & C. parputrificum and histological pneumatosis intestinalis. Finally this study emphasizes the possibility to examine the microbial composition directly on excised human tissues to avoid biases from faecal samples or culturing.

Smith, Birgitte; Bodé, Susan

2011-01-01

224

Communities and Hierarchical Structures in Dynamic Social Networks: Analysis and Visualization  

CERN Document Server

Detection of community structures in social networks has attracted lots of attention in the domain of sociology and behavioral sciences. Social networks also exhibit dynamic nature as these networks change continuously with the passage of time. Social networks might also present a hierarchical structure led by individuals that play important roles in a society such as Managers and Decision Makers. Detection and Visualization of these networks changing over time is a challenging problem where communities change as a function of events taking place in the society and the role people play in it. In this paper we address these issues by presenting a system to analyze dynamic social networks. The proposed system is based on dynamic graph discretization and graph clustering. The system allows detection of major structural changes taking place in social communities over time and reveals hierarchies by identifying influential people in a social networks. We use two different data sets for the empirical evaluation and...

Gilbert, Frédéric; Zaidi, Faraz; Jourdan, Fabien; Bourqui, Romain

2014-01-01

225

Community social structure, social capital and adolescent smoking: a multi-level analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a sample of 6818 individuals in 83 public school districts in Iceland, this study explored the influence of three community characteristics: Residential mobility, proportion of single-parent families, and poverty on adolescent daily smoking. Building on Coleman's social capital theory, we also examined the mediating and moderating role of several measures of social capital. Both self-reported and official data were used to measure key variables. The main findings are consistent with theoretical predictions showing that social capital partly mediates the association between community characteristics and adolescent daily smoking both on the community and individual levels. Likewise, the findings show that the association between individual level poverty and adolescent daily smoking varies across levels of neighborhood social capital. PMID:22503516

Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Valdimarsdottir, Margret; Hrafn Jonsson, Stefan

2012-07-01

226

Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

2014-04-01

227

Comparison of the bacterial community structure within the equine hindgut and faeces using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA).  

Science.gov (United States)

The horse's hindgut bacterial ecosystem has often been studied using faecal samples. However few studies compared both bacterial ecosystems and the validity of using faecal samples may be questionable. Hence, the present study aimed to compare the structure of the equine bacterial community in the hindgut (caecum, right ventral colon) and faeces using a fingerprint technique known as Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Two DNA extraction methods were also assessed. Intestinal contents and faeces were sampled 3 h after the morning meal on four adult fistulated horses fed meadow hay and pelleted concentrate. Irrespective of the intestinal segment, Principal Component Analysis of ARISA profiles showed a strong individual effect (Pcolon, while there was no difference between the two hindgut communities. The use of a QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini kit increased the quality of DNA extracted irrespective of sample type. The differences observed between faecal and hindgut bacterial communities challenge the use of faeces as a representative for hindgut activity. Further investigations are necessary to compare bacterial activity between the hindgut and faeces in order to understand the validity of using faecal samples. PMID:25075719

Sadet-Bourgeteau, S; Philippeau, C; Dequiedt, S; Julliand, V

2014-12-01

228

Multiple myeloma in South Cumbria 1974-80: problems of health analysis in small communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of seven cases of multiple myeloma over seven years in a small community 15 miles from a plant reprocessing nuclear fuel caused much local concern. A case control study of 34 confirmed cases in the health district during 1974 to 1980 revealed no excess of known risk factors among the 23 cases for whom informants could be traced. The possible effects of exposure to marine discharges of radioactive material cannot be completely ruled out, but dose estimates make this highly unlikely. Such studies are a necessary response by community physicians to the population they serve but have major practical and theoretical limitations. (author)

229

Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

2014-10-01

230

Analysis of the archaeal sub-seafloor community at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sub-surface archaeal community at the Suiyo Seamount in the Western Pacific Ocean was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-cell in situ hybridization analyses. In this study, we drilled and cased holes at the hydrothermal area of the seamount to minimize contamination of the hydrothermal fluid in the sub-seafloor by penetrating seawater. PCR clone analysis of the hydrothermal fluid samples collected from a cased hole indicated the presence of chemolithoautotrophic primary biomass producers of Archaeoglobales and the Methanococcales-related archaeal HTE1 group, both of which can utilize hydrogen as an electron donor. We discuss the implication of the microbial community on the early history of life and on the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:16175703

Hara, Kurt; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Yamashiro, Kan; Maruyama, Akihiko; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Marumo, Katsumi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

2005-01-01

231

Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage) and at the end (harvest stage) of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of [...] several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers) were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season.

Ana Fernández, Scavino; Javier, Menes; Lucía, Ferrando; Silvana, Tarlera.

232

Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage) and at the end (harvest stage) of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers) were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season. PMID:24031512

Scavino, Ana Fernández; Menes, Javier; Ferrando, Lucía; Tarlera, Silvana

2010-04-01

233

Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage and at the end (harvest stage of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season.

Ana Fernández Scavino

2010-06-01

234

Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2011-05-15

235

Análisis de la integración eléctrica Panamá - CAN bajo el esquema de subasta implícita / Analysis of the electricity markets integration between Panama and the andean community under implicit auctions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ochoa Jaramillo, María Camila (2010) Análisis de la integración eléctrica Panamá - CAN bajo el esquema de subasta implícita / Analysis of the electricity markets integration between Panama and the andean community under implicit auctions. Maestría thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Ochoa Jaramillo, Mari?a Camila

2010-01-01

236

Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion  

Science.gov (United States)

The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file transfer and remote job execution on the grid network of machines. In addition, science support was needed to vet that the grid technology did not have any adverse affects of the science module outputs. Other open source, unproven technologies, such as a workflow package to manage jobs submitted by the user, were infused into the overall system with successful results. This presentation will discuss the basic capabilities of LC-ComPS, explain how the technology was infused, and provide lessons learned for using and integrating the various technologies while developing and operating the system, and finally outline plans moving forward (maintenance and operations decisions) based on the experience to date.

Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

2008-12-01

237

Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social–ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

Grenville D. Barnes

2012-12-01

238

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25373234

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

239

Analysis of the microbial communities on corroded concrete sewer pipes--a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional as well as molecular techniques have been used to determine the microbial communities present on the concrete walls of sewer pipes. The genetic fingerprint of the microbiota on corroded concrete sewer pipes was obtained by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The DGGE profiles of the bacterial communities present on the concrete surface changed as observed by shifts occurring at the level of the dominance of bands from non-corroded places to the most severely corroded places. By means of statistical tools, it was possible to distinguish two different groups, corresponding to the microbial communities on corroded and non-corroded surfaces, respectively. Characterization of the microbial communities indicated that the sequences of typical bands showed the highest level of identity to sequences from the bacterial strains Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Acidithiobacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp. and different heterotrophs belonging to the alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. In addition, the presence of N-acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules was shown by two bio-assays of the biofilm on the concrete under the water level and at the most severely corroded places on the concrete surface of the sewer pipe. PMID:11778893

Vincke, E; Boon, N; Verstraete, W

2001-12-01

240

A spatial analysis of community disadvantage and access to healthcare services in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing socioeconomic and racial and ethnic gaps in access to healthcare make it vital to examine the relationship between characteristics of communities and their impact on the availability of healthcare services. This study investigates how community-based resource constraints influence the provision of healthcare services in the United States. Drawing on several theoretical frameworks including research in the spatial distribution of healthcare, we compile data on 3141 U.S. counties in order to investigate the argument that gaps in the provision of substance abuse treatment are a function of resource constraints experienced by disadvantaged communities. Our principal aim is to demonstrate that socioeconomic privation, racial and ethnic isolation and limited healthcare infrastructure constrain the provision of substance abuse treatment services. Since prior research shows spatial clustering of socioeconomic privation, racial and ethnic isolation, and healthcare resources, we explicitly model the spatial dimensions of community-based resource disadvantage. Central findings support our chief expectations: counties with greater socioeconomic privation and diminished healthcare infrastructure experienced limited access to substance abuse treatment. Moreover, treatment clusters themselves were significantly related to socioeconomic privation and diminished healthcare infrastructure. Counties with a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority members, however, did not experience less access to substance abuse treatment, with one exception, although post hoc analyses showed poverty had a moderating effect on race and ethnicity. Study limitations and implications for the organization of treatment resources are discussed. PMID:23746604

Archibald, Matthew E; Putnam Rankin, Caddie

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparative day/night metatranscriptomic analysis of microbial communities in the North Pacific subtropical gyre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial assemblages (abundance (35% of cell counts and 21% 16S rRNA of libraries), and may represent the most actively transcribing cells in this surface ocean community in both the day and night. Major heterotrophic taxa contributing to the community transcriptome included alpha-Proteobacteria (19% of annotated sequences, most of which were SAR11-related) and gamma-Proteobacteria (4%). The composition of transcript pools was consistent with models of prokaryotic gene expression, including operon-based transcription patterns and an abundance of genes predicted to be highly expressed. Metabolic activities that are shared by many microbial taxa (e.g. glycolysis, citric acid cycle, amino acid biosynthesis and transcription and translation machinery) were well represented among the community transcripts. There was an overabundance of transcripts for photosynthesis, C1 metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation in the day compared with night, and evidence that energy acquisition is coordinated with solar radiation levels for both autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes. In contrast, housekeeping activities such as amino acid biosynthesis, membrane synthesis and repair, and vitamin biosynthesis were overrepresented in the night transcriptome. Direct sequencing of these environmental transcripts has provided detailed information on metabolic and biogeochemical responses of a microbial community to solar forcing. PMID:19207571

Poretsky, Rachel S; Hewson, Ian; Sun, Shulei; Allen, Andrew E; Zehr, Jonathan P; Moran, Mary Ann

2009-06-01

242

Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

2011-11-01

243

Economic and Social Factors in Mate Selection: An Ethnographic Analysis of an Agricultural Community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the impact of a variety of causal factors--economic, social, familial, and dyadic--on ethnoreligious marriages over 50 years in an Illinois agricultural community. Indicated that economic and social factors were more powerful influences in mate selection than is evident in much of the current research on premarital relationships.…

Davis-Brown, Karen; And Others

1987-01-01

244

Needs Analysis for Designing an Information/Library Technician Curriculum for Pikes Peak Community College.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on the methods and findings of a study conducted by the Pikes Peak Community College to determine the need for a paraprofessional library training program. Examines library paraprofessionals' subject area interests, perceptions of job concerns and weaknesses, preferred class times, and biographical information on respondents. (DMM)

Alire, Camila A.

1986-01-01

245

A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

2011-01-01

246

An Analysis of the Educational Preferences among Adult Residents of Arapahoe Community College's Service Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 1985, a study was conducted by Arapahoe Community College (ACC) to determine the preferences of service area adults for educational opportunities. Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected households and distributed by local libraries, recreation centers, and other nonprofit organizations, soliciting information on interest in…

Voorhees, Richard A.; Hart, Sharon

247

Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

Tiquia, Sonia M.

248

Community College Enrollment Surge: An Analysis of Estimated Fall 2009 Headcount Enrollments at Community Colleges. Policy Brief 2009-01PBL  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to better understand how community colleges responded to the economic maelstrom, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) surveyed its member institutions to examine changes in enrollment, local factors contributing to enrollment shifts, and the lessons learned from their experiences. The authors found the following: (1)…

Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

2009-01-01

249

Analysis and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community with amoA gene in sewage treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is crucial, as they initiate the biological removal of ammonia-nitrogen from sewage. Previous methods for analyzing the microbial community structure, which involve the plating of samples or culture media over agar plates, have been inadequate because many microorganisms found in a sewage plant are unculturable. In this study, to exclusively detect AOB, the analysis was carried out via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using a primer specific to the amoA gene, which is one of the functional genes known as ammonia monooxygenase. An AOB consortium (S1 sample) that could oxidize an unprecedented 100% of ammonia in 24 h was obtained from sewage sludge. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the AOB. Results of the microbial community analysis in terms of carbon utilization ability of samples showed that the aeration tank water sample (S2), influent water sample (S3), and effluent water sample (S4) used all the 31 substrates considered, whereas the AOB consortium (S1) used only Tween 80, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, D-malic acid, and L-serine after 192 h. The largest concentration of AOB was detected in S1 (7.6 × 10(6) copies/microliter), followed by S2 (3.2 × 10(6) copies/microliter), S4 (2.8 × 10(6) copies/microliter), and S3 (2.4 × 10(6) copies/microliter). PMID:22814491

Hong, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Hyun Duck; Jung, Bongjin; Lee, Eun Young

2012-09-01

250

Building ties: social capital network analysis of a forest community in a biosphere reserve in Chiapas, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Governance of the commons depends on the capacity to generate collective action. Networks and rules that foster that collective action have been defined as social capital. However, their causal link is still not fully understood. We use social network analysis to assess social capital, decision-making, and collective action in a forest-based common pool resource management in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve (Chiapas, Mexico. Our research analyzes the productive networks and the evolution of coffee groups in one community. The network shows some centrality, with richer landholders tending to occupy core positions and poorer landless peasants occupying peripheral ones. This has fostered the community's environmentally oriented development but has also caused internal conflicts. Market requirements have shaped different but complementary productive networks, where organic coffee commercialization is the main source of bridging ties, which has resulted in more connectivity and resilience. Conservation attitudes, along with the institutional setting of the community, have promoted collective action. The unresolved conflicts, however, still leave some concerns about governance in the future.

Felipe Reyes

2012-09-01

251

Microbial community structures of novel Icelandic hot spring systems revealed by PhyloChip G3 analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial community profiles of recently formed hot spring systems ranging in temperatures from 57°C to 100°C and pH values from 2 to 4 in Hveragerði (Iceland) were analyzed with PhyloChip G3 technology. In total, 1173 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) spanning 576 subfamilies and 38 archaeal OTUs covering 32 subfamilies were observed. As expected, the hyperthermophilic (?100°C) spring system exhibited both low microbial biomass and diversity when compared to thermophilic (? 60°C) springs. Ordination analysis revealed distinct bacterial and archaeal diversity in geographically distinct hot springs. Slight variations in temperature (from 57°C to 64°C) within the interconnected pools led to a marked fluctuation in microbial abundance and diversity. Correlation and PERMANOVA tests provided evidence that temperature was the key environmental factor responsible for microbial community dynamics, while pH, H2S, and SO2 influenced the abundance of specific microbial groups. When archaeal community composition was analyzed, the majority of detected OTUs correlated negatively with temperature, and few correlated positively with pH. PMID:24588539

Krebs, Jordan E; Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; Tom, Lauren M; Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2014-03-01

252

DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the phyllosphere of lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food associated indigenous microbial communities exert antagonistic effects on pathogens and may routinely deliver health relevant microorganisms to the GI tract. By using molecular, culture independent methods including PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA-coding regions and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting, microbial communities on lettuce were analyzed in samples from fields, from supermarkets and soil. Amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences (57.7%) could be assigned to species previously reported as typical for the phyllosphere including Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas flavescens, Moraxella spp., and Mycobacterium spp. 71.8% of the sequences obtained represented so far undescribed taxa. Principal component analysis of BIOLOG metabolic profiles indicated a seasonal variation in the lettuce phyllosphere microbial community structure. Various lactic acid bacteria were detected including several Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species in particular on lettuce from organic farming. By RT-PCR lactobacilli were found with a range of abundances from 1x10(4 )to 1x10(5 )copies/g lettuce. Considering the importance of salad in many diets lettuce may contribute to a constant supply with LAB. PMID:18398868

Zwielehner, Jutta; Handschur, Michael; Michaelsen, Astrid; Irez, Selen; Demel, Michael; Denner, Ewald B M; Haslberger, Alexander G

2008-05-01

253

Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and methanogenic community analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste was investigated under mesophilic conditions and the methanogenic community was investigated using 454 pyrosequencing. Stable dry AD was achieved by hydraulic retention time (HRT) control without the addition of alkali agents. The average CH4 production rate, CH4 content, and volatile solid reduction rate were 2.51±0.17m(3)/m(3)/d, 66±2.1%, and 65.8±1.22%, respectively, at an HRT of 40d. The methanogenic community of the seed sludge experienced a significant reduction in genus diversity from 18 to 4 and a dominant methanogenic shift from hydrogenotrophic to acetoclastic groups after the acclimation under dry condition. Almost all sequences of the dry anaerobic digester were closely related with those of Methanosarcina thermophila with similarity of 96.4-99.1%. The experimental results would serve as useful information to understand the dry AD system. PMID:23347929

Cho, Si-Kyung; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Shin, Hang-Sik; Oh, Sae-Eun

2013-03-01

254

Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3H2O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 ?m), detritus derived from 14C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 ?m), and phytoplankton represented by 14C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 ?m) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

255

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

Pedden, M.

2006-01-01

256

Community Detecting and Feature Analysis in Real Directed Weighted Social Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Real social networks usually have some structural features of the complex networks, such as community structure, the scale-free degree distribution, clustering, "small world" network, dynamic evolution and so on. A new community detecting algorithm for directed and weighted social networks is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of more reference information, the accuracy of the algorithm is better than some of the typical detecting algorithms. And because of the use of heap structure and multi-task modular architecture, the algorithm also got a high computational efficiency than other algorithms. The effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm is validated by experiments on real social networks. Based on the theories and models of complex networks, the features of the real large social networks are analyzed.

Yao Liu

2013-06-01

257

PCR-DGGE Analysis of the Microbial Communities in Three Different Chinese "Baiyunbian" Liquor Fermentation Starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement. PMID:24809292

Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

2014-08-28

258

Community structure analysis of reverse osmosis membrane biofilms and the significance of Rhizobiales bacteria in biofouling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biofilm community structure of a biofouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was examined using a polyphasic approach, and the dominant phylotypes retrieved were related to the order Rhizobiales, a group of bacteria that is hitherto not implicated in membrane biofouling. A comparison with two other membrane biofilms using T-RFLP fingerprinting also revealed the dominance of Rhizobiales organisms. When pure culture RO biofilm isolates were cultivated aerobically in BIOLOG microplates, most Rhizobiales were metabolically versatile in their choice of carbon substrates. Nitrate reduction was observed in five RO isolates related to Castellaniella, Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. Many of the key Rhizobiales genera including Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Shinella, and Rhodopseudomonas were detected by PCR to contain the nirK gene responsible for nitrite reductase activity. These findings suggest that Rhizobiales organisms are ecologically significant in membrane biofilm communities under both aerobic and anoxic conditions and may be responsible for biofouling in membrane separation systems. PMID:17695921

Pang, Chee Meng; Liu, Wen-Tso

2007-07-01

259

The Australian Information Systems Research Community: an analysis of mainstream publication outlets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of the nature of and interactions among the Information Systems academic research community in Australia. The 382 refereed papers from the two mainstream IS refereed publication outlets in Australia were analysed for the period 1990-1996 to determine the contributions of individual universities, departments and authors to the pattern of collaboration, and to examine the nature of the contributors. The study revealed that several institutions, departments and authors dominated the publication outlets and that the majority of the collaboration that occurred took place within university departments. Collaboration between and among different disciplines and nations, and between practitioners and academics was limited. It was found that although the Australian academic IS research community had only recently emerged, it was growing strongly.

Gail Ridley

1998-05-01

260

Searching for feminism: an analysis of community psychology literature relevant to women's concerns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles published in both the American Journal of Community Psychology and Journal of Community Psychology, from their inception in 1973 through 1997, were content analyzed for women relevance, diversity, feminism, and historical change. Overall, 9.8% of the articles reviewed (N = 2,178) were considered women relevant, 4% recognized diversity among women, and 3% were considered feminist. There was an average yearly increase in women-relevant and feminist articles from 7.3 pre-1990 to 11.2 post-1990, and 1.6 pre-1990 to 4.6 post-1990, respectively. Overall, mental health and motherhood were the most addressed content areas. Among feminist articles, gender roles and violence against women were most salient. Race and SES were the most noted issues of diversity in both women-relevant and feminist articles. While an increase in feminist publications by both journals is promising, stereotypes of women and other oppressed groups continue to be perpetuated. PMID:11109479

Angelique, H L; Culley, M R

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46). Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

Pharris, Anastasia

2011-09-18

262

Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education. Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91, feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66, having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66, and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99 were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90 or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46. Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

Brugha Ruairí

2011-09-01

263

Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C)2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

264

Variation in Microbial Community Structure in Two Boreal Peatlands as Determined by Analysis of Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to assess variation in community structure and total microbial biomass in two boreal peatlands in Sweden. The total PLFA concentration in peat ranged from 0.16 to 7.0 nmol g of wet peat(sup-1) (median, 0.70 nmol g of wet peat(sup-1)). Principal-component analysis of PLFA data revealed that the degree of depth-related variation in PLFA composition was high among peatland habitats, with general differences between wet sites, with water tabl...

Sundh, I.; Nilsson, M.; Borga, P.

1997-01-01

265

Analysis of links between groundwater recharge and discharge areas and wetland plant communities distribution in Middle Biebrza Basin, Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural evolution of wetlands is strongly dependent on groundwater dynamics, soil aeration and climate. These environmental factors determine the constant development of wetland plant communities and peat forming processes. Depending on spatial distribution of groundwater flow systems and recharge and discharge conditions, shallow groundwater can also be influenced by phreatophytic plants. Such feedback plays an important role in wetland development, especially when landuse or climate changes occur. Thus, understanding the links between dynamics of biotopic and biocenotic relations is crucial for wetland management aimed at the comprehensive set of conservation strategies. Main aim of this study was to review links between valuable wetland plant communities and the groundwater recharge/discharge conditions of particular habitats of Middle Biebrza Basin, Poland. The study area consists of various types of wetland landscapes, of which the dominant are fens. Organogenic top layer is intersected locally by sandy dunes and glaci-fluvial residual plateaus. The northern boundary of the study area is covered with an outwash plateau. A three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model was set up to quantify groundwater system and flow paths. Model calibration involved measured heads of the unconfined organogenic top layer and the underlaying, confined sandy aquifer. Measured thickness of unsaturated zone as well as physical parameters of organogenic layer were taken into account in interpretation of shallow groundwater dynamics. Recharge to groundwater was spatially distributed in accordance to analysis of measured precipitation-groundwater level relationships. Cell-by-cell flow analysis and groundwater exfiltration analysis were applied to map groundwater recharge and discharge areas within the modelled area. Results of groundwater modelling were validated with phytosociologic research combined with remote-sensing based spatial analysis of wetland habitats distribution. Results indicated spatial distibution of water balance components of different wetland habitats. In areas of fen plant communities, modelled intensity of vertical upward groundwater flow to the top layer is significantly higher than in ombrotrophic habitats. Research indicated, that spatial patterns of groundwater recharge/discharge intensity is strongly linked to areal distribution of water quality dependent phreatophytic plant communities. In certain areas, simulated drainage conditions increased the thickness of the unsaturated zone, which explains a crucial response of wetland evolution in the last centuries: redirection of groundwater flow towards artificial canals resulted in diminished throughflow in organogenic layer, which causes accumulation of acidic rain water and - consequently - development of ombrotrophic habitats.

Grygoruk, Mateusz; Batelaan, Okke; Okruszko, Tomasz; Kotowski, Wiktor; Rycharski, Marek; Chormanski, Jaroslaw; Miroslaw-Swiatek, Dorota

2010-05-01

266

The analysis of spatial changes in the cadastral community of Postojna based on archival materials of franziscean land cadastre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma thesis, the archived documents of Franziscean Land Cadastre is presented, which we used to analyse the spatial characteristics in the 19th century for the case of the area in the cadastral community of Postojna. A brief introduction about the history of land cadastre in Slovenia is followed by the presentation of results of comparative analysis, where the situation of land use was analysed from the perspective of plot’s structure and land use patterns. Here we compared the s...

Bajec, Urs?a

2013-01-01

267

The integration of Ukraine and Moldova into the Energy Community - a liberal intergovernmantal analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to analyse the integration of Ukraine and Moldova into the Energy Community using the theoretical framework of liberal intergovernmentalism. The main focus is on cooperation with regard to gas energy security and the theoretical framework of liberal intergovernmentalism is applied to analyse the economic and geopolitical motivations for cooperating on energy as a mean to ensure the gas transit dimension of EU energy security on the one side and as a mean to solve the e...

Petersen, Anne Hald

2012-01-01

268

The Analysis of Global Problems of the World Community and the Purposes of a Millenium ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article sights of scientists at modern global problems of the world community are analyzed. Results of researches on this point in question of scientists and the organizations are considered: the Roman club, the United Nations Organization, the World bank of reconstruction and development, the World Economic Forum. The history of researches of global problems of mankind is analyzed. Author's vision of classification of global problems of mankind is offered.? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????: ???????? ?????, ???, ?????????? ????? ????????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????.

Kizim Nikolay A.

2010-04-01

269

Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray ...

Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

270

Mangrove community in an abandoned crick kiln: A structural and association analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly river sites of lower Bengal is very usualand this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to other south Asian countries.The abandoned brick kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due totidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim ofthe present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the communitydynamics of a mangrove ecosystem.Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m.Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency,relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image andground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2contingency/species association table.Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratiacaseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangroveassociates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. Thehigh importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparumindicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3species also suggests helping in developing community in stressed environment.Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their communitydynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for futureafforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

Sumit Manna

2012-03-01

271

Phylogenetic analysis of atmospheric halotolerant bacterial communities at high altitude in an Asian dust (KOSA) arrival region, Suzu City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. However, the atmospheric microbial community has not been investigated at high altitude in the KOSA arrival area. In this study, to estimate the viability and diversity of atmospheric halotolerant bacteria, which are expected to resist to various environmental stresses as well as high salinities, bioaerosol samples were collected at 10 and 600 m above the ground within the KOSA arrival area, Suzu City, Japan, during KOSA events. During the sampling period, the particle numbers at 600 m were higher than those at 10 m, suggesting that large particles of aerosol fall from the high altitude of 600 m to the ground surface. The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15% NaCl concentrations demonstrating the viability of the halotolerant bacteria in bioaerosol samples. The PCR-DGGE analysis using 16S rDNA revealed that the bacterial species in NaCl-amended cultures were similar to the bacteria detected from the genomic DNA directly extracted from the bioaerosol samples. The 16S rDNA sequences of bacterial communities in bioaerosol samples were classified into 4 phylotypes belonging to the Bacilluscereus or Bacillussubtilis group. The bioaerosol samples collected at 600 m included 2 phylotypes belonging to B. subtilis, and one phylotype among all 4 phylotypes was identical between the samples at 10 and 600 m. In the atmosphere at 600 m, the halotolerant bacterial community was expected to remain viable, and the species composition was expected to include a few species of the genus Bacillus. During this investigation period, these atmospheric bacteria may have been vertically transported to the ground surface, where the long-range KOSA particle transport from China is frequently observed.

Maki, Teruya, E-mail: makiteru@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Susuki, Shinzi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Kakikawa, Makiko [Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Tobo, Yutaka [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Maromu [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Science, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Higashi, Tomomi [Hygiene, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640 (Japan); Matsuki, Atsushi; Hong, Chunsang [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hiroshi [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Iwasaka, Yasunobu [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan)

2010-09-15

272

Nitrifying Community Analysis in a Single Submerged Attached-Growth Bioreactor for Treatment of High-Ammonia Waste Stream  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the nitrifying community structure in a single-stage submerged attached-growth bioreactor (SAGB) that successfully achieved stable nitrogen removal over nitrite of a high-strength ammonia wastewater. The reactor was operated with intermittent aeration and external carbon addition (methanol). With influent ammonia and total Kjeldahl nitrogen ranging from 537 to 968 mg/L and 643 to1510 mg/L, respectively, 85% nitrogen removal was obtained, and effluent was dominated by nitrite (NO2 ?/NOx >0.95). Nitrifying community analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), with a hierarchical set of probes targeting known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) within beta-proteobacteria, showed that the AOB community of the biofilter consists almost entirely of members of the Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and the Nitrosococcus mobilis lineages. Image analysis of FISH pictures was used to quantify the identified AOB, and it was estimated that Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha-like AOB accounted for 4.3% of the total volume of the biofilm, while Nitrosococcus mobilis-like AOB made up 1.2%; these numbers summed up to a total AOB fraction of 5.5% of the total volume on the biofilm. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were not detectable in the biofilm samples with probes for either Nitrospira sp. or Nitrobacter sp., which indicated that NOB were either absent from the biofilters or present in numbers below the detection limit of FISH (<0.1% of the total biofilm). Nitrite oxidizers were likely outcompeted from the system because of the free ammonia inhibition and the possibility that the aeration period (from intermittent aeration) was not sufficiently long for the NOB to be released from the competition for oxygen with heterotrophs and AOB. The nitrogen removal via nitrite in a SAGB reactor described in this study is applicable for high-ammonia-strength wastewater treatment, such as centrate or industrial wastes. Udgivelsesdato: December 2007

Gu, April Z.; Pedros, Philip B

2007-01-01

273

Comparative analysis of bacterial communities in a potato field as determined by pyrosequencing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Plants selectively attract particular soil microorganisms, in particular consumers of root-excreted compounds. It is unclear to what extent cultivar type and/or growth stage affect this process. Methodology/Principal Findings: DNA-based pyrosequencing was used to characterize the structure of bacterial communities in a field cropped with potato. The rhizospheres of six cultivars denoted Aveka, Aventra, Karnico, Modena, Premiere and Desiree, at three growth stages (young, flowering and senescence) were examined, in addition to corresponding bulk soils. Around 350,000 sequences were obtained (5,700 to 38,000 per sample). Across all samples, rank abundance distributions best fitted the power law model, which indicates a community composed of a few highly dominant species next to numerous rare species. Grouping of the sequences showed that members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, next to as-yet-unclassified bacteria, dominated. Other groups that were consistently found, albeit at lower abundance, were Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Principal components analyses revealed that rhizosphere samples were significantly different from corresponding bulk soil in each growth stage. Furthermore, cultivar effects were found in the young plant stage, whereas these became insignificant in the flowering and senescence stages. Besides, an effect of time of season was observed for both rhizosphere and bulk soils. The analyzed rhizosphere samples of the potato cultivars were grouped into two groups, in accordance with the allocation of carbon to starch in their tubers, i.e. Aveka, Aventra and Karnico (high) versus Premiere and Desiree (low) and thus replicates per group were established. Conclusions: Across all potato cultivars, the young plant stages revealed cultivar-dependent bacterial community structures, which disappeared in the flowering and senescence stages. Furthermore, Pseudomonas, Beta-, Alpha- and Deltaproteobacteria flourished under different ecological conditions than the Acidobacteria.

Inceoglu, Özgül; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

2011-01-01

274

Microbial community characterization, activity analysis and purifying efficiency in a biofilter process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth and metabolism of microbial communities on biologically activated carbon (BAC) play a crucial role in the purification of drinking water. To gain insight into the growth and metabolic characteristics of microbial communities and the efficiency of drinking water treatment in a BAC filter, we analyzed the heterotrophic plate count (HPC), phospholipid, dehydrogenase, metabolic function and water quality parameters during start-up and steady-state periods. In the start-up process of the filter with natural biofilm colonization, the variation in heterotrophic plate count levels was S-curved. The total phospholipid level was very low during the first 5 days and reached a maximum value after 40 days in the filter. The activity of dehydrogenase gradually increased during the first 30 days and then reached a plateau. The functional diversity of the microbial community in the filter increased, and then reached a relatively stable level by day 40. After an initial decrease, which was followed by an increase, the removal rate of NH4(+)-N and COD(Mn) became stable and was 80% and 28%, respectively, by day 40. The consumption rate of dissolved oxygen reached a steady level after 29 days, and remained at 18%. At the steady operation state, the levels of HPC, phospholipid, dehydrogenase activity and carbon source utilization had no significant differences after 6 months compared to levels measured on day 40. The filter was shown to be effective in removing NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, COD(Mn), UV254, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and trace organic pollutants from the influent. Our results suggest that understanding changes in the growth and metabolism of microorganisms in BAC filter could help to improve the efficiency of biological treatment of drinking water. PMID:23923776

Xiang, Hong; Lu, Xiwu; Yin, Lihong; Yang, Fei; Zhu, Guangcan; Liu, Wuping

2013-04-01

275

Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

1990-01-01

276

Multi criteria analysis for sustainability assessments of electricity generation systems in a rural community in South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the key challenges of the energy policy in South Africa is to ensure that rural areas have access to electricity. This is reflected in the key energy policy documents (the 1998 Energy White Paper and the 2002 Renewable Energy White Paper). Both these documents identified renewable energy resources as immediate alternatives to grid electricity in especially remote rural communities that are characterised by low population densities. Centralised energy generation and transmission is very costly and inefficient in these areas due to greater transmission and distribution losses. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is relatively cheaper, it is not accessible for many rural households. There are still over two million households in rural areas without access to electricity. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to compare various electricity technologies (mainly renewables) in a specific rural community of South Africa using social, economic, environment and technical indicators. These technologies were than ranked against each indicator assuming that the high-level criteria have equal importance for sustainable development. It is demonstrated that energy from wind is the most sustainable, followed by photovoltaic, anaerobic digestion (biogas) and then gasification. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to verify the stability of the priority ranking. The outcome of this study will specifically assist energy planners and decision-makers to choose the best alternative from a range of technology alternatives in a milieu of conflicting and competing criteria. (orig.)

Amigun, B.; Mehlwana, M. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment; Musango, J.K. [Department of Energy (DoE), Pretoria (South Africa); Brent, A.C. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

2011-07-01

277

[Comparative analysis of the treatment of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia and its different outcomes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the work was to compare the quality of medical care provided to patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its different outcomes. (complete recovery, or death--25 patients in either group). In the latter group, the patients did not undergo adequate clinical and instrumental examination at the pre-hospital stage). Most recovered patients were given high doses of ceftriaxone, clarithromycin and ambroxol or low doses of systemic glucocorticoids. A pulmonologist participated in the treatment of these patients twice as frequently as in the treatment of the patients of the latter group. Effects of high doses of systemic glucocorticoids remains debatable. PMID:23789451

Vizel', A A; Lysenko, G V

2013-01-01

278

Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

Aldrich, R.

2012-08-01

279

Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maximum likelihood approach to inference where problems arise due to unknown interaction radii for the plants. We next demonstrate that a Bayesian approach provides a flexible framework for incorporating prior information concerning the interaction radii. From an ecological perspective, we are able both to confirm existing knowledge on species' interactions and to generate new biological questions and hypotheses on species' interactions. Udgivelsesdato: September

Illian, Janine B.; MØller, Jesper

2009-01-01

280

The effects of community factors on school participation in Turkey: A multilevel analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey, however, have focused extensively on the association between household-level factors and school participation, ignoring the role of the broader environment in which children live. Using a recent, large-scale and nationally representative data set, this paper investigates school participation at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey, giving specific attention to community- level factors. In taking into account socioeconomic context variables using the multilevel modelling method, this study contributes significantly to current school participation literature in Turkey. The author's findings highlight the importance of community/context factors in explaining low school enrolment in Turkey. The results of the study can help policy makers develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic context and school participation, and enable them to make more appropriate decisions for improving school participation across the country.

Gumus, Sedat

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J; García, Pilar

2012-12-01

282

Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economics of community-scale solar systems that incorporate a centralized annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) coupled to a distribution system is examined. Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single-unit dwellings, 10-unit, and 200-unit apartment complexes in 50-, 200-, 400-, and 1000-unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: (1) identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and (2) identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system. In more northerly locations, collectors are a larger component of cost. In southern locations, distribution networks are a larger proportion of total cost. Larger, more compact buildings are, in general, less expensive to heat. For the two smaller-scale building configurations, a broad minima in total costs versus system size is often observed.

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

1981-02-01

283

Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

Jong-Keun Shin

2013-05-01

284

Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from Poltavska oblast (22 horses), Kyivska oblast (17 horses) and Sumska oblast (5 horses) of Ukraine were included in the study. Horses were treated with Univerm anthelmintic (0.2% aversectin) at a dose rate of 0.5mg aversectin preparation per kg body weight. Faecal sampling (200 g each) was performed at 24, 36, 48 and 60 h post treatment, and all nematodes expelled were collected and identified. The largest numbers of strongylids were expelled at 24--36 h after treatment. Twenty-five nematode species from the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were identified. The number of strongylid species found per horse ranged from 7 to 20, on an average 11+/-3.6 (S.D.). The number of cyathostomin species found per horse ranged from 7 to 16, on an average 10+/-2.3 (S.D.). Cylicocyclus nassatus and Cyathostomum catinatum were the most dominant species were found in 100% of horses, amounting to 36.3% and 17.6% of the total number of strongylids collected, respectively. C. longibursatus, C. ashworthi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. leptostomus and C. minutus were identified in more than 80% horses and represented 39.9% of the total number of strongylids collected. The dynamics of the different strongylid species expelled was irregular. Correlation between the time of cyathostomin species expulsion in faeces and their predicted localisation inside the horse intestine was found. Species mainly localised in the caecum were found in faeces later than those species localised in the dorsal and ventral colons. Larvae and adult Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi and botfly larvae from the genus Gasterophilus were also found in horse faeces. This investigation shows that is possible to study the horse strongylid community after deworming with aid of an aversectin drug. The results obtained here correspond to those recorded in previous autopsy surveys in other countries. PMID:15979240

Kuzmina, T A; Kharchenko, V A; Starovir, A I; Dvojnos, G M

2005-08-10

285

Microarray-based analysis of survival of soil microbial community during ozonation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 15 h ozonation was performed on bioremediated soil to remove recalcitrant residual oil. To monitor the survival of indigenous microorganisms in the soil during in-situ chemical oxidation(ISCO) culturing and a functional genearray, GeoChip, was used to examine the functional genes and structure of the microbial community during ozonation (0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 10hand15h). Breakthrough ozonation decreased the population of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria by about 3 orders of magnitude. The total functional gene abundance and diversity decreased during ozonation, as the number of functional genes was reduced by 48percent after 15 h. However, functional genes were evenly distributed during ozonation as judged by the Shannon-Weaver Evenness index. A sharp decrease in gene number was observed in the first 6 h of ozonation followed by a slower decrease in the next 9 h, which was consistent with microbial populations measured by a culture based method. Functional genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphors and sulfur cycling, metal resistance and organic remediation were detected in all samples. Though the pattern of gene categories detected was similar for all time points, hierarchica lcluster of all functional genes and major functional categories all showed a time-serial pattern. Bacteria, archaea and fungi decreased by 96.1percent, 95.1percent and 91.3percent, respectively, after 15 h ozonation. Delta proteobacteria, which were reduced by 94.3percent, showed the highest resistance to ozonation while Actinobacteria, reduced by 96.3percent, showed the lowest resistance. Microorganisms similar to Rhodothermus, Obesumbacterium, Staphylothermus, Gluconobacter, and Enterococcus were dominant at all time points. Functional genes related to petroleum degradation decreased 1~;;2 orders of magnitude. Most of the key functional genes were still detected after ozonation, allowing a rapid recovery of the microbial community after ozonation. While ozone had a large impact on the indigenous soil microorganisms, a fraction of the key functional gene-containing microorganisms survived during ozonation and kept the community functional.

Wang, Jian; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe

2010-05-17

286

Metagenomic and Meta-transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a highly interdisciplinary study of in situ reductive immobilization of Cr at DOE's Hanford 100H site, we are developing a systems biology approach (employing metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic data) to identify highly expressed genes in the native microbial community under conditions of interest, without requiring any a priori sequence information or assumptions about what processes might be occurring. A key scientific goal is to determine if there are diagnostic biomolecular signatures indicative of important aquifer biogeochemical processes that can be used to (a) help discriminate between direct (enzymatic) and indirect (abiotic) oxidation-reduction processes relevant to bioremediation and (b) to inform and constrain reactive transport models even when geochemical field measurements do not reveal all relevant processes. We are in the process of collecting metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequence information from various experimental systems under conditions relevant to in situ chromate reduction at Hanford 100H. This poster focuses on Hanford microcosm studies. To characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions successively through electron-accepting conditions relevant to the Hanford subsurface, we inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site [e.g., nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III)]. Metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic "snapshots" were taken during denitrification, sulfate and Fe(III) reduction, and nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and sulfide. We conducted Illumina paired-end sequencing, assembled with ABySS-pe, and initially annotated using MG-RAST and CAMERA. cDNA samples for meta-transcriptome sequencing represented mRNA enriched using a new subtractive hybridization method resulting in 61-78% of reads mapping to their corresponding metagenomes. Observations from the analyses to date include the following: (1) consistent phylogenetic community transitions were documented by 16S rRNA pyrotag and metagenome sequence data as Hanford microcosms passed successively through denitrifying conditions (dominated initially by beta-Proteobacteria) to fermentative and sulfate- and iron-reducing conditions (dominated by Firmicutes); (2) the greatest diversity of denitrification genes occurred during initial denitrifying phase; (3) high expression of nitrate reductase (nar) and S oxidation (soxWXYZABCD) genes occurred after nitrate was added to cultures following sulfate-reducing phase, even though S oxidation was not detectable based on sulfate measurements; and (4) highly expressed genes in Hanford microcosms and groundwater included "hypothetical proteins", which supports the monitoring approach that we are pursuing, namely, to focus on highly expressed genes specific to Hanford rather than genes chosen a priori.

Beller, H. R.; Lim, H.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.; Brodie, E. L.

2011-12-01

287

Bacterial community structure analysis of sediment in the Sagami River, Japan using a rapid approach based on two-dimensional DNA gel electrophoresis mapping with selective primer pairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid approach based on two-dimensional DNA gel electrophroesis (2-DGE) mapping with selective primer pairs was employed to analyze bacterial community structure in sediments from upstream, midstream and downstream of Sagami River in Japan. The 2-DGE maps indicated that Alpha- and Delta-proteobacteria were major bacterial populations in the upstream and midstream sediments. Further bacterial community structure analysis showed that richness proportion of Alpha- and Delta-proteobacterial groups reflected a trend toward decreasing from the upstream to downstream sediments. The biomass proportion of bacterial populations in the midstream sediment showed a significantly difference from that in the other sediments, suggesting that there may be an environmental pressure on the midstream bacterial community. Lorenz curves, together with Gini coefficients were successfully applied to the 2-DGE mapping data for resolving evenness of bacterial populations, and showed that the plotted curve from high-resolution 2-DGE mapping became less linear and more an exponential function than that of the 1-DGE methods such as chain length analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting that the 2-DGE mapping may achieve a more detailed evaluation of bacterial community. In conclusion, the 2-DGE mapping combined with the selective primer pairs enables bacterial community structure analysis in river sediment and thus it can also monitor sediment pollution based on the change of bacterial community structure. PMID:21222030

Liu, Guo-hua; Rajendran, Narasimmalu; Amemiya, Takashi; Itoh, Kiminori

2011-11-01

288

COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW AND EMERGENCY PLANNING: USING COMPUTERS TO CONDUCT HAZARDS ANALYSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the process of hazards analysis and the basic building blocks of systems used for data storage, retrieval, correlation, and analysis, to better inform people choosing and/or evaluating the systems. The remainder of the paper discusses: (1) the process of hazar...

289

Social Network Analysis to Examine Interaction Patterns in Knowledge Building Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes use of social network analysis to examine student interaction patterns in a Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building class. The analysis included face-to-face interactions and interactions in the Knowledge Forum[R] Knowledge Building environment. It is argued that sociogram data are useful to reveal group processes; in sociological terms,…

Philip, Donald N.

2010-01-01

290

Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62 projects from previous reviews for a total of 136 projects. The analyses suggest that project design, particularly capacity building in local communities, is critical in generating success across all outcomes. In addition, some community characteristics, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for some aspects of project success. Surprisingly, there is less evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that conservation projects should be carefully designed to be effective and that some characteristics of local communities can facilitate success. That well-designed projects can prevail over disadvantages relating to the pre-existing national and local context is encouraging. As the evidence base on CBC grows, it will be useful to repeat this analysis with additional search terms, and consider additional variables related to national context to further evaluate the role of broader socio-political and economic contexts.

Brooks Jeremy

2013-01-01

291

Analysis of Aquatic Insects’ Communities of Awba Reservoir and its Physico-Chemical Properties  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the Awba reservoir insects’ communities and the health status through the determination of insects’ abundance, composition, distribution and water qualities parameters. Water samples and insects were collected bi-weekly from August through December, 2009. Insects were sampled using standard entomological methods, while water samples was analyzed using standard Winkler’s titrimetric and APHA methods to determine the chemical properties. Water analyses and insects’ identifications were conducted in the laboratory in Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State. The results show that only DO and phosphate-phosphorus had significant difference (p<0.05. A total of 1,154 insects were recorded, Chironomidae and Culicidae were most abundance. The chemical properties and the distinct taxa found in the water suggest that the water body is polluted and may be dangerous to the health of people around the reservoir.

K.O.K. Popoola

2011-06-01

292

Microbial community analysis of Deepwater Horizon oil-spill impacted sites along the Gulf coast using functional and phylogenetic markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on microbial communities in wetland sediment and seawater samples collected from sites along the Gulf shore. Based on GC/MS analysis, the sediment from Bay Jimmy, LA had detectable signs of hydrocarbon contamination, identified as n-alkanes in the GC/MS spectrum similar to that of the Deepwater Horizon source oil (MC-252). To identify changes in microbial assemblage structure and functional diversity in response to hydrocarbon contamination, five genes (bacterial 16S rRNA, Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA, alkB, P450, and PAH-RHD?) were selected based on the specific enzymes encoded by bacteria to degrade alkanes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A quantitative PCR analysis revealed the presence of alkane and PAH-degrading genes in both contaminated and non-contaminated samples with no significant difference in gene content between contaminated and non-contaminated samples. However, the ribotype analysis based on pyrosequencing identified 17 bacteria genera known for their capacity to degrade hydrocarbons, including Mycobacterium, Novosphingobium, Parvibaculum, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas, in the contaminated sediment sample. Furthermore, the contaminated sample had a very high relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated with the genus Parvibaculum, members of which have been characterized for their degradative abilities. These data suggest that specific bacterial taxa within the genus Parvibaculum have the capacity for hydrocarbon degradation and could use the hydrocarbons as a carbon and energy source, resulting in a dominant population in a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In summary, when exposed to the spilled oil, the distinct wetland microbial communities responded with decreased diversity and increased abundance of selective degradative species. PMID:24061682

Looper, Jessica K; Cotto, Ada; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Liles, Mark R; Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M; Son, Ahjeong

2013-10-01

293

??????????????????????? Analysis of Endophytic Fungal Community from Roots of Two Transgenic Rice  

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Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Gaeumannomyces??????????????????23.23%?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????21.25%?26.56%??????????????????????????????????????????????? Endophytic fungal community in roots of two transgenic rice (antifungal genes was studied by isolation and staining observation. Compared with non-transgenic rice, the isolation frequency and diversity of the endophytic fungi from two transgenic rice in different growth stages exhibited no significant differences in contrast with the control. Gaeumannomyces was the dominant population of endophytic fungi in the roots of rice with the dominance of 23.23%, and could be isolated in either the two transgenic rice or the control, and any growth stages. By staining observation, the infection rates of endophytic fungi in seedlings of transgenic rice were significantly lower than the control by 21.25% and 26.56% respectively, but there were no significant differences in tillering and maturity. Therefore, it is inferred that the transgenic rice had no significant effect on fungal communities in rice roots.

???

2012-09-01

294

Hydrocephalus is a rare outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults : a retrospective analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) continues to have a high mortality rate and often results in severe sequelae among survivors. Lately, an increased effort has been focused on describing the neurological complications of meningitis including hydrocephalus. To aid in this field of research we set out to ascertain the risk and outcome of hydrocephalus in patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) in North Denmark Region. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of CABM cases above 14 years of age. Cases diagnosed during a 13-year period, 1998 through 2010, were identified in a laboratory register and data were acquired through patient records. Cases not confirmed by culture met other strict inclusion criteria. The diagnosis of hydrocephalus relied upon the radiologists' reports on cranial imaging. Outcome was graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge from the primary admission. Long-term sequelae were based upon any subsequent hospital contacts until the end of 2011. RESULTS: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in five of 165 episodes (3%) and all were classified as communicating. Only 120 patients had cranial imaging done and in this group the rate was 4.2%. In three cases hydrocephalus was present at admission, while two cases were diagnosed on days 44 and 99, respectively, due to altered mental status. The aetiology was either Eschericia coli (n = 2) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 3). Case fatality was 60% among cases with hydrocephalus and 17% among other cases. Case fatality was similar irrespective of whether patients had a cranial CT or not. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in 3% of adolescent and adult cases with CABM and had a high case fatality rate in spite of specialised medical care and neurosurgical interventions. Our findings are comparable with a recent Dutch national prospective study.

Bodilsen, Jacob; SchØnheyder, Henrik Carl

2013-01-01

295

Analysis of refractive status and related factors of pupils in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community, Shanghai, 2011  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive status of pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai and analyze the relationships between visual acuity and relative factors. METHODS: All the in-school students of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai were involved in the study. Four hundred and sixty pupils out of 465 pupils were investigated(The rate was 98.9%. There were 445 pupils with fully data collection. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, age, height(H, weight(W, body mass index(BMI, diopter of spherical(S, diopter of cylinder(C, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(ALand corneal curvature(Kwere examined. The refractive status was described and the influence of relative factors was analyzed. UCVA measurement uses the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, recording by decimal number, then transform into LogMar vision for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, the average age was 9.49±1.47 year, SE was -0.85±1.82D and UCVA was +0.09±0.28. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 40.9% and 58.9%, respectively. With getting older, the prevalence of myopia increased with the average myopic SE developing significantly(P=0.000. UCVA and AL increased in the same time, SE decreased gradually(PPCONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was high in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai. Visual acuity is closely related to AL and growth factors.

Wei Zhu

2013-06-01

296

New Agilent platform DNA microarrays for transcriptome analysis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei for the malaria research community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have been a valuable tool in malaria research for over a decade but remain in limited use in part due their relatively high cost, poor availability, and technical difficulty. With the aim of alleviating some of these factors next-generation DNA microarrays for genome-wide transcriptome analysis for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei using the Agilent 8x15K platform were designed. Methods Probe design was adapted from previously published methods and based on the most current transcript predictions available at the time for P. falciparum or P. berghei. Array performance and transcriptome analysis was determined using dye-coupled, aminoallyl-labelled cDNA and streamlined methods for hybridization, washing, and array analysis were developed. Results The new array design marks a notable improvement in the number of transcripts covered and average number of probes per transcript. Array performance was excellent across a wide range of transcript abundance, with low inter-array and inter-probe variability for relative abundance measurements and it recapitulated previously observed transcriptional patterns. Additionally, improvements in sensitivity permitted a 20-fold reduction in necessary starting RNA amounts, further reducing experimental costs and widening the range of application. Conclusions DNA microarrays utilizing the Agilent 8x15K platform for genome-wide transcript analysis in P. falciparum and P. berghei mark an improvement in coverage and sensitivity, increased availability to the research community, and simplification of the experimental methods.

Kafsack Björn F C

2012-06-01

297

Project Final Report: Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA laboratories Los Alamos and Sandia leveraging co-funding for Krell by ASC’s Common Computing Environment (CCE) program as laid out in the original proposal. The ASC CCE co-funding, coordinated through LLNL, was for 50% of the total project funding, with the ASC CCE portion of the funding going entirely to Krell, while the ASCR funding itself was split between Krell and the funded partners. This report covers the entire project from both funding sources. Additionally, the team leveraged the expertise of software engineering researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, who specialize in software framework design, in order to achieve a broadly acceptable component framework. The Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) software has been released to the community. Information related to the project and the released software can be found on the CBTF wiki page at: http://sourceforge.net/p/cbtf/wiki/Home

Galarowicz, James

2014-01-06

298

Analysis of the bacterial community composition in acidic well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potable water is a resource out of reach for millions worldwide, and the available water may be chemically and microbiologically compromised. This is particularly acute in Africa, where water-networks may be non-existent or restricted to a small fraction of the urban population, as in the case of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. This study was carried out seasonally in Bolama (11°N), where unprotected hand-dug wells with acidic water are the sole source of water for the population. We inspected the free-living bacterial community dynamics by automated rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and cloning approaches. The results revealed a clear seasonal shift in bacterial assemblage composition and microbial abundance within the same sampling site. Temperature, pH and turbidity, together with the infiltration and percolation of surface water, which takes place in the wet season, seemed to be the driving factors in the shaping and selection of the bacterial community and deterioration of water quality. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed several potential pathogenic bacteria and uncultured bacteria associated with water and sediments, corroborating the importance of a culture-independent approach in drinking water monitoring. PMID:25108716

Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A

2014-08-01

299

The Analysis of Sula’s Eccentricity in Character: Family and Community’s Influence on a Person’s Character  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sula, the heroine in the second novel by Toni Morrison, has attracted the attention of many critics and readers. There are many discussions and reviews on Sula, especially on Sula’s character from every perspective. Based on the previous reviews, this paper mainly analyzes Sula’s eccentricity in character from the family and community’s influence in shaping a person’s character, which is of great help for readers to better understand Sula. 
Key words: Sula;  Character;  Eccentricity

Guiqin AN

2011-11-01

300

New Visualization and Analysis Tools for Magnetospheric, Heliospheric, and Solar Models from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed new analysis tools to help scientists analyze space weather simulation data executed at the CCMC. Space Weather Explorer 2 is a Java-based application that can visualize, in 2D and 3D, large data files on common hardware. A new WebGL and HTML5-based version of Space Weather Explorer, along with a data streaming server, allows even more users to access larger datasets than normally possible. The tool allows users to remotely and easily share visualization data with others, bringing collaborative research to a new level. We will demonstrate how these tools enable new insights into the structures and dynamics of complex heliophysics phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flux transfer events (FTEs), and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

Berrios, D.; LaSota, J.; Donti, N.; Boblitt, J.; Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Municipal solid waste management: identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them. PMID:23835203

Gamberini, R; Del Buono, D; Lolli, F; Rimini, B

2013-11-01

302

Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community : A Social Network Analysis of EMAC Annual Conferences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to examine the appearance of patterns and regularities in the way EMAC members choose collaboration partners. The work is based on a Social Network Analysis of the co-authored publications presented at the 2000-2010 EMAC conferences. Results show that the main selection criteria for choosing collaboration partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries.

Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.

2011-01-01

303

THE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF A MODERN SCHEME FOR MANAGING WASTE PROPOSED FOR THE URBAN COMMUNITY ARIE?, CLUJ COUNTY  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a scheme for managing waste, proposed for the urban community of Arie?, Cluj County, in which we are going to show the main activities that should be accomplished with the support of the local public administration. Based on the analysis of the waste flows, the demographic trends and the waste generating trends, we propose a scheme for managing waste that has a major investment component, an administrative re-organizing component and an educational one. We suggest a scheme which includes advanced techniques and methods for treating waste. Moreover, we demonstrated that the efficiency of the scheme cannot be conceived outside a circuit for valorizing and recycling the useful materials contained in the waste.

Lucia Monica SCOR?AR

2009-10-01

304

Microbiological community analysis of vermicompost tea and its influence on the growth of vegetables and cereals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vermicompost, the digestion product of organic material by earthworms, has been widely reported to have a more positive effect on plant growth and plant health than conventional compost. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different vermicompost elutriates (aerated compost teas) on soils and plant growth. The teas were analyzed by chemical, microbiological, and molecular methods accompanied by plant growth tests at laboratory and field scale. The number of microorganisms in the teas increased during the extraction process and was affected by substrate addition. The vermicompost tea found to increase plant growth best under laboratory tests was applied to cereals (wheat and barley) and vegetables (Raphanus sativus, Rucola selvatica, and Pisum sativum) in a field study. The results revealed no effects of tea application on plant yield; however, sensoric tests indicated an improvement in crop quality. The soils from laboratory and field studies were investigated to detect possible microbial or chemical changes. The results indicated that minor changes to the soil microbial community occurred following tea application by foliar spray in both the laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments. PMID:22712623

Fritz, J I; Franke-Whittle, I H; Haindl, S; Insam, H; Braun, R

2012-07-01

305

Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: microbial community analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of ?-proteobacteria; 16.6% of ?-proteobacteria; 8.3% of ?-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes. PMID:22019106

Reddy, M Venkateswar; Devi, M Prathima; Chandrasekhar, K; Goud, R Kannaiah; Mohan, S Venkata

2011-12-15

306

Analysis of community- and hospital-acquired bacteraemia during a recent 5-year period.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are sparse data concerning sex- and age-specific characteristics of community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) and hospital-acquired bacteraemia (HAB). Between January 2008 and December 2012, we identified 2956 bacteraemia cases, which we classified as CAB, HAB or healthcare-associated bacteraemia (HCAB). Almost half of the pathogens were Escherichia coli in CAB patients. By contrast, Staphylococcus aureus was most frequent (16.2%) in HAB patients. HCAB showed mixed features of CAB and HAB. In CAB, E. coli was significantly more abundant in females than in males (56.9 vs 24.3%, respectively). This trend was most striking in young adults (20-39 years) (77.2% in females vs 11.4% in males). HAB cases showed greater heterogeneity in their associated pathogens. The extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive rates of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, were 31.3 and 33.8% in HAB and 8.8 and 8.4% in CAB. The non-susceptibility rates of S. aureus to oxacillin were 37.4% in CAB and 73.0% in HAB. In conclusion, CAB and HAB showed different distributions of micro-organisms, and these distributions also differed with patient age and sex. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility needs to be monitored separately. PMID:24403599

Moon, Hee-Won; Ko, Young Jin; Park, Seungman; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

2014-03-01

307

Responses of soil microbial communities to water stress: results from a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil heterotrophic respiration and nutrient mineralization are strongly affected by environmental conditions, in particular by moisture fluctuations triggered by rainfall events. When soil moisture decreases, so does decomposers' activity, with microfauna generally undergoing stress sooner than bacteria and fungi. Despite differences in the responses of individual decomposer groups to moisture availability (e.g., bacteria are typically more sensitive than fungi to water stress), we show that responses of decomposers at the community level are different in soils and surface litter, but similar across biomes and climates. This results in a nearly constant soil-moisture threshold corresponding to the point when biological activity ceases, at a water potential of about -14 MPa in mineral soils and -36 MPa in surface litter. This threshold is shown to be comparable to the soil moisture value where solute diffusion becomes strongly inhibited in soil, while in litter it is dehydration rather than diffusion that likely limits biological activity around the stress point. Because of these intrinsic constraints and lack of adaptation to different hydro-climatic regimes, changes in rainfall patterns (primary drivers of the soil moisture balance) may have dramatic impacts on soil carbon and nutrient cycling. PMID:22690643

Manzoni, Stefano; Schimel, Joshua P; Porporato, Amilcare

2012-04-01

308

HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

Ames, D. P.

2013-12-01

309

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

310

Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly ?-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques. PMID:22666442

Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

2012-01-01

311

Assessment of analysis of urinary pneumococcal antigen by immunochromatography for etiologic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limitations of conventional microbiologic methods (CMM) for etiologic diagnosis of community pneumococcal pneumonia have made faster diagnostic techniques necessary. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the immunochromatography (ICT) technique for detecting urinary Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in the etiologic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonias (CAP). This was a prospective study on in-patients with CAP in a tertiary hospital conducted from October 2000 to March 2004. Apart from using CMM to reach an etiologic diagnosis, we determined pneumococcal antigen in concentrated urine by ICT. We also determined the urinary pneumococcal antigen (UPA) content in patients from two control groups to calculate the specificity of the technique. One group was comprised of in-patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma, with respiratory infection, and without pneumonia; the other group included fractures. We studied 959 pneumonia patients and determined UPA content in 911 (95%) of them. We diagnosed the etiology of 253 cases (28%) using CMM; S. pneumoniae was the most common etiologic agent (57 cases). ICT analysis was positive for 279 patients (31%). Using this technique, the percentage of diagnoses of pneumococcal pneumonias increased by 26%, while the overall etiologic diagnosis increased from 28 to 49%. The technique sensitivity was 81%; the specificity oscillated between 80% in CAP with nonpneumococcal etiology and 99% for patients with fractures without infections. Determination of UPA is a rapid, simple analysis with good sensitivity and specificity, which increased the percentage of etiologic diagnoses. Positive UPA may persist in COPD patients with probable pneumococcal colonization or recent pneumococcal infections. PMID:17028212

Briones, Maria Luisa; Blanquer, José; Ferrando, David; Blasco, Maria Luisa; Gimeno, Concepción; Marín, Julio

2006-10-01

312

Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced by community media organizations in European countries.

Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.

2003-01-01

313

Community planning approach and residents’ perceived safety: A landscape analysis of park design in the Woodlands, Texas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares community-park design and residents’ perceptions of safety in two subdivision communities in The Woodlands, Texas. The communities were built following two different planning approaches — the ecological approach and the conventional approach. Surveys have shown that residents generally feel safer in community parks built according to the latter approach. Using landscape metrics and home-to-park proximity indicators, we examine how different planning approaches affect p...

Yang, Bo; Li, Shujuan; Elder, Bret R.; Wang, Zhe

2013-01-01

314

The Use of Cluster Analysis in Typological Research on Community College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

One useful and increasingly popular method of classifying students is known commonly as cluster analysis. The variety of techniques that comprise the cluster analytic family are intended to sort observations (for example, students) within a data set into subsets (clusters) that share similar characteristics and differ in meaningful ways from other…

Bahr, Peter Riley; Bielby, Rob; House, Emily

2011-01-01

315

Institutional Effectiveness Analysis and Student Goal Attainment in the Community College.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to effect institutional change through an analysis of institutional effectiveness, California's Fresno City College (FCC) undertook a 3-year project to examine student success. In order to determine appropriate measures of and methodologies for improving student success, a Student Success Task was established, developing 13 core…

Meyer, Marilyn Wertheimer

316

Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

317

Metagenomic analysis of a complex marine planktonic thaumarchaeal community from the Gulf of Maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thaumarchaea, which represent as much as 20% of prokaryotic biomass in the open ocean, have been linked to environmentally relevant biogeochemical processes, such as ammonia oxidation (nitrification) and inorganic carbon fixation. We have used culture-independent methods to study this group because current cultivation limitations have proved a hindrance in studying these organisms. From a metagenomic data set obtained from surface waters from the Gulf of Maine, we have identified 36,111 sequence reads (containing 30 Mbp) likely derived from environmental planktonic Thaumarchaea. Metabolic analysis of the raw sequences and assemblies identified copies of the catalytic subunit required in aerobic ammonia oxidation. In addition, genes that comprise a nearly complete carbon assimilation pathway in the form of the 3-hyroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle were identified. Comparative genomics contrasting the putative environmental thaumarchaeal sequences and 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1' revealed a number of genomic islands absent in the Gulf of Maine population. Analysis of these genomic islands revealed an integrase-associated island also found in distantly related microbial species, variations in the abundance of genes predicted to be important in thaumarchaeal respiratory chain, and the absence of a high-affinity phosphate uptake operon. Analysis of the underlying sequence diversity suggests the presence of at least two dominant environmental populations. Attempts to assemble complete environmental genomes were unsuccessful, but analysis of scaffolds revealed two diverging populations, including a thaumarchaeal-related scaffold with the full urease operon. Ultimately, the analysis revealed a number of insights into the metabolic potential of a predominantly uncultivated lineage of organisms. The predicted functions in the thaumarchaeal metagenomic sequences are directly supported by historic measurements of nutrient concentrations and provide new avenues of research in regards to understanding the role Thaumarchaea play in the environment. PMID:22050608

Tully, Benjamin J; Nelson, William C; Heidelberg, John F

2012-01-01

318

Analysis of the microbial community of the biocathode of a hydrogen-producing microbial electrolysis cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising system for hydrogen production. Still, expensive catalysts such as platinum are needed for efficient hydrogen evolution at the cathode. Recently, the possibility to use a biocathode as an alternative for platinum was shown. The microorganisms involved in hydrogen evolution in such systems are not yet identified. We analyzed the microbial community of a mixed culture biocathode that was enriched in an MEC bioanode. This biocathode produced 1.1 A m{sup -2} and 0.63 m{sup 3} H{sub 2} m{sup -3} cathode liquid volume per day. The bacterial population consisted of 46% Proteobacteria, 25% Firmicutes, 17% Bacteroidetes, and 12% related to other phyla. The dominant ribotype belonged to the species Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The second major ribotype cluster constituted a novel taxonomic group at the genus level, clustering within uncultured Firmicutes. The third cluster belonged to uncultured Bacteroidetes and grouped in a taxonomic group from which only clones were described before; most of these clones originated from soil samples. The identified novel taxonomic groups developed under environmentally unusual conditions, and this may point to properties that have not been considered before. A pure culture of Desulfovibrio strain G11 inoculated in a cathode of an MEC led to a current development from 0.17 to 0.76 A m{sup -2} in 9 days, and hydrogen gas formation was observed. On the basis of the known characteristics of Desulfovibrio spp., including its ability to produce hydrogen, we propose a mechanism for hydrogen evolution through Desulfovibrio spp. in a biocathode system. (orig.)

Croese, Elsemiek; Pereira, Maria Alcina [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Microbiology; Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Euverink, Gert-Jan W. [Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Microbiology

2011-12-15

319

Multi-scales analysis of the global change impact on the diversity of the aphid communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this project is to investigate the effects of global change on the biodiversity of aphid communities in Western Europe. Biodiversity has been examined at 3 levels: total number of species, phenology and reproductive strategy. Data were provided by EXAMINE, the European suction traps network which has been now operating for 35 years. 392 different species have been identified. At each location, total number of species has been regularly increasing, one additional species being caught every 1 or 2 years depending on location. This is due to introduced species but also to warming which favours rare species. No general trend of increasing density has been detected, but phenological earliness of almost all species (annual date of first appearance in suction traps) is strongly correlated with temperature and especially with mean daily temperature (during more or less long periods of time lying principally in February and March) or number of days below 0 C. Strong relationships between aphid phenology and environmental variables have been found and there is strong discrimination between species with different life cycle strategies, and between species feeding on herbs and trees, suggesting the possible value of trait-based groupings in predicting responses to environmental changes. These preliminary results suggest that 1) biodiversity has increased during the last decades; 2) there is a pool of species among which some of them reach a detectable density only during years where temperatures are high enough; 3) a set of newly introduced species succeed in settling being favoured by warming and 4) phenology of aphids is expected to advance and their abundance to increase with temperature, and the possible role of natural enemies to regulate abundant species is discussed. (author)

320

Analysis of the Health Status of Foreign Brides in A Community Hospital in Taipei County.  

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Full Text Available Background: Very few studies regarding the health status of foreign brides in Taiwan areso far available. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status offoreign brides in a community hospital setting in Taipei County.Methods: We retrieved and analyzed 493 foreign brides' medical records recordedbetween November 1, 2002 and October 31, 2003. The records included amedical history, physical examination parameters, serological test data forinfectious diseases, urinalysis for drug use, stool sample data for intestinalparasites, and chest radiography mainly to rule out tuberculosis.Results: Of the 493 foreign brides included in this study, 247 were from China(50.1%; 122 from Burma (24.7%, 55 from Indonesia (11.2%, and 32 fromVietnam (6.5%. A small proportion of women, 69 (14%, were infected withintestinal parasites. Seven subjects (1.4 % had tuberculosis, of which 4(0.8% were diagnosed as having old tuberculosis. None of the foreign brideswas positive for the HIV antibody or on the syphilis screening. The seronegativerate of anti-rubella IgG among the foreign brides was 14.4%. Threepercent of the brides had an elevated morphine level (? 300 ng/mL, butnone of them was positive (? 500 ng/mL for amphetamine.Conclusions: Future national statistics should include brides from China. The main concernsabout foreign brides are the low vaccination rate against rubella virus,the high infection rate with intestinal parasites, and the high prevalence oftuberculosis. A nationwide survey should be carried out in order to assess thehealth status of all foreign brides in Taiwan.

Hua-Yu Wu

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR: A Comprehensive Bioinformatics Database and Analysis Resource for the Coronavirus Research Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several viruses within the Coronaviridae family have been categorized as either emerging or re-emerging human pathogens, with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV being the most well known. The NIAID-sponsored Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.viprbrc.org supports bioinformatics workflows for a broad range of human virus pathogens and other related viruses, including the entire Coronaviridae family. ViPR provides access to sequence records, gene and protein annotations, immune epitopes, 3D structures, host factor data, and other data types through an intuitive web-based search interface. Records returned from these queries can then be subjected to web-based analyses including: multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic inference, sequence variation determination, BLAST comparison, and metadata-driven comparative genomics statistical analysis. Additional tools exist to display multiple sequence alignments, view phylogenetic trees, visualize 3D protein structures, transfer existing reference genome annotations to new genomes, and store or share results from any search or analysis within personal private ‘Workbench’ spaces for future access. All of the data and integrated analysis and visualization tools in ViPR are made available without charge as a service to the Coronaviridae research community to facilitate the research and development of diagnostics, prophylactics, vaccines and therapeutics against these human pathogens.

Yun Zhang

2012-11-01

322

The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta-analysis. Conclusions PMA is a novel research method that improves meta-analysis by including several study sites, establishing uniform reporting of specific outcomes, and yet allowing some independence on the part of individual sites with respect to the conduct of research. The inclusion of several sites increases statistical power to address important clinical questions. Compared to multi-center trials, PMA methodology encourages collaboration, aids in the development of new investigators, decreases study costs, and decreases time to publication. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00613366, NCT00886834, NCT01001897, NCT01147497 and NCT01307111

Jacobson Janet C

2011-04-01

323

Community contextual predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening in the USA: spatial multilevel regression analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and endoscopic screening can both detect and prevent cancer, but utilization is suboptimal and varies across geographic regions. We use multilevel regression to examine the various predictors of individuals' decisions to utilize endoscopic CRC screening. Study subjects are a 100% population cohort of Medicare beneficiaries identified in 2001 and followed through 2005. The outcome variable is a binary indicator of any sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy use over this period. We analyze each state separately and map the findings for all states together to reveal patterns in the observed heterogeneity across states. Results We estimate a fully adjusted model for each state, based on a comprehensive socio-ecological model. We focus the discussion on the independent contributions of each of three community contextual variables that are amenable to policy intervention. Prevalence of Medicare managed care in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 12 states and higher probability in 19 states. Prevalence of poor English language ability among elders in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 15 states and higher probability in 6 states. Prevalence of poverty in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 36 states and higher probability in 5 states. Conclusions There are considerable differences across states in the socio-ecological context of CRC screening by endoscopy, suggesting that the current decentralized configuration of state-specific comprehensive cancer control programs is well suited to respond to the observed heterogeneity. We find that interventions to mediate language barriers are more critically needed in some states than in others. Medicare managed care penetration, hypothesized to affect information about and diffusion of new endoscopic technologies, has a positive association in only a minority of states. This suggests that managed care plans' promotion of this cost-increasing technology has been rather limited. Area poverty has a negative impact in the vast majority of states, but is positive in five states, suggesting there are some effective cancer control policies in place targeting the poor with supplemental resources promoting CRC screening.

Mobley Lee R

2010-09-01

324

Global analysis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exoproteins reveals molecules produced in vitro and during infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a threat to human health worldwide. Although progress has been made, mechanisms of CA-MRSA pathogenesis are poorly understood and a comprehensive analysis of CA-MRSA exoproteins has not been conducted. To address that deficiency, we used proteomics to identify exoproteins made by MW2 (USA400) and LAC (USA300) during growth in vitro. Two hundred and fifty unique exoproteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with automated direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry (ADI-MS/MS) analysis. Eleven known virulence-related exoproteins differed in abundance between the strains, including alpha-haemolysin (Hla), collagen adhesin (Cna), staphylokinase (Sak), coagulase (Coa), lipase (Lip), enterotoxin C3 (Sec3), enterotoxin Q (Seq), V8 protease (SspA) and cysteine protease (SspB). Mice infected with MW2 or LAC produced antibodies specific for known or putative virulence factors, such as autolysin (Atl), Cna, Ear, ferritin (Ftn), Lip, 1-phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (Plc), Sak, Sec3 and SspB, indicating the exoproteins are made during infection in vivo. We used confocal microscopy to demonstrate aureolysin (Aur), Hla, SspA and SspB are produced following phagocytosis by human neutrophils, thereby linking exoprotein production in vitro with that during host-pathogen interaction. We conclude that the exoproteins identified herein likely account in part for the success of CA-MRSA as a human pathogen. PMID:17217429

Burlak, Christopher; Hammer, Carl H; Robinson, Mary-Ann; Whitney, Adeline R; McGavin, Martin J; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Deleo, Frank R

2007-05-01

325

Enhanced analysis of the community structure of a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring 'Franz-Josef Quelle' (FJQ) in the Austrian Central Alps was performed. Besides the high microbial diversity, ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota and several bacterial species, which were involved in the nitrogen cycle, were also detected. Additionally several sequences were obtained that were related to sequences from locations, which were e.g. contaminated with radioactivity, suggesting the probable presence of organisms that can interact with the Ra, Rn or U in the spring. Furthermore, biofilms were recognized, which had some similarities to the ones described by Holmes and coworkers in the Nullarbor caves. Holmes suggested that a large part (about 12 %) of the microorganisms inhabiting these mats were related to a Nitrospira sp. Besides the mats, which were present in the spring FJQ, sequences of Nitrospira and related species were found. Nitrifiers are known to build biofilms under suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. the water temperature in the spring is 45oC, but the optimum growth temperature of nitrifiers lies between 25 to 30oC. Preliminary DGGE fingerprinting results of the spring showed the dominance of Nitrospira related organisms in biofilms and on glass slides which were placed into the spring for several days. Therefore an extended examination of these natural and artificial biofilms is in progress by addition of DGGE analysis and culturing approaches. (author)

326

Dietary Patterns Associated with Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Community of Karachi Defined by Cluster Analysis  

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Full Text Available Dietary trends have been found to be related with metabolic syndrome in various studies. To identify dietary patterns and study associations between the dietary patterns of subjects with high and low risk of metabolic syndrome in a Karachi based community. A group of 871 men and women were selected randomly from 532 households. Data about consumption of specific foods was available for 867 adults. Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and 363 subjects provided fasting blood samples for glucose and lipids. Dietary intake was assessed by a questionnaire to identify consumption of 33 specific food items and the dietary patterns categorized into 6 food groups was assessed by cluster analysis. Five dietary patterns were identified through cluster analysis. Cluster 1 had the lowest proportion of persons with metabolic syndrome i.e. 42.7% while cluster 2 had the highest percentage of metabolic syndrome subjects (56.3% (p = 0.09. Consumption of fat and caloric dense foods was significantly higher among highest risk group (cluster 2 compared to lowest risk group (cluster 1 (p = 0.0001. The consumption of food groups containing fruit, milk and meat was also more than twice in high risk compared to low risk group (p = 0.0001. Even within the same population there are marked differences in dietary patterns and these apparently contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Dietary pattern studies will help elucidate links between diet and disease and contribute to developing healthy eating guidelines.

Rubina Hakeem

2010-01-01

327

LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

2014-09-01

328

Metagenome Sequence Analysis of Filamentous Microbial Communities Obtained from Geochemically Distinct Geothermal Channels Reveals Specialization of Three Aquificales Lineages  

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Full Text Available The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal ‘filamentous streamer’ communities (~40 Mbp per site, which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae populations, whereas the circumneutral pH (6.5 - 7.8 sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae. Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae populations were found primarily in the circumneutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl. The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl CoA synthetase (Ccs and citryl CoA lyase (Ccl. All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2 have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

WilliamP.Inskeep

2013-05-01

329

Metagenome sequence analysis of filamentous microbial communities obtained from geochemically distinct geothermal channels reveals specialization of three aquificales lineages.  

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The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal "filamentous streamer" communities (?40?Mbp per site), which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae) populations, whereas the circum-neutral pH (6.5-7.8) sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae). Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae) populations were found primarily in the circum-neutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse-TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl). The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl-CoA synthetase (Ccs), and citryl-CoA lyase (Ccl). All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I) involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2) have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales. PMID:23755042

Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Rusch, Douglas B; Tringe, Susannah G; Kozubal, Mark A; Hamamura, Natsuko; Macur, Richard E; Fouke, Bruce W; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; McDermott, Timothy R; Jennings, Ryan deM; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Xie, Gary

2013-01-01

330

Analysis of the cultivable bacterial community in jeotgal, a Korean salted and fermented seafood, and identification of its dominant bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jeotgal or jeot, a traditional Korean salted and fermented food, is made by adding 20-30% (w/w) salt to various types of seafood. To develop a more complete overview of the bacterial community present in jeotgal, 610 pure colonies were isolated from Myeolchi-jeot and Saeu-jeot, the most commonly consumed varieties of jeotgal, which are made with anchovy (Engraulis japonicas) and tiny shrimp (Acetes japonicas), respectively. The bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 104 species comprising 47 genera and 31 previously unknown species were identified. Eleven genera were isolated from both jeotgal samples, including species in the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Halomonas, and Kocuria, with Staphylococcus spp. constituting the highest number. The most populous genus detected in Myeolchi-jeot was Bacillus and its relatives, while the most populous in Saeu-jeot was Staphylococcus. These were isolated from both jeotgal samples, but their proportion in the bacterial community may be influenced by matrix composition and fermentation parameters. Among the proteolytic isolates, although Virgibacillus halodenitrificans KM2100 and Staphylococcus spp. maintained their growth in 20% NaCl, protease activities were not detected in these conditions. This suggests that bacteria are not the major source of the proteolytic enzyme involved in protein hydrolysis in high-salt-containing jeotgal. However, the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from Saeu-jeot were too numerous for us to ignore their possible role in jeotgal fermentation. Staphylococcus spp. may not be hugely involved in proteolysis, but they may play a significant role in the ripening of jeotgal. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and its relatives and of the genus Staphylococcus may be the major organisms involved in jeotgal fermentation. PMID:21056781

Guan, Ling; Cho, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Jong-Hoon

2011-02-01

331

How many people have alcohol use disorders?: using the harmful dysfunction analysis to reconcile prevalence estimates in two community surveys  

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Full Text Available Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14% and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6% and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service-use and duration comparisons suggest increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking.

JeromeCWakefield

2014-02-01

332

?????????????????? Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure in Water Retting and Enzymatic Retting Liquid  

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Full Text Available ????????????????????????DGGE??(Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis???????????????????DGGE???????????????8%?????????25%~65%???60??150 V?????7 h????DGGE????????PCR-DGGE??????????????????????????????????????????????????16S rDNA V3??PCR???DGGE??????????????Blast???????????????????????-????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? In order to investigate the bacterial community diversity of warm water retting liquid and enzymatic retting liquid, both of the retting liquid samples were studied by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE. During using DGGE method to analyze the bacterial diversity, DGGE bands were separated obviously by the gel concentration of 8%, range

???

2012-09-01

333

Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw  

Science.gov (United States)

.Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and ?13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 ?g/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 ?g/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR decreased with depth from 7x108 to 1x108 copies /g of soil. Characterization of the metagenomic sequences derived from the samples before thawing elucidated differences between the permafrost and active-layer with Acidobacteria and Alpha-Proteobacteria are being significantly higher in active layer than in permafrost, on the contrary permafrost had higher abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes than active layer. Currently additional metagenomic DNA illumina libraries for 20 samples after 1 week thawing are in preparation and will be analyzed to determine whether variations in the metagenomic sequences are correlated to the geochemical data.

Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

2012-12-01

334

Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial  

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Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

2012-01-01

335

Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit greater fluctuations in the CMAQ cases than in the CALGRID cases, which lead to different placement of the urban ozone plumes. The CALGRID cases, which rely on the SAPRC97 chemical mechanism, exhibited a greater diurnal production/loss cycle of ozone concentrations per hour compared to either the RADM2 or CBIV chemical mechanisms in the CMAQ cases. These results demonstrate the need for specialized process field measurements to confirm whether we are modeling ozone with valid processes. PMID:16124311

O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

2005-08-01

336

The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20?min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. Design This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Primary outcome measure Access to a community pharmacy within 20?min walk. Results Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20?min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20?min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Conclusions Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20?min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation—a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people—from various levels of deprivation—around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. PMID:25116456

Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

2014-01-01

337

Community extraction for social networks  

CERN Document Server

Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields, with applications ranging from citation and friendship networks to food webs and gene regulatory networks. Most of the existing community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that focuses on community extraction instead of partition, extracting one community at a time. The main idea behind extraction is that the strength of a community should not depend on ties between members of other communities, but only on ties within that community and its ties to the outside world. We show that the new extraction criterion performs well on simulated and real networks, and establish asymptotic consistency ...

Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhu, Ji

2010-01-01

338

Shaping Communities out of Triangles  

CERN Document Server

Community detection has arisen as one of the most relevant topics in the field of graph data mining due to its importance in many fields such as biology, social networks or network traffic analysis. The metrics proposed to shape communities are generic and follow two approaches: maximizing the internal density of such communities or reducing the connectivity of the internal vertices with those outside the community. However, these metrics take the edges as a set and do not consider the internal layout of the edges in the community. We define a set of properties oriented to social networks that ensure that communities are cohesive, structured and well defined. Then, we propose the Weighted Community Clustering (WCC), which is a community metric based on triangles. We proof that analyzing communities by triangles gives communities that fulfill the listed set of properties, in contrast to previous metrics. Finally, we experimentally show that WCC correctly captures the concept of community in social networks usi...

Prat-Pérez, Arnau; Brunat, Josep M; Larriba-Pey, Josep-Lluis

2012-01-01

339

[Descriptive analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an expatriate community in Yaounde-Cameroon].  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is an endemic disease in Cameroon. Expatriate population is also affected by malaria risk. Many studies are published on malaria, but few are focused on the expatriate population. The objective was to describe epidemiological characteristics andmanagement ofmalaria at Plasmodium falciparum in Yaounde expatriate population. This is a retrospective analysis of all patients treated at health center of the French Embassy in Yaounde in 2013 with a diagnosis of malaria. 103 cases were recruited. Out of them, 32.7% came from the outskirts of Yaounde, 25.2% from the coastal area of Cameroon, and 20.4% from the center of Yaounde. 22 patients were hospitalized, including 6 in Emergency department. 3 deaths were reported during this period. Severe malaria cases are regularly detected in expatriate population inYaounde and preferentially patients, who are over 50 years old, long stay residents in Cameroon and they paid less attention on prevention and vector control. This study confirms the presence of urban malaria in Yaounde and the need to adopt measures including prophylaxis. To the ignorance of risk and the poor adherence to prophylactic measures, it appears important that the various embassies in northern countries have specific information to their expatriates living in endemic areas. PMID:25158843

Vanhecke, C; Nguimfack, R Ndi Kweti; Berry, A; Marchou, B

2014-12-01

340

An Analysis on Niche and Degree of Spatial Association of Paeonia decomposita Community  

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Full Text Available Understanding endangering mechanisms of Paeonia decomposita, endmic to China, is very crucial to protect and utilize this valuable germplasm. However, little was known on the niche characteristics and relationships of Paeonia decomposita and associated shrubs species in dry valleys of Dadu River. We investigated niche breadths, niche overlaps and spatial associations of P. decomposita and associated shrub species in dry valley of Dadu River, south-wetern China.The standard niche breadth of P. decomposita, Berberis julianae, Zanthoxylum simullans, Quercus baronii, Cotoneaster diwaricatus, Rosa app., Berberis wilsonae, Cotoneaster horizontalis, Bauhinia faberi var. Microphylla was 0.745, 0.979,0.950,0.748,0.947,0.924,0.792,0.863,0.610,respectively. Niche overlapping values of P. decomposita and the dominate species B. julianae, Z. simullans ,C. diwaricatus, Rosa app. were over 0.50, which were higher than those between P. decomposita and the other species. Combined with the analysis of spatial associations of P. decomposita and associated shrub species in dry valley of Dadu River, it was concluded that P. decomposita had weak ability to utilize resources because of its small niche breadth, and was in a disadvantaged position within species competition, which significantly contributed to understanding of endangereing mechanism P decomposita.

MA Qing-qing

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Geodetic Time Series: An Overview of UNAVCO Community Resources and Examples of Time Series Analysis Using GPS and Strainmeter Data  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an overview of time series data, tools and services available from UNAVCO along with two specific and compelling examples of geodetic time series analysis. UNAVCO provides a diverse suite of geodetic data products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community research and education. The UNAVCO archive includes data from 2500+ continuous GPS stations, borehole geophysics instruments (strainmeters, seismometers, tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors), and long baseline laser strainmeters. These data span temporal scales from seconds to decades and provide global spatial coverage with regionally focused networks including the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and COCONet. This rich, open access dataset is a tremendous resource that enables the exploration, identification and analysis of time varying signals associated with crustal deformation, reference frame determinations, isostatic adjustments, atmospheric phenomena, hydrologic processes and more. UNAVCO provides a suite of time series exploration and analysis resources including static plots, dynamic plotting tools, and data products and services designed to enhance time series analysis. The PBO GPS network allow for identification of ~1 mm level deformation signals. At some GPS stations seasonal signals and longer-term trends in both the vertical and horizontal components can be dominated by effects of hydrological loading from natural and anthropogenic sources. Modeling of hydrologic deformation using GLDAS and a variety of land surface models (NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC and CLM) shows promise for independently modeling hydrologic effects and separating them from tectonic deformation as well as anthropogenic loading sources. A major challenge is to identify where loading is dominant and corrections from GLDAS can apply and where pumping is the dominant signal and corrections are not possible without some other data. In another arena, the PBO strainmeter network was designed to capture small short term strain transients that fell between the detection levels of GPS and seismology. PBO strainmeters have recorded multiple ETS events in Cascadia, aseismic creep along the central San Andreas, post-seismic transients around the San Jacinto fault, tsunamis on the Pacific Northwest coastline and seiche signals in Yellowstone. But the very sensitivity that makes strainmeters the ideal tool to record these signals means they also record site, anthropogenic and meteorologically induced signals that make it difficult to isolate tectonic signals. Examples include borehole compressional trends, atmospheric pressure response, rainfall induced signals, hydrological pumping, snowmelt and lake seiches. We will 1) provide an overview of geodetic data and time series analysis tools available from UNAVCO, 2) show new examples and insights from hydrologic loading effects on GPS time series and 3) discuss and identify non-tectonic signals in strainmeter data and outline methods to improve the signal to noise ratio as much as possible.

Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Puskas, C. M.; Boler, F. M.; Snett, L.; Mattioli, G. S.

2013-12-01

342

Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration  

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Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options that specify deferment and timing of harvest for large blocks helped ensure the stable presence of an intact mature forest matrix over time. The management scenario that focused on maintaining compositional targets best supported biodiversity objectives by providing the composition patterns required by the 13 focal species, but this scenario may be improved by adding some broad-scale spatial objectives to better maintain large blocks of interior forest habitat through time.

Jim Baker

2007-06-01

343

A thematic analysis of attributions to others for the origins and ongoing nature of pain in community pain sufferers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that pain sufferers can attribute their pain to others. However, this work is scarce, lacking in detail and does not focus on any particular time during the pain experience. To understand how these attributions operate in pain, this study sought to examine as an exclusive focus the types, context of, and rationale for attributions made to others for the origins and ongoing nature of pain. A community pain sample was voluntarily recruited into the study to gain a comprehensive understanding of these attributions and minimise potential group-specific bias. Sixty-two participants were interviewed using semi-structured questions about cause, responsibility and blame for pain. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. Attributions to others emerged across interview questions. Acquaintances, professionals and strangers were implicated in pain onset for reasons including negligence, accident and attack. Few additional attributions were made for pain now. Those made were mostly to medical professionals for perceived poor treatment of an original pain condition encompassing issues related to compliance, diagnosis and treatment and searching for alternative pain solutions. This research provides insight into the social context in which pain attributions to others are reported, and provides the basis for research into largely untapped areas including the implications particular attributions have for adjustment to pain and relationships with others. PMID:18942015

McParland, Joanna L; Whyte, Anne

2008-10-01

344

Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs: an analysis of community pharmacy data  

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Full Text Available This study explores whether patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher drug use as compared to patients without diabetes over a time period prior to and after diagnosis of diabetes. A case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (cases with patients without a diagnosis (controls based on community pharmacy records. Cases had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2006. A repeated measures analysis calculated the mean number of packages and costs of drugs in cases during the two years prior to diagnosis and the first year following diagnosis and in control patients during three years. Volume of drug use was expressed as the number of packages consumed by a patient. Drug costs were based on the public price. Our dataset covered 2,697 patients (899 cases and 1,798 control patients. The mean annual number of packages and costs of drugs increased over time for cases and control patients (p<0.001. In patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes, the growth in drug use and costs over time was more pronounced than in control patients (p<0.001. Higher drug use and costs were mainly observed for cardiovascular drugs, antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, and drugs related to gastric acid disorders. Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs prior to diagnosis than control patients. Drug use could be an indicator to trigger active monitoring for Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Steven Simoens

2011-01-01

345

Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model – Evidence from MOPEX Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the emergence of earth system models as important tools for understanding and predicting climate change and implications to mitigation and adaptation, it has become increasingly important to assess the fidelity of the land component within earth system models to capture realistic hydrological processes and their response to the changing climate and quantify the associated uncertainties. This study investigates the sensitivity of runoff simulations to major hydrologic parameters in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) by integrating CLM4 with a stochastic exploratory sensitivity analysis framework at 20 selected watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions. We found that for runoff simulations, the most significant parameters are those related to the subsurface runoff parameterizations. Soil texture related parameters and surface runoff parameters are of secondary significance. Moreover, climate and soil conditions play important roles in the parameter sensitivity. In general, site conditions within water-limited hydrologic regimes and with finer soil texture result in stronger sensitivity of output variables, such as runoff and its surface and subsurface components, to the input parameters in CLM4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of parameter inversion for CLM4 using streamflow observations to improve runoff simulations. By ranking the significance of the input parameters, we showed that the parameter set dimensionality could be reduced for CLM4 parameter calibration under different hydrologic and climatic regimes so that the inverse problem is less ill posed.

Huang, Maoyi; Hou, Zhangshuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ke, Yinghai; Liu, Ying; Fang, Zhufeng; Sun, Yu

2013-12-01

346

Segregation analysis of apolipoprotein A1 levels in families of adolescents: A community-based study in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Background Apolipoprotein (Apo A1 is a protective factor for cardiovascular events. This study aimed to perform complex segregation analyses of Apo A1 levels in families of adolescents systematically ascertained from the junior high school students in a rural community. Both siblings and parents of the adolescent probands were recruited for the study. Apo A1 concentrations were measured by turbidimetric immunoassay methods. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking status, residual values of Apo A1 were subjected to subsequent analyses. Results Significant mother-father and parent-offspring correlations were found. Commingling analyses indicated that a four-component distribution model was needed to account for the Apo A1 variation. Segregation analysis using regressive models revealed that the best-fit model of Apo A1 was a model of environmental effect plus familial correlation (heritability = 23.9%, in which a significant mother-father correlation existed. Models containing major gene effect could be rejected. Conclusion These results suggest that variations of Apo A1 levels in the normal range, especially during adolescence, are likely to be influenced by multiple factors without significant contribution from major genes.

Su Ta-Chen

2006-01-01

347

Determinants of marital behaviour in five Apennine communities of Central Italy inferred by surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work makes use of surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates in 11,009 marriage records celebrated in five communities of the Italian Central Apennine (Celano, Lecce dei Marsi, Ortucchio, Roio, Villavallelonga) from 1802 to 1965 with the objective to deepen knowledge of the relative influence of several determinants on their marital behaviour. These towns are part of the same geographic and economic environment: the slopes of the ancient Fucino Lake. This work further elaborates the results from previous studies on the bio-demographic model of the region. The data were analyzed according to three periods of approximately 50 years. Results show the highest inbreeding coefficients in the pastoral towns of Roio and Villavallelonga. Repeated pair analysis highlights a certain degree of population subdivision which declined in time in Celano, Lecce dei Marsi and Ortucchio. The highest and increasing values of RP-RPr in time in Roio suggest a general reduction in genetic heterogeneity. This is possibly due to the celebration of marriages among families selected on the economic basis of pastoralism, as this town historically has had a leading tradition of sheep-farming. Villavallelonga, excluding isonymous marriages, shows an increase in repeated pair unions in time, thus revealing a substructure with marriages among preferred lineages. This is in line with previous results on consanguineous marriages which indicated the tendency of avoiding unions between close relatives in this small geographic isolate. This study demonstrates the influence of geographical (altitude) and social factors (pastoralism) on the marital structures of the investigated populations. PMID:24012323

Capocasa, M; Taglioli, L; Anagnostou, P; Paoli, G; Danubio, M E

2014-02-01

348

A community resource for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor gene expression in Medicago truncatula  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume species that is currently the focus of an international genome sequencing effort. Although several different oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays have been produced for genome-wide transcript analysis of this species, intrinsic limitations in the sensitivity of hybridization-based technologies mean that transcripts of genes expressed at low-levels cannot be measured accurately with these tools. Amongst such genes are many encoding transcription factors (TFs, which are arguably the most important class of regulatory proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most sensitive method currently available for transcript quantification, and one that can be scaled up to analyze transcripts of thousands of genes in parallel. Thus, qRT-PCR is an ideal method to tackle the problem of TF transcript quantification in Medicago and other plants. Results We established a bioinformatics pipeline to identify putative TF genes in Medicago truncatula and to design gene-specific oligonucleotide primers for qRT-PCR analysis of TF transcripts. We validated the efficacy and gene-specificity of over 1000 TF primer pairs and utilized these to identify sets of organ-enhanced TF genes that may play important roles in organ development or differentiation in this species. This community resource will be developed further as more genome sequence becomes available, with the ultimate goal of producing validated, gene-specific primers for all Medicago TF genes. Conclusion High-throughput qRT-PCR using a 384-well plate format enables rapid, flexible, and sensitive quantification of all predicted Medicago transcription factor mRNAs. This resource has been utilized recently by several groups in Europe, Australia, and the USA, and we expect that it will become the 'gold-standard' for TF transcript profiling in Medicago truncatula.

Redman Julia C

2008-07-01

349

A geostatistical analysis of small-scale spatial variability in bacterial abundance and community structure in salt marsh creek bank sediments  

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Small-scale variations in bacterial abundance and community structure were examined in salt marsh sediments from Virginia's eastern shore. Samples were collected at 5 cm intervals (horizontally) along a 50 cm elevation gradient, over a 215 cm horizontal transect. For each sample, bacterial abundance was determined using acridine orange direct counts and community structure was analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of whole-community DNA extracts. A geostatistical analysis was used to determine the degree of spatial autocorrelation among the samples, for each variable and each direction (horizontal and vertical). The proportion of variance in bacterial abundance that could be accounted for by the spatial model was quite high (vertical: 60%, horizontal: 73%); significant autocorrelation was found among samples separated by 25 cm in the vertical direction and up to 115 cm horizontally. In contrast, most of the variability in community structure was not accounted for by simply considering the spatial separation of samples (vertical: 11%, horizontal: 22%), and must reflect variability from other parameters (e.g., variation at other spatial scales, experimental error, or environmental heterogeneity). Microbial community patch size based upon overall similarity in community structure varied between 17 cm (vertical) and 35 cm (horizontal). Overall, variability due to horizontal position (distance from the creek bank) was much smaller than that due to vertical position (elevation) for both community properties assayed. This suggests that processes more correlated with elevation (e.g., drainage and redox potential) vary at a smaller scale (therefore producing smaller patch sizes) than processes controlled by distance from the creek bank. c2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Franklin, Rima B.; Blum, Linda K.; McComb, Alison C.; Mills, Aaron L.

2002-01-01

350

An Analysis of Current Grade Point Averages of Employed Full-Time Students at Wilkes Community College.  

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This study was conducted to ascertain the effects of employment on the academic performance of community college students. The grade point averages of 830 full-time students at Wilkes Community College (North Wilkesboro, N.C.) were analyzed to determine: (1) if working students' GPA's differed significantly from those of the total student…

Deal, Willard M., Jr.; And Others

351

Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005  

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

2009-01-01

352

Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

Ismail Yahaya

2014-01-01

353

Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.  

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Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community. PMID:10406131

Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

1999-06-01

354

Constant Communities in Complex Networks  

CERN Document Server

Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been very less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core func...

Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh

2013-01-01

355

Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify the dominant culturable and nonculturable microbiota of rainbow trout intestine.Methods and Results: Microbial density of rainbow trout intestine was estimated by direct microscopic counts (4('),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) and by culturing on tryptone soya agar (TSA). Differential gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial DNA from intestinal samples, re-amplification of bands and sequence analysis was used to identify the b