WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Cost Benefit Analysis. Community College of Vermont.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cost benefit analysis of the Community College of Vermont revealed that (1) the proportions of State support of the total budgets for Vermont's institutions of higher education are 22.7% at UVM, 37.2% at the VSC, and 12.7% for the Community College; (2) tuition is budgeted for FY73 to generate 27% of total cost at UVM, 29.6% at the VSC, and…

Parker, Charles A.

2

Microbial community analysis using MEGAN.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metagenomics, the study of microbes in the environment using DNA sequencing, depends upon dedicated software tools for processing and analyzing very large sequencing datasets. One such tool is MEGAN (MEtaGenome ANalyzer), which can be used to interactively analyze and compare metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data, both taxonomically and functionally. To perform a taxonomic analysis, the program places the reads onto the NCBI taxonomy, while functional analysis is performed by mapping reads to the SEED, COG, and KEGG classifications. Samples can be compared taxonomically and functionally, using a wide range of different charting and visualization techniques. PCoA analysis and clustering methods allow high-level comparison of large numbers of samples. Different attributes of the samples can be captured and used within analysis. The program supports various input formats for loading data and can export analysis results in different text-based and graphical formats. The program is designed to work with very large samples containing many millions of reads. It is written in Java and installers for the three major computer operating systems are available from http://www-ab.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de. PMID:24060133

Huson, Daniel H; Weber, Nico

2013-01-01

3

Link Analysis for Communities Detection on Facebook  

CERN Document Server

Social networks have become a part in the daily life of millions of users, which offer wide range of interests and practices. The main characteristic of social networks is its ability to gather different individuals around a common point of view or collective beliefs. Among the current social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular, which has the highest number of users. However, in Facebook, the existence of communities (groups)is a critical question; thus, many researchers focus on potential communities by using techniques like data mining and web mining. In this work, we present four approaches based on link analysis techniques to detect prospective groups and their members

Mellah, Mohamed Adnane; Hamou, Reda Mohamed; Kumar, A V Senthil

2014-01-01

4

Multivariate Analysis of a Tropical Insect Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A tropical insect community was analysed from March to August, 1990. The observed abundance pattern usually did not fit MacArthur`s broken stick model. Species diversity (H` was highest in June and July (1.0235, 1.0290 and 101162 and lowest in April and May (0.8078 and 0.8281. Agglomerative cluster analysis showed two groups of samples with the exception of samples collected in May. First group consisted of March to April samples and 2nd group had the samples of May to August. This clustering revealed that community changes were correlated with the environmental factors i.e. humidity, temperature and rainfall.

Raees Hussain Zaidi

2000-01-01

5

Metaproteomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay microbial communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Natural microbial communities are extremely complex and dynamic systems in terms of their population structure and functions. However, little is known about the in situ functions of the microbial communities. Results This study describes the application of proteomic approaches (metaproteomics) to observe expressed protein profiles of natural microbial communities (metaproteomes). The technique was validated using a constructed community and subsequently used to analyze Chesapeake Bay microbial community (0.2 to 3.0 ?m) metaproteomes. Chesapeake Bay metaproteomes contained proteins from pI 4–8 with apparent molecular masses between 10–80 kDa. Replicated middle Bay metaproteomes shared ~92% of all detected spots, but only shared 30% and 70% of common protein spots with upper and lower Bay metaproteomes. MALDI-TOF analysis of highly expressed proteins produced no significant matches to known proteins. Three Chesapeake Bay proteins were tentatively identified by LC-MS/MS sequencing coupled with MS-BLAST searching. The proteins identified were of marine microbial origin and correlated with abundant Chesapeake Bay microbial lineages, Bacteroides and ?-proteobacteria. Conclusion Our results represent the first metaproteomic study of aquatic microbial assemblages and demonstrate the potential of metaproteomic approaches to link metagenomic data, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and biological processes in natural environments.

Kan, Jinjun; Hanson, Thomas E; Ginter, Joy M; Wang, Kui; Chen, Feng

2005-01-01

6

Metaproteomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay microbial communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural microbial communities are extremely complex and dynamic systems in terms of their population structure and functions. However, little is known about the in situ functions of the microbial communities. Results This study describes the application of proteomic approaches (metaproteomics to observe expressed protein profiles of natural microbial communities (metaproteomes. The technique was validated using a constructed community and subsequently used to analyze Chesapeake Bay microbial community (0.2 to 3.0 ?m metaproteomes. Chesapeake Bay metaproteomes contained proteins from pI 4–8 with apparent molecular masses between 10–80 kDa. Replicated middle Bay metaproteomes shared ~92% of all detected spots, but only shared 30% and 70% of common protein spots with upper and lower Bay metaproteomes. MALDI-TOF analysis of highly expressed proteins produced no significant matches to known proteins. Three Chesapeake Bay proteins were tentatively identified by LC-MS/MS sequencing coupled with MS-BLAST searching. The proteins identified were of marine microbial origin and correlated with abundant Chesapeake Bay microbial lineages, Bacteroides and ?-proteobacteria. Conclusion Our results represent the first metaproteomic study of aquatic microbial assemblages and demonstrate the potential of metaproteomic approaches to link metagenomic data, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and biological processes in natural environments.

Wang Kui

2005-08-01

7

Community Survey and Analysis, Comprehensive Planning Study, Dierks, Arkansas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report examines the socio-economic and physical characteristics of the community and includes population projections, economic base study, land use analysis, community facilities survey, and physical features and transportation studies. (Author)

1971-01-01

8

Community Detecting in Bipartite Network Based on Principal Components Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The identification of communities is significant for the understanding of network structures and functions. In this study, we propose a framework to address the problem of community detection in bipartite networks based on principal components analysis. We apply the algorithm to real-world network data, showing that the algorithm successfully finds meaningful community structures of bipartite networks.

Wei Liu

2013-01-01

9

Community Flux Balance Analysis for Microbial Consortia at Balanced Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A central focus in studies of microbial communities is the elucidation of the relationships between genotype, phenotype, and dynamic community structure. Here, we present a new computational method called community flux balance analysis (cFBA) to study the metabolic behavior of microbial communities. cFBA integrates the comprehensive metabolic capacities of individual microorganisms in terms of (genome-scale) stoichiometric models of metabolism, and the metabolic interactions between species ...

Khandelwal, Ruchir A.; Olivier, Brett G.; Ro?ling, Wilfred F. M.; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J.

2013-01-01

10

Metaproteomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay microbial communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Natural microbial communities are extremely complex and dynamic systems in terms of their population structure and functions. However, little is known about the in situ functions of the microbial communities. Results This study describes the application of proteomic approaches (metaproteomics) to observe expressed protein profiles of natural microbial communities (metaproteomes). The technique was validated using a constructed commun...

2005-01-01

11

An Analysis of Chinese Community Education Policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the systematic review of the government- issued regulatory documents related to community education using the leading Chinese data base of WanFang, the article maps the terrain of community education in china from 1992 to present. It is found that community education in China has experienced a fundamental change from being responsible merely for out-of-school ethic education for primary and secondary school students before 21st century to training and education activities for adults in need of them under social transformation. In addition, it grows from mere community education committee responsible for its work to a comparatively complete system capable of rallying necessary human and material resources to ensure its function. The changes of community education policy were directly motivated by the domestic socioeconomic development in the past 30 years and the global educational notion of lifelong learning and building a learning society. Finally, the problems such as the absence of national laws and some others in current community education in China are discussed.

Xiaoqing PAN

2014-03-01

12

Vulnerability metrics and analysis for communities in complex networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper applies the problem of community detection in complex networks to identify sets of network elements that are critical to the connectivity of the network and its communities. Specifically, the paper defines a vulnerability set and value for each of the communities in a complex network. Also, for each community it identifies a value of relative vulnerability in comparison with the remaining communities. The approach allows to visualize/identify the critical elements of a complex network. This is an important first step for many recent problems arising in social networks, critical infrastructures and homeland security. By identifying these elements one can prioritize resource allocation to protect, interdict or improve performance in these types of systems. The sets and metrics introduced are illustrated with numerous examples and discussions. Based on the analysis of the examples the manuscript provides an intuitive description of a community's presence in the interior or periphery of a network.

2011-10-01

13

ASAP, a systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ASAP (a systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes) is a relational database and web interface developed to store, update and distribute genome sequence data and functional characterization (https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/annotation/php/ASAP1.htm). ASAP facilitates ongoing community annotation of genomes and tracking of information as genome projects move from preliminary data collection through post-sequencing functional analysis. The ASAP database includes multiple genome ...

2003-01-01

14

Metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total so...

?oki? Lidija; Savi? M.; Naran?i? Tanja; Vasiljevi? Branka

2010-01-01

15

Topical Analysis for Identification of Web Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional link-based schemes for identification of web commu- nities focus on partitioning the web graph more sophisticatedly, without concerning the topical information inherently held by web pages. In this paper, we give a novel method of measuring the topicality of a hyperlink according to its context. Based on this, we propose a topical maxflow-mincut algorithm which incorporates topical information into the traditional maxflow-mincut algorithm. Experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the traditional algorithm in identifying high-quality web communities.

Miao, Yajie; Li, Chunping

16

Metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae, rare resurrection plants growing in the Balkan Peninsula, produce a high amount of phenolic compounds as a response to stress. The composition and size of bacterial communities in two rhizosphere soil samples of these plants were analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments together with DAPI staining showed that the metabolically active bacteria represent only a small fraction, approximately 5%, of total soil bacteria. Using universal bacteria - specific primers 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from metagenomic DNAs and two libraries were constructed. The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RLFP method was used in library screening. Amongst 192 clones, 35 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined from the rhizosphere of R. nathaliae, and 13 OTUs out of 80 clones in total from the library of R. serbica. Representative clones from each OTU were sequenced. The majority of sequences from metagenomes showed very little similarity to any cultured bacteria. In conclusion, the bacterial communities in the studied soil samples showed quite poor diversity. .

?oki? Lidija

2010-01-01

17

Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community in kefir grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kefir grains as a probiotic have been subject to microbial community identification using culture-dependent and independent methods that target specific strains in the community, or that are based on limited 16S rRNA analysis. We performed whole genome shotgun pyrosequencing using two Turkish Kefir grains. Sequencing generated 3,682,455 high quality reads for a total of ?1.6 Gbp of data assembled into 6151 contigs with a total length of ?24 Mbp. Species identification mapped 88.16% and 93.81% of the reads rendering 4 Mpb of assembly that did not show any homology to known bacterial sequences. Identified communities in the two grains showed high concordance where Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus with a mapped abundance of 99.42% and 99.79%. This genus was dominantly represented by three species Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus helveticus with a total mapped abundance of 97.63% and 98.74%. We compared and verified our findings with 16S pyrosequencing and model based 16S data analysis. Our results suggest that microbial community profiling using whole genome shotgun data is feasible, can identify novel species data, and has the potential to generate a more accurate and detailed assessment of the underlying bacterial community, especially for low abundance species. PMID:24750812

Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Cakar, Atilla; Dogan, Haluk; Abaci, Neslihan; Ustek, Duran; Sayood, Khalid; Can, Handan

2014-08-01

18

Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides relevant annotated resources and suggests class activities centered around the theme of communities, including animal communities, historic communities, and aiding contemporary communities. Describes Web sites, CD-ROMs, computer software, videos, and books; specifies age levels and appropriate curriculum areas. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

19

Community and Proteomic Analysis of Methanogenic Consortia Degrading Terephthalate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Degradation of terephthalate (TA) through microbial syntrophy under moderately thermophilic (46 to 50°C) methanogenic conditions was characterized by using a metagenomic approach (A. Lykidis et al., ISME J. 5:122–130, 2011). To further study the activities of key microorganisms responsible for the TA degradation, community analysis and shotgun proteomics were used. The results of hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated that Pelotomac...

Wu, Jer-horng; Wu, Feng-yau; Chuang, Hui-ping; Chen, Wei-yu; Huang, Hung-jen; Chen, Shu-hui; Liu, Wen-tso

2013-01-01

20

Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community...

Helene Amundsen

2012-01-01

22

Using acoustic signature analysis to resolve community noise annoyance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acoustic signature analysis and a secondary corroborative method, propagation level analysis, used to provide a power plant operator with positive identification of a predominant noise source affecting the local community prior to a decision to install retrofit noise control equipment, were discussed. Narrow band spectral data were acquired for each of the significant noise sources (turbine, coupler and generator) and the resulting `signature` of each noise source was viewed on a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) digital analyzer screen in real-time. The spectra was also documented by a digital plotter for subsequent comparison to other noise source signatures. Identification of the sources and intensity of the offending noise, resulted in the installation of an enhanced stack silencer; significant reduction in noise level was achieved, and harmonious relations between operator and the community were restored. 16 refs.

Greene, R. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

23

Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, we learn that a community is composed of groups of different populations (plants and animals) living together in one defined area or habitat that obtains food energy from somewhere in their surroundings. The lessons offered here will teach students how to define a community, while also giving them the tools to make inferences about what factors make a community a success. Lessons in this section include details on how to survey small communities around their own school building as well as tips on experimenting with conditions required for community survival and prediction of outcomes.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

24

A microbial community analysis of the octocoral Eunicea fusca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english While there is a significant and growing body of knowledge describing the microbial communities of marine invertebrates such as sponges, there are very few such studies focused on octocorals. The octocoral Eunicea fusca is common on reefs in various regions of the Caribbean and has been the subject [...] of natural product investigations. As part of an effort to describe the microbial community associated with octocorals, a culture-independent analysis of the bacterial community of E. fusca was conducted. Specifically, a 16S rDNA clone library analysis was performed to provide baseline data. A total of 40 bacteria members from 11 groups were found. In general, Proteobacteria were the dominant group with a total of 24 species and ?-Proteobacteria represented the highest percentage of bacteria associated with E. fusca (27.5%). Other prominent groups observed were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, ?-Proteobacteria, Lentisphaerae and Nitrospirae. This is the first analysis of bacterial populations associated with the gorgonian E. fusca.

Duque-Alarcón, Angela; Santiago-Vázquez, Lory Z; Kerr, Russell G.

25

community -  

...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Uncategorized | Also tagged Big Society Bank, Communities First, delivery, evaluation, funding | Comments (0) The trouble with community funding June 8, 2010 - 1:59 pm Current funding mechanisms make ...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Uncategorized | Also tagged Big Green Challenge, funding, NESTA, third sector | Comments (1) A community portal for London? May 6, 2010 - 3:05 pm As Jon discussed in his ...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Communities, evaluation, Uncategorized | Also tagged carbon emissions, CCF, Climate Challenge Fund, climate change, Daily Mail, evaluation, Taxpayers' Alliance | Comments (1) «Older posts Search for: ...

26

[Application of geostatistical analysis in study of macrophytes community's pattern].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the Log-log semivariogram and theoretical models of Geostatistics and fractal theory were applied to study the mosaic spatial pattern of macrophytes community and its different characters on different scales in littoral zone of the Baoan Lake, Hubei Province. The macrophytes in the littoral zone with a square area of 25,600 m2, which was divided in to 1,024 grids, were investigated, and the macrophytes species in every grid were recorded. If the species was discovered in the grid, the variable of the grid had a value of 1, otherwise, it was 0. The community had a value of the total species discovered in the grid. By the method, the sampling results of Vallisneria spiralis, Ceratophyllum oryzetorum, Myriophyllum spicatum and the community were made into four worksheets. With help of the software GS+ for Windows to treat these worksheets, we got their log-log semivariogram, isotropic model, anisotropic model, isotropic fractal dimension and anisotropic fractal dimension. According to the results of isotropic models, the exponential models of Vallisneria spiralis and Myriophyllum spicatum indicated their contagious distribution with a high proportion of spatial structure, which indicated that their distribution changed lesser at microscale. In their range of 48.6 m and 34.2 m respectively, they had a spatial autocorrelation. Isotropic models of Ceratophyllum oryzetorum and the community were linear, and their proportions of spatial structure were low, indicating their great change at microscale and their moderate contagious distribution. The isotropic fractal dimension and anisotropic fractal dimension results indicated the dominant pattern of Vallisneria spiralis in the direction of NE-SW, the dominant patterns of Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum oryzetorum in the direction of N-S, and the community's dominant pattern in the direction of NW-SE. Compared with other analysis tools, the method had advantages in deciding whether the community components had a spatial autocorrelation and in quantitatively classifying the aggregation density. It provides us a new way to quantitatively describe the pattern of the macrophytes community. PMID:14986367

Pan, Wenbin; Deng, Hongbing; Tang, Tao; Cai, Qinghua

2003-10-01

27

Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These analyses have important application for species conservation and for predicting the regeneration of tree seedlings, and provide unique information about the interspecies interactions of New England forest communities during one of the most rich and dynamic phases of succession, allowing for more informed decisions to be made regarding the regrowth of forests following a high-intensity disturbance.

Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

2013-12-01

28

Behaviour analysis across different types of Enterprise Online Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Online communities in the enterprise are designed to ful?l some economic purpose, for example for supporting products or enabling work-collaboration between knowledge workers. The intentions of such communities allow them to be labelled based on their type - i.e. communities of practice, team communities, technical support communities, etc. Despite the disparate nature and explicit intention of community types, little is known of how the types differ in terms of a) the participation and act...

2012-01-01

29

Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

2010-01-01

30

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

Science.gov (United States)

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

31

Bacterial community analysis of contaminant soils from Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows: Shortly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, vegetation, contaminated soil and other radioactive debris were buried in situ in trenches. The aims of this work are to analyse the structure of bacterial communities evolving in this environment since 20 years, and to evaluate the potential role of microorganisms in radionuclide migration in soils. Therefore, soil samples exhibiting contrasted radionuclides content were collected in and around the trench number 22. Bacterial communities were examined using a genetic fingerprinting method that allowed a comparative profiling of the samples (DGGE), with universal and group-specific PCR primers. Our results indicate that Chernobyl soil samples host a wide diversity of Bacteria, with stable patterns for Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and more variable for Proteobacteria. A collection of 650 aerobic and anaerobic culturable isolates was also constructed. A phylogenetic analysis of 250 heterotrophic aerobic isolates revealed that 5 phyla are represented: Beta-, Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and spore-forming Firmicutes, which is largely dominant. These collection will be screened for the presence of radionuclide-accumulating species in order to estimate the potential influence of microorganisms in radionuclides migration in soils

2010-06-13

32

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

33

Community College Student Engagement Patterns: A Typology Revealed through Exploratory Cluster Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study employs survey data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement to examine the similarities and differences that exist across student-level domains in terms of student engagement in community colleges. In total, the sample used in the analysis pools data from 663 community colleges and includes more than 320,000 students.…

Saenz, Victor B.; Hatch, Deryl; Bukoski, Beth E.; Kim, Suyun; Lee, Kye-hyoung; Valdez, Patrick

2011-01-01

34

Integrating software architectures for distributed simulations and simulation analysis communities.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The one-year Software Architecture LDRD (No.79819) was a cross-site effort between Sandia California and Sandia New Mexico. The purpose of this research was to further develop and demonstrate integrating software architecture frameworks for distributed simulation and distributed collaboration in the homeland security domain. The integrated frameworks were initially developed through the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC), sited at SNL/CA, and the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center (NISAC), sited at SNL/NM. The primary deliverable was a demonstration of both a federation of distributed simulations and a federation of distributed collaborative simulation analysis communities in the context of the same integrated scenario, which was the release of smallpox in San Diego, California. To our knowledge this was the first time such a combination of federations under a single scenario has ever been demonstrated. A secondary deliverable was the creation of the standalone GroupMeld{trademark} collaboration client, which uses the GroupMeld{trademark} synchronous collaboration framework. In addition, a small pilot experiment that used both integrating frameworks allowed a greater range of crisis management options to be performed and evaluated than would have been possible without the use of the frameworks.

Goldsby, Michael E.; Fellig, Daniel; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Patrick Curtis; Sa, Timothy J.; Hawley, Marilyn F.

2005-10-01

35

Enhancing the Analysis of Rural Community Resilience: Evidence from Community land Ownership  

Science.gov (United States)

Resilience, and specifically the resilience of (rural) communities, is an increasingly-ubiquitous concept, particularly in the contexts of resistance to shocks, climate change, and environmental disasters. The dominant discourse concerning (community) resilience centres around bounce-back from external shocks. In this paper, I argue that it is…

Skerratt, Sarah

2013-01-01

36

Clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia among younger patients: An analysis of 18 years at a community hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia whose outcomes are markedly affected by their background characteristics, it appears that the severity of the infection itself contributes to outcomes in younger patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In order to identify clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in younger patients under 60 years old, among such cases prospectively collected at our hospital over a period of 18 years, those meeting the criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia, as defined in the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia, were retrospectively examined and compared to elderly patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Younger patients with severe pneumonia accounted for 12.9% of younger hospitalized patients. Although the incidence of severe pneumonia in younger patients was lower than that in elderly patients, its severity may be underestimated by severity assessment based on the conventional guidelines. Thus, attention is required. While Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella species were important causative pathogens, atypical pathogens and viruses were also frequently detected. There were only 11 deaths over a period of 18 years. Based on multivariate analysis, the risk factors for aggravation of community-acquired pneumonia among younger patients were age 50 years or older, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, and Legionella pneumonia. Although the mortality rate from community-acquired pneumonia is extremely low in previously healthy younger patients, outcomes might be poor for patients with underlying diseases and those with rapid progression. Multimodal treatments including respiratory management may be appropriate. PMID:24951291

Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Furuta, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Niwa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Hashimoto, Toru

2014-08-01

37

An Analysis of Health Care Assessments Used for Sustaining Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research addresses the needs for creating realistic health care assessment methodologies. The informationacquired from health care assessments shape the policies which will ultimately sustain communities. Health careassessment tools and methods dictate the priorities of community health care. These priorities assist with thedevelopment of community health care research, the exploration of community based need initiatives and thedesign of pertinent policies which meet the demands of community health care. Community health assessmentinvolves people and allows them to express their views, which leads to more self esteem, particularly indisadvantaged communities. Participatory community health care research relates to the continuity of theeconomic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-humanenvironment in which our communities thrive. This research will review the current literature pertinent toparticipatory action research. Additionally, this research will address the advantages, disadvantages and theethical issues of participatory action research methods. Selected case studies are used to explain communitybased models which have identified necessary strategies which have been utilized to articulate and assist currentcommunity health issues in specified populations.

Vereda Johnson Williams

2010-03-01

38

Community Robustness Analysis : Theoretical Approaches to Identifying Keystone Structures in Ecological Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the world’s ecosystems suffer from stress caused by human activities such as habitat destruction, fragmentation, overexploitation of species and climate change. These factors affect the reproduction and/or survival of individual species as well as interactions between species in ecological communities. Forthcoming effects of this are altered abundances, direct species loss, and indirect cascading extinctions, with yet largely unknown consequences on community structure and functioni...

Berg, Sofia

2013-01-01

39

Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with the physician population and show which characteristics of a community determine its "attractiveness" to physicians. Methods Associations between the number of physicians and selected demographic/economic/life-related variables of all of Japan's 3132 municipalities were examined. In order to exclude the confounding effect of community size, correlations between the physician-to-population ratio and other variable-to-population ratios or variable-to-area ratios were evaluated with simple correlation and multiple regression analyses. The equity of physician distribution against each variable was evaluated by the orenz curve and Gini index. Results Among the 21 variables selected, the service industry workers-to-population ratio (0.543, commercial land price (0.527, sales of goods per person (0.472, and daytime population density (0.451 were better correlated with the physician-to-population ratio than was population density (0.409. Multiple regression analysis showed that the service industry worker-to-population ratio, the daytime population density, and the elderly rate were each independently correlated with the physician-to-population ratio (standardized regression coefficient 0.393, 0.355, 0.089 respectively; each p Conclusion Daytime population and service industry population in a municipality are better parameters of community attractiveness to physicians than population. Because attractiveness is supposed to consist of medical demand and the amenities of urban life, the two parameters may represent the amount of medical demand and/or the extent of urban amenities of the community more precisely than population does. The conventional demand-supply analysis based solely on population as the demand parameter may overestimate the inequity of the physician distribution among communities.

Toyokawa Satoshi

2009-02-01

40

An enhanced cluster analysis program with bootstrap significance testing for ecological community analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosphere is filled with complex living patterns and important questions about biodiversity and community and ecosystem ecology are concerned with structure and function of multispecies systems that are responsible for those patterns. Cluster analysis identifies discrete groups within multivariate data and is an effective method of coping with these complexities, but often suffers from subjective identification of groups. The bootstrap testing method greatly improves objective significance determination for cluster analysis. The BOOTCLUS program makes cluster analysis that reliably identifies real patterns within a data set more accessible and easier to use than previously available programs. A variety of analysis options and rapid re-analysis provide a means to quickly evaluate several aspects of a data set. Interpretation is influenced by sampling design and a priori designation of samples into replicate groups, and ultimately relies on the researcher's knowledge of the organisms and their environment. However, the BOOTCLUS program provides reliable, objectively determined groupings of multivariate data.

McKenna, J. E., Jr.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Analysis on Influencing Factors of Community Safety Culture Based on the Structural Equation Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to research community safety culture building train of thought through the analysis of the influence factors of community safety culture, This study employs a Likert scale method for the design of questionnaire, investigate community through questionnaire, obtain the relevant data, and by use of the structural equation model (SEM) of statistics, puts forward that the factors including economy, society, education, since and technology, and management form important...

Li, Zhixin; Xu, Jingzhen; Zhang, Lihua

2013-01-01

42

A case study in discourse analysis of 'community arts' in cultural policy and the press  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In their article "Community Arts, Rhetoric and Discourse Analysis" An De bisschop, Kris Rutten, and Ronald Soetaert explore theoretical and applied aspects of the phenomenon of community arts. Community arts in Flanders have developed into a professional practice during the past few years and have received increased recognition from policy makers, scholars, and critics. This attention has caused a growing need to define the nature of a practice diverse in form, goal and process: for example, ...

Bisschop, An; Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

2011-01-01

43

A Unified Community Detection, Visualization and Analysis method  

CERN Multimedia

Community detection in social graphs has attracted researchers' interest for a long time. With the widespread of social networks on the Internet it has recently become an important research domain. Most contributions focus upon the definition of algorithms for optimizing the so-called modularity function. In the first place interest was limited to unipartite graph inputs and partitioned community outputs. Recently bipartite graphs, directed graphs and overlapping communities have been investigated. Few contributions embrace at the same time the three types of nodes. In this paper we present a method which unifies commmunity detection for the three types of nodes and at the same time merges partitionned and overlapping communities. Moreover results are visualized in such a way that they can be analyzed and semantically interpreted. For validation we experiment this method on well known simple benchmarks. It is then applied to real data in three cases. In two examples of photos sets with tagged people we reveal...

Crampes, Michel

2013-01-01

44

Pyrosequencing analysis of eukaryotic and bacterial communities in faucet biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the microbial communities in drinking water biofilms, both eukaryotic and bacterial communities in three faucet biofilms were characterized by 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR approaches. Microbial assemblages of the biofilms were dominated by bacteria, with Sphingomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Burkholderiales comprising the major bacterial populations. Although about 2 years of biofilm development occurred, the microbial community at site WSW still demonstrates the characteristics of a young biofilm community, e.g. low biomass, abundant aggregating bacteria (Blastomonas spp. and Acidovorax spp.) etc. Hartmannella of amoebae was the dominant eukaryotic predator in the biofilms, and correlated closely with biofilm bacterial biomass. Nonetheless, there was no obvious association of pathogens with amoebae in the faucet biofilms. In contrast, residual chlorine seems to be a dominant factor impacting the abundance of Legionella and Mycobacterium, two primary potential opportunistic pathogens detected in all faucet biofilms. PMID:22846772

Liu, Ruyin; Yu, Zhisheng; Guo, Hongguang; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Hongxun; Yang, Min

2012-10-01

45

Metagenomic analysis of bacterial communities on Dokdo Island.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dokdo, located east of the mainland of South Korea, is a volcanic island designated as a natural monument of South Korea due to its ecological value. Dokdo is divided into Dongdo and Seodo, islands with geological differences. The soil bacterial communities on Dokdo (Dongdo and Seodo) were analyzed using the pyrosequencing method. There were 1,693 and 1,408 operational taxonomic units (OTU) from Dongdo and Seodo, respectively. The statistical analyses (rarefaction curves as well as Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices) showed that bacterial diversity was slightly higher in Dongdo than Seodo. From results of a BLASTN search against the EzTaxon-e database, the validated reads (obtained after sequence preprocessing) were almost all classified at the phylum level. From the phylum level down to the species level, the number of classified reads considerably decreased due to the absence of information concerning unculturable or unidentified bacteria to date. Among the 36 phyla identified, three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria) accounted for around 74.64%. The taxonomic composition was similar at the higher ranks (family and above) between Dongdo and Seodo, but a little different at the genus level. There were also various differences in the relative abundance of taxonomic ranks between Dongdo and Seodo. In particular, the proportion of the genus Acidobacterium (of the phylum Acidobacteria) was about six times higher in Seodo than Dongdo. In addition, the percentage of the genus Mycobacterium (of the phylum Actinobacteria) was nearly three times higher in Seodo than Dongdo, and the proportion of the genus Gaiella was about 3.7 times higher in Dongdo than Seodo. Overall, through the metagenomic analysis, the number of species identified in Dongdo and Seodo was 1,239 and 1,055, respectively. This information on the numerous culturable and unculturable bacteria is expected to help in the screening of new species in Dokdo. PMID:24859864

Kim, Ye-Eun; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Miae; Nam, Yoon-Jong; Kim, Hyun; Seo, Yeonggyo; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Ja Kim, Young; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk; Seu, Young-Bae

2014-01-01

46

Who Are Our Students? Cluster Analysis as a Tool for Understanding Community College Student Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study showcases cluster analysis as a useful tool for those who seek to understand the types of students their community colleges serve. Although educational goal, academic program, and demographics are often used as descriptive variables, it is unclear which, if any, of these are the best way to classify community college students. Cluster…

Ammon, Bridget V.; Bowman, Jamillah; Mourad, Roger

2008-01-01

47

Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses social network analysis (SNA) in an innovative way to describe interaction and explain how interaction influences sense of community of students in online learning environments. The findings reveal differences on sense of community between two similarly structured online courses, and show unique interaction patterns for students in…

Shen, Demei; Nuankhieo, Piyanan; Huang, Xinxin; Amelung, Christopher; Laffey, James

2008-01-01

48

Impact analysis and community development needs at the salt site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) has developed a socioeconomic program for a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt. The program is comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation, and impact monitoring. The first element, impact assessment, is the focus of ONWI's current activities. Socioeconomic data has been collected for seven salt sites in Texas, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana. Demographic, economic, community service, governmental and social structure information has been assembled into data base reports for each site area. These socioeconomic reports will be the basis for analyzing community-related impacts. Socioeconomic effects are currently being evaluated for the environmental assessment document required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The approach to evaluating socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment impact includes developing the data base necessary for evaluation; assessing impacts of baseline population projected by the states; assessing project-related impacts through the use of an inmigration model and responding to socioeconomic issues raised in public meetings and hearings. The siting, construction, and operation of nuclear repositories will involve an extended period of time and an increased workforce, which can result in some impacts similar to those of other large development projects. The communities affected by a repository site will face increased demands for housing, community services (transportation, sewer and water, schools, etc.) and land, as well as a desire to maintain the community's ''character''. The management of this expansion and other related community impacts should be structured to meet community needs and goals. The management process should include the formation of an impact management comment, a public participation program, and a technical assistance program

1984-01-01

49

University-Community Engagement: A grid-group analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available University-community engagement involves complex issues, entangling multiple and interacting points of view, all of which operate in a wider dynamic evolving social environment. For this reason, there is often disagreement about why engagement is necessary or desirable, and whether there is one optimal method to practice it. To address this issue, I argue that university-community engagement can be examined as a form of enquiry. In this view, engagement is viewed as a system that arises through the recognition of the dissent it embodies. As such, enquiry functions to process disagreements into diverse methods of communication. Most of the disagreements utilised by universities are derived from external sources, thus university-based enquiry must necessarily involve a dialogue with a broader community or environment. In this sense, university-community engagement can be viewed most generally as a method that processes disagreements into shared understandings through enquiry. To demonstrate how university-community engagement functions from an enquiry point of view, I use Mary Douglas’ grid-group diagramming method to develop a critical typology for classifying university-community engagement. My modified grid-group diagram provides a structured typological space within which four distinct methods of university-community engagement can be identified and discussed – both in relation to their internal communicational characteristics, and in relation to each other. The university-engagement grid-group diagram is constructed by locating each of Douglas’ four quadrants within Charles Peirce’s four methods of enquiry. Peirce’s work is introduced because each of his four methods of enquiry deals specifically with how disagreements are processed and resolved. When Peirce’s methods for fixing belief are located in Douglas’ grid-group diagram, they create a sense-making framework for university-community engagement. It is argued that the model offers a heuristic structure through which to view the diversity of university-community engagement and create shared understandings of the appropriateness of a wide range of possible engagement methods.

David Low

2008-09-01

50

Land Use Analysis, Community Facilities Plan, Transportation Plan, Land Use Plan, Russellville, Kentucky.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the purpose of estabilishing a sound comprehensive planning program in the City of Russellville, Kentucky, the report was prepared, to include land use analysis, community facilities plan, transportation plan and land use plan. (Author)

1970-01-01

51

[Quantitative analysis of insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard].  

Science.gov (United States)

The insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard in Mouping District of Yantai City were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. The temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. The dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and the predatory and parasitic enemies by principal component analysis and factor analysis. Canonical correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the dominant insect pests and the dominant natural enemies, especially between Lithocolletis ringoniella and its parasitoids, between Aphis citricola and its parasitoids, and between Tetranychus viennensis and its obligatory predatory enemies, Stethorus punctillum and Amblyseius orientalis. PMID:19565766

Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Qu, Cheng-Huai; Liu, Xue-Qian; Qu, Shu-Juan

2009-04-01

52

Analysis of community dynamics in environmental samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a culture-independent fingerprinting technique that allows for rapid comparative analysis of changes to microbial communities. 16S rRNA genes amplified from environmental samples can be separated based on their melting behavior in a denaturing gradient of urea and formamide. A fingerprint of the microbial community is generated with each band on the gel assumed to correspond to a different bacterial species. Community dynamics can then be assessed through statistical analysis of DGGE profiles and the sequencing of excised bands. PMID:24515359

Thompson, Claire L

2014-01-01

53

Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of Jewish communities in the territory of contemporary Portugal is archaeologically documented since the 3rd century CE, but their settlement in Trás-os-Montes (NE Portugal) has not been proved before the 12th century. The Decree of Expulsion followed by the establishment of the Inquisition, both around the beginning of the 16th century, accounted for a significant exodus, as well as the establishment of crypto-Jewish communities. Previous Y chromosome studies have shown that different Jewish communities share a common origin in the Near East, although they can be quite heterogeneous as a consequence of genetic drift and different levels of admixture with their respective host populations. To characterize the genetic composition of the Portuguese Jewish communities from Trás-os-Montes, we have examined 57 unrelated Jewish males, with a high-resolution Y-chromosome typing strategy, comprising 16 STRs and 23 SNPs. A high lineage diversity was found, at both haplotype and haplogroup levels (98.74 and 82.83%, respectively), demonstrating the absence of either strong drift or founder effects. A deeper and more detailed investigation is required to clarify how these communities avoided the expected inbreeding caused by over four centuries of religious repression. Concerning haplogroup lineages, we detected some admixture with the Western European non-Jewish populations (R1b1b2-M269, approximately 28%), along with a strong ancestral component reflecting their origin in the Middle East [J1(xJ1a-M267), approximately 12%; J2-M172, approximately 25%; T-M70, approximately 16%] and in consequence Trás-os-Montes Jews were found to be more closely related with other Jewish groups, rather than with the Portuguese non-Jewish population. PMID:19918998

Nogueiro, Inês; Manco, Licínio; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

2010-03-01

54

High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition.

Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

2014-01-01

55

Educational Quality, Communities, and Public School Choice: a Theoretical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we develop a multicommunity model where public mixed finance and private schools coexist. Students are differentiated by income, ability and social capital. Schools maximize their profits under a quality constraint; the pricing function is dependent on the cost of producing education and on the position of an individual relatively to mean ability and mean social capital. Income plays an indirect role since it determines the type of schools and communities that can be afforded b...

Mostafa, Tarek; Hanchane, Sai?d

2007-01-01

56

Promoting law enforcement for child protection: a community analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Colorado Occupant Protection Project (COPP) intervention provided police with brief instruction concerning the importance of citations for drivers' failure to use child safety seats and special coupons to accompany citations. Coupons were exchangeable by drivers for a safety seat and brief training in its use, plus a waiver of the $50 citation fine. Over 4.5 years of archival records were employed, using an ABA design and a comparison community to evaluate the program. Few tickets were is...

Lavelle, J. M.; Hovell, M. F.; West, M. P.; Wahlgren, D. R.

1992-01-01

57

Plant Communities Analysis of Selected Urban Flora of Islamabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation of plant community composition with environmental parameters (Elevation, pH, nutrients in soil etc.) was presented with the aim of determining the relationship of vegetation with environmental parameters in an urban area. Vegetation patterns of an area of 4 km2 were studied between 1300-1800 m in the selected areas of Islamabad city. This area is relatively having wider open spaces and consequently more species diversity. Taking into consideration the importance of soil c...

Syeda Maria Ali; Shamim Kauser

2006-01-01

58

Community projects: An experimental analysis of a fair implementation process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We define and experimentally test a public provision mechanism that meets three basic ethical requirements and allows community members to influence, via monetary bids, which of several projects is implemented. For each project, participants are assigned personal values, which can be positive or negative. We provide either complete or only private information about others' personal values. This produces two distinct public provision games which are experimentally implemented and analysed for ...

2012-01-01

59

An analysis of open source principles in diverse collaborative communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open source culture and practice emerged as software hackers took control over the production, ownership and distribution of their skilled work. This revolution, quiet and unnoticed by most, began over twenty years ago. Along the way, free and open source software hackers developed organizational and dialog structures to support their ethos, creating a successful model for collaboration. This paper applies traits common to successful free software and open source hacker communities as a frame...

Coffin, Jill

2006-01-01

60

Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (Drilling Program core collected near Hilo, Hawaii. Total microbial DNA was extracted from a depth of 1351 m in the drill core (ambient temperature in the drill hole ~16°C), where petrographic evidence suggested the presence of microbial alteration. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned, and twelve clones representing the most abundant groups were sequenced. Eleven out of the twelve clones were 97 to 99% similar to Group I marine Crenarchaeota, while the remaining clone was 95% similar to Euryarchaeota, based on BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Our community-level approach to studying microbes living in volcanic glasses has provided a greater understanding of the microbial communities that potentially alter these materials.

di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Análisis de las comunidades de innovación abierta desde la perspectiva del Análisis de Redes Sociales Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis Analysis of open innovation communities from the perspective of Social Network Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Open innovation represents an emergent paradigm by which organizations make use of internal and external resources to drive their innovation processes. The growth of information and communication technologies has facilitated the emergence of online open innovation communities which allow a direct contact with customers and users. The aim of this work consists of analyzing the behavior of open innovation community members from the perspective of social network analysis, in order to determine to what extent the activity of users is related to the interest that posted ideas are generating and to what extent the scoring systems based on collective intelligence are adequate for the identification of users posting ideas that can be potentially implemented by the organization.Design/methodology/approach: Open innovation communities can be represented as graphs, where the nodes represent the community members and the arcs between nodes represent the interactions among users according to the different ways of participation allowed within the community. Using social network analysis techniques, several variables representing different participation features of community members can be collected. The correlation coefficients among these variables provide information about the relationships among users' activity, the interest that their posted ideas arouse within the community and the score that posted ideas receive from the rest of the community.Findings and Originality/value: Obtained results show a positive correlation among the different participation possibilities offered by the studied community. That means that users which are active posting ideas are also active commenting or scoring other users' ideas. However, obtained results also show that those ideas generating more interest among community members are not always the ones that receive a better evaluation by other community members. With respect to those ideas which are finally implemented by the organization, obtained results point out that they are in general the ones that arouse more interest within the community rather that the ones that obtain a better evaluation.Research limitations/implications: This work analyzes the case study of IdeaStorm innovation community promoted by Dell. Despite of being a single case study, it is representative enough as IdeaStorm is one of the most popular innovation communities and one of the pioneers in the implementation of the open innovation paradigm.Practical implications: Putting into practice open innovation communities has the drawback of the huge volume of generated information, many times quite difficult to process by the innovation department of the organization. That is the reason why it is quite important for the organization to know the patterns of behavior of community members, how the community scoring system is working and to what extent posted ideas are aligned with the organization strategic innovation policies.Originality/value: This work deals with the issue of putting into practice the open innovation paradigm using social network analysis techniques for modeling the behavior and activity of users belonging to open innovation communities. Moreover, this study not only considers the activity of community members but also the implications for the organization in the form of ideas that have been finally implemented.Objeto: El modelo de innovación abierta constituye un paradigma emergente por el que las organizaciones hacen uso de recursos internos y externos para llevar a cabo sus procesos de innovación. El auge de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación ha permitido la proliferación de comunidades online de innovación abierta que permiten un contacto más directo con clientes y usuarios. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento de los miembros de estas comunidades online desde la perspectiva del análisis de redes sociales. La finalidad es determinar en qué medida la actividad de los miembros de la comunidad está relacionada con el interés generado por

Rocio Martinez-Torres

2013-01-01

62

Thermal gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bioprotection from pollutant shocks in the activated sludge microbial community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors used a culture-independent approach, namely, thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of ribosomal sequences amplified directly from community DNA, to determine changes in the structure of the microbial community following phenol shocks in the highly complex activated sludge ecosystem. Parallel experimental model sewage plants were given shock loads of chlorinated and methylated phenols and simultaneously were inoculated (i) with a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) able to degrade the added substituted phenols or (ii) with the nonengineered parental strain. The sludge community DNA was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified and analyzed by TGGE. To allow quantitative analysis of TGGE banding patterns, they were normalized to an external standard. The samples were then compared with each other for similarity by using the coefficient of Dice. The Shannon index of diversity, H, was calculated for each sludge sample, which made it possible to determine changes in community diversity. The authors observed a breakdown in community structure following shock loads of phenols by a decrease in the Shannon index of diversity from 1.13 to 0.22 in the noninoculated system. Inoculation with the GEM (Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 SN45RE) effectively protected the microbial community, as indicated by the maintenance of a high diversity throughout the shock load experiment. Inoculation with the nonengineered parental strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, did not protect the microbial community from being severely disturbed.

Eichner, C.A.; Erb, R.W.; Timmis, K.N.; Wagner-Doebler, I. [National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany). Div. of Microbiology

1999-01-01

63

Conceptualisation of community-based basic nursing education in South Africa: a grounded theory analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based education is about a decade old in basic nursing education in South Africa, An extensive review of literature revealed that although CBE was a familiar concept in South Africa, there was however, limited understanding of what this phenomenon means. The purpose of the study was to analyse the concept ‘community-based education’ with the aim of discovering shared understanding of this phenomenon in basic nursing education within the South African context. Strauss and Corbin’s (1990 grounded theory approach was used to guide the research process. The South African Nursing Council’s (SANC education committee, the National Department of Health, human resources division representatives as well as seven nursing education institutions with well-established CBE programmes participated in the study. The data was collected by means o f observations, interviews and document analysis. Purposive sampling and later theoretical sampling was used for selecting interviewees. This resulted in a total o f 45 interviewees. The data collection and initial data analysis took place concurrently. Descriptive analysis followed by conceptual analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin’s model. The findings in this study revealed that community-based education is education that uses the community extensively, especially the under-developed and under-resourced settings, for learning purposes in order to enhance relevance of nursing education to the needs of the South African population. The core discriminatory characteristics o f CBE were found to include; primacy of the community as a learning environment; the early exposure of students to community-based learning experiences; community-based learning experiences dominating the curriculum, exposure to community-based learning experiences throughout the curriculum, vertical sequencing of community-based learning experiences in a curriculum, starting from primary settings to secondary and later tertiary health care settings to facilitate the development of competencies required when serving in all these settings, and lastly, learning through providing service to the underresourced communities. Community involvement and partnership, problem-centred learning, valid assessment of learning emanated as important characteristics of CBE but which were identified as gaps in the existing programmes. Recommendations focused on these gaps as well as to the problem of community-based learning experiences which were mainly concentrated in first and/or second year levels in most o f the programmes.

Gloria Mtshali

2005-09-01

64

Using network analysis to explore co-ocurrence patterns in soil microbial communities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exploring large environmental datasets generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies requires new analytical approaches to move beyond the basic inventory descriptions of the composition and diversity of natural microbial communities. In order to investigate potential interactions between microbial taxa, network analysis of significant taxon co-occurrence patterns may help to decipher the structure of complex microbial communities across spatial or temporal gradients. Here, we calc...

Barbera?n, Albert; Bates, S. T.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, N.

2012-01-01

65

Using network analysis to explore co-occurrence patterns in soil microbial communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exploring large environmental datasets generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies requires new analytical approaches to move beyond the basic inventory descriptions of the composition and diversity of natural microbial communities. In order to investigate potential interactions between microbial taxa, network analysis of significant taxon co-occurrence patterns may help to decipher the structure of complex microbial communities across spatial or temporal gradients. Here, we calc...

Barbera?n, Albert; Bates, Scott T.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

2012-01-01

66

Community Participation in Two Vaccination Trials in Slums of Kolkata, India: A Multi-level Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims at understanding the individual and community-level characteristics that influenced participation in two consecutive vaccine trials (typhoid and cholera) in urban slums of Kolkata, India. The study area was divided into 80 geographic clusters (communities), with 59,533 subjects aged ?2 years for analysis. A multi-level model was employed in which the individuals were seen nested within the cluster. Rates of participation in both the trials were nearly the same; those who par...

Ali, Mohammad; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna Lena; Kanungo, Suman; Ochiai, R. Leon; Manna, Byomkesh; Kim, Deok Ryun; Deen, Jacqueline; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Clemens, John D.

2010-01-01

67

Benthic diatoms in the Gulf of Bothnia : Community analysis and diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benthic diatoms are valuable tools for biological monitoring and paleo-ecological reconstruction of past environmental conditions. This thesis aims at describing size-related properties of benthic diatoms and suggests that data assessment for community analysis can be improved by considering the importance of scale. It investigates which environmental factors structure epilithic diatom communities on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia and identifies environmental factors correlated with phytobe...

2002-01-01

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A SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND CHANGES IN A CANCER DISPARITIES COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP NETWORK  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of the Community Network Program sites funded (2005–10) by the National Cancer Institute’s Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities. TBCCN was tasked to form a sustainable, community-based partnership network focused on the goal of reducing cancer health disparities among racial–ethnic minority and medically underserved populations. This article reports evaluation outcome results from a social network analysis and discusses the varying TBCCN partner roles—in education, training, and research—over a span of three years (2007–09). The network analysis included 20 local community partner organizations covering a tricounty area in Southwest Florida. In addition, multiple externally funded, community-based participatory research pilot projects with community–academic partners have either been completed or are currently in progress, covering research topics including culturally targeted colorectal and prostate cancer screening education, patient navigation focused on preventing cervical cancer in rural Latinas, and community perceptions of biobanking. The social network analysis identified a trend toward increased network decentralization based on betweenness centrality and overall increase in number of linkages, suggesting network sustainability. Degree centrality, trust, and multiplexity exhibited stability over the three-year time period. These results suggest increased interaction and interdependence among partner organizations and less dependence on the cancer center. Social network analysis enabled us to quantitatively evaluate partnership network functioning of TBCCN in terms of network structure and information and resources flows, which are integral to understanding effective coalition practice based on Community Coalition Action Theory ( Butterfoss and Kegler 2009). Sharing the results of the social network analysis with the partnership network is an important component of our coalition building efforts. A comprehensive baseline needs assessment for the next five-year funding phase (2010–15) of TBCCN Community Networks Program Centers (CNP Center) is under way to further evaluate the growth and sustainability of the partnership network, with an emphasis on community-based intervention research that takes into account culture and literacy. [social network, health care disparities, cancer screening

Luque, John S.; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

69

Simulation and Strategy Analysis of the Eco-community Planning by Using of Computer Software Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve the living comfort level of the low-income groups, and the belonging of the affordable housing community residents, the research group take Nanyang green community housing design as the research object, using the computer software for community planning phase of the thermal environment, wind environment, light environment for simulation analysis. The result showed the micro-climate, thermal environment, and adjusting the temperature of the district as well which is the affordable housing community worthy of promotion of green building technologies for small and medium-sized cities. It also provides the reference for the similar project planning in the process of ventilation, lighting, shading, such as green design strategy research.

Zhao Jingxin

2013-01-01

70

agriGO: a GO analysis toolkit for the agricultural community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gene Ontology (GO), the de facto standard in gene functionality description, is used widely in functional annotation and enrichment analysis. Here, we introduce agriGO, an integrated web-based GO analysis toolkit for the agricultural community, using the advantages of our previous GO enrichment tool (EasyGO), to meet analysis demands from new technologies and research objectives. EasyGO is valuable for its proficiency, and has proved useful in uncovering biological knowledge in massive data s...

Du, Zhou; Zhou, Xin; Ling, Yi; Zhang, Zhenhai; Su, Zhen

2010-01-01

71

Community Service and User Support for the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) Data Assimilation and Analysis System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is a unified variational data assimilation and analysis system for both global and regional applications. It is currently used as a data assimilation system by various operational centers, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (e.g., Global Forecasting System (GFS), North American Mesoscale (NAM) system, the Hurricane WRF (HWRF), and the RAPid Refresh (RAP) system), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model), and the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). This analysis system is also used to generate certain analysis products, such as output from NOAA's GFS reanalysis and the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) (e.g., 2m temperature, 10m winds gust, surface pressure and surface visibility). GSI can also be used to generate analyses for climate studies (e.g., ozone and sea surface temperature (SST) analyses) or assimilate non-'traditional' fields (e.g., aerosol data assimilation) for air quality studies (e.g., dust storms). Lately, an effort was initiated to use GSI for data assimilation throughout the entire atmosphere. One example of such an effort is the development of a data assimilation system for the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) at NCEP. Over the past few years, GSI has been transitioned to a community resource through a joint effort led by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC), in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) and other GSI partners. The DTC is a distributed facility with a goal of serving as a bridge between the research and operational communities by transitioning the operational capability to a community resource and committing the contributions from the research community to the operational repository. The DTC has hosted four Community GSI tutorials and released five versions of the community GSI system with a corresponding User's Guide. The DTC has built and continues to maintain a community GSI User's Page to provide GSI code, documentation, and on-line tutorials for the research community. The DTC staff has been providing support to GSI users through the GSI help desk since the release of version 1 of the community code in 2009. This paper will briefly describe the GSI system and emphasize the GSI community services and support available from the DTC and other developers.

Shao, H.; Hu, M.; Stark, D.; Newman, K.; Zhou, C.; Derber, J.; Lueken, M.

2013-12-01

72

Regional-scale analysis of subtidal rocky shore community  

Science.gov (United States)

The French monitoring network, REseau BENThique (REBENT), was launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 2003 following the 1999 Erika oil spill. REBENT aimed to acquire baseline knowledge of coastal benthic habitat distributions with a special focus on biological diversity. This study analyzed data from 38 subtidal rocky reef sites collected by a single diving team of marine biologists along the coast of Brittany from 2004 to 2010. At each site, the depth limits of the algal belts were determined between 0 and -40 m Chart Datum (CD); the flora and fauna compositions and abundances were sampled at -3 and -8 m CD. A total of 364 taxa (156 flora and 208 fauna), belonging to 12 phyla, were identified. The results showed that the depth limit and density of kelp beds increased as water turbidity decreased; moreover, several changes in community structure could be related to water turbidity and temperature. Thus, northern and southern Brittany showed strong differences in diversity and structure of the dominant kelp species ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides). The results from this kelp habitat composition survey (dominant kelp species and indicator species) provided important information for local pressure assessments, like increases in turbidity. The data also provided a reference that could be useful for detecting changes in coastal water temperatures due to global warming.

Derrien-Courtel, Sandrine; Le Gal, Aodren; Grall, Jacques

2013-12-01

73

Investigating student communities with network analysis of interactions in a physics learning center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University’s Physics Learning Center (PLC that support the development of academic and social integration. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors that contribute to participation in the learning community. Results of the sequential multiple regression indicate that the PLC learning community is an equitable environment as we find that gender and ethnicity are not significant predictors of participation in the PLC. We find that providing students space for collaboration provides a vital element in the formation of a supportive learning community.

Eric Brewe1,2

2012-01-01

74

Sandhills-turkey oak (Quercus laevis) ecosystem: community analysis and a model of radiocesium cycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ecosystem analysis focusing on cycling of radiocesium (via an in situ "1"3"4Cs label) was undertaken in a sandhills-turkey oak forest. Study objectives included community analysis, rates of cesium cycling, and a simulation model of cesium cycling. The turkey oak community appears to be at biomass steady-state and maintains maximum bimass through a strategy of energy and nutrient conservation. Radiocesium is rapidly cycled through turkey oaks. In the turkey oak community, vegetation burden of radiocesium is regulated by the availability of radiocesium for uptake and not rate of uptake. Among several possible models, a 5-compartment, donor controlled model employing annual transfer rates most accurately reproduced the observed distribution of fallout "1"3"7Cs

1978-01-01

75

Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

1975-01-01

76

Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans. PMID:18658280

Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2008-09-01

77

Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Lime Concretion Black Soil upon the Incorporation of Crop Residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To analyze the bacterial communities in lime concretion black soil upon the incorporation of crop residues for two years in wheat-maize system, total DNA was directly extracted and PCR-amplified with the F357GC and R518 primers targeting the 16S rRNA genes of V3 region. The amplified fragments were analyzed by perpendicular DGGE. Analyzing of species richness index S and Shannon diversity index H revealed that there was a high diversity of soil bacterial community compositions among all treatments after incorporation of crop residues and fertilizing under field conditions. Eleven DGGE bands recovered were re-amplified, sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the representative DGGE fingerprints identified four groups of the prokaryotic communities in the soil by returning wheat residues and fertilizing under field conditions. The bacterial communities belonged to gamma proteobacterium, Cupriavidus sp, halophilic eubacterium, Acidobacterium sp, Sorangium sp, delta proteobacterium, Streptococcus sp and Streptococcus agalactiae were main bacterial communities. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that there were the differences in DNA profiles among the six treatments. It showed that wheat residue returning, maize residue returning and fertilizing all can improve bacterial diversity in varying degrees. As far as improvement of bacterial diversity was concerned, wheat residue returning was higher than fertilizing, and fertilizing higher than maize residue returning.

Shao-Qiang Tao

2012-09-01

78

Learning Communities in Undergraduate STEM Education: A Quantitative Analysis of how Sense of Community Influences Retention of Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Countless programs are aimed at retaining first year college students in their majors and at their institutions. Additionally, first year students in STEM majors are retained at lower rates, than non-STEM majors. Previous research has shown that students who leave the institution are not as academically and socially integrated into the campus community than students who persist at an institution. Residential learning communities can be thought of as a retention tool by enhancing the academic and social integration of their participants. Academic integration has historically been measured by academic success as indicated by GPA, while social integration has been more difficult to measure. We adapted the Sense of Community Index (SCI) as a measure of social integration. Sense of community (SOC) has been defined as ''a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together''. This quantitative study examines sense of community as a means of social integration and explores the relationship between learning communities, students' sense of community, and their intent to persist at a large public university and within their current major. An online survey of 60 first-year college students in a Natural Resources College, examined the relationships between learning community participation, sense of community, and student retention. A logistic regression of sense of community was very effective in predicting students' intent to stay or leave the institution. Structural equation models showed that sense of community was strongly positively related to a students' intent to stay or leave the institution for non-learning community participants, but not for learning community participants. We hypothesized that learning community participants sense of community needs would be more fully met than non-learning community participants. Learning community students showed a weak correlation between sense of community and intent to persist in their major, indicating that these students' departure decisions were based on factors other than sense of community. These finding were consistent with previous research of sense of community which has supported this construct as a needs based hierarchical theory. For example, if students' sense of community needs are met, then they can focus on higher level needs, such as academic success. Conversely, if students' sense of community needs are not being fully met, then this factor remains salient in terms of influencing their departure decision. Our results suggest that learning communities fulfill students' sense of community needs, thus this factor has less influence on learning community participants' decision to leave the institution than their counterparts who do not participate in a learning community. Our results suggest that learning communities are effective in fulfilling students' sense of community needs, thus allowing them to focus their energies on higher order needs such as academic success.

Archie, T.; Newman, P.

2012-12-01

79

Using Interaction Analysis to reveal Self-Regulated Learning in Virtual Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of this paper is to analyse whether Interaction Analysis can help investigate the practice and development of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in Virtual Learning Communities (VLC). Interaction analysis is increasingly used to study learning dynamics within online activities. It proceeds by searching expressions that reveal the aspects under study in the written messages exchanged by the learners. To this end, we devised and classified a number of indicators suggesting the existence of self-...

Dettori, Giuliana; Persico, Donatella

2007-01-01

80

Using Interaction Analysis to reveal Self-regulated Learning in Virtual Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of this paper is to analyse whether Interaction Analysis can help investigate the practice and development of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in Virtual Learning Communities (VLC). Interaction analysis is increasingly used to study learning dynamics within online activities. It proceeds by searching expressions that reveal the aspects under study in the written messages exchanged by the learners. To this end, we devised and classified a number of indicators suggesting the existence of self-...

Dettori, Giuliana; Persico, Donatella

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

1978-03-22

82

Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in four main ethnic communities in Taiwan during 2005 to 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess spatial features of tuberculosis prevalence and their relationships with four main ethnic communities in Taiwan. Methods of spatial analysis were clustering pattern determination (such as global version of Moran’s test and local version of Gi*(d statistic, using logistic regression calculations to identify spatial distributions over a contiguous five years and identify significant similarities, discriminant analysis to classify variables, and geographically weighted regression (GWR to determine the strength of relationships between tuberculosis prevalence and ethnic variables in spatial features. Tuberculosis demonstrated decreasing trends in prevalence in both genders during 2005 to 2009. All results of the global Moran’s tests indicated spatial heterogeneity and clusters in the plain and mountainous Aboriginal townships. The Gi*(d statistic calculated z-score outcomes, categorized as clusters or non-clusters, at at 5% significance level. According to the stepwise Wilks’ lambda discriminant analysis, in the Aborigines and Hoklo communities townships with clusters of tuberculosis cases differentiated from townships without cluster cases, to a greater extent than in the other communities. In the GWR models, the explanatory variables demonstrated significant and positive signs of parameter estimates in clusters occurring in plain and mountainous aboriginal townships. The explanatory variables of both the Hoklo and Hakka communities demonstrated significant, but negative, signs of parameter estimates. The Mainlander community did not significantly associate with cluster patterns of tuberculosis in Taiwan. Results indicated that locations of high tuberculosis prevalence closely related to areas containing higher proportions of the Aboriginal community in Taiwan. This information is relevant for assessment of spatial risk factors, which, in turn, can facilitate the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, and implementation of effective health care services.

Pui-Jen Tsai

2011-11-01

83

Analysis of methanotroph community structure using a pmoA-based microarray.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of methanotroph community composition is relevant to studies of methane oxidation in a number of environments where methane is a significant carbon source. The development and application of a microarray targeting the particulate methane monooxygenase gene (pmoA) have allowed a high-throughput, semiquantitative analysis of the major methanotroph groups in a number of different environments. Here we describe the use of a pmoA-based short oligo array for the analysis of methanotroph populations in sediment samples. The method is suitable for analysis of any type of environmental sample from which DNA can be extracted. PMID:24515364

Abell, Guy C J; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente

2014-01-01

84

Phytosociological Studies on the Wild Mesembryanthemum Species in Egypt 1. Quantitative Analysis of the Representative Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communities of Mesembryanthemum species were studied quantitatively. Surveys were carried out in five habitats supporting M. crystallinum, four habitats supporting M. forsskaolii and six habitats supporting M. nodiflorum. Vegetation analysis of the community types included (density, frequency, cover area, relative density, relative frequency, relative cover, fresh weight and biomass of each species. Results indicated that M. crystallinum and M. forsskaolii had higher densities than M. nodiflorum, while M. nodiflorum and M. crystallinum had higher biomass than M. forsskaolii. Results also showed highest cover for M. crystallinum and lowest for M. nodiflorum.

F. M. El Shayeb

2002-01-01

85

Sensitivity analysis in the WWTP modelling community â?? new opportunities and applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A mainstream viewpoint on sensitivity analysis in the wastewater modelling community is that it is a first-order differential analysis of outputs with respect to the parameters â?? typically obtained by perturbing one parameter at a time with a small factor. An alternative viewpoint on sensitivity analysis is related to uncertainty analysis, which attempts to relate the total uncertainty in the outputs to the uncertainty in the inputs. In this paper we evaluate and discuss two such sensitivity analysis methods for two different purposes/case studies: (i) Applying sensitivity analysis to a plant design (BSM1 plant layout) using Standardized Regression Coefficients (SRC) and (ii) Applying sensitivity analysis to help fine-tuning a fuzzy controller for a BNPR plant using Morris Screening. The results obtained from each case study are then critically discussed in view of practical applications of sensitivity analysis in day-to-day engineering projects.

Sin, Gürkan; Ruano, M.V.

2010-01-01

86

A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous peoples, are ideal for genetic studies. While Indigenous communities remain the focal point of many genomic studies, some result in harm and unethical practice. Unfortunately, the harms of poorly formulated and unethical research involving Indigenous people have created barriers to participation that prevent critical and lifesaving research. These harms have led a number of Indigenous communities to develop guidelines for engaging with researchers to assist in safely bridging the gap between genetic research and Indigenous peoples.SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aims of this study were: (1 to conduct an international review and comparison of Indigenous research guidelines that highlight topics regarding genetics and use of biological samples and identify commonalities and differences among ethical principles of concern to Indigenous peoples; and (2 develop policy recommendations for Indigenous populations interested in creating formal policies around the use of genetic information and protection of biological samples using data from specific aim 1.METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed to identify best research practices and recommendations for Indigenous groups from four countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. The analysis examined commonalities in political relationships, which support self-determination among these Indigenous communities to control their data. Current international Indigenous guidelines were analyzed to review processes of how genetic research is conducted and the use of biological samples is handled with Indigenous peoples.RESULTS: Results suggest the need for genetic and genomic research policies for the world’s Indigenous people. Indigenous groups are most vulnerable to research exploitation and harm; therefore, identifying principles that work for Indigenous people will lead to best practices for all populations.CONCLUSIONS: Development and implementation of best practices informed by research guidelines in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the U.S. may be helpful to advise Indigenous leaders, policy makers, and researchers to the proper conduction of genetic research within Indigenous communities. Comparative analyses are a useful tool for identifying areas for further work in developing genetic research policy for Indigenous communities.OUTCOME: The outcomes of this analysis are relevant and useful to Indigenous communities and inform the development of community-based genetic research guidelines. The recommendations can be used in designing appropriate policies for future genomic research with Indigenous peoples.

Jay Maddock

2012-05-01

87

Habitat niche community-level analysis of an amphibian assemblage at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community structure was studied across six different habitat types in an amphibian assemblage constituted by 24 species belonging to five families, from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We employed a suite of different statistical methods, including univariate, multivariate, and Monte Carlo procedures to investigate the randomness/nonrandomness and the seasonal effects (wet versus dry season of the community assembly. We calculated for each species in each habitat type an index of relative abundance by using a time constrained counting technique, with 48 1-h counts for each habitat type. Co-occurrence was analysed by C score with 30 000 simulations; resource partitioning patterns by RA2 and RA3 algorithms with 30 000 simulations; and apparent dissimilarity among species in terms of habitat use by UPGMA dendrograms. After pooling data from wet and dry seasons, it resulted that the amphibian community was non-randomly assembled according to C-score analyses, but both RA2 and RA3 were unable to uncover any competitive structure for the dataset. Seasonal effects were evident, and although C score analyses confirmed a nonrandom structure for the community under study (particularly in wet season, RA3 showed that species with high relative abundance tended to significantly concentrate in one habitat type (swamp forest rather than to partition the habitat resource. UPGMA dendrograms grouped the species differently in dry versus wet seasons. Overall, the comparative evidence of 1 non-random community structure according to C-score analysis, and 2 absence of resource partitioning according to niche overlap null models analysis, suggests that community organization in Lake Nabugabo amphibians is generated by habitat affinities rather than by interspecific competition.

M. Behangana

2008-11-01

88

Fungal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplified markers--a user's guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel high-throughput sequencing methods outperform earlier approaches in terms of resolution and magnitude. They enable identification and relative quantification of community members and offer new insights into fungal community ecology. These methods are currently taking over as the primary tool to assess fungal communities of plant-associated endophytes, pathogens, and mycorrhizal symbionts, as well as free-living saprotrophs. Taking advantage of the collective experience of six research groups, we here review the different stages involved in fungal community analysis, from field sampling via laboratory procedures to bioinformatics and data interpretation. We discuss potential pitfalls, alternatives, and solutions. Highlighted topics are challenges involved in: obtaining representative DNA/RNA samples and replicates that encompass the targeted variation in community composition, selection of marker regions and primers, options for amplification and multiplexing, handling of sequencing errors, and taxonomic identification. Without awareness of methodological biases, limitations of markers, and bioinformatics challenges, large-scale sequencing projects risk yielding artificial results and misleading conclusions. PMID:23534863

Lindahl, Björn D; Nilsson, R Henrik; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Carlsen, Tor; Kjøller, Rasmus; Kõljalg, Urmas; Pennanen, Taina; Rosendahl, Søren; Stenlid, Jan; Kauserud, Håvard

2013-07-01

89

Zooplankton diversity analysis through single-gene sequencing of a community sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface and are critical for the homeostasis of the environment. Among the components of the ocean ecosystem, zooplankton play vital roles in energy and matter transfer through the system. Despite their importance, understanding of zooplankton biodiversity is limited because of their fragile nature, small body size, and the large number of species from various taxonomic phyla. Here we present the results of single-gene zooplankton community analysis using a method that determines a large number of mitochondrial COI gene sequences from a bulk zooplankton sample. This approach will enable us to estimate the species richness of almost the entire zooplankton community. Results A sample was collected from a depth of 721 m to the surface in the western equatorial Pacific off Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, with a plankton net equipped with a 2-m2 mouth opening. A total of 1,336 mitochondrial COI gene sequences were determined from the cDNA library made from the sample. From the determined sequences, the occurrence of 189 species of zooplankton was estimated. BLASTN search results showed high degrees of similarity (>98% between the query and database for 10 species, including holozooplankton and merozooplankton. Conclusion In conjunction with the Census of Marine Zooplankton and Barcode of Life projects, single-gene zooplankton community analysis will be a powerful tool for estimating the species richness of zooplankton communities.

Nishida Mutsumi

2009-09-01

90

Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition.

Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

2006-02-01

91

Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

2006-02-01

92

Evaluation of molecular community analysis methods for discerning fecal sources and human waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular microbial community analyses provide information on thousands of microorganisms simultaneously, and integrate biotic and abiotic perturbations caused by fecal contamination entering water bodies. A few studies have explored community methods as emerging approaches for microbial source tracking (MST), however, an evaluation of the current state of this approach is lacking. Here, we utilized three types of community-based methods with 64 blind, single- or dual-source, challenge samples generated from 12 sources, including: humans (feces), sewage, septage, dogs, pigs, deer, horses, cows, chickens, gulls, pigeons, and geese. Each source was a composite from multiple donors from four representative geographical regions in California. Methods evaluated included terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (TRFLP), phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip), and next generation (Illumina) sequencing. These methods correctly identified dominant (or sole) sources in over 90% of the challenge samples, and exhibited excellent specificity regardless of source, rarely detecting a source that was not present in the challenge sample. Sensitivity, however, varied with source and community analysis method. All three methods distinguished septage from human feces and sewage, and identified deer and horse with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Method performance improved if the composition of blind dual-source reference samples were defined by DNA contribution of each single source within the mixture, instead of by Enterococcus colony forming units. Data analysis approach also influenced method performance, indicating the need to standardize data interpretation. Overall, results of this study indicate that community analysis methods hold great promise as they may be used to identify any source, and they are particularly useful for sources that currently do not have, and may never have, a source-specific single marker gene. PMID:23880215

Cao, Yiping; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Dubinsky, Eric A; Badgley, Brian D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Andersen, Gary L; Griffith, John F; Holden, Patricia A

2013-11-15

93

Data Management and Analysis in Support of Community Climate Science (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

An insightful analysis in climate science depends critically on the choices of software tools to discover, access, manipulate, and visualize the often large and unwieldy data sets of interest. These data exploration tasks can be complex and time-consuming, and they frequently involve many resources spread throughout the modeling and observational climate communities. The inability to find data, large data set sizes, lack of adequate metadata, poor documentation, and lack of sufficient computational and diagnostic/visualization resources serve to impede climate researchers from using the climate data already available. My talk will cover access and analysis of climate modeling, observation, and measurements data through the use of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Currently, the ESGF is supporting many multi-model and observational assessments by archiving multiple petabytes of data for community use. ESGF is a distributed federated system expressly designed to provide climate researchers worldwide with access to data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational resources for large-scale assessments. Among its many data holdings, it contains and disseminates the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) data sets used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. The Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), in combination with ESGF, provides an end-to-end solution for data management, analysis, and visualization. Extreme value analysis plotting using an array of DV3D visualization techniques.

Williams, D. N.

2013-12-01

94

Comparative study of three analysis methods (TTGE, flow cytometry and HPLC) for xenobiotic impact assessment on phytoplankton communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impacts of the fungicide Opus(A (R)) (epoxiconazole) on marine phytoplankton communities were assessed in a 12-day field experiment using in situ microcosms maintained underwater at 6 m depth. Three community analysis methods were compared for their sensitivity threshold in fungicide impact detection. When phytoplankton communities were exposed to 1 mu g l(-1) of epoxiconazole, no effects could be demonstrated using TTGE (Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis), flow cytometry ...

2009-01-01

95

Analysis of domestic tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities: specialization and competitive advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of shift share analysis ofnational tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities withovernight stays in hotels data. Thus, it achieves a more complete interpretation ofthe available statistical information. Among other things, it allows us to know theposition which each region has in terms of specialization and competitive advantageand, hence, the potential markets for development can be identified.

José J. Benítez Rochel

2011-01-01

96

Evaluation of PCR primers for denaturing gradient gelelectrophoresis analysis of fungal communities in compost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Three previously published fungal specific PCR primer sets, referred to as the NS, EF and NL primer sets, were evaluated for use in compost microbial community analysis by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Methods and Results: Primers were first evaluated based on their tolerance to PCR inhibitors. Due to its sensitivity to inhibitors, the NS primer set was determined to require a 10-fold smaller volume addition of compost DNA to PCR than the EF and ...

Cocolin, Luca Simone

2003-01-01

97

Molecular analysis of microbial community in a groundwater sample polluted by landfill leachate and seawater*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seashore landfill aquifers are environments of special physicochemical conditions (high organic load and high salinity), and microbes in leachate-polluted aquifers play a significant role for intrinsic bioremediation. In order to characterize microbial diversity and look for clues on the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry, a culture-independent examination of a typical groundwater sample obtained from a seashore landfill was conducted by sequence analysis of...

2005-01-01

98

Analysis of social communities with iceberg and stability-based concept lattices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we presents a research work based on formal concept analysis and interest measures associated with formal concepts. This work focuses on the ability of concept lattices to discover and represent special groups of individuals, called social communities. Concept lattices are very useful for the task of knowledge discovery in databases, but they are hard to analyze when their size become too large. We rely on concept stability and support measures to reduce the size of large conce...

2008-01-01

99

A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

2014-06-01

100

Understanding the variability in the effectiveness of community heart health programs: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 25 years, community interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted around the world with very mixed results. This study uses meta-analysis to assess whether the variation in the observed effectiveness of community heart health programs (CHHP) is related to characteristics of the intervention program, the population under study, or the evaluation methods. A CHHP is defined as any primary prevention program that attempted to reduce the population burden of CVD by shifting the distribution of risk factors in a general population. To be included in the meta-analysis, a study must have utilized a reference group in the evaluation, employed a repeated independent cross-sectional measurement design, and reported sufficient outcome information for at least one of four major risk factors: smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and body weight. Results of these studies are summarized with the effect size measure (Yi1-Yi2)-(Yr1-Yr2)Sr1 where Y = outcome measure, S = standard deviation of the outcome measure, 1 = baseline, 2 = follow-up. i = intervention, and r = reference community. This measure, which reports the net change in the intervention group in terms of the variability in the reference population before the start of the intervention, permits comparison across different outcome measures and facilitates the aggregation of effects across studies. Generalized least squares regression, which permits the incorporation of multiple, dependent effect sizes from a single study, was used to assess the impact of characteristics of the intervention (prevention strategy, type of mass communication, community organization, and environmental change), the population (setting, gender, year of follow-up measurement), and the evaluation design and implementation (the number of communities, matching of communities, the follow-up time, the response rate, and covariate adjustment in the analysis) on the effect sizes. The results of this analysis suggest that the characteristics of the evaluation method account for much of the heterogeneity in the outcome of CHHPs, though some intervention characteristics also play a role. PMID:9141165

Sellers, D E; Crawford, S L; Bullock, K; McKinlay, J B

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

What reassurances do the community need regarding life extension? Evidence from studies of community attitudes and an analysis of film portrayals.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is increasingly recognized that community attitudes impact on the research trajectory, entry, and reception of new biotechnologies. Yet biogerontologists have generally been dismissive of public concerns about life extension. There is some evidence that biogerontological research agendas have not been communicated effectively, with studies finding that most community members have little or no knowledge of life extension research. In the absence of knowledge, community members' attitudes may well be shaped by issues raised in popular portrayals of life extension (e.g., in movies). To investigate how popular portrayals of life extension may influence community attitudes, I conducted an analysis of 19 films depicting human life extension across different genres. I focussed on how the pursuit of life extension was depicted, how life extension was achieved, the levels of interest in life extension shown by characters in the films, and the experiences of extended life depicted both at an individual and societal level. This paper compares the results of this analysis with the literature on community attitudes to life extension and makes recommendations about the issues in which the public may require reassurance if they are to support and accept life extension technologies. PMID:23931761

Underwood, Mair

2014-04-01

102

Functional genes based analysis of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria community in sulfide removing bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are the main microorganisms that participate in the bioremediation of sulfide-rich wastewater. To reveal the SOB community structure and determine which members of SOB contribute to the sulfide oxidation in a sulfide-rich cloth printing and dyeing wastewater treatment plant, specific primer pairs dsrA 625F/877R, soxB 704F/1199R, and sqr 473F/982R based on the SOB functional genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase, sulfate thioesterase/thiohydrolase, and sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase were designed. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the diversity indices and the abundance of each OTU have no significant changes after time, which suggested the SOB community in the sulfide removing bioreactor have high steady phylogenetic analysis of functional gene-based clone libraries detected the SOB from Chlorobia, ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, and ?-proteobacteria. The combined clone library showed the presence of dominant members of the SOB species closely related to families Halothiobacillaceae (17%), Hydrogenophilaceae (14%), and Rhodocyclaceae (13%), which may contribute to the sulfide oxidation in wastewater treatment process. This work provides a precise understanding of SOB microbial community within sulfide removing bioreactor, and the result gives assistance for the optimization of the treatment systems for sulfide biological degradation. PMID:21212946

Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

2011-04-01

103

Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

2012-04-01

104

Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

L.-Y. Wang

2012-04-01

105

Microbial community analysis of two field-scale sulfate-reducing bioreactors treating mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microbial communities of two field-scale pilot sulfate-reducing bioreactors treating acid mine drainage (AMD), Luttrell and Peerless Jenny King (PJK), were compared using biomolecular tools and multivariate statistical analyses. The two bioreactors were well suited for this study because their geographic locations and substrate compositions were similar while the characteristics of influent AMD, configuration and degree of exposure to oxygen were distinct. The two bioreactor communities were found to be functionally similar, including cellulose degraders, fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Significant differences were found between the two bioreactors in phylogenetic comparisons of cloned 16S rRNA genes and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (apsA) genes. The apsA gene clones from the Luttrell bioreactor were dominated by uncultured SRB most closely related to Desulfovibrio spp., while those of the PJK bioreactor were dominated by Thiobacillus spp. The fraction of the SRB genus Desulfovibrio was also higher at Luttrell than at PJK as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Oxygen exposure at PJK is hypothesized to be the primary cause of these differences. This study is the first rigorous phylogenetic investigation of field-scale bioreactors treating AMD and the first reported application of multivariate statistical analysis of remediation system microbial communities applying UniFrac software.

Hiibel, S.R.; Pereyra, L.P.; Inman, L.Y.; Tischer, A.; Reisman, D.J.; Reardon, K.F.; Pruden, A. [Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

2008-08-15

106

Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities in oil reservoirs from a southern offshore Brazilian basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial community structure of two distinct oil samples from a petroleum field in Brazil by using both molecular, based on the construction of 16S rRNA gene libraries, and cultivation methods. Statistical comparisons of libraries based on Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) data revealed no significant differences between the communities recovered in the non-biodegraded (NBD) and highly biodegraded oils (HBD). BlastN analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of distinct ribotypes from both oils showed the presence of nine different bacterial genera in these samples, encompassing members of the genera Arcobacter, Halanaerobium, Marinobacter, Propionibacterium, Streptomyces, Leuconostoc, Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Streptococcus. Enrichments obtained using oil as inoculum and sole carbon source yielded bacterial isolates showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus sp., Dietzia sp. and Methylobacterium sp. Comparison between the data obtained using cultivation-independent and enrichment cultures suggests that different selection of community members may occur when using distinct approaches. All the organisms found, except for Leuconostoc sp. and Streptococus sp., have been previously reported in the literature as hydrocarbon degraders and/or associated to oil field environments. PMID:17072536

Sette, Lara D; Simioni, Karen C M; Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Dussan, Lucia J; Neto, Eugênio V S; Oliveira, Valéria M

2007-04-01

107

Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted.

Anthony Zwi B

2010-06-01

108

An Analysis of Interactions Within and Between Extreme Right Communities in Social Media  

CERN Multimedia

Many extreme right groups have had an online presence for some time through the use of dedicated websites. This has been accompanied by increased activity in social media websites in recent years, which may enable the dissemination of extreme right content to a wider audience. In this paper, we present exploratory analysis of the activity of a selection of such groups on Twitter, using network representations based on reciprocal follower and mentions interactions. We find that stable communities of related users are present within individual country networks, where these communities are usually associated with variants of extreme right ideology. Furthermore, we also identify the presence of international relationships between certain groups across geopolitical boundaries.

O'Callaghan, Derek; Conway, Maura; Carthy, Joe; Cunningham, Pádraig

2012-01-01

109

The use of robustness analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of Robustness Analysis for planning actions in a poor Brazilian community. The focus is on food and agricultural production and the project is based on a participatory approach incorporating both community-driven development and sustainability in food production. A comparison is made with other soft Operations Research (OR methodologies and first actions and results are reported.Este artigo propõe o uso da Análise de Robustez para o planejamento de ações em uma comunidade de baixa renda no Brasil. O foco está na produção agrícola e de alimentos e o projeto fundamenta-se em uma abordagem participativa incorporando tanto o desenvolvimento voltado para a comunidade quanto a sustentabilidade na produção de alimentos. Apresenta-se uma comparação com outras metodologias de PO soft e relatam-se alguns resultados e ações.

Anderson Amendoeira Namen

2010-08-01

110

Succession of Bacterial Community Structure along the Changjiang River Determined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Clone Library Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River (which is more than 2,500 km long) was studied by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with universal bacterial primer sets. DGGE profiles and principal-component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the bacterial community gradually changed from upstream to downstream in both 1998 and 1999. Bacterial diversity, as determined by the Shannon index (H?), gr...

2002-01-01

111

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysi...

Muhammad Hanif; Yoichi Atsuta; Koichi Fujie; Hiroyuki Daimon

2012-01-01

112

Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Analysis in Indonesian Tempe Employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tempe fermentation involved complex microbial communities which are only revealed partially through culture dependent methods. Culture-independent methods would be potential to unravel this complex microbial fermentation. Appropriate DNA extraction is an essential tool to obtain reliable data from culture independent method. In this study, we employed two commercial DNA extraction methods to find the best one for microbial community characterization employing amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA. Our result showed that PowerFood Microbial DNA Isolation Kit-MOBIO (PFMDIK is an excellent method for microbial DNA extraction from tempe. It gave high quantity and quality of DNA suitable for PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer to yield a diverse and reproducible ARISA profile.

CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

2012-06-01

113

Metagenome analysis of a complex community reveals the metabolic blueprint of anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anammox bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for up to 50% of global nitrogen loss. Because of their cost effective application in anaerobic nitrogen removal, the anammox bacteria are widely implemented in wastewater treatment. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium- Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants, but metagenomic information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of an enrichment dominated by ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’. The whole microbial community o\tf a granular sludge anammox reactor was sequenced using both illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The sludge was previously shown to have a ~50% enrichment of the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’ by 16S rRNA gene analysis. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571 nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase NirS that is responsible for the nitrite reduction of ‘Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. Scalindua profunda’. Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methane producing microorganisms and denitrifying methanotroph 'Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera'.

ZiyeHu

2012-10-01

114

Context based Expert Finding in Online Communities using Social Network Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, online communities are one of the most popular collaborative environments in the Internet where people are free to express their opinions. These communities provide facilities for knowledge sharing in which, people can share their experience with each other. The main problem regarding to the knowledge sharing on online communities is the wide range of information on them without any mechanism to determine their validity. So, for knowledge seekers, it is important to recognize the expertise of each member based on contexts to find the best answers among all replies to his question. Although, lots of researches have been conducted so far to determine the level of people’s expertise, none of them has had context based approach to the problem. In this research a novel method based on social network analysis is proposed to find the experts in different contexts. For evaluation process of the proposed method, Metafilter Forum was chosen and the data has been processed in several steps. First, data were gathered by our crawling program and then extracted, transformed and loaded to data base by ETL operations. Then, experts on specified context were found by applying the proposed method on the processed data. Finally, accuracy of the method was calculated and compared with other methods.

Mojtaba Behzadi

2012-01-01

115

Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment. PMID:24600849

Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

2014-01-01

116

A retrospective analysis of a community-based health program in Papua New Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Women and Children's Health Project was a large Australian funded aid Project that sought to improve the health of women and children in Papua New Guinea between 1998 and 2004. Community development and health promotion interventions aimed to increase community support for attended birth and children's health. Green and Kreuter's [Green, L. W. and Kreuter, M. W. (2005) Health Program Planning: An Educational and Ecological Approach, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York] precede-proceed model of health program planning was applied retrospectively to critique the design, implementation and evaluation of the Project. An outcome evaluation (2006) provided data for this analysis and investigated long-term impact using a multi-methods approach. Application of the precede-proceed model was useful, but the model fails to sufficiently well identify 'inhibiting factors' as part of the educational and ecological assessment during the planning phase. Pre-defined objectives and contractually obligated outputs in a donor funded business model negatively influenced Project activity and outcomes. Despite this and the challenging context for implementation, Project interventions improved interaction between the community and health systems, and improved use of maternal child health services. PMID:19342392

Ashwell, Helen Elizabeth Scott; Barclay, Lesley

2009-06-01

117

Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Microbial Community Structure and Gene Expression of Activated Sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study applied both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to characterize microbial structure and gene expression of an activated sludge community from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. DNA and cDNA were sequenced by Illumina Hi-seq2000 at a depth of 2.4 Gbp. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST showed bacteria were dominant in both DNA and cDNA datasets. The taxonomic profile obtained by BLAST against SILVA SSUref database and annotation by MEGAN showed that ac...

Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

2012-01-01

118

Community analysis of a full-scale anaerobic bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

To get insight into the microbial community of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor treating paper mill wastewater, conventional microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene analyses. Particular attention was paid to microorganisms able to degrade propionate or butyrate in the presence or absence of sulphate. Serial enrichment dilutions allowed estimating the number of microorganisms per ml sludge that could use butyrate with or without sulphate (10(5)), propionate without sulphate (10(6)), or propionate and sulphate (10(8)). Quantitative RNA dot-blot hybridisation indicated that Archaea were two-times more abundant in the microbial community of anaerobic sludge than Bacteria. The microbial community composition was further characterised by 16S rRNA-gene-targeted Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and via cloning and sequencing of dominant amplicons from the bacterial and archaeal patterns. Most of the nearly full length (approximately 1.45 kb) bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed less than 97% similarity to sequences present in public databases, in contrast to the archaeal clones (approximately. 1.3 kb) that were highly similar to known sequences. While Methanosaeta was found as the most abundant genus, also Crenarchaeote-relatives were identified. The microbial community was relatively stable over a period of 3 years (samples taken in July 1999, May 2001, March 2002 and June 2002) as indicated by the high similarity index calculated from DGGE profiles (81.9+/-2.7% for Bacteria and 75.1+/-3.1% for Archaea). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated the presence of unknown and yet uncultured microorganisms, but also showed that known sulphate-reducing bacteria and syntrophic fatty acid-oxidising microorganisms dominated the enrichments. PMID:15830810

Roest, Kees; Heilig, Hans G H J; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M; Stams, Alfons J M; Akkermans, Antoon D L

2005-03-01

119

Facebook in Higher Education Courses: An Analysis of Students’ Attitudes,Community of Practice, and Classroom Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educators wanting to enhance their classroom learning environment are finding Facebook to be a beneficial supplement. This study aims to determine students’ attitudes and perceptions of courses into which Facebook has been incorporated. In a posttest only research design involving 106 students at two large public universities, it was found that students were favorably disposed toward the classroom use of Facebook. They perceived that it enhanced their senses of social learning and connectedness, with older students experiencing a stronger effect. Implications for how Facebook can enhance higher education courses and for the management of social media in the classroom are discussed. Key words: Facebook in higher education; Communities of practice; Classroom community; Social learning and effectiveness; Learner-centered activities

Casimir C. Barczyk

2013-02-01

120

Integrated Community Energy Systems: engineering analysis and design bibliography. [368 citations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography cites 368 documents that may be helpful in the planning, analysis, and design of Integrated Community Energy Systems. It has been prepared for use primarily by engineers and others involved in the development and implementation of ICES concepts. These documents include products of a number of Government research, development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected studies and references from the literature of various technical societies and institutions; and other selected material. The key programs which have produced cited reports are the Department of Energy Community Systems Program (DOE/CSP), the Department of Housing and Urban Development Modular Integrated Utility Systems Program (HUD/MIUS), and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Integrated Utility Systems Program (HEW/IUS). The cited documents address experience gained both in the U.S. and in other countries. Several general engineering references and bibliographies pertaining to technologies or analytical methods that may be helpful in the analysis and design of ICES are also included. The body of relevant literature is rapidly growing and future updates are therefore planned. Each citation includes identifying information, a source, descriptive information, and an abstract. The citations are indexed both by subjects and authors, and the subject index is extensively cross-referenced to simplify its use.

Calm, J.M.; Sapienza, G.R.

1979-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Applying Social Network Analysis to Analyze a Web-Based Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available this paper deals with a very renowned website (that is Book-Crossing from two angles: The first angle focuses on the direct relations between users and books. Many things can be inferred from this part of analysis such as who is more interested in book reading than others and why? Which books are most popular and which users are most active and why? The task requires the use of certain social network analysis measures (e.g. degree centrality. What does it mean when two users like the same book? Is it the same when other two users have one thousand books in common? Who is more likely to be a friend of whom and why? Are there specific people in the community who are more qualified to establish large circles of social relations? These questions (and of course others were answered through the other part of the analysis, which will take us to probe the potential social relations between users in this community. Although these relationships do not exist explicitly, they can be inferred with the help of affiliation network analysis and techniques such as m-slice. Book-Crossing dataset, which covered four weeks of users' activities during 2004, has always been the focus of investigation for researchers interested in discovering patterns of users' preferences in order to offer the most possible accurate recommendations. However; the implicit social relationships among users that emerge (when putting users in groups based on similarity in book preferences did not gain the same amount of attention. This could be due to the importance recommender systems attain these days (as compared to other research fields as a result to the rapid spread of e-commerce websites that seek to market their products online. Certain social network analysis software, namely Pajek, was used to explore different structural aspects of this community such as brokerage roles, triadic constraints and levels of cohesion. Some overall statistics were also obtained such as network density, average geodesic distance and average degree.

Mohammed Al-Taie

2012-02-01

122

Analysis of community composition during moderately thermophilic bioleaching of pyrite, arsenical pyrite, and chalcopyrite.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the community composition of three previously undefined mixed cultures of moderately thermophilic bioleaching bacteria grown at 45 degrees C on pyrite, arsenical pyrite, and chalcopyrite has been carried out. The bacterial species present were identified by comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene isolated from the bioleaching vessels and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and sequencing. The mixed cultures leached all three minerals, as shown by the increase in iron released from the mineral concentrates. The species identified from the mixed cultures during bioleaching of pyrite, arsenical pyrite, and chalcopyrite were clones closely related to Acidithiobacillus caldus C-SH12, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans AT-1, " Sulfobacillus montserratensis" L15, and an uncultured thermal soil bacterium YNP. It was also found that the same mixed culture maintained for over a year on chalcopyrite mineral selected approximately the same consortia of bacteria as the original mixed culture grown on chalcopyrite. PMID:15085303

Dopson, M; Lindström, E B

2004-07-01

123

Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

Itaevaara, M.; Suihko, M.-L.; Kapanen, A.; Piskonen, R.; Juvonen, R. [VTT Biotechnology, Espoo (Finland)

2005-11-15

124

Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

2005-01-01

125

The current status of community drug testing via the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites in sewage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past few years the analysis of drug residues in sewage has been promoted as a means of estimating the level of drug use in communities. Measured drug residue concentrations in the sewage are used to determine the load (total mass) of the drug being used by the entire community. Knowledge of the size or population of the community then allows for the calculation of drug-use relative to population (typically drug-mass/day/1000 inhabitants) which facilitates comparisons between differin...

2011-01-01

126

Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to characterize microbial communities in aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews published applications of lipid-based biochemical techniques for characterizing microbial communities in aquifers and other deep subsurface habitats. These techniques, such as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, can provide information on a variety of microbial characteristics, such as biomass, physiology, taxonomic and functional identity, and overall community composition. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis of lipid data can relate spatial or temporal changes in microbial communities to environmental factors. The use of lipid-based techniques in the study of groundwater microbiology is advantageous because they do not require culturing and can provide quantitative data on entire communities. However, combined effects of physiological and phylogenetic changes on the lipid composition of a community can confound interpretation of the data, and many questions remain about the validity of various lipid techniques. Despite these caveats, lipid-based research has begun to show trends in community composition in contaminated and pristine aquifers that contribute to our understanding of groundwater microbial ecology and have potential for use in optimization of bioremediation of groundwater pollutants. Résumé Ce papier passe en revue les applications des techniques biochimiques basées sur les lipides pour caractériser les communautés microbiennes présentes dans les aquifères et dans les autres habitats souterrains profonds. Ces techniques, telles que l'analyse des acides gras phospholipidiques (PLFA), peuvent fournir des informations sur un ensemble de caractères microbiens, tels que la biomasse, la physiologie, l'identité taxonomique et fonctionnelle, et surtout la composition de la communauté. En outre, l'analyse statistique multivariée des données sur les lipides peut établir les liens entre des changements spatiaux ou temporels dans la communauté microbienne et des facteurs environnementaux. L'utilisation des techniques basées sur les lipides dans l'étude de la microbiologie des eaux souterraines est intéressante parce qu'elle ne nécessite pas de mise en culture et qu'elle peut fournir des données quantitatives sur les communautés dans leur ensemble. Toutefois, les effets combinés de changements physiologiques et phylogénétiques sur la composition d'une communauté peuvent brouiller l'interprétation des données de nombreuses questions se posent sur la validité des différentes techniques lipidiques. Malgré ces oppositions, la recherche basée sur les lipides a commencéà montrer des tendances dans la composition des communautés dans les aquifères pollués et dans ceux non perturbés ces résultats contribuent ainsi à notre compréhension de l'écologie microbienne des eaux souterraines et montrent qu'il existe un potentiel pour leur utilisation en vue d'une optimisation de la dépollution biologique des eaux souterraines. Resumen Se revisan distintas técnicas bioquímicas que se basan en el análisis de lípidos para caracterizar las comunidades microbianas en hábitats subsuperficiales, incluyendo acuíferos. Estas técnicas, entre las que se incluye el análisis de ácidos grasos fosfolípidos (PLFA), pueden proporcionar información sobre toda una serie de características de las comunidades microbianas, como su biomasa, fisiología, identidad taxonómica y funcional y composición. Además, el análisis estadístico multivariado de los datos de lípidos permite relacionar los cambios espaciales o temporales en las comunidades microbianas con factores ambientales. Las técnicas basadas en lípidos son muy útiles para el estudio microbiológico de las aguas subterráneas, puesto que no requieren cultivos y además proporcionan datos cuantitativos de comunidades completas. Sin embargo, la acción combinada de los cambios fisiológicos y filogenéticos en la composición de lípidos en una comunidad pueden confundir la interpretación de los datos, por lo existen muchas cuestiones abiertas respecto a la validez de algunas de estas técnicas. A pesar de es

Green, Christopher T.; Scow, Kate M.

127

GeoChip-based analysis of the functional gene diversity and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities of mangroves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves are unique and highly productive ecosystems and harbor very special microbial communities. Although the phylogenetic diversity of sediment microbial communities of mangrove habitats has been examined extensively, little is known regarding their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 4.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of microbial communities in mangrove habitats from mangrove national nature reserves in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 4.0 were detected in the mangrove microbial communities, including carbon (C) fixation, C degradation, methane generation, nitrogen (N) fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, N reduction, sulfur (S) metabolism, metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that Spartina alterniflora (HH), an invasive species, did not harbor significantly different microbial communities from Aegiceras corniculatum (THY), a native species, but did differ from other species, Kenaelia candel (QQ), Aricennia marina (BGR), and mangrove-free mud flat (GT). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results indicated the microbial community structure was largely shaped by surrounding environmental variables, such as total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), pH, C/N ratio, and especially salinity. This study presents a comprehensive survey of functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from different mangrove habitats/species and provides new insights into our understanding of the functional potential of microbial communities in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:23135227

Bai, Shijie; Li, Jiangwei; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Tian, Yun; Lin, Guanghui; Zhou, Jizhong; Zheng, Tianling

2013-08-01

128

Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with a general sense of the types of communities in tsunami hazard zones based on similar exposure characteristics instead of only providing an exhaustive list of attributes for individual communities. This community-exposure classification scheme can be then used to target and prioritize risk-reduction efforts that address common issues across multiple communities, instead of community-specific efforts. Examples include risk-reduction efforts that focus on similar demographic attributes of the at-risk population or on the type of service populations that dominate tsunami-prone areas. The presentation will include a discussion of the utility of proposed place classifications to support regional preparedness and outreach efforts.

Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

2012-12-01

129

Metagenome Analysis of a Complex Community Reveals the Metabolic Blueprint of Anammox Bacterium "Candidatus Jettenia asiatica"  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for significant global nitrogen loss. Moreover, the anammox process is widely implemented for nitrogen removal from wastewaters as a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep-branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium-Chlamydiae superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants and have been enriched in lab-scale bioreactors, but genome information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of a granular sludge anammox reactor dominated (?50%) by “Candidatus Jettenia asiatica.” The metagenome was sequenced using both Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571?nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase (NirS, present in “Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and “Ca. Scalindua profunda”). Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methanogens, and the denitrifying methanotroph “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, indicating a possible active methane and nitrogen cycle in the bioreactor under the prevailing operational conditions.

Hu, Ziye; Speth, D. R.; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Jetten, M. S. M.

2012-01-01

130

Cambio : a file format translation and analysis application for the nuclear response emergency community.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cambio is an application intended to automatically read and display any spectrum file of any format in the world that the nuclear emergency response community might encounter. Cambio also provides an analysis capability suitable for HPGe spectra when detector response and scattering environment are not well known. Why is Cambio needed: (1) Cambio solves the following problem - With over 50 types of formats from instruments used in the field and new format variations appearing frequently, it is impractical for every responder to have current versions of the manufacturer's software from every instrument used in the field; (2) Cambio converts field spectra to any one of several common formats that are used for analysis, saving valuable time in an emergency situation; (3) Cambio provides basic tools for comparing spectra, calibrating spectra, and isotope identification with analysis suited especially for HPGe spectra; and (4) Cambio has a batch processing capability to automatically translate a large number of archival spectral files of any format to one of several common formats, such as the IAEA SPE or the DHS N42. Currently over 540 analysts and members of the nuclear emergency response community worldwide are on the distribution list for updates to Cambio. Cambio users come from all levels of government, university, and commercial partners around the world that support efforts to counter terrorist nuclear activities. Cambio is Unclassified Unlimited Release (UUR) and distributed by internet downloads with email notifications whenever a new build of Cambio provides for new formats, bug fixes, or new or improved capabilities. Cambio is also provided as a DLL to the Karlsruhe Institute for Transuranium Elements so that Cambio's automatic file-reading capability can be included at the Nucleonica web site.

Lasche, George P.

2009-10-01

131

Diversity Analysis of Bacterial Community from Permafrost Soil of Mo-he in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The permafrost soil of Mo-he in Northeast China presents a typical cold environment colonized by psychrophilic microorganisms. This study is aimed at assessing the bacterial communities of permafrost soil of Mo-he in China by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes and Mothur analysis. PCR products with universal 16S rRNA gene primers were cloned and partially sequenced, and bacterial identification at the species was performed by comparative analysis with the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ database. A total of 266 clones were obtained with the average length of 1,050 bp. Mothur analysis showed that the coverage value of clone library was 53.78 %, Shannon diversity (H) was 4.03, Simpson diversity value was 0.018, and 74 operational taxonomic units were generated. Through phylogenetic assignment using BLASTN by more than 97 % similarity, a total of 87 tentative taxa were identified. The majority of bacterial sequences recovered in this study belonged to the Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. Among them, Acidobacteria are dominant community, accounting for 30.1 % of total bacteria, followed by Proteobacteria which accounted for 22.2 %. This result reflected the acidic characteristics of the permafrost soil of which pH value was 6.0. Our study indicated that the permafrost soil of Mo-he in China has a high diversity of bacteria and represents a vast potential resource of novel bacteria. As far as we knew, this is the first report on bacterial diversity of permafrost soil of Mo-he in China. PMID:24426176

Dan, Dong; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Cai-Ge; Zhang, Tao-Tao

2014-03-01

132

Disturbance, Response, and Persistence in Self-Organized Forested Communities: Analysis of Robustness and Resilience in Five Communities in Southern Indiana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We develop an analytic framework for the analysis of robustness in social-ecological systems (SESs over time. We argue that social robustness is affected by the disturbances that communities face and the way they respond to them. Using Ostrom's ontological framework for SESs, we classify the major factors influencing the disturbances and responses faced by five Indiana intentional communities over a 15-year time frame. Our empirical results indicate that operational and collective-choice rules, leadership and entrepreneurship, monitoring and sanctioning, economic values, number of users, and norms/social capital are key variables that need to be at the core of future theoretical work on robustness of self-organized systems.

Burney Fischer

2010-12-01

133

Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments receiving various wastewater effluents with high-throughput sequencing analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

454 Pyrosequencing was applied to examine bacterial communities in sediment samples collected from a river receiving effluent discharge from rural domestic sewage (RDS) and various factories, including a tannery (TNS), clothing plant (CTS), and button factory (BTS), respectively. For each sample, 4,510 effective sequences were selected and utilized to do the bacterial diversity and abundance analysis, respectively. In total, 1,288, 2,036, 1,800, and 2,150 operational taxonomic units were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in TNS, CTS, BTS, and RDS, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in RDS was higher than the other samples, and TNS had the least richness. The most predominant class in the TNS, CTS, and BTS samples is Betaproteobacteria. Cyanobacteria (no_rank) is the most predominant one in the RDS sample. Circa 31% sequences in TNS were affiliated with the Rhodocyclales order. In the four samples, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, Leptospira, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Treponema genera containing pathogenic bacteria were detected. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments from various downstream branches indicated that distinct wastewater effluents have similar potential to reduce the natural variability in river ecosystems and contribute to the river biotic homogenization. PMID:24477925

Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

2014-04-01

134

Using social network analysis to sketch the patterns of interaction among nursing students in a blog community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Web logs, or blogs have recently raised interest in the educational and research arena. However, the analysis of participants' behavioral patterns remains absent. The aim of this study was to use social network analysis to draw the patterns of 48 junior college nursing students' peer interactions in a blog community in Taiwan. The results showed that the density of interactions were different in terms of the participants with different grade-point-average background. The more active students in the blog community dominated discourse interaction. Nursing students with higher grade point average interacted mainly within their respective groups. The social network analysis helped to provide information on patterns of nursing students' interaction culture within a blog community. PMID:23851707

Lin, Kai-Yin

2013-08-01

135

Evaluating macroinvertebrate population and community level effects in outdoor microcosms: Use of in situ bioassays and multivariate analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluating toxicant effects on aquatic communities is difficult due to the ecological complexity at higher levels of organization. Two methods were assessed to improve the understanding of effects on macroinvertebrate communities in aquatic model ecosystems. First, in situ bioassay population effects were used to interpret effects at a higher organization level. Second, canonical discriminant analysis was used to investigate effects on community structure. In situ bioassays were conducted on six occasions in 17-m{sup 3} microcosms treated with copper sulfate. Macroinvertebrates occurring naturally in the microcosms were monitored. Epibenthic in situ bioassays were conducted using Caenis sp. (Ephemeroptera) and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) and a water column bioassay was conducted using Notonectidae (Hemiptera). Survival and growth were assessed after 3 d. Effects of copper on both notonectidae and Caenis were observed following application. However, the final Caenis epibenthic bioassays indicated that potential for recovery and survival was {ge}95%. Potential for recovery was less distinct in the water column bioassays. Copper effects also occurred on epibenthic macroinvertebrate populations and communities. Only four taxa, including Caenis, distinguished community differences among copper treatments soon after application. Later, communities showed similarities to the pretreatment bioassay. However, actual recovery was less apparent than the potential for recovery indicated by the bioassays, and community differences due to Caenis persisted.

Shaw, J.L. [Zeneca Ag Products, Wilmington, DE (United States); Manning, J.P. [Zeneca Ag Products, Whitakers, NC (United States). Aquatic Biology Unit

1996-05-01

136

A three-scale analysis of bacterial communities involved in rocks colonization and soil formation in high mountain environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha and beta diversities of the bacterial communities growing on rock surfaces, proto-soils, riparian sediments, lichen thalli, and water springs biofilms in a glacier foreland were studied. We used three molecular based techniques to allow a deeper investigation at different taxonomic resolutions: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, length heterogeneity-PCR, and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria with distinct variations among sites. Proteobacteria were more represented in sediments, biofilms, and lichens; Acidobacteria were mostly found in proto-soils; and Cyanobacteria on rocks. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly found in biofilms. UniFrac P values confirmed a significant difference among different matrices. Significant differences (P lichens and rocks which shared a more similar community structure, while at deep taxonomic resolution two distinct bacterial communities between lichens and rocks were found. PMID:23712376

Esposito, Alfonso; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Borruso, Luigimaria; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

2013-10-01

137

Back to basics â?? the influence of DNA extraction and primer choice on phylogenetic analysis in activated sludge communities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in all phylogenetic analyses. Although the biases are well known, no comprehensive analysis have been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we investigated the effect of bead beating intensity and primer choice on the observed community using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was used as a DNA extraction independent method to evaluate the results. The bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength and showed that the manufacture recommended settings were insufficient to retrieve a large part of the community. In addition, the in silico â??bestâ? primer set was found to greatly underestimate a number of important phyla when compared to qFISH results. The findings underline the need for sample specific and DNA extraction independent validation in all DNA extraction based studies.

Albertsen, Mads; Karst, Søren Michael

138

Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health. PMID:23091642

Gross, Erin L; Beall, Clifford J; Kutsch, Stacey R; Firestone, Noah D; Leys, Eugene J; Griffen, Ann L

2012-01-01

139

Black Female Community College Students' Satisfaction: A National Regression Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire were analyzed for a sample of 315 Black women attending community colleges. Specifically, we conducted multivariate analyses to assess the relationship between background traits, commitments, engagement, academic performance, and satisfaction for Black women at community colleges.…

Strayhorn, Terrell L.; Johnson, Royel M.

2014-01-01

140

Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

2011-01-30

 
 
 
 
141

Succession of bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River (which is more than 2,500 km long) was studied by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with universal bacterial primer sets. DGGE profiles and principal-component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the bacterial community gradually changed from upstream to downstream in both 1998 and 1999. Bacterial diversity, as determined by the Shannon index (H'), gradually decreased from upstream to downstream. The PCA plots revealed that the differences in the bacterial communities among riverine stations were not appreciable compared with the differences in two adjacent lakes, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. The relative stability of the bacterial communities at the riverine stations was probably due to the buffering action of the large amount of water flowing down the river. Clone library analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that the dominant bacterial groups changed from beta-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group upstream to high-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria downstream and also that the bacterial community structure differed among the stations in the river and the lakes. The results obtained in this study should provide a reference for future changes caused by construction of the Three Gorges Dam. PMID:12324365

Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masataka; Nakahara, Tadaatsu; Xu, Baohua; Uchiyama, Hiroo

2002-10-01

142

Community-based physical activity interventions for treatment of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests engaging in regular physical activity (PA) can have beneficial outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes (TD2), including weight loss, reduction of medication usage and improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)/fasting glucose. While a number of clinical-based PA interventions exist, community-based approaches are limited. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of community-based PA interventions for the treatment of TD2 in adult populations. A search of peer-reviewed publications from 2002 to June 2012 was conducted across several electronic databases to identify interventions evaluated in community settings. Twenty-two studies were identified, and 11 studies reporting HbA1c as an outcome measure were pooled in the meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessment was also conducted. The findings demonstrate community-based PA interventions can be effective in producing increases in PA. Meta-analysis revealed a lowering of HbA1c levels by -0.32% [95% CI -0.65, 0.01], which approached statistical significance (p?community-based interventions in adult populations diagnosed with TD2. PMID:23372566

Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Costigan, Sarah A; Karunamuni, Nandini D; Lubans, David R

2013-01-01

143

Community-based physical activity interventions for treatment of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence suggests engaging in regular physical activity (PA can have beneficial outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes (TD2, including weight loss, reduction of medication usage and improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c/fasting glucose. While a number of clinical-based physical activity interventions exist, community-based approaches are limited. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of community-based PA interventions for the treatment of TD2 in adult populations. A search of peer-reviewed publications from 2002 to June 2012 was conducted across several electronic databases to identify interventions evaluated in community settings. Twenty-two studies were identified, and 11 studies reporting HbA1c as an outcome measure were pooled in the meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessment was also conducted. The findings demonstrate community-based PA interventions can be effective in producing increases in PA. Meta-analysis revealed a lowering of HbA1c levels by -0.32% [95% CI -0.65, 0.01], which approached statistical significance (p < 0.06. Our findings can guide future PA community based interventions in adult populations diagnosed with TD2.

RonaldCPlotnikoff

2013-01-01

144

Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining companies are faced with growing societal demands that a sufficient portion of the benefits from mining should flow to local communities to ensure they are adequately compensated for the negative social impacts they experience. This paper considers how a more equitable benefit distribution system can be achieved through voluntary initiatives, recognising companies as potential agents for social development through the provision of improved services and infrastructure, capacity-building, employment and local economic development initiatives. Social Development Needs Analysis is introduced as an enhancement to participatory Social Impact Assessment methods to give practical guidance to site managers in evaluating community investment alternatives. Social Development Needs Analysis aims to identify the priority social issues that need to be addressed in order for a company to contribute to a net positive impact in the community while building assets for the business

2009-02-01

145

Analysis of the community structure of yeasts associated with the decaying stems of cactus. I.Stenocereus gummosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast communities of decayingStenocereus gummosus were analyzed for spatial, temporal, and physiological characteristics. Analysis of random samples within plants, between plants, and between localities shows that the species proportions of the yeast community are relatively constant within plants and between localities, but that there is significant variability between rotting plants. It is suggested that the increased variability between plants represents sampling of different stages of succession. The physiological abilities of the yeast community also show a relatively constant pattern within plants and between localities yet more variability between plants.The variablity profiles of species proportions and community physiological characters are demonstrated to be correlated within and between plants. This observation is an extension of the Kluge-Kerfoot phenomenon to the level of the community. The correlation of within and between plant variability profiles is suggested to be a result of the temporal and spatial availability of resources during the stages of rotting plant succession. The community structure is thus postulated to result from a set of possible future resource states of the habitat. PMID:24225700

Starmer, W T

1982-06-01

146

Pyrosequencing analysis of the protist communities in a High Arctic meromictic lake: DNA preservation and change.  

Science.gov (United States)

High Arctic meromictic lakes are extreme environments characterized by cold temperatures, low nutrient inputs from their polar desert catchments and prolonged periods of low irradiance and darkness. These lakes are permanently stratified with an oxygenated freshwater layer (mixolimnion) overlying a saline, anoxic water column (monimolimnion). The physical and chemical properties of the deepest known lake of this type in the circumpolar Arctic, Lake A, on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, have been studied over the last 15 years, but little is known about the lake's biological communities. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to investigate the protist communities down the water column at three sampling times: under the ice at the end of winter in 2008, during an unusual period of warming and ice-out the same year, and again under the ice in mid-summer 2009. Sequences of many protist taxa occurred throughout the water column at all sampling times, including in the deep anoxic layer where growth is highly unlikely. Furthermore, there were sequences for taxonomic groups including diatoms and marine taxa, which have never been observed in Lake A by microscopic analysis. However, the sequences of other taxa such as ciliates, chrysophytes, Cercozoa, and Telonema varied with depth, between years and during the transition to ice-free conditions. These seasonally active taxa in the surface waters of the lake are thus sensitive to depth and change with time. DNA from these taxa is superimposed upon background DNA from multiple internal and external sources that is preserved in the deep, cold, largely anoxic water column. PMID:23267353

Charvet, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Comeau, André; Lovejoy, Connie

2012-01-01

147

Pyrosequencing analysis of the protist communities in a High Arctic meromictic lake: DNA preservation and change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Arctic meromictic lakes are extreme environments characterized by cold temperatures, low nutrient inputs from their polar desert catchments and prolonged periods of low irradiance and darkness. These lakes are permanently stratified with an oxygenated freshwater layer (mixolimnion overlying a saline, anoxic water column (monimolimnion. The physical and chemical properties of the deepest known lake of this type in the circumpolar Arctic, Lake A, on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, have been studied over the last 15 years, but little is known about the lake’s biological communities. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to investigate the protist communities down the water column at three sampling times: under the ice at the end of winter in 2008, during an unusual period of warming and ice-out the same year, and again under the ice in mid-summer 2009. Sequences of many protist taxa occurred throughout the water column at all sampling times, including in the deep anoxic layer where growth is highly unlikely. Furthermore, there were sequences for taxonomic groups including diatoms and marine taxa, which have never been observed in Lake A by microscopic analysis. However the sequences of other taxa such as ciliates, chrysophytes, Cercozoa and Telonema varied with depth, between years and during the transition to ice-free conditions. These results imply that there are seasonally active taxa in the surface waters of the lake that are sensitive to depth and change with time. DNA from these taxa is superimposed upon background DNA from multiple internal and external sources that is preserved in the deep, cold, largely anoxic water column.

ConnieLovejoy

2012-12-01

148

The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and lacking standardization. The Nanomaterial Registry has been developed to address such challenges as the need for standard methods, data formatting, and controlled vocabularies for data sharing. The Registry is an authoritative, web-based tool whose purpose is to simplify the community's level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. Because the registry is meant to be an authoritative resource, all data-driven content is systematically archived and reviewed by subject-matter experts. To support and advance nanomaterial research, a set of minimal information about nanomaterials (MIAN has been developed and is foundational to the Registry data model. The MIAN has been used to create evaluation and similarity criteria for nanomaterials that are curated into the Registry. The Registry is a publicly available resource that is being built through collaborations with many stakeholder groups in the nanotechnology community, including industry, regulatory, government, and academia. Features of the Registry website (https://www.nanomaterialregistry.org/ currently include search, browse, side-by-side comparison of nanomaterials, compliance ratings based on the quality and quantity of data, and the ability to search for similar nanomaterials within the Registry. This paper is a modification and extension of a proceedings paper for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.Keywords: nanoinformatics, Registry, minimal information standards

Ostraat ML

2013-09-01

149

Analysis of composition and structure of coastal to mesopelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 16S rRNA gene amplicons were pyrosequenced to assess bacterioplankton community composition, diversity and phylogenetic community structure for 17 stations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM sampled in March 2010. Statistical analyses showed that samples from depths ? 100 m differed distinctly from deeper samples. SAR 11 ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at depths ? 100 m, which were characterized by high ?-Proteobacteria/?-Proteobacteria ratios (?/? > 1.7. Thaumarchaeota, Firmicutes and ?-Proteobacteria were relatively abundant in deeper waters, and ?/? ratios were low (< 1. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, Thaumarchaeota and Firmicutes correlated positively with depth; ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes correlated positively with temperature and dissolved oxygen; Actinobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia correlated positively with a measure of suspended particles. Diversity indices did not vary with depth or other factors, which indicated that richness and evenness elements of bacterioplankton communities might develop independently of nGoM physical-chemical variables. Phylogenetic community structure as measured by the net relatedness (NRI and nearest taxon (NTI indices also did not vary with depth. NRI values indicated that most of the communities were comprised of OTUs more distantly related to each other in whole community comparisons than expected by chance. NTI values derived from phylogenetic distances of the closest neighbor for each OTU in a given community indicated that OTUs tended to occur in clusters to a greater extent than expected by chance. This indicates that “habitat filtering” might play an important role in nGoM bacterioplankton species assembly, and that such filtering occurs throughout the water column.

GaryMKing

2013-01-01

150

Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final state 2 report. Cost benefit analysis, operating costs and computer simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) with a coal-burning power plant located on the University of Minnesota campus is planned. The cost benefit analysis performed for this ICES, the cost accounting methods used, and a computer simulation of the operation of the power plant are described. (LCL)

1978-03-22

151

Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Walson Army Community Hospital, Fort Dix, New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In September of 1984, the firm of Einhorn Yaffee Prescott, P.C. was retained by the Army Corps of Engineers to perform energy conservation services for the Walson Army Community Hospital at Fort Dix and the Ainsworth Clinic at Fort Hamilton. The architectural/engineerinq/health planning field team studied the existing heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and electrical systems, results of all prior or ongoing energy conservation studies, projects, and designs or plans, the facilities operation and environment, and past energy usage. A comprehensive report has been prepared which documents the work accomplished, the results and the recommendations. This report reflects a joint effort between the field investigation team and the hospital staff. The scope of this study included the following objectives: Perform a complete energy audit and analysis of the entire hospital facility. Identify all energy conservation opportunities, including low cost/no cost items and perform complete evaluations of each. Prepare programming documentation for all energy conservation investment program projects including DD Form 1391, a life cycle cost analysis summary sheet with backup calculations and a Project Development Brochure. Prepare implementation documentation for all justifiable energy conservation opportunities. List and prioritize all recommended energy conservation opportunities.

NONE

1984-12-31

152

The Roles of Government Agency in Assisting CSR Project for Community Development: Analysis from the Recipients Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate Social responsibility (CSR initiatives by the corporations are playing increasingly significant role in the effort of contributing to community development particularly in the developing country. The international prominence of the initiatives in this area can be traced to the objectives of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs that established corporations as partners of development. However, realizing the corporate sectors constraints in playing the roles as agents of development, the CSR initiatives need to be implemented with the involvement of the government agency to assist community development. This paper will explore the roles played by government agency in CSR project through a case study of successful CSR initiative in Bukit Awang, PasirPuteh Kelantan in Malaysia. A qualitative research strategy that explores the perspective of social actors that involved in the project and thematic data analysis are undertaken for that purpose. The result from the analysis reveals two main roles played by the government agency in CSR project by the corporation to the community. The roles are as the supporting agency and as leader in the community. These roles have assisted in the implementation of the CSR project with the objectives to develop the community involved.

Sarmila M. S.

2013-05-01

153

A socio-political analysis of policies and incentives applicable to community wind in Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a new type of ownership structure, community owned wind projects are becoming more and more important in today's wind energy generation in the U.S. Unlike traditional large wind farms, community wind features local ownership and small-scale generation capacity. The goal of this paper is to identify policies, incentives, and regulations in place that are applicable to community wind projects in Oregon by interviewing project representatives and governmental officials and to depict the Oregon context from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives for researchers, farmers, private businesses, government entities, and others who are interested in learning about the community wind in the state. - Highlights: ? We identified policies, incentives, and regulations applicable to community wind in Oregon. ? We interviewed project representatives and governmental officials. ? Results were analyzed from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives. ? We concluded the paper by proposing policy prescriptions for community wind development.

2012-03-01

154

Community-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence suggests engaging in regular physical activity (PA) can have beneficial outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes (TD2), including weight loss, reduction of medication usage and improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)/fasting glucose. While a number of clinical-based PA interventions exist, community-based approaches are limited. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of community-based PA interventions for the treat...

Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Karunamuni, Nandini D.; Lubans, David R.

2013-01-01

155

Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

2014-01-01

156

Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community  

Science.gov (United States)

A major challenge for microbial ecology that has become more tractable in the advent of new molecular techniques is characterizing gene expression in complex microbial communities. We are using meta-transcriptomic analysis to characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions through various electron-accepting conditions. We inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site, namely, nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III). The microcosms progressed successively through various electron-accepting conditions (e.g., denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and ferric iron-reducing conditions, as well as nitrate-dependent, chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions). Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced initially and again upon further Cr(VI) amendments. Extensive geochemical sampling and analysis (e.g., lactate, acetate, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, dissolved Cr(VI), total Fe(II)), RNA/DNA harvesting, and PhyloChip analyses were conducted. Methods were developed for removal of rRNA from total RNA in preparation for meta-transcriptome sequencing. To date, samples representing denitrifying and fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions have been sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Of the non-rRNA related reads for the denitrifying sample (which was also actively reducing chromate), ca. 8% were associated with denitrification and ca. 0.9% were associated with chromate resistance/transport, in contrast to the fermentative/sulfate-reducing sample (in which chromate had already been reduced), which had zero reads associated with either of these categories but many predicted proteins associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. We observed sequences for key functional transcripts that were unique at the nucleotide level compared to the GenBank non-redundant database [such as L-lactate dehydrogenase (iron-sulfur-cluster-binding subunit), cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (nirS) (from the denitrifying phase), and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA, dsrB) (from the sulfate-reducing phase)]. One potential advantage of this approach is that such important genes may not have been detected using more traditional techniques, including PCR-based methods and a priori functional microarrays.

Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.

2010-12-01

157

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potentialbehavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan.

Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M

2009-01-01

158

Uncovering allosteric pathways in caspase-1 using Markov transient analysis and multiscale community detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allosteric regulation at distant sites is central to many cellular processes. In particular, allosteric sites in proteins are major targets to increase the range and selectivity of new drugs, and there is a need for methods capable of identifying intra-molecular signalling pathways leading to allosteric effects. Here, we use an atomistic graph-theoretical approach that exploits Markov transients to extract such pathways and exemplify our results in an important allosteric protein, caspase-1. Firstly, we use Markov stability community detection to perform a multiscale analysis of the structure of caspase-1 which reveals that the active conformation has a weaker, less compartmentalised large-scale structure compared to the inactive conformation, resulting in greater intra-protein coherence and signal propagation. We also carry out a full computational point mutagenesis and identify that only a few residues are critical to such structural coherence. Secondly, we characterise explicitly the transients of random walks originating at the active site and predict the location of a known allosteric site in this protein quantifying the contribution of individual bonds to the communication pathway between the active and allosteric sites. Several of the bonds we identify have been shown experimentally to be functionally critical, but we also predict a number of as yet unidentified bonds which may contribute to the pathway. Our approach offers a computationally inexpensive method for the identification of allosteric sites and communication pathways in proteins using a fully atomistic description. PMID:24947802

Amor, B; Yaliraki, S N; Woscholski, R; Barahona, M

2014-07-01

159

Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis of Algal Communities in the San Luis Drain, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Algal, bacterial, and zooplankton biomass and species diversity were examined by measuring phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in water samples along the San Luis Drain in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Algal growth has been has been identified as a major cause of the degradation of water quality in the San Joaquin River. The San Luis Drain is a concrete lined channel than transports agricultural drainage water from the west side of the San Joaquin Valley to the San Joaquin River. Understanding the growth of algae in the San Luis Drain, a potential major input of algae into the San Joaquin River, is central in understanding potential algal control measures for this region. Samples were taken along the length of the drain in early, mid and late summer. Signature fatty acids were used to understand the ecology of algal and zooplankton through total lipid analysis and by analyzing shifts in PLFA composition. It was found that lipids associated with algal growth were highly correlated with chlorophyll measurements, and dips in the chlorophyll concentration corresponded to an increase in zooplankton lipids. Algal community structure was relatively constant along the drain during a sampling event but shifted significantly between sampling event through the summer season.

Borglin, S. E.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Hanlon, J. S.

2005-12-01

160

Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Tempeh as Reveal by Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tempeh is an Indonesian traditional fermented food produced using Rhizopus as a starter culture. In practice, however, the starter culture as well as fermentation processes would yield a polymicrobial fermentation, which generated a unique tempeh flavor and texture. This condition makes Indonesian tempeh as one of the most complex fermented food, while at the same time would make it difficult to scale up tempeh production with uniform quality and consistency. The aim of this study was to compare a number of tempeh microbial communities employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis (ARISA. Fresh tempeh samples were obtained from tempeh producers in Java and Moluccas. 16S rRNA gene libraries and DNA sequencing were employed to analyze further the nature of bacterial diversity in two selected tempeh samples. The results of our study showed that different tempeh producer possessed different Bacterial ARISA (BARISA or fungi ARISA (FARISA profiles. However, BARISA profiles were found to be more discriminative than FARISA, and therefore BARISA would be more useful for tempeh genetic fingerprint or barcoding.

CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Community college biology majors: The dynamics of the successful community college transfer program. A comparative analysis of the program determinants which lead to high transfer success in community college biology transfer programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Community Colleges in California have long been asked to fulfill a number of the state's different needs in higher education including the first two years of preparation for students who plan to transfer to universities and receive their baccalaureate. Transfer rates published since the 60's suggest that community colleges in the state have largely been failures at transferring students. Current data, however, show that biology majors programs at area colleges surrounding UCLA, the primary goal of biology majors, varied widely in their transfer success. This study compared two biology majors programs with high transfer success (HTS) with two programs with low transfer success (LTS). Qualitative methods were used in the analysis to establish common themes which existed at both the HTS and LTS programs. Methodology involved: site descriptions, participant-observation, document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews of faculty, staff, and students involved with the majors program. It was concluded that the HTS institutions shared many characteristics in common. Since California abolished district boundaries, eliminated guaranteed enrollment for colleges and created a free-flow situation, colleges have competed for students. In this study, students free-flowed from colleges in higher SES communities from inner city colleges in lower SES communities. Both HTS programs were at colleges in higher SES communities. They were responsive to the articulation demands of UCLA, had firm chemistry prerequisites, and were taught as two sequential courses. Programs had one faculty member who was clearly the head of the program and had been instrumental in the evolution of the program. HTS programs had high academic rigor and included a lab portion which was instrumental in bringing the students together with each other and with the faculty. Student collaboration involved academics, transfer information, and career information and lead to transfer momentum for the class. Faculty mentoring activities with students contributed to transfer success. The sum total of all the components in the program which enhanced transfer success was called the program effect. LTS programs could be located in high or low SES neighborhoods. They had a program head but were less responsive to UCLA's articulation demands. Courses were not taught sequentially and chemistry was not a prerequisite. Academic rigor was judged to be significantly lower than in the HTS programs and labs involved far less student personal discovery. Students did not collaborate in lab and there was no visible transfer momentum. Faculty did not act as mentors for students. In their other characteristics, LTS programs tended to be dissimilar.

Harlan, Ronald Keith

1997-09-01

162

A Multilevel Analysis of Race, Community Disadvantage, and Body Mass Index Among Adults in the US  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the contributions of both individual socioeconomic status (SES) and community disadvantage in explaining the higher body mass index (BMI) of black adults in the US. Data from a national survey of adults (1986 American's Changing Lives Study) were combined with tract-level community data from the 1980 census.

2004-01-01

163

Sense of Community Belonging and Health in Canada: A Regional Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates the association between sense of community belonging and health among settlements of different size and across the urban to rural continuum in Canada. Using data from the recent 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the objective is to identify the major health, social and geographic determinants of sense of…

Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

2012-01-01

164

Analysis of Departmental Functions: The Department of Staff and Instructional Services, Houston Community College System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Staff and Instructional Services (SIS) in the Houston Community College System (HCCS) takes a leadership role in providing and promoting products and services required to empower the HCCS in the pursuit of quality service to the campus community. The goals of the SIS department are to adopt Total Quality Service orientation,…

Walke, Jean

165

Community Colleges and Market Responsiveness: A Conceptual Analysis and Proposed Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we explore the functions of the traditional community college and its expanding mission in regard to its responsiveness to changing economic conditions and workforce development needs. To date, few researchers have specifically addressed market responsiveness in community college settings across the United States. In addition, we…

Adams, Jimmy L.; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

2013-01-01

166

Earth Science Community IT Resources through a Unified Data and Analysis Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

We are in the process of merging the capabilities of three NASA-funded projects under the umbrella of the NASA Access Project, "Modeling and On-the-fly Solutions for Solid Earth Sciences (MOSES)" to facilitate data mining and modeling of rapidly expanding multi-disciplinary geoscience data sets. (1) The SCIGN- REASoN project is focused on the combination, validation, archive, and delivery of high-level data products and data mining capabilities from space geodetic measurements, in particular from over 600 CGPS stations in Western North America; (2) The QuakeSim project is developing linked Web service environments for supporting high performance models of crustal deformation from a variety of geophysical sensors, including GPS and seismic instruments; (3) The SENH-Applications GPS/Seismic integration project has developed a prototype real-time GPS/seismic displacement meter for seismic hazard mitigation and monitoring of critical infrastructure. The focus of the MOSES project is to enable direct interaction between modelers and data/data-product providers using Web services, within a unified portal architecture. Modeling applications include, for example, time series analysis of continuous and real-time data (e.g., RDAHMM and st_filter programs) and fault dislocation modeling (e.g., Simplex program). Community resources include access to extensive infrastructure and distributed data archive holdings, an on-line map server/client linked to a GIS database, a "GPS Explorer" data portal that is extensible to heterogeneous data sets, and "Geophysical Resource Web Services." We present the current capabilities of the unified data and analysis portal, and provide a few examples of combinations of independent geophysical measurements.

Bock, Y.; Webb, F. H.; Kedar, S.; Pierce, M.; Scharber, M.; Argus, D. F.; Aydin, G.; Chang, R.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Granat, R. A.; Jamason, P.; Newport, B. J.; Owen, S. E.; Parker, J. W.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Vernon, F.; Wadsworth, G.

2006-12-01

167

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

Koichi Fujie

2012-03-01

168

Empowering Community Setting and Community Mobilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Empowering community settings exist in many community domains. One domain includes groups and organizations that empower oppressed citizens to challenge societal culture and institutions, and take action to change them. To be considered empowering, a community setting must have both an empowering process, and lead to an empowered outcome. Our study tried to answer the following question: Does the empowering community setting model provide a potentially useful framework for analysis of communi...

Fedi, Angela

2009-01-01

169

ClimatePipes: User-Friendly Data Access, Manipulation, Analysis & Visualization of Community Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of climate change will resonate through a broad range of fields including public health, infrastructure, water resources, and many others. Long-term coordinated planning, funding, and action are required for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Unfortunately, widespread use of climate data (simulated and observed) in non-climate science communities is impeded by factors such as large data size, lack of adequate metadata, poor documentation, and lack of sufficient computational and visualization resources. We present ClimatePipes to address many of these challenges by creating an open source platform that provides state-of-the-art, user-friendly data access, analysis, and visualization for climate and other relevant geospatial datasets, making the climate data available to non-researchers, decision-makers, and other stakeholders. The overarching goals of ClimatePipes are: - Enable users to explore real-world questions related to climate change. - Provide tools for data access, analysis, and visualization. - Facilitate collaboration by enabling users to share datasets, workflows, and visualization. ClimatePipes uses a web-based application platform for its widespread support on mainstream operating systems, ease-of-use, and inherent collaboration support. The front-end of ClimatePipes uses HTML5 (WebGL, Canvas2D, CSS3) to deliver state-of-the-art visualization and to provide a best-in-class user experience. The back-end of the ClimatePipes is built around Python using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK, http://vtk.org), Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT, http://uv-cdat.llnl.gov), and other climate and geospatial data processing tools such as GDAL and PROJ4. ClimatePipes web-interface to query and access data from remote sources (such as ESGF). Shown in the figure is climate data layer from ESGF on top of map data layer from OpenStreetMap. The ClimatePipes workflow editor provides flexibility and fine grained control, and uses the VisTrails (http://www.vistrails.org) workflow engine in the backend.

Chaudhary, A.; DeMarle, D.; Burnett, B.; Harris, C.; Silva, W.; Osmari, D.; Geveci, B.; Silva, C.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

2013-12-01

170

The Topography of Poverty in the United States: A Spatial Analysis Using County-Level Data From the Community Health Status Indicators Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socioeconomic and health-related data at the county level are now available through the Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) database. These data are useful for assessing the health of communities and regions. Users of the CHSI data can access online reports and an online mapping application for visualizing patterns in various community-related measures. It also is possible to download these data to conduct local analyses. This paper describes a spatial analysis of poverty in the United ...

Holt, James B.

2007-01-01

171

Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, ...

1999-01-01

172

Analysis of the community structure of yeasts associated with the decaying stems of cactus. III.Stenocereus thurberi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast communities in necroses of organpipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi) were surveyed at 3 localities in Arizona. Quantitative analysis of random samples allows comparisons of the types and numbers of yeasts at 3 levels: within plants, between plants within a locality, and between localities. The analysis shows that the major source of variability is between plants. This pattern is identical with the pattern shown by agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) and is thought to be due to sampling different successional stages. No significant differences in estimates of the effective number of yeast species (ENS) in agria and organpipe samples were found. Comparisons of agria, organpipe, and prickly pear (Opuntia) cacti support the hypothesis that cactus chemistry is an important determinant of the yeast community structure which, in turn, is an important determinant of the diversity ofDrosophila species which utilize necrotic cacti as feeding and breeding substrates. PMID:24221304

Fogleman, J C; Starmer, W T

1985-06-01

173

Analysis of Spectral clustering approach for tracking community formation in social network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of tracking community formation in social networks is an active area of research. A common pattern among the cohesive subgroup of people in a network is considered as a community which is a partition of the entire network structure. In recent years, spectral clustering has become one of the most popular modern clustering algorithms. It is simple to implement, can be solved efficiently by standard linear algebra method and very often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms such as the k-means algorithm. Existing method of community tracking methods is based on hierarchical clustering algorithm. This paper establishes that spectral clustering is an efficient way for tracking community formation in social network.

Sanjiv Sharma

2012-07-01

174

Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

Gurtner, Gerald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Micciche, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

2014-01-01

175

Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection  

CERN Document Server

We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspaces and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of three community detection algorithms, also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

Gurtner, Gérald; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

2013-01-01

176

Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological invasions cause ecological and economic impacts across the globe. However, it is unclear whether there are strong patterns in terms of their major effects, how the vulnerability of different ecosystems varies and which ecosystem services are at greatest risk. We present a global meta-analysis of 199 articles reporting 1041 field studies that in total describe the impacts of 135 alien plant taxa on resident species, communities and ecosystems. Across studies, alien plants had a s...

Vila?, Montserrat; Espinar, Jose? L.; Hedja, Martin; Hulme, Philip E.; Jaros?i?k, Vojte?ch; Maron, John L.; Prgel, Jan; Schaffner, Urs; Sun, Yan; Pysek, Jan

2011-01-01

177

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in the Tailings of a Pb-Zn Mine Generating Acidic Drainage ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to genera...

Huang, Li-nan; Zhou, Wen-hua; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jie; Shu, Wen-sheng

2011-01-01

178

Potential therapeutic drug target identification in Community Acquired-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) using computational analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence of multidrug-resistant strain of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain has highlighted the urgent need for the alternative and effective therapeutic approach to combat the menace of this nosocomial pathogen. In the present work novel potential therapeutic drug targets have been identified through the metabolic pathways analysis. All the gene products involved in different metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA in KEGG database were searc...

Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Gurmit; Singh, Satendra; Gautam, Budhayash; Saad, Esmaiel If

2012-01-01

179

Global analysis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exoproteins reveals molecules produced in vitro and during infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a threat to human health worldwide. Although progress has been made, mechanisms of CA-MRSA pathogenesis are poorly understood and a comprehensive analysis of CA-MRSA exoproteins has not been conducted. To address that deficiency, we used proteomics to identify exoproteins made by MW2 (USA400) and LAC (USA300) during growth in vitro. Two hundred and fifty unique exoproteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electr...

Burlak, Christopher; Hammer, Carl H.; Robinson, Mary-ann; Whitney, Adeline R.; Mcgavin, Martin J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Deleo, Frank R.

2007-01-01

180

Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs: an analysis of community pharmacy data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores whether patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher drug use as compared to patients without diabetes over a time period prior to and after diagnosis of diabetes. A case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (cases) with patients without a diagnosis (controls) based on community pharmacy records. Cases had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2006. A repeated measures analysis calculated the mean number of packages and costs...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popula...

Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R.; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2013-01-01

182

Horizontal Heterogeneity of Denitrifying Bacterial Communities in Marine Sediments by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although it is widely believed that horizontal patchiness exists in microbial sediment communities, determining the extent of variability or the particular members of the bacterial community which account for the observed differences among sites at various scales has not been routinely demonstrated. In this study, horizontal heterogeneity was examined in time and space for denitrifying bacteria in continental shelf sediments off Tuckerton, N.J., at the Rutgers University Long-Term Ecosystem O...

Scala, David J.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

2000-01-01

183

Population Dynamics of Chesapeake Bay Virioplankton: Total-Community Analysis by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recognition of viruses as the most abundant component of aquatic microbial communities has stimulated investigations of the impact of viruses on bacterio- and phytoplankton host communities. From results of field studies to date, it is concluded that in most aquatic environments, a reduction in the number of bacteria on a daily basis is caused by viral infection. However, the modest amount of in situ virus-mediated mortality may be less significant than viral infection serving to maintain clo...

1999-01-01

184

Quantitative Microbial Community Analysis of Three Different Sulfidic Mine Tailing Dumps Generating Acid Mine Drainage?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at t...

Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

2008-01-01

185

Community-acquired pneumonia in the childhood: analysis of the diagnostic methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunological assays such as CIE, LA, and Dot-ELISA were compared in order to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia. Serum, pleural fluid and urine samples were comparatively employed for bacterial antigen detection. Dot-ELISA proved to be an original and practical alternative procedure for detecting bacterial polysaccharide antigens from pleural fluid and/or concentrated urine samples, providing a rapid diagnosis for pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Henry I. Z. Requejo

2007-04-01

186

OOPS, Turning MIT Opencourseware into Chinese: An analysis of a community of practice of global translators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An all-volunteer organization called the Opensource Opencourseware Prototype System (OOPS, headquartered in Taiwan, was initially designed to translate open source materials from MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW site into Chinese. Given the recent plethora of open educational resources (OER, such as the OCW, the growing use of such resources by the world community, and the emergence of online global education communities to localize resources such as the OOPS, a key goal of this research was to understand how the OOPS members negotiate meanings and form a collective identity in this cross-continent online community. To help with our explorations and analyses within the OOPS translation community, several core principles from Etienne Wenger’s concept of Communities of Practice (COP guided our analyses, including mutual engagement, joint enterprise, shared repertoire, reification, and overall identity of the community. In this paper, we detail how each of these key components was uniquely manifested within the OOPS. Three issues appeared central to the emergence, success, and challenges of the community such as OOPS: 1 strong, stable, and fairly democratic leadership; 2 participation incentives; and 3 online storytelling or opportunities to share one’s translation successes, struggles, and advice within an asynchronous discussion forum. While an extremely high level of enthusiasm among the OOPS members underpinned the success of the OOPS, discussion continues on issues related to quality control, purpose and scope, and forms of legitimate participation. This study, therefore, provides an initial window into the emergence and functioning of an online global education COP in the OER movement. Future research directions related to online global educational communities are discussed.

Mimi Miyoung Lee

2007-11-01

187

Banding together for bandwidth: An analysis of survey results from wireless community network participants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a resource mobilization framework, this study attempts to better understand the factors motivating people to join wireless community networks that enable members to share bandwidth. In addition, the research illuminates ties between this kind of peer-to-peer networking and civic engagement at a broader level. An in depth survey completed by 43 respondents from throughout Europe and North America found that participants in this movement felt a stronger sense of community, as well as were...

Shaffer, Gwen University Of California

2011-01-01

188

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cult...

Ak, Gregg; Hatay, M.; Af, Haas; Nl, Robinett; Barott, K.; Mja, Vermeij; Kl, Marhaver; Meirelles, P.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

2013-01-01

189

Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

2012-01-01

190

Technical, economic and environmental analysis of a MSW kerbside separate collection system applied to small communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and environmental impacts induced by a fixed model of MSW kerbside separate collection system for communities up to 10,000 inhabitants, in order to evaluate the convenience for the smaller municipalities to unite and form more economically and environmentally sound systems. This topic is important not only due to the large number of small municipalities (e.g. in Italy 72% of the municipalities has less than 5000 inhabitants) but also to the fact that separate collection systems are typically designed to take into account only the technical and economic aspects, which is a practice but not acceptable in the light of the sustainable development paradigm. In economic terms, between 1000 and 4000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost for vehicles and personnel decreased, with a maximum at approximately 180€/inhabitants/year; while, from 5000 up to 10,000 inhabitants, the annual per capita cost was practically constant and equal to about 80€/inhabitants/year. For the municipalities of less than 5000 inhabitants, from an economic point of view the aggregation is always advantageous. The environmental impacts were calculated by means of the Life Cycle Assessment tool SimaPro 7.1, while the economic-environmental convenience was evaluated by combining in a simple multicriteria analysis, the annual total per capita cost (€/inhabitants/year) and the annual total per capita environmental impact (kEco-indicator point/inhabitants/year), giving the same importance to each criteria. The analysis was performed by means of the Paired Comparison Technique using the Simple Additive Weighting method. The economic and environmental convenience of the aggregation diminishes with the size of the municipalities: for less than 4000 inhabitants, the aggregation was almost always advantageous (91.7%); while, for more than or equal to 5000 inhabitants, the aggregation was convenient only in 33.3% of the cases. On the whole, out of 45 cases examined, for the municipalities from 1000 to 9000 inhabitants, the aggregation was both economically and environmentally convenient in 60.0% of the cases. PMID:22677016

De Feo, G; Malvano, C

2012-10-01

191

Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR?=?1.9, those who reported myocardial infarction (OR?=?3.8, urinary incontinence (OR?=?2.7, those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR?=?3.2, and those who did not use dental services (OR?=?2.1. For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail.

Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

2012-09-01

192

Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

2009-06-15

193

Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane during commercial composting and analysis of associated fungal communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the biodegradation of polyurethane (PU) during the maturation stage of a commercial composting process was investigated. PU coupons were buried in the centre and at the surface of a 10m high compost pile. Fungal communities colonising polyester PU coupons were compared with the native compost communities using culture based and molecular techniques. Putative polyester PU degrading fungi were ubiquitous in compost and rapidly colonised the surface of polyester PU coupons with significant deterioration. As the temperature decreased, fungal diversity in the compost and on the surface of the polyester PU coupons increased and selection of fungal community on the polyester PU coupons occurs that is different from the surrounding compost. PMID:24656620

Zafar, Urooj; Nzeram, Petrus; Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Houlden, Ashley; Heyworth, Alan; Saiani, Alberto; Robson, Geoff D

2014-04-01

194

Microbial community analysis of a single chamber microbial fuel cell using potato wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bio-electrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. This study investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that used potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that use potato wastewater. PMID:24851328

Li, Zhen; Haynes, Rishika; Sato, Eugene; Shields, Malcolm S; Fujita, Yoshiko; Sato, Chikashi

2014-04-01

195

Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

2014-04-01

196

Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate

2008-05-01

197

Global analysis of parametric sensitivity of precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of precipitation characteristics, including mean, extreme and diurnal cycle, to dozens of uncertain parameters mainly related to cloud and aerosol processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). We adopt both the Latin hypercube sampling and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling approaches to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and then conduct two large sets of simulations (1356 in total). The CAM5 ensemble simulates the mean precipitation reasonably well, but fails to capture the diurnal cycle of precipitation over land. The phase of diurnal precipitation associated with the convection propagation over Central US seems to be more related to model structural errors rather than the parametric uncertainties. Parametric calibration could possibly improve CAM5 precipitation over regions, such as Tropical Western Pacific, having relatively weak diurnal cycle and high model parameter identifiability. The precipitation variance is large and the diurnal cycle is strong over South America and Central Africa, where parametric calibration can possibly improve the model prediction of mean precipitation but not the diurnal cycle. Variance-based sensitivity analysis using a generalized linear model (GLM) is conducted to examine the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbations and their interactions to the global and regional precipitation. We characterize the global spatial distribution as well as scale (global vs. local) and seasonal dependence of parametric sensitivity of precipitation, and identify a few parameters that dominate the behavior of the mean, extremes or diurnal cycle of precipitation, respectively. Results suggest that the model-simulated precipitation is remarkably sensitive to a few cloud-related parameters, while aerosols have minor impact on the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the current CAM5. The interactions among the selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion to the total variance of global precipitation. This study quantifies the sensitivity of various precipitation metrics to uncertain CAM5 parameters, which helps to better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with the parameter uncertainties and will guide the next step of reducing model uncertainty in precipitation via calibration of the most uncertain model parameters and/or developing new parameterizations.

Qian, Y.; Yan, H.; Zhao, C.; Hou, Z.; Wang, H.; Rasch, P. J.; Klein, S. A.; Lucas, D.; Tannahill, J.

2013-12-01

198

Multiple myeloma in South Cumbria 1974-80: problems of health analysis in small communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of seven cases of multiple myeloma over seven years in a small community 15 miles from a plant reprocessing nuclear fuel caused much local concern. A case control study of 34 confirmed cases in the health district during 1974 to 1980 revealed no excess of known risk factors among the 23 cases for whom informants could be traced. The possible effects of exposure to marine discharges of radioactive material cannot be completely ruled out, but dose estimates make this highly unlikely. Such studies are a necessary response by community physicians to the population they serve but have major practical and theoretical limitations. (author)

1985-01-01

199

Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage) and at the end (harvest stage) of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of [...] several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers) were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season.

Ana Fernández, Scavino; Javier, Menes; Lucía, Ferrando; Silvana, Tarlera.

200

Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
201

Hunting practices among the Awá-Guajá: towards a long-term analysis of sustainability in an Amazonian indigenous community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous Reserves have played an indispensable role in maintaining forest areas in the Neotropics. In the Amazon there is a clear correlation between these reserves and the presence of forest cover; however, the simple presence of uninterrupted vegetation is no guarantee for the conservation of biodiversity, especially where hunting is practiced. This study describes hunting practices among the Awá-Guajá people from 1993 through 1994, also identifying sociocultural, technological, and demographic changes that have influenced their resource acquisition strategies over the last two decades. The data was obtained through ethnographic fieldwork, recording 78 days of foraging returns, with follow-up visits through 2010. This work provides useful information for an effective diachronic analysis of hunting in this community, by revealing foraging patterns of the early to mid-1990s, and describing community transformations over the last two decades in this locale.

Helbert Medeiros Prado

2012-08-01

202

Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage and at the end (harvest stage of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season.

Ana Fernández Scavino

2010-06-01

203

Analysis of the archaeal sub-seafloor community at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc  

Science.gov (United States)

A sub-surface archaeal community at the Suiyo Seamount in the Western Pacific Ocean was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-cell in situ hybridization analyses. In this study, we drilled and cased holes at the hydrothermal area of the seamount to minimize contamination of the hydrothermal fluid in the sub-seafloor by penetrating seawater. PCR clone analysis of the hydrothermal fluid samples collected from a cased hole indicated the presence of chemolithoautotrophic primary biomass producers of Archaeoglobales and the Methanococcales-related archaeal HTE1 group, both of which can utilize hydrogen as an electron donor. We discuss the implication of the microbial community on the early history of life and on the search for extraterrestrial life.

Hara, Kurt; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Yamashiro, Kan; Maruyama, Akihiko; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Marumo, Katsumi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

204

pmoA-based analysis of methanotrophs in a littoral lake sediment reveals a diverse and stable community in a dynamic environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversity and community structure of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in the littoral sediment of Lake Constance was investigated by cloning analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the pmoA gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high diversity of type I and type II methanotrophs in the oxygenated uppermost centimeter of the sediment. T-RFLP profiles indicated a high similarity between the active methanotrophic community in the oxic layer ...

Pester, Michael; Friedrich, Michael W.; Schink, Bernhard; Brune, Andreas

2004-01-01

205

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF PCR-AMPLIFIED NIFH SEQUENCES FROM WETLAND PLANT RHIZOSPHERE COMMUNITIES  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a method to assess the community structure of N2-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Total DNA was extracted from Spartina alterniflora and Sesbania macrocarpa root zones by bead-beating and purified by CsCl-EtBr gradient centrifugation. The average DNA yield was 5.5 ...

206

An Analysis of Agriculture and Horticulture Programs at Illinois Public Community Colleges. Accountability Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepared as part of a state program review, this report presents results from a review undertaken of all agriculture and horticulture programs at Illinois public community colleges for fiscal year 1995. The first part focuses on the four agricultural programs reviewed: Agricultural Business and Management; Agricultural Production, Workers, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

207

A Re-Examination of the Community of Inquiry Framework: Social Network and Content Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a simultaneous examination of all components of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Anderson, Rourke, Garrison & Archer, 2001; and Rourke, Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 1999) and seeks to extend previous work into the nature, development, and relationships between the constructs of…

Shea, Peter; Hayes, Suzanne; Vickers, Jason; Gozza-Cohen, Mary; Uzuner, Sedef; Mehta, Ruchi; Valchova, Anna; Rangan, Prahalad

2010-01-01

208

Community College Enrollment Surge: An Analysis of Estimated Fall 2009 Headcount Enrollments at Community Colleges. Policy Brief 2009-01PBL  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to better understand how community colleges responded to the economic maelstrom, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) surveyed its member institutions to examine changes in enrollment, local factors contributing to enrollment shifts, and the lessons learned from their experiences. The authors found the following: (1)…

Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

2009-01-01

209

[Capability and bacteria community analysis of an anaerobic baffled reactor treating soybean wastewater].  

Science.gov (United States)

Capability and process characteristic of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating soybean wastewater were investigated in a 4-compartment ABR with an effective volume of 28 L. During an operation period of 100 days, the organic loading rate (OLR) increased by stages and its influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was researched. The bacteria community structures in anaerobic activated sludge from different stages were also investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) with the eubacterium universal primers SRV3-2P and BSF8/20, while the microbial genetic distance being analyzed by UPGMA communities clustering method. With an inoculated aerobic activated sludge of 18.0 g x L(-1) in terms of mixed liquor volatile suspend solid (MLVSS), the reactor started up at COD concentration of 2000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 39.5 h and temperature of (35 +/- 1) degrees C for 31 d, the ABR achieved a stable state that resulted in 96% COD removal. When OLR increased stage by stage from 1.2 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) to 6.0 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the reactor could performed steadily with a COD removal efficiency as high as 98%, and this indicated that compartmentalized ABR held a good performance during shock loadings. It was found that a step change in OLR had a remarkably effect on the structure and distribution of microbial communities in each compartment. With the organic loading rate increase, the genetic distances among the microbial communities in the compartments extended gradually, indicating that the specificity of microbial communities in each compartment was enhanced. PMID:18839574

Bao, Li-xin; Li, Jian-zheng; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Xiao-fei; Ren, Nan-qi

2008-08-01

210

Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46). Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

Pharris, Anastasia

2011-09-18

211

Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education. Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91, feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66, having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66, and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99 were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90 or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46. Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

Brugha Ruairí

2011-09-01

212

Building ties: social capital network analysis of a forest community in a biosphere reserve in Chiapas, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Governance of the commons depends on the capacity to generate collective action. Networks and rules that foster that collective action have been defined as social capital. However, their causal link is still not fully understood. We use social network analysis to assess social capital, decision-making, and collective action in a forest-based common pool resource management in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve (Chiapas, Mexico. Our research analyzes the productive networks and the evolution of coffee groups in one community. The network shows some centrality, with richer landholders tending to occupy core positions and poorer landless peasants occupying peripheral ones. This has fostered the community's environmentally oriented development but has also caused internal conflicts. Market requirements have shaped different but complementary productive networks, where organic coffee commercialization is the main source of bridging ties, which has resulted in more connectivity and resilience. Conservation attitudes, along with the institutional setting of the community, have promoted collective action. The unresolved conflicts, however, still leave some concerns about governance in the future.

Felipe Reyes

2012-09-01

213

Pyrosequencing analysis yields comprehensive assessment of microbial communities in pilot-scale two-stage membrane biofilm reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the microbial community structure of pilot two-stage membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) designed to reduce nitrate (NO3(-)) and perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in contaminated groundwater. The groundwater also contained oxygen (O2) and sulfate (SO4(2-)), which became important electron sinks that affected the NO3(-) and ClO4(-) removal rates. Using pyrosequencing, we elucidated how important phylotypes of each "primary" microbial group, i.e., denitrifying bacteria (DB), perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), responded to changes in electron-acceptor loading. UniFrac, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and diversity analyses documented that the microbial community of biofilms sampled when the MBfRs had a high acceptor loading were phylogenetically distant from and less diverse than the microbial community of biofilm samples with lower acceptor loadings. Diminished acceptor loading led to SO4(2-) reduction in the lag MBfR, which allowed Desulfovibrionales (an SRB) and Thiothrichales (sulfur-oxidizers) to thrive through S cycling. As a result of this cooperative relationship, they competed effectively with DB/PRB phylotypes such as Xanthomonadales and Rhodobacterales. Thus, pyrosequencing illustrated that while DB, PRB, and SRB responded predictably to changes in acceptor loading, a decrease in total acceptor loading led to important shifts within the "primary" groups, the onset of other members (e.g., Thiothrichales), and overall greater diversity. PMID:24917125

Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Tang, Youneng; Zhao, He-Ping; Friese, David; Overstreet, Ryan; Smith, Jennifer; Evans, Patrick; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

2014-07-01

214

Community and Nihilism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing the arguments put forward in books such as Communitas, in this article the political  philosopher Roberto Esposito tries to overcome the customary opposition between the notions of community and nihilism. His aim is to rethink what community might mean in an age of ‘completed nihilism’. In a subtle genealogical and etymological analysis of the concept of community, he demonstrates how, rather than establishing a substantial and positive bond, community is ...

Roberto Esposito

2009-01-01

215

Analysis and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community with amoA gene in sewage treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is crucial, as they initiate the biological removal of ammonia-nitrogen from sewage. Previous methods for analyzing the microbial community structure, which involve the plating of samples or culture media over agar plates, have been inadequate because many microorganisms found in a sewage plant are unculturable. In this study, to exclusively detect AOB, the analysis was carried out via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using a primer specific to the amoA gene, which is one of the functional genes known as ammonia monooxygenase. An AOB consortium (S1 sample) that could oxidize an unprecedented 100% of ammonia in 24 h was obtained from sewage sludge. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the AOB. Results of the microbial community analysis in terms of carbon utilization ability of samples showed that the aeration tank water sample (S2), influent water sample (S3), and effluent water sample (S4) used all the 31 substrates considered, whereas the AOB consortium (S1) used only Tween 80, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, D-malic acid, and L-serine after 192 h. The largest concentration of AOB was detected in S1 (7.6 × 10(6) copies/microliter), followed by S2 (3.2 × 10(6) copies/microliter), S4 (2.8 × 10(6) copies/microliter), and S3 (2.4 × 10(6) copies/microliter). PMID:22814491

Hong, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Hyun Duck; Jung, Bongjin; Lee, Eun Young

2012-09-01

216

A for-profit venture marketing research and analysis study conducted for Action for Boston Community Development. [Home repair services  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a look at our study to find a for-profit venture for Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD) to establish. Essentially, our study had two stages - find a product or service that appeared to be needed in the market place and that ABCD felt comfortable pursuing, then research and analyze the market for this product or service. The venture selected for complete market research and analysis was home repair services. Our research showed that both an advisory and minor home repair service should be established.

1987-04-27

217

Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C)2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

1996-09-01

218

The analysis of spatial changes in the cadastral community of Postojna based on archival materials of franziscean land cadastre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma thesis, the archived documents of Franziscean Land Cadastre is presented, which we used to analyse the spatial characteristics in the 19th century for the case of the area in the cadastral community of Postojna. A brief introduction about the history of land cadastre in Slovenia is followed by the presentation of results of comparative analysis, where the situation of land use was analysed from the perspective of plot’s structure and land use patterns. Here we compared the s...

Bajec, Urs?a

2013-01-01

219

Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream.

Sweeney, B.W.; Newbold, J.D.; Vannote, R.L.

1991-12-01

220

Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Relevant risk factors analysis of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the related risk factors of diabetic retinopathy(DRin patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(DMin residents of community in our local area and provide a clinical evidence for prevention and treatment for the complication of DM. METHODS: The residents who lived in our local community with type 2 DM and hospitalized were studied. The stages of DR and duration of DM, blood pressure, level of blood glucose, blood lipids and other factors were analyzed statistically.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients(30.1%were found with DR in 176 cases. The risk factors included the diabetic duration and glycosylated hemoglobin(all PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Diabetic duration and glycosylated hemoglobin are the risk factors of DR.

Sheng-Li Hao

2013-10-01

222

Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3H2O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 ?m), detritus derived from 14C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 ?m), and phytoplankton represented by 14C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 ?m) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

1982-09-15

223

[Analysis of microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, PCR-DGGE was used to analyze the microbial community structure in lactic acid fermentation from kitchen waste. The results showed that with Lactobacillus amylophilus inoculation, both the microbial diversity and lactic acid production in the open fermentation system were higher than those in the sterilized fermentation system. These results indicated that the microbial diversity and the lactic acid production have great correlation in the kitchen waste fermentation system. Through analyzing the sequence of some DNA bands excised from the DGGE gel, it showed that in addition to the inoculation of Lactobacillus amylophilus there were some indigenous lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and indigenous hydrolytic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas sp.. These indigenous bacteria can help to promote lactic acid production. PCR-DGGE is feasible for analyzing the dynamic changes of microbial community structure in kitchen waste with complicated composition. PMID:23243886

Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qun-Hui; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Qiu, Tian-Lei; Li, Huan

2012-09-01

224

Dynamic social network analysis and recommender technologies in scientific communities : the case of computer science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Web in general, and the Web 2.0, in particular, have changed the way in which scientific information is created, exchanged and consumed. Online accessible digital libraries bring the access to large collection of scientific literature to the research community. Information sharing and research results dissemination are much faster than before. The large amount of scientific data available on the Web gives unique opportunities and also raise challenges for understanding the organization an...

Pham, Manh Cuong

2013-01-01

225

Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required. PMID:23548364

Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

2013-03-26

226

International Trade and Integration of the European Community : An Econometric Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper contributes to the policy debate on European integration by analyzing inte-Community trade and studying the structural determinants of intra-EC trade are distinguished: (1) factors related to inter-industry trade; (2) factors pertaining to intra-industry trade; (3) factors which reflect natural and policy-induced barriers to trade; and (4) factors reflecting supply constraints. Distinction is drawn between two contrasting factors that favor intra-area trade: those that foster econom...

Jaquemin, Alexis; Sapir, Andre?

1987-01-01

227

Multiple myeloma in South Cumbria 1974-80: problems of health analysis in small communities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of seven cases of multiple myeloma over seven years in a small community 15 miles from a plant reprocessing nuclear fuel caused much local concern. A case control study of 34 confirmed cases in the health district during 1974 to 1980 revealed no excess of known risk factors among the 23 cases for whom informants could be traced. The possible effects of exposure to marine discharges of radioactive material cannot be completely ruled out, but dose estimates make this highly unlik...

1985-01-01

228

Rural Communities on the Cambodian Central Plain: A Comparative Analysis Based on Five Communes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Rural Development in Cambodia in Transition With nearly 85 percent of its population living in rural communities, it is obvious that rural development issues occupy a prominent place in the overall development of Cambodia. As the country’s population rapidly increases, people in rural areas depend upon agriculture as their means of subsistence. In parallel, agriculture must meet the growing and diversifying urban food demand, while generating resources for export. The complex pro...

Jean-Christophe Diepart

2013-05-01

229

Analysis of the association between chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis: a community based study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To analyse the association between chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hands and knees in an unselected elderly rural population. METHODS--A community based cross sectional study was performed in individuals randomly selected from a previous epidemiological survey on the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis in people older than 60 years from Osona county, Catalonia, northeastern Spain. Radiological OA (grade 2 or more of Kellgren's classification) was evaluated in 26 indiv...

1996-01-01

230

Review and analysis of discharge limitation practice in the European Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important area of application of radiation protection philosophy is that concerning the setting of discharge limits for radioactive effluents from nuclear installations. In the European Community, as elsewhere, the scientific basis for discharge authorization and limitation has undergone an evolution reflecting developments in radiation protection; in particular, the principle of optimization had to be assimilated in the regulatory process, a requirement imposed on Member States of the European Community by virtue of the Euratom Directive on Basic Safety Standards. An outline of past and present authorization procedures and discharge limits is presented, based on written and verbal submissions made to two ad-hoc meetings of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities for the purposes of comparison and mutual exchange of information and techniques. Additionally, the Commission, responding to recent calls by the European Parliament and environmental groups, pledged to re-examine the value of setting regulatory emission standards for nuclear installations. This re-examination involved the consultation, on basic policy for limiting releases, of the Group of Experts which advises the Commission on radiation protection, in the light of recent advances in this field. Moreover, an investigation was undertaken of the application of national regulatory provisions concerning activity discharges of certain nuclear installations. A critical review is presented here of the methods and their application for fixing discharge limits for radioactive effluents from nuclear installations in Member States of the European Community. The implications of using as the basis for discharge limitation a dose criterion or an emission standard are discussed and conclusions drawn concerning the advisability of adopting uniform emission standards for plants of the same design regardless of differences in environmental characteristics. (author). 8 refs

1988-04-18

231

Bacterial community comparisons by taxonomy-supervised analysis independent of sequence alignment and clustering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes has increased our understanding of microbial community structure, but now even higher-throughput methods to the Illumina scale allow the creation of much larger datasets with more samples and orders-of-magnitude more sequences that swamp current analytic methods. We developed a method capable of handling these larger datasets on the basis of assignment of sequences into an existing taxonomy using a supervised learning approach (taxonomy-supervised ...

Sul, Woo Jun; Cole, James R.; Jesus, Ederson Da C.; Wang, Qiong; Farris, Ryan J.; Fish, Jordan A.; Tiedje, James M.

2011-01-01

232

Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building,...

Jae-Ki Byun; Dong-Hwa Jeong; Young-Don Choi; Jong-Keun Shin

2013-01-01

233

The integration of Ukraine and Moldova into the Energy Community - a liberal intergovernmantal analysis  

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The aim of the study is to analyse the integration of Ukraine and Moldova into the Energy Community using the theoretical framework of liberal intergovernmentalism. The main focus is on cooperation with regard to gas energy security and the theoretical framework of liberal intergovernmentalism is applied to analyse the economic and geopolitical motivations for cooperating on energy as a mean to ensure the gas transit dimension of EU energy security on the one side and as a mean to solve the e...

Petersen, Anne Hald

2012-01-01

234

The Analysis of Global Problems of the World Community and the Purposes of a Millenium ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In article sights of scientists at modern global problems of the world community are analyzed. Results of researches on this point in question of scientists and the organizations are considered: the Roman club, the United Nations Organization, the World bank of reconstruction and development, the World Economic Forum. The history of researches of global problems of mankind is analyzed. Author's vision of classification of global problems of mankind is offered.? ?????? ???????...

Kizim Nikolay A.; Pronoza Pavel V.; Belikova Nadezhda V.

2010-01-01

235

A strategic analysis of NOKIA diversifying into the provision of community phone services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nokia predicts that by 2008, 80% of mobile phone sales will come from New-Growth Markets. New-Growth Markets consist of high-income consumers capable of purchasing expensive handsets, and low-income consumers that have thus far been unable to afford cellular phones. This paper investigates the feasibility of Nokia creating Community Phone Services. A prospective business model involves rollout of services by Franchisees, following guidelines from the firm. This paper finds that the business p...

Gikunda, Agatha Mutheu

2007-01-01

236

Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

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Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray ...

2012-01-01

237

Factors associated with use of community mental health services by schizophrenia patients using multilevel analysis  

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Abstract Background Persons with schizophrenia and related disorders may be particularly sensitive to a number of determinants of service use, including those related with illness, socio-demographic characteristics and organizational factors. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with outpatient contacts at community mental health services of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed 109...

Moreno-Küstner Berta; Mayoral Fermín; Rivas Fabio; Angona Pedro; Requena Javier; García-Herrera José M; Navas Desiree; Moreno Patricia; Serrano-Blanco Antoni; Bellón Juan A

2011-01-01

238

Design and validation of an analysis grid of social networks (virtual communities)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Internet and communication technologies have caused profound changes in the circulation of information, and consequently in the ways we teach, learn, and interact with each other. A research project was initiated in the year 2009 in order to investigate whether virtual communities, created from the existing social software on the web, provide the development of meaningful learning, the result of interactions, and knowledge sharing among its members. The first phase of the pres...

Lisbo?a, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

2010-01-01

239

Analysis of the microbial community of the biocathode of a hydrogen-producing microbial electrolysis cell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising system for hydrogen production. Still, expensive catalysts such as platinum are needed for efficient hydrogen evolution at the cathode. Recently, the possibility to use a biocathode as an alternative for platinum was shown. The microorganisms involved in hydrogen evolution in such systems are not yet identified. We analyzed the microbial community of a mixed culture biocathode that was enriched in an MEC bioanode. This biocathode produced 1...

Croese, Elsemiek; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Euverink, Gert-jan W.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.

2011-01-01

240

Re-engineering Opportunities in Clinical Research using Workflow Analysis in Community Practice Settings  

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In this paper we examine frequently performed clinical research activities with the objective of identifying aspects of workflow that could be amenable to informatics-based re-engineering. This paper is part of a series of studies under the NIH Roadmap initiative, which examines workflow of clinical research in community practices. We describe three common work activities, detailing the main actors involved, the tools used and the challenges faced. These activities illustrate inefficiencies i...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Phylogenetic analysis of atmospheric halotolerant bacterial communities at high altitude in an Asian dust (KOSA) arrival region, Suzu City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. However, the atmospheric microbial community has not been investigated at high altitude in the KOSA arrival area. In this study, to estimate the viability and diversity of atmospheric halotolerant bacteria, which are expected to resist to various environmental stresses as well as high salinities, bioaerosol samples were collected at 10 and 600 m above the ground within the KOSA arrival area, Suzu City, Japan, during KOSA events. During the sampling period, the particle numbers at 600 m were higher than those at 10 m, suggesting that large particles of aerosol fall from the high altitude of 600 m to the ground surface. The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15% NaCl concentrations demonstrating the viability of the halotolerant bacteria in bioaerosol samples. The PCR-DGGE analysis using 16S rDNA revealed that the bacterial species in NaCl-amended cultures were similar to the bacteria detected from the genomic DNA directly extracted from the bioaerosol samples. The 16S rDNA sequences of bacterial communities in bioaerosol samples were classified into 4 phylotypes belonging to the Bacilluscereus or Bacillussubtilis group. The bioaerosol samples collected at 600 m included 2 phylotypes belonging to B. subtilis, and one phylotype among all 4 phylotypes was identical between the samples at 10 and 600 m. In the atmosphere at 600 m, the halotolerant bacterial community was expected to remain viable, and the species composition was expected to include a few species of the genus Bacillus. During this investigation period, these atmospheric bacteria may have been vertically transported to the ground surface, where the long-range KOSA particle transport from China is frequently observed.

2010-09-15

242

Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface of beef cattle feedlot pens is commonly conceptualized as being packed uncomposted manure. Despite the important role that the feedlot pen may play in the transmission of veterinary and zoonotic pathogens, the bacterial ecology of feedlot surface material is not well understood. Our present study characterized the bacterial communities of the beef cattle feedlot pen surface material using 3647 full-length 16S rDNA sequences, and we compared the community composition of feedlot pens to the fecal source material. The feedlot surface composite was represented by members of the phylum Actinobacteria (42%), followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (24%), and Proteobacteria (9%). The feedlot pen surface material bacterial communities were clearly distinct from those of the feces from animals in the same pen. Comparisons with previously published results of feces from the animals in the same pen reveal that, of 139 genera identified, only 25 were present in both habitats. These results indicate that, microbiologically, the feedlot pen surface material is separate and distinct from the fecal source material, suggesting that bacteria that originate in cattle feces face different selection pressures and survival challenges during their tenure in the feedlot pen, as compared to their residence in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21214381

Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Clawson, Michael L

2011-05-01

243

Analysis of Bacterial Community Associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote and Seribu Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aaptos sp. is a marine sponge that could produce bioactive compounds such as aaptamin, aaptosin, and isoaaptamin which have activities as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral. Community of bacteria associated with the sponge might correlate with production of those bioactive compounds and be affected by water environment where the sponge grow. The presence of anthropogenic stressor such as pollutans might become a burden to the waters where the biota grown and could affect the microbial biodiversity in the sponge and its active metabolite produced. The objective of this research was to analyze bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote Island and Seribu Islands, using T-RFLP method. The results showed that bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from both sampling sites shared 40.81% similarity in which they were dominated by the same bacteria class of Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, and ?–proteobacteria. The bacteria collected from Rote island were more highly distributed and diverse than those from Seribu Islands. A total of 23 classes of microorganism were identified in Rote Island waters, while in Seribu Islands was 14 classes of microorganism. The presence of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in Aaptos sp., is allegedly involved in the production of secondary metabolites.

EKOWATI CHASANAH

2013-03-01

244

Cultivation-independent analysis of microbial communities on Austrian raw milk hard cheese rinds.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Vorarlberger Bergkäse" (VB) is an Austrian artisanal hard cheese produced from raw cow's milk. The composition of its rind microbiota and the changes in the microbial communities during ripening have not previously been investigated. This study used 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of seven pooled cheese rind samples taken in seven different ripening cellars of three Austrian dairy facilities. A total of 408 clones for 16S and 322 clones for 18S rRNA gene libraries were used for taxonomic classification, revealing 39 bacterial and seven fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial OTUs belonged to four different phyla. Most OTUs were affiliated to genera often found in cheese, including high numbers of coryneforms. The most abundant OTU from 16S rRNA gene libraries showed highest similarity to Halomonas. Young cheese rinds were dominated by Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria, particularly by Halomonas and Brevibacterium aurantiacum, while Staphyloccocus equorum was most abundant in old cheeses. The most abundant 18S rRNA OTU had highest similarity to the filamentous fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed putative co-occurrences between a number of OTUs. It was possible to discriminate the different cheese rind microbiota at the community-level by facility affiliation and ripening time. This work provides insights into the microbial composition of VB cheese rinds and might allow the processing- and ripening conditions to be improved to enhance the quality of the product. PMID:24794620

Schornsteiner, Elisa; Mann, Evelyne; Bereuter, Othmar; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

2014-06-16

245

Diversity and community analysis of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in a streambed surrounding an artificial dam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degree to which small natural dams affect the native bacterial nitrogen cycling community was explored by molecular methods. The identities and relative abundances of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the sediment surrounding an artificial dam both at the surface and in the hyporheic zone were characterized. Analyses were performed using tRFLP of the conserved amoA gene using a semi-nested degenerate PCR approach. Additionally, an amoA gene library was constructed to characterize the most dominant sediment genotypes. The results of the tRFLP analyses showed clear differences between the upstream and downstream communities at different depths in the sediment column. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination of the tRFLP data set produced a stable one-dimensional solution with significant correlations to oxygen, pH, nitrate, and dissolved organic nitrogen levels. The sample corresponding to the hyporheic zone downstream of the dam showed 28-50% higher amoA richness and higher diversity than the other samples. All gene fragments sequenced from the samples grouped with sequences of the Nitrosospira type. Ordination of 16S rDNA tRFLP data revealed a two dimensional data structure, one axis of which had similar chemical correlation characteristics as the amoA model axis. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that the presence of the dam creates physical and chemical heterogeneity that may foster genetic diversity and community changes amongst ammonia oxidizing bacteria. PMID:23764474

Murdoch, Robert W; Costello Staniec, Andria

2013-09-30

246

Community extraction for social networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields and has diverse applications. Most community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new fra...

Zhao, Yunpeng; Levina, Elizaveta; Zhu, Ji

2011-01-01

247

Online participation: a content analysis of differences in utilization of two online cancer communities by men and women, patients and family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet provides a new modality for health communication by facilitating the creation of virtual communities. These communities have the potential to influence health behavior beyond traditional FTF support groups. This study utilized content analysis of 1,424 e-mail messages posted to 2 online cancer communities to examine uses of these groups. Findings revealed (a) similarities in the content of communication in the 2 virtual communities, (b) gender differences in participation, and (c) differences in utilization of these online groups between patients and family members. These results are discussed in light of the diverse uses of online cancer communities that they reveal, the role of family members in support seeking and provision, and gender communication styles in health computer-mediated communication. PMID:18443988

Ginossar, Tamar

2008-01-01

248

Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Communities in a Three-Compartment Granular Activated Sludge System Indicates Community-Level Control by Incompatible Nitrification Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial community structure and the predominant nitrifying activities and populations in each compartment of a three-compartment activated sludge system were determined. Each compartment was originally inoculated with the same activated sludge community entrapped in polyethylene glycol gel granules, and ammonium nitrogen was supplied to the system in an inorganic salts solution at a rate of 5.0 g of N liter of granular activated sludge?1 day?1. After 150 days of operation, the system wa...

Holben, William E.; Noto, Kazuhiko; Sumino, Tatsuo; Suwa, Yuichi

1998-01-01

249

Availability of substance abuse treatment services in Spanish: A GIS analysis of Latino communities in Los Angeles County, California  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of Latino clients entering outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT in the United States has increased significantly in the past 10 years. Evidence suggests that a lack of services in Spanish is a significant barrier to treatment access among Latinos. Methods Using a geographic information system (GIS approach, data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS were analyzed to determine the geographic distance between OSAT facilities with services in Spanish and Latino communities throughout Los Angeles County, CA. Data from N-SSATS were also analyzed using logistic regression models to examine organizational characteristics and their association with offering services in Spanish. Our GIS methods are tested in their ability to provide baseline measures to inform future analysis comparing changes in demography and service infrastructure. Results GIS analysis revealed cold spots representing high-density Latino communities with extensive travel distance to facilities offering services in Spanish. The average linear distance between Latino communities and facilities offering Spanish-language services ranged from 2 to 6 miles, while the location of the cold spots pointed to a need for services in Spanish in a particular subregion of the county. Further, secondary data analysis revealed that, on average, being privately owned (OR = .23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.90 was associated with a lower likelihood of providing services in Spanish compared to public facilities. Additionally, a facility with a state license (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.12-3.88 or a higher number of Medicaid recipients (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.76-5.05 was twice as likely to offer services in Spanish. Conclusion Despite the significant presence of Latinos in L.A. County in 2000, low capacity was found in discrete Latino communities in terms of offering OSAT services in Spanish. Funding and regulation play a significant role in facilities' capacity to offer these services. Future studies should build from our multi-method approach to compare changes in population demography and system infrastructure and inform health care policy that seeks to improve providers' capacity to provide linguistically competent care.

Curtis Andrew

2011-08-01

250

Application of capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis for identification of fungal communities in cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

As major contributors of the ripening process, yeasts and filamentous fungi play a fundamental role in cheese-making. Still, there is no rapid and affordable identification method available for both yeasts and filamentous fungi encountered in cheeses. In the present study, we developed a method based on CE-SSCP analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS amplicons, along with a species pattern database comprising 37 fungal species. By combining analyses of the ITS1 and ITS2 conformers, 25 out of 37 species were discriminated using CE-SSCP analysis. This reproducible and sensitive method was applied to determine the fungal community composition of 36 cheeses including blue-veined, pressed-cooked, pressed-uncooked, red-smear and surface-mould ripened cheeses. Overall, each cheese contained between 1 and 6 fungal species and 23 different species of fungi were detected including 8 yeast species, 9 filamentous species and 6 unidentified species. Comparison of the fungal diversity obtained after cloning and sequencing (rDNA ITS) versus CE-SSCP for 8 cheeses showed that CE-SSCP was at least as exhaustive as cloning and sequencing of thirty clones per cheese. In conclusion, this CE-SSCP method was an effective tool to identify the fungi present in various cheese varieties and may be of interest for the cheese industry to rapidly describe the composition of cheese fungal communities. PMID:24750816

Hermet, A; Mounier, J; Keravec, M; Vasseur, V; Barbier, G; Jany, J L

2014-08-01

251

Top-down controls on bacterial community structure: microbial network analysis of bacteria, T4-like viruses and protists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterizing ecological relationships between viruses, bacteria and protists in the ocean are critical to understanding ecosystem function, yet these relationships are infrequently investigated together. We evaluated these relationships through microbial association network analysis of samples collected approximately monthly from March 2008 to January 2011 in the surface ocean (0-5 m) at the San Pedro Ocean Time series station. Bacterial, T4-like myoviral and protistan communities were described by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding the major capsid protein (g23) and 18S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Concurrent shifts in community structure suggested similar timing of responses to environmental and biological parameters. We linked T4-like myoviral, bacterial and protistan operational taxonomic units by local similarity correlations, which were then visualized as association networks. Network links (correlations) potentially represent synergistic and antagonistic relationships such as viral lysis, grazing, competition or other interactions. We found that virus-bacteria relationships were more cross-linked than protist-bacteria relationships, suggestive of increased taxonomic specificity in virus-bacteria relationships. We also found that 80% of bacterial-protist and 74% of bacterial-viral correlations were positive, with the latter suggesting that at monthly and seasonal timescales, viruses may be following their hosts more often than controlling host abundance. PMID:24196323

Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Kim, Diane Y; Sachdeva, Rohan; Caron, David A; Fuhrman, Jed A

2014-04-01

252

Comparative analysis of bacterial community and antibiotic-resistant strains in different developmental stages of the housefly (Musca domestica).  

Science.gov (United States)

The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for a variety of bacteria, including some pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains. To further investigate the relationship between the housefly and the bacteria it harbors, it is necessary to understand the fate of microorganisms during the larval metamorphosis. The major bacterial communities in three developmental stages of the housefly (maggot, pupa, and adult fly) were investigated by a culture-independent method, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The bacteria that were identified using DGGE analysis spanned phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Changes in the predominant genera were observed during the housefly development. Bacteroides, Koukoulia, and Schineria were detected in maggots, Neisseria in pupae, and Macrococcus, Lactococcus, and Kurthia in adult flies. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened using a selective medium and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Most resistant isolates from maggots and pupae were classified as Proteus spp., while those from adult flies were much more diverse and spanned 12 genera. Among 20 tested strains across the three stages, 18 were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Overall, we demonstrated that there are changes in the major bacterial communities and antibiotic-resistant strains as the housefly develops. PMID:22526786

Wei, Ting; Hu, Jun; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

2013-02-01

253

Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

1990-01-01

254

Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single unit dwellings, 10 unit, and 200 unit apartment complexes in 50, 200, 400, and 1000 unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system.

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F. C.; McClenahan, J. D.

1981-02-01

255

A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The management of pressure sores in community settings, poses a clinical problem which challenges the patient’s tolerance and the clinician’s diligence and ingenuity. Pressure sores can be painful, lead to infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality (Patterson & Bennett, 1995:919; Bale, Banks, Hagelstein & Harding, 1998:65. Treatment costs of these wounds are high in terms of resources (Colin 1995:65; Wood, Griffiths & Stoner, 1997:256. However, since there are untold cost in terms of pain and suffering to the patient, it is impossible to calculate the true cost of pressure sores (Dealey, 1994:87.

N. Small

2002-09-01

256

Obesity and Vital Exhaustion: Analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to determine whether vital exhaustion (VE) was associated with BMI cross-sectionally and after 3 and 6 years of follow-up. Extant data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were used to examine the relationship between VE and BMI among 13,727 white and African-American adults cross-sectionally (baseline) and longitudinally (3 and 6 years later). We used adjusted and nonadjusted general linear regression models. Associations with excess weight gain (?5.0%...

Bryant, Maria J.; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Mosley, Thomas; Chambless, Lloyd

2008-01-01

257

Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

Aldrich, R.

2012-08-01

258

Microbial Community Analysis of a Methane-Producing Biocathode in a bioelectrochemical System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A methane-producing biocathode that converts CO2 into methane was studied electrochemically and microbiologically. The biocathode produced methane at a maximum rate of 5.1?L?CH4/m2 projected cathode per day (1.6?A/m2) at ?0.7?V versus NHE cathode potential and 3.0?L?CH4/m2 projected cathode per day (0.9?A/m2) at ?0.6?V versus NHE cathode potential. The microbial community at the biocathode was dominated by three phylotypes of Archaea and six phylotypes of bacteria. The Arc...

Eerten-jansen, M. C. A. A.; Veldhoen, A. B.; Plugge, C. M.; Stams, A. J. M.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Heijne, A.

2013-01-01

259

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phylogenetic diversity of a well-known pink filament community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was examined. Three phylogenetic types ("phylotypes"), designated EM 3, EM 17, and EM 19, were identified by cloning and sequencing the small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) obtained by PCR amplification of mixed-population DNA. All three phylotypes diverge deeply within the phylogenetic domain Bacteria sensu Woese (C. R. Woese, O. Kan...

Reysenbach, A. L.; Wickham, G. S.; Pace, N. R.

1994-01-01

260

Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Community-Based Stroke Prevention Program in Bao Shan District, Shanghai, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a serious problem faced by society. This disease brings not only health problems to individuals suffering from it, but also a serious economic burden to patients and their families. Moreover, it reduces social benefits and the labor force. Therefore, it is important to think about the efficient control and prevention of this disease. It is well known that hypertension is the main cause of stroke. In Bao Shan District, located in Shanghai, China, a community-based prevention program has been in place since 1995. The program is trying to reduce the number of stroke patients and the costs to treat them, mainly by hypertension control and treatment.Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to show the data, describe the results and give a cost-benefit analysis of the program according to data from 1995 to 1997. Methods: The data is calculated by using the method of cost-benefit analysis. Results: According to the cost-benefit analysis of the program, because the incidence of stroke goes down after the hypertension prevention work is taken, the16 patients will not face economic loss because of stoke after the prevention. This is the biggest benefit of this community-based program. The input of this program is RMB 293,573 and the output is RMB 1,062.204; the ratio of cost and benefit is: cost: benefit=1:3.57. (the official currency of the People's Republic of China; RMB/USD currency exchange rate is 1: 0.1473.Conclusion: The economic burden and the Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide important data to the medical and public health departments in order to make the pertinent prevention policy.

Yan Huang

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Bacterial Community Composition in Central European Running Waters Examined by Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bacterial community composition in small streams and a river in central Germany was examined by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with PCR products of 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequence analysis. Complex TGGE band patterns suggested high levels of diversity of bacterial species in all habitats of these environments. Cluster analyses demonstrated distinct differences among the communities in stream and spring water, sandy sediments, biofilms on stones, degrading leaves, and...

2008-01-01

262

Stream Community Structure: An Analysis of Riparian Forest Buffer Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Forested riparian buffer zones have been proposed as an important aid in curtailing upland sources of pollution before they reach stream surface waters, and enhancing habitat for stream organisms. Our objective was to test the efficacy of restored forest riparian buffers along streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by examining the stream macrobenthic community structure. To test our hypothesis, we collected riffle benthic and water samples, and performed habitat evaluations at 30 stream sites in the mid-Atlantic Piedmont, ranging in buffer age from 0 to greater than 50 years of age. Results showed that habitat, water quality, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics improved with age of restored buffer. Habitat scores were driven mostly by instream substrate availability and width and age of riparian buffer zones. Water quality parameters varied within buffer age groups depending age of surrounding forest vegetation. Benthic invertebrate taxa richness, % EPT, % Plecoptera, % Ephemeroptera, and the FBI all improved with age of buffer zone. Instream habitat quality was the greatest driver of benthic macroinvertebrate community diversity and health, and appeared to plateau within 10-15 years of restoration with noticeable improvements occurring within 5-10 years post restoration.

Orzetti, L. L.; Jones, R. C.

2005-05-01

263

Factors associated with use of community mental health services by schizophrenia patients using multilevel analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with schizophrenia and related disorders may be particularly sensitive to a number of determinants of service use, including those related with illness, socio-demographic characteristics and organizational factors. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with outpatient contacts at community mental health services of patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed 1097 patients. The main outcome measure was the total number of outpatient consultations during one year. Independent variables were related to socio-demographic, clinical and use of service factors. Data were collected from clinical records. Results The multilevel linear regression model explained 46.35% of the variance. Patients with significantly more contacts with ambulatory services were not working and were receiving welfare benefits (p = 0.02, had no formal education (p = 0.02, had a global level of severity of two or three (four being the most severe (p Conclusions As expected, the variables that explained the use of community service could be viewed as proxies for severity of illness. The most surprising finding, however, was that a group of four psychiatrists was also independently associated with use of ambulatory services by patients with schizophrenia or related disorders. More research is needed to carefully examine how professional support networks interact to affect use of mental health.

Moreno Patricia

2011-10-01

264

The effects of community factors on school participation in Turkey: A multilevel analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey, however, have focused extensively on the association between household-level factors and school participation, ignoring the role of the broader environment in which children live. Using a recent, large-scale and nationally representative data set, this paper investigates school participation at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey, giving specific attention to community-level factors. In taking into account socioeconomic context variables using the multilevel modelling method, this study contributes significantly to current school participation literature in Turkey. The author's findings highlight the importance of community/context factors in explaining low school enrolment in Turkey. The results of the study can help policy makers develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic context and school participation, and enable them to make more appropriate decisions for improving school participation across the country.

Gumus, Sedat

2014-05-01

265

Hierarchical modeling and inference in ecology: The analysis of data from populations, metapopulations and communities  

Science.gov (United States)

A guide to data collection, modeling and inference strategies for biological survey data using Bayesian and classical statistical methods. This book describes a general and flexible framework for modeling and inference in ecological systems based on hierarchical models, with a strict focus on the use of probability models and parametric inference. Hierarchical models represent a paradigm shift in the application of statistics to ecological inference problems because they combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are developed and applied to problems in population, metapopulation, community, and metacommunity systems. The book provides the first synthetic treatment of many recent methodological advances in ecological modeling and unifies disparate methods and procedures. The authors apply principles of hierarchical modeling to ecological problems, including * occurrence or occupancy models for estimating species distribution * abundance models based on many sampling protocols, including distance sampling * capture-recapture models with individual effects * spatial capture-recapture models based on camera trapping and related methods * population and metapopulation dynamic models * models of biodiversity, community structure and dynamics.

Royle, J.A.; Dorazio, R.M.

2008-01-01

266

Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62 projects from previous reviews for a total of 136 projects. The analyses suggest that project design, particularly capacity building in local communities, is critical in generating success across all outcomes. In addition, some community characteristics, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for some aspects of project success. Surprisingly, there is less evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that conservation projects should be carefully designed to be effective and that some characteristics of local communities can facilitate success. That well-designed projects can prevail over disadvantages relating to the pre-existing national and local context is encouraging. As the evidence base on CBC grows, it will be useful to repeat this analysis with additional search terms, and consider additional variables related to national context to further evaluate the role of broader socio-political and economic contexts.

Brooks Jeremy

2013-01-01

267

Comparative analysis of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and selected traditional textbooks used in Texas community colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyze questions within the chapters of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and the four general chemistry textbooks most widely used by Texas community colleges in order to determine if the questions require higher- or lower-order thinking according to Bloom's taxonomy. The study employed quantitative methods. Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) was utilized as the main instrument in the study. Additional tools were used to help classify the questions into the proper category of the taxonomy (McBeath, 1992; Metfessel, Michael, & Kirsner, 1969). The top four general chemistry textbooks used in Texas community colleges and Chemistry: A Project of the American Chemical Society (Bell et al., 2005) were analyzed during the fall semester of 2010 in order to categorize the questions within the chapters into one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Two coders were used to assess reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The descriptive method involved calculation of the frequencies and percentages of coded questions from the books as belonging to the six categories of the taxonomy. Questions were dichotomized into higher- and lower-order thinking questions. The inferential methods involved chi-square tests of association to determine if there were statistically significant differences among the four traditional college general chemistry textbooks in the proportions of higher- and lower-order questions and if there were statistically significant differences between the nontraditional chemistry textbook and the four traditional general chemistry textbooks. Findings indicated statistically significant differences among the four textbooks frequently used in Texas community colleges in the number of higher- and lower-level questions. Statistically significant differences were also found among the four textbooks and the nontraditional textbook. After the analysis of the data, conclusions were drawn, implications for practice were delineated, and recommendations for future research were given.

Salvato, Steven Walter

268

Analysis of refractive status and related factors of pupils in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community, Shanghai, 2011  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive status of pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai and analyze the relationships between visual acuity and relative factors. METHODS: All the in-school students of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai were involved in the study. Four hundred and sixty pupils out of 465 pupils were investigated(The rate was 98.9%. There were 445 pupils with fully data collection. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, age, height(H, weight(W, body mass index(BMI, diopter of spherical(S, diopter of cylinder(C, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(ALand corneal curvature(Kwere examined. The refractive status was described and the influence of relative factors was analyzed. UCVA measurement uses the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, recording by decimal number, then transform into LogMar vision for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, the average age was 9.49±1.47 year, SE was -0.85±1.82D and UCVA was +0.09±0.28. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 40.9% and 58.9%, respectively. With getting older, the prevalence of myopia increased with the average myopic SE developing significantly(P=0.000. UCVA and AL increased in the same time, SE decreased gradually(PPCONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was high in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai. Visual acuity is closely related to AL and growth factors.

Wei Zhu

2013-06-01

269

Local Wisdom in the Environmental Management of a Community: Analysis of Local Knowledge in Tha Pong Village, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study knowledge management regarding sustainable environmental management and the protection of natural resources. In this study, the researchers used a qualitative method with fieldwork observation, in-depth interviews of twenty key informants, and a focus group comprised of thirty-three people to discuss and participate in sustainable environmental management and natural resource protection. The data were analyzed using content and descriptive analyses. We found that the knowledge management of the community was divided into two types: 1 knowledge management of an internal community, such as knowledge exchanged between a community’s members; and 2 knowledge management of an external community, such as knowledge exchanged between communities. Likewise, in the development of a community practice, a community’s members participated in creating groups for specific activities, such as a group for saving money and a group for handicraft production.

Weerakul Chaiphar

2013-07-01

270

Microbial community analysis of Deepwater Horizon oil-spill impacted sites along the Gulf coast using functional and phylogenetic markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on microbial communities in wetland sediment and seawater samples collected from sites along the Gulf shore. Based on GC/MS analysis, the sediment from Bay Jimmy, LA had detectable signs of hydrocarbon contamination, identified as n-alkanes in the GC/MS spectrum similar to that of the Deepwater Horizon source oil (MC-252). To identify changes in microbial assemblage structure and functional diversity in response to hydrocarbon contamination, five genes (bacterial 16S rRNA, Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA, alkB, P450, and PAH-RHD?) were selected based on the specific enzymes encoded by bacteria to degrade alkanes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A quantitative PCR analysis revealed the presence of alkane and PAH-degrading genes in both contaminated and non-contaminated samples with no significant difference in gene content between contaminated and non-contaminated samples. However, the ribotype analysis based on pyrosequencing identified 17 bacteria genera known for their capacity to degrade hydrocarbons, including Mycobacterium, Novosphingobium, Parvibaculum, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas, in the contaminated sediment sample. Furthermore, the contaminated sample had a very high relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated with the genus Parvibaculum, members of which have been characterized for their degradative abilities. These data suggest that specific bacterial taxa within the genus Parvibaculum have the capacity for hydrocarbon degradation and could use the hydrocarbons as a carbon and energy source, resulting in a dominant population in a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In summary, when exposed to the spilled oil, the distinct wetland microbial communities responded with decreased diversity and increased abundance of selective degradative species. PMID:24061682

Looper, Jessica K; Cotto, Ada; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Liles, Mark R; Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M; Son, Ahjeong

2013-10-23

271

Culture-independent analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with Brazilian sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an economically important culture in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria live inside plants, and can provide many benefits to the plant host. We analyzed the bacterial diversity of sugarcane cultivar RB-72454 by cultivation-independent techniques. Total DNA from sugarcane stems from a commercial plantation located in Paraná State was extracted. Partial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced for library construction. Of 152 sequences obtained, 52% were similar to 16S rRNA from Pseudomonas sp, and 35.5% to Enterobacter sp. The genera Pantoea, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella were also represented. The endophytic communities in these sugarcane samples were dominated by the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria). PMID:24222230

Magnani, G S; Cruz, L M; Weber, H; Bespalhok, J C; Daros, E; Baura, V; Yates, M G; Monteiro, R A; Faoro, H; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

2013-01-01

272

A Fast-Track East African Community Monetary Union? Convergence Evidence from a Cointegration Analysis.  

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Full Text Available There is a proposal for a fast-tracked approach to the African Community (EAC monetary union. This paper uses cointegration techniques to determine whether the member countries would form a successful monetary union based on the long-run behavior of nominal and real exchange rates and monetary base. The three variables are each analyzed for co-movements among the five countries. The empirical results indicate only partial convergence for the variables considered, suggesting there could be substantial costs for the member countries from a fast-tracked process. This implies the EAC countries need significant adjustments to align their monetary policies and to allow a period of monetary policy coordination to foster convergence that will improve the chances of a sustainable currency union.

Steven Buigut

2011-01-01

273

Hydrocephalus is a rare outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults : a retrospective analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) continues to have a high mortality rate and often results in severe sequelae among survivors. Lately, an increased effort has been focused on describing the neurological complications of meningitis including hydrocephalus. To aid in this field of research we set out to ascertain the risk and outcome of hydrocephalus in patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) in North Denmark Region. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of CABM cases above 14 years of age. Cases diagnosed during a 13-year period, 1998 through 2010, were identified in a laboratory register and data were acquired through patient records. Cases not confirmed by culture met other strict inclusion criteria. The diagnosis of hydrocephalus relied upon the radiologists' reports on cranial imaging. Outcome was graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge from the primary admission. Long-term sequelae were based upon any subsequent hospital contacts until the end of 2011. RESULTS: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in five of 165 episodes (3%) and all were classified as communicating. Only 120 patients had cranial imaging done and in this group the rate was 4.2%. In three cases hydrocephalus was present at admission, while two cases were diagnosed on days 44 and 99, respectively, due to altered mental status. The aetiology was either Eschericia coli (n = 2) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 3). Case fatality was 60% among cases with hydrocephalus and 17% among other cases. Case fatality was similar irrespective of whether patients had a cranial CT or not. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in 3% of adolescent and adult cases with CABM and had a high case fatality rate in spite of specialised medical care and neurosurgical interventions. Our findings are comparable with a recent Dutch national prospective study.

Bodilsen, Jacob; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

2013-01-01

274

??????????????????????? Analysis of Endophytic Fungal Community from Roots of Two Transgenic Rice  

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Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Gaeumannomyces??????????????????23.23%?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????21.25%?26.56%??????????????????????????????????????????????? Endophytic fungal community in roots of two transgenic rice (antifungal genes was studied by isolation and staining observation. Compared with non-transgenic rice, the isolation frequency and diversity of the endophytic fungi from two transgenic rice in different growth stages exhibited no significant differences in contrast with the control. Gaeumannomyces was the dominant population of endophytic fungi in the roots of rice with the dominance of 23.23%, and could be isolated in either the two transgenic rice or the control, and any growth stages. By staining observation, the infection rates of endophytic fungi in seedlings of transgenic rice were significantly lower than the control by 21.25% and 26.56% respectively, but there were no significant differences in tillering and maturity. Therefore, it is inferred that the transgenic rice had no significant effect on fungal communities in rice roots.

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2012-09-01

275

Project Final Report: Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA laboratories Los Alamos and Sandia leveraging co-funding for Krell by ASC’s Common Computing Environment (CCE) program as laid out in the original proposal. The ASC CCE co-funding, coordinated through LLNL, was for 50% of the total project funding, with the ASC CCE portion of the funding going entirely to Krell, while the ASCR funding itself was split between Krell and the funded partners. This report covers the entire project from both funding sources. Additionally, the team leveraged the expertise of software engineering researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, who specialize in software framework design, in order to achieve a broadly acceptable component framework. The Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) software has been released to the community. Information related to the project and the released software can be found on the CBTF wiki page at: http://sourceforge.net/p/cbtf/wiki/Home

Galarowicz, James

2014-01-06

276

Social Network Analysis to Examine Interaction Patterns in Knowledge Building Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes use of social network analysis to examine student interaction patterns in a Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building class. The analysis included face-to-face interactions and interactions in the Knowledge Forum[R] Knowledge Building environment. It is argued that sociogram data are useful to reveal group processes; in sociological terms,…

Philip, Donald N.

2010-01-01

277

Analysis of microbial communities developed on the fouling layers of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor applied to wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the biofouling layers formed on a pilot-scale membrane-coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor (UASB) used to treat urban wastewater was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. For comparison, control samples of the membranes were fed either UASB effluent or raw wastewater in a laboratory-scale experiment. Microbial diversity in the fouling materials was analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) combined with sequence analysis of partial 16S rRNA. Significant differences in structure of the Bacteria communities were observed amongst the different fouling layers analyzed in the UASB membranes, particularly following a chemical cleaning step (NaClO), while the Archaea communities retained more similarity in all samples. The main Bacteria populations identified were evolutively close to Firmicutes (42.3%) and Alphaproteobacteria (30.8%), while Archaea were mostly affiliated to the Methanosarcinales and Methanospirillaceae. Sphingomonadaceae-related bacteria and methanogenic Archaea were persistently found as components of biofouling, regardless of chemical cleaning. PMID:21310607

Calderón, Kadiya; Rodelas, Belén; Cabirol, Nathalie; González-López, Jesús; Noyola, Adalberto

2011-04-01

278

Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corroded carbon steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high NA yield, quality, purity, representativeness of microbial community and processing time efficiency). The PowerSoil RNA Isolation Kit was the only method which resulted in amplifiable RNA of good quality (ie intact 16S/23S rRNA). Sample homogenization and hot chemical (SDS) cell lysis combined with mechanical (bead-beating) lysis in presence of a DNA competitor (skim milk) contributed to improving substantially (around 23 times) the DNA yield of the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. Apart from presenting NA extraction strategies for optimizing extraction parameters with corrosion samples from carbon steel, this study proposes DNA and RNA extraction procedures suited for comparative molecular analysis of total and active fractions of bacterial communities associated with carbon steel corrosion events, thereby contributing to improved MIC diagnosis and control. PMID:22500778

Marty, Florence; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Païssé, Sandrine; Gueuné, Hervé; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

2012-01-01

279

Phylogenetic Specificity and Reproducibility and New Method for Analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Profiles of 16S rRNA Genes from Bacterial Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis of 16S rRNA genes is an increasingly popular method for rapid comparison of microbial communities, but analysis of the data is still in a developmental stage. We assessed the phylogenetic resolution and reproducibility of TRF profiles in order to evaluate the limitations of the method, and we developed an essential analysis technique to improve the interpretation of TRF data. The theoretical phylogenetic resolution of TRF profiles was determined ba...

2001-01-01

280

Land Use Analysis, Community Facilities Plan, Transportation Plan, Land Use Plan, Lewisburg, Kentucky.  

Science.gov (United States)

The land use analysis provides a basis for determining the current population distribution and provide information for the land use plan, and other development elements of the comprehensive plan for Lewisburg. In order to provide Lewisburg with adequate s...

1970-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Land Use Analysis, Community Facilities Plan, Transportation Plan, Land Use Plan, Logan County,Kentucky.  

Science.gov (United States)

The land use analysis provides a basis for determining the current population distribution and provide information for the land use plan and other development elements of the comprehensive plan for Logan County. In order to provide unincorporated areas of...

1970-01-01

282

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience. Workshop Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council (NRC), at the request of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), for...

2008-01-01

283

Social capital and social inequality in adolescents' health in 601 Flemish communities: A multilevel analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although it is widely acknowledged that community social capital plays an important role in young people's health, there is limited evidence on the effect of community social capital on the social gradient in child and adolescent health. Using data from the 2005-2006 Flemish (Belgium) Health Behavior among School-aged Children survey (601 communities, n = 10,915), this study investigated whether community social capital is an independent determinant of adolescents' perceived health ...

Clercq, B.; Vyncke, V.; Hublet, A.; Elgar, F. J.; Ravens-sieberer, U.; Currie, C.; Hooghe, M.; Ieven, A.; Maes, L.

2012-01-01

284

Web-Based Phylogenetic Assignment Tool for Analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiles of Microbial Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Culture-independent DNA fingerprints are commonly used to assess the diversity of a microbial community. However, relating species composition to community profiles produced by community fingerprint methods is not straightforward. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a community fingerprint method in which phylogenetic assignments may be inferred from the terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) sizes through the use of web-based resources that predict T-RF sizes for know...

Kent, Angela D.; Smith, Dan J.; Benson, Barbara J.; Triplett, Eric W.

2003-01-01

285

Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunami waves that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community vulnerability to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, include demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. Population distributions also are characterized by a function of travel time to safety, based on anisotropic, path-distance, geospatial modeling. We used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. We selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the vulnerability classification is to provide emergency managers with a general sense of the types of communities in tsunami hazard zones based on similar characteristics instead of only providing an exhaustive list of attributes for individual communities. This classification scheme can be then used to target and prioritize risk-reduction efforts that address common issues across multiple communities. The presentation will include a discussion of the utility of proposed place classifications to support regional preparedness and outreach efforts.

Wood, N. J.; Jones, J.; Spielman, S.

2013-12-01

286

Nucleic acid based quantitative microbial community analysis in different marine and terrestrial sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-seafloor sediments harbour over half of all prokaryotic cells on Earth. This immense cell number is calculated from numerous microscopic cell counts (AODC) in ODP sediment cores. Since AODC can not differentiate between living or dead cells, the population size of living microorganisms and the abundance of different prokaryotic groups are unknown. Recent molecular nucleic acid and biomarker analyses showed that a high proportion of the cells are alive and that the microbial communities of deep marine sediments harbour members of distinct, uncultured bacterial and archaeal lineages. The main objective of our project is the quantification of living prokaryotes in various sediments. Deep sediment samples from the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans (ODP Legs 201 and 207, IODP Exp. 307 and 308), sediments from the Indian Ocean (RV Sonne 189-2) and the Black Sea (RV Meteor 51/4) as well as terrestrial Chesapeake Bay Sediments (ICDP) were analyzed using Catalyzed Reporter Deposition - Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (CARD - FISH) and quantitative, real-time PCR (Q-PCR), targeting either the 16S rRNA gene or the functional genes dsrA, mcrA and aprA to quantify microorganisms of various phylogenetic or physiological groups (e.g. JS1 cluster and Chloroflexi). At all sediment sites, cell numbers decreased with depth, however, the abundance of particular microbial groups varied at different sites and depths. The results indicate that global estimates of the deep biosphere should be reconsidered.

Schippers, A.; Blazejak, A.; Köweker, G.

2009-12-01

287

HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

Ames, D. P.

2013-12-01

288

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

289

Black Males in Education: Learning and Achievement. A Summative Community Analysis Response from the Kwanzaa Adult Forum (December 27, 2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Educating black males is critical. No longer can the black community blame the school for the academic failure of this population. The black community must address this pervasive issue. Purpose: The purpose for this inquiry was to explore community support and recommendations for educating black males. Setting: The setting took place…

Bell, Edward Earl

2011-01-01

290

Applying Social Network Analysis to Analyze a Web-Based Community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

this paper deals with a very renowned website (that is Book-Crossing) from two angles: The first angle focuses on the direct relations between users and books. Many things can be inferred from this part of analysis such as who is more interested in book reading than others and why? Which books are most popular and which users are most active and why? The task requires the use of certain social network analysis measures (e.g. degree centrality). What does it mean when two users like the same b...

2012-01-01

291

Analysis of the microbial community of the biocathode of a hydrogen-producing microbial electrolysis cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising system for hydrogen production. Still, expensive catalysts such as platinum are needed for efficient hydrogen evolution at the cathode. Recently, the possibility to use a biocathode as an alternative for platinum was shown. The microorganisms involved in hydrogen evolution in such systems are not yet identified. We analyzed the microbial community of a mixed culture biocathode that was enriched in an MEC bioanode. This biocathode produced 1.1 A m{sup -2} and 0.63 m{sup 3} H{sub 2} m{sup -3} cathode liquid volume per day. The bacterial population consisted of 46% Proteobacteria, 25% Firmicutes, 17% Bacteroidetes, and 12% related to other phyla. The dominant ribotype belonged to the species Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The second major ribotype cluster constituted a novel taxonomic group at the genus level, clustering within uncultured Firmicutes. The third cluster belonged to uncultured Bacteroidetes and grouped in a taxonomic group from which only clones were described before; most of these clones originated from soil samples. The identified novel taxonomic groups developed under environmentally unusual conditions, and this may point to properties that have not been considered before. A pure culture of Desulfovibrio strain G11 inoculated in a cathode of an MEC led to a current development from 0.17 to 0.76 A m{sup -2} in 9 days, and hydrogen gas formation was observed. On the basis of the known characteristics of Desulfovibrio spp., including its ability to produce hydrogen, we propose a mechanism for hydrogen evolution through Desulfovibrio spp. in a biocathode system. (orig.)

Croese, Elsemiek; Pereira, Maria Alcina [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Microbiology; Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Euverink, Gert-Jan W. [Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Microbiology

2011-12-15

292

Why Microbial Communities?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Microbial Communities Initiative is a 5-year investment by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that integrates biological/ecological experimentation, analytical chemistry, and simulation modeling. The objective is to create transforming technologies, elucidate mechanistic forces, and develop theoretical frameworks for the analysis and predictive understanding of microbial communities. Dr. Fredrickson introduces the symposium by defining microbial communities and describing their scientific relevance as they relate to solving problems in energy, climate, and sustainability.

Fredrickson, Jim (PNNL)

2009-10-09

293

Metagenomic analysis of a complex marine planktonic thaumarchaeal community from the Gulf of Maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thaumarchaea, which represent as much as 20% of prokaryotic biomass in the open ocean, have been linked to environmentally relevant biogeochemical processes, such as ammonia oxidation (nitrification) and inorganic carbon fixation. We have used culture-independent methods to study this group because current cultivation limitations have proved a hindrance in studying these organisms. From a metagenomic data set obtained from surface waters from the Gulf of Maine, we have identified 36,111 sequence reads (containing 30 Mbp) likely derived from environmental planktonic Thaumarchaea. Metabolic analysis of the raw sequences and assemblies identified copies of the catalytic subunit required in aerobic ammonia oxidation. In addition, genes that comprise a nearly complete carbon assimilation pathway in the form of the 3-hyroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle were identified. Comparative genomics contrasting the putative environmental thaumarchaeal sequences and 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1' revealed a number of genomic islands absent in the Gulf of Maine population. Analysis of these genomic islands revealed an integrase-associated island also found in distantly related microbial species, variations in the abundance of genes predicted to be important in thaumarchaeal respiratory chain, and the absence of a high-affinity phosphate uptake operon. Analysis of the underlying sequence diversity suggests the presence of at least two dominant environmental populations. Attempts to assemble complete environmental genomes were unsuccessful, but analysis of scaffolds revealed two diverging populations, including a thaumarchaeal-related scaffold with the full urease operon. Ultimately, the analysis revealed a number of insights into the metabolic potential of a predominantly uncultivated lineage of organisms. The predicted functions in the thaumarchaeal metagenomic sequences are directly supported by historic measurements of nutrient concentrations and provide new avenues of research in regards to understanding the role Thaumarchaea play in the environment. PMID:22050608

Tully, Benjamin J; Nelson, William C; Heidelberg, John F

2012-01-01

294

Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR: A Comprehensive Bioinformatics Database and Analysis Resource for the Coronavirus Research Community  

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Full Text Available Several viruses within the Coronaviridae family have been categorized as either emerging or re-emerging human pathogens, with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV being the most well known. The NIAID-sponsored Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.viprbrc.org supports bioinformatics workflows for a broad range of human virus pathogens and other related viruses, including the entire Coronaviridae family. ViPR provides access to sequence records, gene and protein annotations, immune epitopes, 3D structures, host factor data, and other data types through an intuitive web-based search interface. Records returned from these queries can then be subjected to web-based analyses including: multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic inference, sequence variation determination, BLAST comparison, and metadata-driven comparative genomics statistical analysis. Additional tools exist to display multiple sequence alignments, view phylogenetic trees, visualize 3D protein structures, transfer existing reference genome annotations to new genomes, and store or share results from any search or analysis within personal private ‘Workbench’ spaces for future access. All of the data and integrated analysis and visualization tools in ViPR are made available without charge as a service to the Coronaviridae research community to facilitate the research and development of diagnostics, prophylactics, vaccines and therapeutics against these human pathogens.

Yun Zhang

2012-11-01

295

Assessing patterns of home and community care service use and client profiles in Australia: a cluster analysis approach using linked data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The planning and delivery of care systems require knowledge on the ways in which individuals access available services that are funded by a range of health and community services. The aims of this study were to identify distinct groups of Home and Community Care (HACC) clients in New South Wales, Australia, based on patterns of actual service use, and to understand the health and social needs and resources of client groups that access different mixes of services. Multiple data sets linked at the individual level - including the 45 and Up Study community survey, the HACC Minimum Data Set and the Admitted Patient Data Collection for hospitals - provide an innovative basis to investigate the complexity of access to service use. Data were collected between 2006 and 2008. A cluster analysis based on clients' type and volume of community service use was conducted on the 4890 HACC clients in the linked dataset and nine distinct clusters of clients were identified. Three of these clusters were considered 'complex', in terms of the range of community and hospital assistance received, while the others comprised mainly of one or two dominant service types. The analytical approach and findings developed here provide a client-centred approach to monitor and evaluate access to local service systems that are being reformed to better integrate the delivery of health and community services currently funded and managed separately by national and state governments. PMID:22106982

Kendig, Hal; Mealing, Nicole; Carr, Rachel; Lujic, Sanja; Byles, Julie; Jorm, Louisa

2012-07-01

296

Community contextual predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening in the USA: spatial multilevel regression analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and endoscopic screening can both detect and prevent cancer, but utilization is suboptimal and varies across geographic regions. We use multilevel regression to examine the various predictors of individuals' decisions to utilize endoscopic CRC screening. Study subjects are a 100% population cohort of Medicare beneficiaries identified in 2001 and followed through 2005. The outcome variable is a binary indicator of any sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy use over this period. We analyze each state separately and map the findings for all states together to reveal patterns in the observed heterogeneity across states. Results We estimate a fully adjusted model for each state, based on a comprehensive socio-ecological model. We focus the discussion on the independent contributions of each of three community contextual variables that are amenable to policy intervention. Prevalence of Medicare managed care in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 12 states and higher probability in 19 states. Prevalence of poor English language ability among elders in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 15 states and higher probability in 6 states. Prevalence of poverty in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 36 states and higher probability in 5 states. Conclusions There are considerable differences across states in the socio-ecological context of CRC screening by endoscopy, suggesting that the current decentralized configuration of state-specific comprehensive cancer control programs is well suited to respond to the observed heterogeneity. We find that interventions to mediate language barriers are more critically needed in some states than in others. Medicare managed care penetration, hypothesized to affect information about and diffusion of new endoscopic technologies, has a positive association in only a minority of states. This suggests that managed care plans' promotion of this cost-increasing technology has been rather limited. Area poverty has a negative impact in the vast majority of states, but is positive in five states, suggesting there are some effective cancer control policies in place targeting the poor with supplemental resources promoting CRC screening.

Mobley Lee R

2010-09-01

297

“Until they know how much you care”: A qualitative analysis of an innovative practice in community pharmacy  

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Full Text Available Purpose: This qualitative study was concerned with investigating community pharmacists’ thoughts on the use of two brief scales to measure patient outcomes and therapeutic alliance in the context of their Medication Therapy Management (MTM services. The scales were originally developed for use in behavioral healthcare, but were used in a novel (community pharmacy setting as part of a previous parent study. We describe this practice (using these scales in a novel setting as an innovative practice, report on the pharmacists’ experiences with the practice, and discuss relative advantages and disadvantages for integrating the use of the scales as part of routine practice.Methods: Six community pharmacy practitioners participated in a semi-structured interview pertaining to the use of the scales in their MTM services. Pharmacist interviews were transcribed, analyzed according to qualitative content analysis methodology, and presented in relation to the guiding interview questions.Results: Pharmacists had varying opinions on the use of the scales as part of their practice. Initial concerns included patient (misunderstanding about the purpose and proper completion of the scales, as well as apprehension about the use of the information. These concerns were largely resolved through education, repeated use, and routinization. Pharmacists, in general, saw a value to using these scales in clinical practice, for clinical and professional reasons, although there was variability on the degree to which pharmacists integrated the scales into practice after the study completion. Pharmacists had varied opinions as well as on the degree to which the use of the scales would impact medication adherence. Pharmacists were most surprised by how much participation in this study prompted them to reflect on their interactions with patients.Conclusions: Pharmacists, in general, were receptive to participating in the parent study and using two brief scales to measure patient outcomes and therapeutic alliance. Pharmacists had varying opinions on the degree to which the use of these scales could impact patient medication adherence, although they perceived other value and benefits secondary to the interactions. While most pharmacists did not maintain formal use of the scales after study end, they took away general principles of patient-centered care and individualized feedback.

Michael Melczak, PhD

2011-01-01

298

Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes?  

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Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod?), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soy...

Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2008-01-01

299

A visualization of group cognition: semantic network analysis of a CSCL community  

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This paper reports our progress in using the Knowledge Space Visualizer (KSV) as a tool for formative assessment of online discourse. Whereas social network analysis has been used in research on computer-supported collaborative learning, it only examines the social structure of discourse participants, and does not provide information about the content of the discourse. We discuss two types of networks as they relate to online discourse: structural and semantic. The initial findings indicate t...

2010-01-01

300

The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis  

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Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the prevalence of child sexual abuse in order to establish an overall international figure. Methods: Studies were retrieved from various electronic databases. The measure of interest was the prevalence of ab...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cyanobacterial community structure as seen from RNA polymerase gene sequence analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PCR was used to amplify DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences specifically from the cyanobacterial population in a seawater sample from the Sargasso Sea. Sequencing and analysis of the cloned fragments suggest that the population in the sample consisted of two distinct clusters of Prochlorococcus-like cyanobacteria and four clusters of Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria. The diversity within these clusters was significantly different, however. Clones within each Synechococcus-like cluster...

Palenik, B.

1994-01-01

302

Functional Characteristics of an Endophyte Community Colonizing Rice Roots as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roots are the primary site of interaction between plants and microorganisms. To meet food demands in changing climates, improved yields and stress resistance are increasingly important, stimulating efforts to identify factors that affect plant productivity. The role of bacterial endophytes that reside inside plants remains largely unexplored, because analysis of their specific functions is impeded by difficulties in cultivating most prokaryotes. Here, we present the first metagenomic approach...

2012-01-01

303

Organizational Knowledge and Communities of Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses communities of practice and their role in organizational knowledge. Topics include situated learning and situated actions; distributed cognition; discourse analysis, conversation analysis, and genre analysis; performative perspective; interpretive approach; motivation; creating environments for participation in communities of practice;…

Davenport, Elisabeth; Hall, Hazel

2002-01-01

304

How many people have alcohol use disorders?: using the harmful dysfunction analysis to reconcile prevalence estimates in two community surveys  

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Full Text Available Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14% and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6% and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service-use and duration comparisons suggest increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking.

JeromeCWakefield

2014-02-01

305

Metagenome Sequence Analysis of Filamentous Microbial Communities Obtained from Geochemically Distinct Geothermal Channels Reveals Specialization of Three Aquificales Lineages  

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Full Text Available The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal ‘filamentous streamer’ communities (~40 Mbp per site, which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae populations, whereas the circumneutral pH (6.5 - 7.8 sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae. Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae populations were found primarily in the circumneutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl. The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl CoA synthetase (Ccs and citryl CoA lyase (Ccl. All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2 have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

WilliamP.Inskeep

2013-05-01

306

The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta-analysis. Conclusions PMA is a novel research method that improves meta-analysis by including several study sites, establishing uniform reporting of specific outcomes, and yet allowing some independence on the part of individual sites with respect to the conduct of research. The inclusion of several sites increases statistical power to address important clinical questions. Compared to multi-center trials, PMA methodology encourages collaboration, aids in the development of new investigators, decreases study costs, and decreases time to publication. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00613366, NCT00886834, NCT01001897, NCT01147497 and NCT01307111

2011-01-01

307

Development of a bacterial cell enrichment method and its application to the community analysis in soybean stems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for enriching bacterial cells from soybean stems which was recalcitrant for a culture-independent analysis of bacterial community due to the interference with plant DNA. Stem homogenates were fractionated by a series of differential centrifugations followed by a Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. The efficiency of bacterial cell enrichment was assessed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). The intensity and the number of bacterial amplicons of RISA were markedly increased in the DNA extracted from the enriched bacterial cells compared to that in the DNA directly extracted from soybean stems. The phylogenetic diversity of the enriched bacterial cells was evaluated by analyzing a clone library of 16S rRNA gene in comparison with those of the culturable fractions of the enriched and non-enriched stem-associated bacteria, endophytic bacteria, and epiphytic bacteria. The results indicated that the method was able to enrich both endophytic and epiphytic bacteria from soybean stems, and was useful to assess the bacterial diversity based on a 16S rRNA gene clone library. When the sequence data from all clones (1,332 sequences) were combined, 72 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, which also provided the most comprehensive set of data on the bacterial diversity in the aerial parts of soybeans. PMID:19662454

Ikeda, Seishi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Okubo, Takashi; Rallos, Lynn E E; Eda, Shima; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2009-11-01

308

Dietary Patterns Associated with Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Community of Karachi Defined by Cluster Analysis  

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Full Text Available Dietary trends have been found to be related with metabolic syndrome in various studies. To identify dietary patterns and study associations between the dietary patterns of subjects with high and low risk of metabolic syndrome in a Karachi based community. A group of 871 men and women were selected randomly from 532 households. Data about consumption of specific foods was available for 867 adults. Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and 363 subjects provided fasting blood samples for glucose and lipids. Dietary intake was assessed by a questionnaire to identify consumption of 33 specific food items and the dietary patterns categorized into 6 food groups was assessed by cluster analysis. Five dietary patterns were identified through cluster analysis. Cluster 1 had the lowest proportion of persons with metabolic syndrome i.e. 42.7% while cluster 2 had the highest percentage of metabolic syndrome subjects (56.3% (p = 0.09. Consumption of fat and caloric dense foods was significantly higher among highest risk group (cluster 2 compared to lowest risk group (cluster 1 (p = 0.0001. The consumption of food groups containing fruit, milk and meat was also more than twice in high risk compared to low risk group (p = 0.0001. Even within the same population there are marked differences in dietary patterns and these apparently contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Dietary pattern studies will help elucidate links between diet and disease and contribute to developing healthy eating guidelines.

Rubina Hakeem

2010-01-01

309

Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw  

Science.gov (United States)

.Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and ?13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 ?g/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 ?g/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR decreased with depth from 7x108 to 1x108 copies /g of soil. Characterization of the metagenomic sequences derived from the samples before thawing elucidated differences between the permafrost and active-layer with Acidobacteria and Alpha-Proteobacteria are being significantly higher in active layer than in permafrost, on the contrary permafrost had higher abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes than active layer. Currently additional metagenomic DNA illumina libraries for 20 samples after 1 week thawing are in preparation and will be analyzed to determine whether variations in the metagenomic sequences are correlated to the geochemical data.

Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

2012-12-01

310

Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit greater fluctuations in the CMAQ cases than in the CALGRID cases, which lead to different placement of the urban ozone plumes. The CALGRID cases, which rely on the SAPRC97 chemical mechanism, exhibited a greater diurnal production/loss cycle of ozone concentrations per hour compared to either the RADM2 or CBIV chemical mechanisms in the CMAQ cases. These results demonstrate the need for specialized process field measurements to confirm whether we are modeling ozone with valid processes. PMID:16124311

O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

2005-08-01

311

A functional analysis of resistance of plant communities to disturbance: a case study of Beijing nature reserves  

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Plant communities in Beijing nature reserves are undergoing unprecedented disturbance due to city expansion. To examine the resistance of plant communities to disturbance is thus of both theoretical and practical significance. We surveyed 22 plant community plots in Labagoumen and Songshan nature reserves. A total of 213 plant species were recorded, and 33 plant functional traits were measured for each species. The functional implications of each trait to disturbance, such as potential for re...

2013-01-01

312

Critical analysis of sustainable community planning and development principles as applied within the Tlokwe Municipality / Bernice Bernadette van Schalkwyk.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the current high levels of urbanisation and the lingering effects of Apartheid, South African municipalities have experienced difficulties in planning for sustainability and more specifically sustainable community development. Sustainable community development is needed in order to achieve more integrated and sustainable towns and cities with an improved urban environment and a higher quality of life. Due to this sustainable community development is of particular relevance to South Afr...

Schalkwyk, Bernice Bernadette

2012-01-01

313

Analysis of Composition and Structure of Coastal to Mesopelagic Bacterioplankton Communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

16S rRNA gene amplicons were pyrosequenced to assess bacterioplankton community composition, diversity, and phylogenetic community structure for 17 stations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) sampled in March 2010. Statistical analyses showed that samples from depths ?100?m differed distinctly from deeper samples. SAR 11 ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at depths ?100?m, which were characterized by high ?-Proteobacteria/?-Proteobacteria ratios (?/??>?...

2012-01-01

314

Energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle: Community health and resource change in an Appalachian coal county  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of steadily expanding coal development in this decade in the USA, there has been little systematic assessment of occupational and public health implications of increased production in specific regions of the USA. Preliminary analysis of a prototype Appalachian area is presented. Anderson County, Tennessee, the prototype area chosen for evaluation, lies in the Upper East Tennessee Coalfield. This county is uniquely suited for study since every process of the coal fuel cycle (extraction, transport, combustion, power production and waste disposal) takes place within the county boundary. By extensive exploitation of both surface and underground methods of extraction, this county has maintained a leading position in Tennessee's coal production for several years. Concepts of energy analysis and systematized data presentation were used to convert information gathered from diverse sources into comparable energy units (kcal). Concepts and methodology implemented in the analysis can be applied most appropriately to existing conditions in other counties of the Appalachian Coal Basin. Findings are presented for calendar year 1978. For the year of study, the major energy loss to the county was depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniques (a loss of 10.5x10"1"2kcal fuel equivalents). Another loss is to community health, which is depleted by lost productivity of, and compensation payments to, victims of mining accidents and occupational disease such as 'black lung' (15x10"9kcal). Another countywide depletion process is roadbed and bridge deterioration caused by large volumes of heavy coal-haul vehicular traffic (10x10"9kcal). These losses are being borne mainly by residents of the Appalachian host region, with little systematic compensation by consumers of the coal resource. It is expected that these losses will increase in magnitude as national coal use increases. (author)

1981-06-26

315

Economic analysis of solid waste-to-energy plants for small communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination was made of the relative economic feasibility of various solid waste-to-energy plants for a five county region of Southeastern Arkansas. The technology chosen was the two-chamber, starved-air incinerator with heat recovery otherwise known as a modular combustion unit so named because these units are designed as separate modules, allowing the option for low cost expansion of capacity if future needs warrant it. The low density of rural areas combined with the greater availability of potential landfill sites, longer transportation distances, and the availability and size of steam customers require careful consideration of all possible options in economic feasibility analysis for these small scale facilities. By utilizing life-cycle costing, including decisions concerning relative rates of escalation of different cost and revenue streams, the optional size and site for a refuse-derived energy plants was selected as part of a solid waste management system for this rural area of 80,000 population.

Isser, S.; Hinkle, B.; Hough, T.C.

1980-12-01

316

A Community of Curious Souls: An Analysis of Commenting Behavior on TED Talks Videos  

Science.gov (United States)

The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Talks website hosts video recordings of various experts, celebrities, academics, and others who discuss their topics of expertise. Funded by advertising and members but provided free online, TED Talks have been viewed over a billion times and are a science communication phenomenon. Although the organization has been derided for its populist slant and emphasis on entertainment value, no previous research has assessed audience reactions in order to determine the degree to which presenter characteristics and platform affect the reception of a video. This article addresses this issue via a content analysis of comments left on both the TED website and the YouTube platform (on which TED Talks videos are also posted). It was found that commenters were more likely to discuss the characteristics of a presenter on YouTube, whereas commenters tended to engage with the talk content on the TED website. In addition, people tended to be more emotional when the speaker was a woman (by leaving comments that were either positive or negative). The results can inform future efforts to popularize science amongst the public, as well as to provide insights for those looking to disseminate information via Internet videos.

Tsou, Andrew; Thelwall, Mike; Mongeon, Philippe; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

2014-01-01

317

Using Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis for High-Risk Processes at Three Community Hospitals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The staff at three Washington State hospitals and Battelle Pacific Northwest Division have been collaborating to apply Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) to assess several hospital processes. The staff from Kadlec Medical Center (KMC), located in Richland, Washington; Kennewick General Hospital (KGH), located in Kennewick, Washington; and Lourdes Medical Center (LMC), located in Pasco, Washington, along with staff from Battelle, which is located in Richland, Washington have been working together successfully for two and a half years. Tri-Cities Shared Services, a local organization which implements shared hospital services, has provided the forum for joint activity. This effort was initiated in response to the new JCAHO patient safety standards implemented in July 2001, and the hospitals’ desire to be more proactive in improving patient safety. As a result of performing FMECAs the weaknesses of six medical processes have been characterized and corresponding system improvements implemented. Based on this collective experience, insights about the benefits of applying FMECAs to healthcare processes have been identified.

Coles, Garill A.; Fuller, Becky; Nordquist, Kathleen; Kongslie, Anita

2005-03-01

318

An Analysis on Niche and Degree of Spatial Association of Paeonia decomposita Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding endangering mechanisms of Paeonia decomposita, endmic to China, is very crucial to protect and utilize this valuable germplasm. However, little was known on the niche characteristics and relationships of Paeonia decomposita and associated shrubs species in dry valleys of Dadu River. We investigated niche breadths, niche overlaps and spatial associations of P. decomposita and associated shrub species in dry valley of Dadu River, south-wetern China.The standard niche breadth of P. decomposita, Berberis julianae, Zanthoxylum simullans, Quercus baronii, Cotoneaster diwaricatus, Rosa app., Berberis wilsonae, Cotoneaster horizontalis, Bauhinia faberi var. Microphylla was 0.745, 0.979,0.950,0.748,0.947,0.924,0.792,0.863,0.610,respectively. Niche overlapping values of P. decomposita and the dominate species B. julianae, Z. simullans ,C. diwaricatus, Rosa app. were over 0.50, which were higher than those between P. decomposita and the other species. Combined with the analysis of spatial associations of P. decomposita and associated shrub species in dry valley of Dadu River, it was concluded that P. decomposita had weak ability to utilize resources because of its small niche breadth, and was in a disadvantaged position within species competition, which significantly contributed to understanding of endangereing mechanism P decomposita.

MA Qing-qing

2011-07-01

319

Segregation analysis of apolipoprotein A1 levels in families of adolescents: A community-based study in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Apolipoprotein (Apo A1 is a protective factor for cardiovascular events. This study aimed to perform complex segregation analyses of Apo A1 levels in families of adolescents systematically ascertained from the junior high school students in a rural community. Both siblings and parents of the adolescent probands were recruited for the study. Apo A1 concentrations were measured by turbidimetric immunoassay methods. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking status, residual values of Apo A1 were subjected to subsequent analyses. Results Significant mother-father and parent-offspring correlations were found. Commingling analyses indicated that a four-component distribution model was needed to account for the Apo A1 variation. Segregation analysis using regressive models revealed that the best-fit model of Apo A1 was a model of environmental effect plus familial correlation (heritability = 23.9%, in which a significant mother-father correlation existed. Models containing major gene effect could be rejected. Conclusion These results suggest that variations of Apo A1 levels in the normal range, especially during adolescence, are likely to be influenced by multiple factors without significant contribution from major genes.

Su Ta-Chen

2006-01-01

320

Methanethiol degradation in anaerobic bioreactors at elevated pH (8): reactor performance and microbial community analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degradation of methanethiol (MT) at 30 degrees C under saline-alkaline (pH 8-10, 0.5M Na(+)) conditions was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with estuarine sediment from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands). At a sodium concentration of 0.5M and a pH between 8 and 9 complete MT degradation to sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide was possible at a maximum loading rate of 22mmolMTL(-1)day(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 6h. The presence of yeast extract (100mg/L) in the medium was essential for complete MT degradation. 16S rRNA based DGGE and sequence analysis revealed that species related to the genera Methanolobus and Methanosarcina dominated the archaeal community in the reactor sludge. Their relative abundance fluctuated in time, possibly as a result of the changing operational conditions in the reactor. The most dominant MT-degrading archaeon was enriched from the reactor and obtained in pure culture. This strain WR1, which was most closely related to Methanolobus taylorii, degraded MT, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methanol and trimethylamine. Its optimal growth conditions were 0.2M NaCl, 30 degrees C and pH 8.4. In batch and reactor experiments operated at pH 10, MT was not degraded. PMID:18562196

van Leerdam, Robin C; de Bok, Frank A M; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; van Doesburg, Wim; Lomans, Bart P; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Analysis of community structure of a microbial consortium capable of degrading benzo(a)pyrene by DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbial consortium was obtained by enrichment culture of sea water samples collected from Botan oil port in Xiamen, China, using the persistent high concentration of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons enrichment strategy. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to investigate the bacterial composition and community dynamic changes based on PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes during batch culture enrichment. Using the spray-plate method, three bacteria, designated as BL01, BL02 and BL03, which corresponded to the dominant bands in the DGGE profiles, were isolated from the consortium. Sequence analysis showed that BL01, BL02 and BL03 were phylogenetically close to Ochrobactrum sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively. The degradation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a model high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HMW PAH) compound was investigated using individual isolates, a mixture of the three isolates, and the microbial consortium (BL) originally isolated from the oil port sea water. Results showed that the order of degradative ability was BL>the mixture of the three isolates>individual isolates. BL degraded 44.07% of the 10 ppm BaP after 14 days incubation, which showed the highest capability for HMW PAH compound degradation.Our results revealed that this high selective pressure strategy was feasible and effective in enriching the HMW PAH-degraders from the original sea water samples. PMID:19409577

Luo, Y R; Tian, Y; Huang, X; Yan, C L; Hong, H S; Lin, G H; Zheng, T L

2009-08-01

322

Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs: an analysis of community pharmacy data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores whether patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher drug use as compared to patients without diabetes over a time period prior to and after diagnosis of diabetes. A case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (cases with patients without a diagnosis (controls based on community pharmacy records. Cases had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2006. A repeated measures analysis calculated the mean number of packages and costs of drugs in cases during the two years prior to diagnosis and the first year following diagnosis and in control patients during three years. Volume of drug use was expressed as the number of packages consumed by a patient. Drug costs were based on the public price. Our dataset covered 2,697 patients (899 cases and 1,798 control patients. The mean annual number of packages and costs of drugs increased over time for cases and control patients (p<0.001. In patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes, the growth in drug use and costs over time was more pronounced than in control patients (p<0.001. Higher drug use and costs were mainly observed for cardiovascular drugs, antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, and drugs related to gastric acid disorders. Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs prior to diagnosis than control patients. Drug use could be an indicator to trigger active monitoring for Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Steven Simoens

2011-01-01

323

Analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle in European Community countries up to the year 2000 ESARDA point of view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of nuclear energy for electricity production has substantially increased during the past years, and present day projections indicate a further increase for the next decade. The presently available safeguards technology satisfies the actual needs but the projected evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle is expected to pose new technical challenges. Experience has taught that much time elapses between the development of safeguard techniques and the routine field application. Therefore it appears reasonable to consider long term trends of RandD activities in the light of the described fuel cycle evolution. ESARDA has made a first step in this direction by making a fuel cycle analysis up to the year 2000, which should provide the orientation for RandD in the future. In May 1988, the seven ESARDA working groups met at Karlsruhe to address this theme and to analyse the safeguards relevant features of the future fuel cycle within the European Community (EC) countries and how they influence the further development of presently available techniques in the field of measurements, containment and surveillance (C/S), data evaluation, etc. The preliminary results of this meeting are presented in the paper

1988-06-26

324

Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model – Evidence from MOPEX Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the emergence of earth system models as important tools for understanding and predicting climate change and implications to mitigation and adaptation, it has become increasingly important to assess the fidelity of the land component within earth system models to capture realistic hydrological processes and their response to the changing climate and quantify the associated uncertainties. This study investigates the sensitivity of runoff simulations to major hydrologic parameters in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) by integrating CLM4 with a stochastic exploratory sensitivity analysis framework at 20 selected watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions. We found that for runoff simulations, the most significant parameters are those related to the subsurface runoff parameterizations. Soil texture related parameters and surface runoff parameters are of secondary significance. Moreover, climate and soil conditions play important roles in the parameter sensitivity. In general, site conditions within water-limited hydrologic regimes and with finer soil texture result in stronger sensitivity of output variables, such as runoff and its surface and subsurface components, to the input parameters in CLM4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of parameter inversion for CLM4 using streamflow observations to improve runoff simulations. By ranking the significance of the input parameters, we showed that the parameter set dimensionality could be reduced for CLM4 parameter calibration under different hydrologic and climatic regimes so that the inverse problem is less ill posed.

Huang, Maoyi; Hou, Zhangshuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ke, Yinghai; Liu, Ying; Fang, Zhufeng; Sun, Yu

2013-12-01

325

Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30 days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. PMID:24852413

Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

2014-09-01

326

Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

2014-01-01

327

Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

2009-01-01

328

Comment on "Community-wide isoniazid preventive therapy drives drug-resistant tuberculosis: a model-based analysis".  

Science.gov (United States)

Mills et al. recently used mathematical modeling to show that community-wide isoniazid preventative therapy may lead to a long-term increase in resistance at the population level. Although community-wide isoniazid preventive therapy may be useful in preventing tuberculosis (TB) in low-TB/HIV settings, isoniazid resistance is especially of concern in high TB/HIV populations. PMID:24068733

Ukwaja, Kingsley N

2013-09-25

329

Empowering communities ·  

... Empowering communities ·Recent projects ·Sustainable Development Commission home | contact us | sitemap | text only | help ...put sustainable development at the heart of Government policy Home »Recent projects »Empowering communities Environmental Limits Empowering communities National Infrastructure Fairness in a Car ...Dependent Society Sustainability and UK food policy 2000 - 2011 Departmental Sustainability Assessment Empowering communities Enabling communities to lead local renewal projects with a neighbourhood-scale approach is ... Through empowering community groups to come together to tackle issues of local priority, and to work in partnership with local authorities and ...

330

A community resource for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor gene expression in Medicago truncatula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume species that is currently the focus of an international genome sequencing effort. Although several different oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays have been produced for genome-wide transcript analysis of this species, intrinsic limitations in the sensitivity of hybridization-based technologies mean that transcripts of genes expressed at low-levels cannot be measured accurately with these tools. Amongst such genes are many encoding transcription factors (TFs, which are arguably the most important class of regulatory proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most sensitive method currently available for transcript quantification, and one that can be scaled up to analyze transcripts of thousands of genes in parallel. Thus, qRT-PCR is an ideal method to tackle the problem of TF transcript quantification in Medicago and other plants. Results We established a bioinformatics pipeline to identify putative TF genes in Medicago truncatula and to design gene-specific oligonucleotide primers for qRT-PCR analysis of TF transcripts. We validated the efficacy and gene-specificity of over 1000 TF primer pairs and utilized these to identify sets of organ-enhanced TF genes that may play important roles in organ development or differentiation in this species. This community resource will be developed further as more genome sequence becomes available, with the ultimate goal of producing validated, gene-specific primers for all Medicago TF genes. Conclusion High-throughput qRT-PCR using a 384-well plate format enables rapid, flexible, and sensitive quantification of all predicted Medicago transcription factor mRNAs. This resource has been utilized recently by several groups in Europe, Australia, and the USA, and we expect that it will become the 'gold-standard' for TF transcript profiling in Medicago truncatula.

Redman Julia C

2008-07-01

331

Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify the dominant culturable and nonculturable microbiota of rainbow trout intestine.Methods and Results: Microbial density of rainbow trout intestine was estimated by direct microscopic counts (4('),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) and by culturing on tryptone soya agar (TSA). Differential gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial DNA from intestinal samples, re-amplification of bands and sequence analysis was used to identify the bacteria that dominated samples where aerobic counts were less than or equal to2% of the DAPI counts. 16S rDNA gene sequences of 146 bacterial isolates and three sequences of uncultured bacteria were identified. A set of oligonucleotide probes was constructed and used to detect and enumerate the bacterial community structure of the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Members of the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria (mainly Aeromonas and Enterobacteriaceae) dominated the bacterial population structure. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Plesiomonas and Proteus were also identified together with isolates belonging to the beta subclass of Proteobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria with high and low DNA G + C content. In most samples, the aerobic count (on TSA) was 50-90% of the direct (DAPI) count. A bacterium representing a previously unknown phylogenetic lineage with only 89% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Anaerofilum pentosovorans was detected in intestinal samples where aerobic counts were less than or equal to2% of direct (DAPI) counts. Ten to 75% of the microbial population in samples with low aerobic counts hybridized (FISH) with a probe constructed against this not-yet cultured bacterium.Conclusions: Proteobacteria belonging to the gamma subclass dominated the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout. However, in some samples the microflora was dominated by uncultivated, presumed anaerobic, micro-organisms. The bacterial population structure of rainbow trout intestine, as well as total bacterial counts, varied from fish to fish.Significance and Impact of the Study: Good correlation was seen between cultivation results and in situ analysis, however, a molecular approach was crucial for the identification of organisms uncultivated on TSA

Huber, I.; Spanggaard, Bettina

2004-01-01

332

Measuring Quality: An Analysis of Perceived Quality at Irwin Army Community Hospital and the Customer's Intention to Return.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irwin Army Community Hospital has a means to measure patient satisfaction, however, it does not measure the customers' perceptions and expectations within multiple dimensions of quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explain whether the custome...

J. W. Rumph

1995-01-01

333

Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retail Pharmacy Utilization Intervention at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2008, the General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital (GLWACH) Pharmacy Department executed an initiative to reduce the utilization of retail pharmacy services. This initiative was implemented due to the increase in retail prescription drug ...

S. A. Moore-Velbis

2009-01-01

334

Nitrogen removal performance and microbial community analysis of an anaerobic up-flow granular bed anammox reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated nitrogen removal performance and responsible microbial community in an anaerobic up-flow granular bed anammox reactor. The anammox reactor was operated more than 1 year. Biomass in the reactor formed granules after about 2 months of operation, and a sufficient amount of the granules was retained in the reactor with a metallic net to avoid biomass washout during the entire operation. The average diameter of the granules was 3.6mm at day 310. After 8 months of operation, stable nitrogen removal (60%) was achieved at an average total inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 14 kg-N m(-3)d(-1). The phylogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization results revealed that the anammox granules consisted of mono species of anammox bacteria, "Candidatus Brocadia-like species", affiliated with "Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans" with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.7%. The relative abundance of the anammox bacteria in the granules was more than 80% of the total bacteria stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The anammox bacteria were present throughout the granules whereas the other bacterial groups, Chloroflexi-like filamentous bacteria and betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, were mainly present on the surface of the anammox granules and around the anammox bacterial clusters. The in situ anammox activity was detected mainly from near the surface of granules to the upper 800 microm of the granules with microsensors. The granular anammox biomass tolerated higher concentrations of nitrite (400 mg-NL(-1)) than did the homogenized biomass (200 mg-NL(-1)) probably due to substrate diffusion limitation. PMID:20079515

Cho, Sunja; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Fujii, Naoki; Yamada, Yohei; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

2010-02-01

335

The Role of Statins in Prevention and Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that statins may reduce the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its complications. Purpose Performed a systematic review to address the role of statins in the prevention or treatment of CAP. Data Source Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus from inception through December 2011 were searched for randomized clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies. Study Selection Two authors independently reviewed studies that examined the role of statins in CAP. Data Extraction Data about study characteristics, adjusted effect-estimates and quality characteristics was extracted. Data Synthesis Eighteen studies corresponding to 21 effect-estimates (eight and 13 of which addressed the preventive and therapeutic roles of statins, respectively) were included. All studies were of good methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses of adjusted effect-estimates were used. Statins were associated with a lower risk of CAP, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.74–0.95), I2?=?90.5% and a lower short-term mortality in patients with CAP, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.59–0.78), I2?=?75.7%. Meta-regression did not identify sources of heterogeneity. A funnel plot suggested publication bias in the treatment group, which was adjusted by a novel regression method with a resultant effect-estimate of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77–0.93). Sensitivity analyses using the rule-out approach showed that it is unlikely that the results were due to an unmeasured confounder. Conclusions Our meta-analysis reveals a beneficial role of statins for the risk of development and mortality associated with CAP. However, the results constitute very low quality evidence as per the GRADE framework due to observational study design, heterogeneity and publication bias.

Khan, Abdur Rahman; Al-Tannir, Mohamad A.; Garbati, Musa A.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Baddour, Larry M.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.

2013-01-01

336

Economic Analysis of Delivering Primary Health Care Services through Community Health Workers in 3 North Indian States  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India’s policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre. Methods We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants. Results Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381), or INR 187 (USD 3.5) per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10) per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14) per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18) per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8) per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432). Conclusion Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India’s policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective.

Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

2014-01-01

337

Has the Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Increased Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Use and Resistance?: a 10-Year Time Series Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are an increasing number of indications for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use, including skin and soft tissue infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Assessing the relationship between rates of use and antibiotic resistance is important for maintaining the expected efficacy of this drug for guideline-recommended conditions. Using interrupted time series analysis, we aimed to determine whether the 2005 emergence of CA-MRSA and recomme...

Wood, Jameson B.; Smith, Donald B.; Baker, Errol H.; Brecher, Stephen M.; Gupta, Kalpana

2012-01-01

338

GeoChip-Based Analysis of the Functional Gene Diversity and Metabolic Potential of Microbial Communities in Acid Mine Drainage? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an extreme environment, usually with low pH and high concentrations of metals. Although the phylogenetic diversity of AMD microbial communities has been examined extensively, little is known about their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 2.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of AMD microbial communities from three copper mines i...

Xie, Jianping; He, Zhili; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Guanzhou

2011-01-01

339

Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We def...

Lin Cassidy; Barnes, Grenville D.

2012-01-01

340

Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Beyond Streptococcus mutans: Dental Caries Onset Linked to Multiple Species by 16S rRNA Community Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redun...

Gross, Erin L.; Beall, Clifford J.; Kutsch, Stacey R.; Firestone, Noah D.; Leys, Eugene J.; Griffen, Ann L.

2012-01-01

342

Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementati...

Wood, Cynthia A.; Sarah Banks; Shari Galiardi; Jennifer Koehn; Kathleen Schroeder

2012-01-01

343

Exile Communities and Their Differential Institutional Dynamics: A Comparative Analysis of the Chilean and Uruguayan Political Diasporas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By focusing on the experiences of the Chilean and Uruguayan exile communities settling abroad during the last wave of dictatorship and repression in the 1970s, this article suggests ways to analyze exile communities in the late 20th century. By focusing in the dynamics of exile as the interaction between the expelling country, the person forced into exile and the host country in a changed international environment, it elaborates two basic phenomena: first, the fact that the sites of relocatio...

2007-01-01

344

Community and Nihilism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing the arguments put forward in books such as Communitas, in this article the political  philosopher Roberto Esposito tries to overcome the customary opposition between the notions of community and nihilism. His aim is to rethink what community might mean in an age of ‘completed nihilism’. In a subtle genealogical and etymological analysis of the concept of community, he demonstrates how, rather than establishing a substantial and positive bond, community is constituted by nothingness, by a shared lack—which communal, communitarian and totalitarian politics seek to deny. The excavation of the meaning of communitas allows Esposito to critically examine the manner in which the thinking of community has been expunged by modern political philosophy.

Roberto Esposito

2009-05-01

345

GeoChip-based analysis of the functional gene diversity and metabolic potential of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an extreme environment, usually with low pH and high concentrations of metals. Although the phylogenetic diversity of AMD microbial communities has been examined extensively, little is known about their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 2.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of AMD microbial communities from three copper mines in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, gene overlapping, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 2.0 were detected in the AMD microbial communities, including carbon fixation, carbon degradation, methane generation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, nitrogen reduction, sulfur metabolism, metal resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, which suggested that the functional gene diversity was higher than was previously thought. Mantel test results indicated that AMD microbial communities are shaped largely by surrounding environmental factors (e.g., S, Mg, and Cu). Functional genes (e.g., narG and norB) and several key functional processes (e.g., methane generation, ammonification, denitrification, sulfite reduction, and organic contaminant degradation) were significantly (P < 0.10) correlated with environmental variables. This study presents an overview of functional gene diversity and the structure of AMD microbial communities and also provides insights into our understanding of metabolic potential in AMD ecosystems. PMID:21097602

Xie, Jianping; He, Zhili; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Guanzhou

2011-02-01

346

Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships

Cynthia A. Wood

2012-04-01

347

A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.

Shakya, Migun [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2013-01-01

348

A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure in the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects. PMID:24146861

Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K; Gunter, Lee; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W

2013-01-01

349

Bacterial Community Analysis, New Exoelectrogen Isolation and Enhanced Performance of Microbial Electrochemical Systems Using Nano-Decorated Anodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial electrochemical systems (MESs) have attracted much research attention in recent years due to their promising applications in renewable energy generation, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. In a MES, microorganisms interact with electrodes via electrons, catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions at the anode and the cathode. The bacterial community of a high power mixed consortium MESs (maximum power density is 6.5W/m2) was analyzed by using denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S DNA clone library methods. The bacterial DGGE profiles were relatively complex (more than 10 bands) but only three brightly dominant bands in DGGE results. These results indicated there are three dominant bacterial species in mixed consortium MFCs. The 16S DNA clone library method results revealed that the predominant bacterial species in mixed culture is Geobacter sp (66%), Arcobacter sp and Citrobacter sp. These three bacterial species reached to 88% of total bacterial species. This result is consistent with the DGGE result which showed that three bright bands represented three dominant bacterial species. Exoelectrogenic bacterial strain SX-1 was isolated from a mediator-less microbial fuel cell by conventional plating techniques with ferric citrate as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that it was related to the members of Citrobacter genus with Citrobacter sp. sdy-48 being the most closely related species. The bacterial strain SX-1 produced electricity from citrate, acetate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol, and lactose in MFCs with the highest current density of 205 mA/m2 generated from citrate. Cyclic voltammetry analysis indicated that membrane associated proteins may play an important role in facilitating electron transfer from the bacteria to the electrode. This is the first study that demonstrates that Citrobacter species can transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors. Citrobacter strain SX-1 is capable of generating electricity from a wide range of substrates in MFCs. This finding increases the known diversity of power generating exoelectrogens and provids a new strain to explore the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer from bacteria to electrode. The wide range of substrate utilization by SX-1 increases the application potential of MFCs in renewable energy generation and waste treatment. Anode properties are critical for the performance of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Inexpensive Fe nanoparticle modified graphite disks were used as anodes to preliminarily investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in MECs. Results demonstrated that average current densities produced with Fe nanoparticle decorated anodes were up to 5.9-fold higher than plain graphite anodes. Whole genome microarray analysis of the gene expression showed that genes encoding biofilm formation were significantly up-regulated as a response to nanoparticle decorated anodes. Increased expression of genes related to nanowires, flavins and c-type cytochromes indicate that enhanced mechanisms of electron transfer to the anode may also have contributed to the observed increases in current density. The majority of the remaining differentially expressed genes were associated with electron transport and anaerobic metabolism demonstrating a systemic response to increased power loads. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is another form of nano materials. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified graphite disks were used as anodes to investigate the effects of nanostructures on the performance S. oneidensis MR-1 in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The current densities produced with CNT decorated anodes were up to 5.6-fold higher than plain graphite anodes. Global transcriptome analysis showed that cytochrome c genes associated with extracellular electron transfer are up-expressed by CNT decorated anodes, which is the leading factor to contribute current increase in CNT decorated anode MECs. The up regulated genes encoded to flavin a

Xu, Shoutao

350

Analysis of bacterial community shifts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed diets supplemented with ?-glucan from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of algal and yeast ?-glucans on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the community of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and coliforms. A total of 48 pigs were fed four diets over a 28-day period to determine the effect that each had on these communities. The control diet consisted of wheat and soya bean meal. The remaining three diets contained wheat and soya bean meal supplemented with ?-glucan at 250 g/tonne from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Faecal samples were collected from animals before feeding each diet and after the feeding period. The animals were slaughtered the following day and samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated by group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Plate count analysis was also performed to quantify total coliforms. DGGE profiles indicated that all ?-glucan diets provoked the emergence of a richer community of Lactobacillus. The richest community of lactobacilli emerged after feeding L. digitata (LD ?-glucan). Plate count analysis revealed that the L. hyperborea (LH ?-glucan) diet had a statistically significant effect on the coliform counts in the proximal colon in comparison with the control diet. ?-glucan from L. digitata and S. cerevisiae also generally reduced coliforms but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the ?-glucan diets did not significantly reduce levels of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. DGGE analysis of GIT samples indicated that the three ?-glucan diets generally promoted the establishment of a more varied range of Lactobacillus species in the caecum, proximal and distal colon. The LH ?-glucan had the most profound reducing effect on coliform counts when compared with the control diet and diets supplemented with L. digitata and S. cerevisiae ?-glucans. PMID:23446108

Murphy, P; Dal Bello, F; O'Doherty, J; Arendt, E K; Sweeney, T; Coffey, A

2013-07-01

351

Community relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

1997-01-01

352

Network Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Network communities as well as social networks sites are special cases of online social interactive environments. According to Rheingold (1993), who chose the term "community" (Gemeinschaft) to denote the early experiences of online aggregation, De Cindio and Peraboni (2010) suggest to name Gemeinschaft the free interactions among people; while the term Gesellschaft denotes the corpus of rules that govern the online life, i.e., the normative aspects typical of a society. Network communities d...

Cindio, Fiorella; Peraboni, Cristian; Cerri, Stefano A.

2012-01-01

353

Verifying a biotope classification using benthic communities--an analysis towards the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HELCOM Red List biotopes project proposed a Baltic Sea wide classification consisting of six levels: The HELCOM Underwater biotopes/habitats classification system (HELCOM HUB). We present a case study from the south-western Baltic Sea where we tested the applicability of this system. More than 500 sampling stations were analyzed regarding macrozoobenthic communities and their linkage to environmental parameters. Based on the analyses of biotic and abiotic data, 21 groups were assigned to 13 biotopes of the classification. For some biotopes varying states of communities were recognized. Even though not all abiotic parameters are considered directly in the hierarchy of the classification in general, all soft-bottom communities could be allocated to a corresponding biotope. The application of the HELCOM HUB for the south-western Baltic Sea is feasible, in regard to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive as well as the Baltic Sea Action Plan. PMID:24253019

Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L

2014-01-15

354

Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a xeric Quercus woodland based on rDNA sequence analysis of sporocarps and pooled roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quercus woodlands are key components of California's wild landscapes, yet little is known about ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in these ecosystems. We examined the EM community associated with Quercus douglasii using sporocarp surveys and by pooling EM roots and subjecting them to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screening and DNA sequencing. Ectomycorrhizal root symbionts were sampled four times in 2003-04. During this time, the below-ground community structure was relatively stable; we found no evidence of taxa adapted to winter or spring conditions and only one species varied widely in occurrence between years. The EM community from sporocarps and roots was diverse (161 species), rich in Ascomycota (46 species), and dominated by fungi with cryptic sporocarps. This included a large number of resupinate and hypogeous taxa, many of which were detected both above- and below-ground. PMID:17504467

Smith, Matthew E; Douhan, Greg W; Rizzo, David M

2007-01-01

355

Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Community DNA in Sludge Undergoing Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD: Pitfalls and Improved Methodology to Enhance Diversity Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecular analysis of the bacterial community structure associated with sludge processed by autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD, was performed using a number of extraction and amplification procedures which differed in yield, integrity, ability to amplify extracted templates and specificity in recovering species present. Interference to PCR and qPCR amplification was observed due to chelation, nuclease activity and the presence of thermolabile components derived from the ATAD sludge. Addition of selected adjuvant restored the ability to amplify community DNA, derived from the thermophilic sludge, via a number of primer sets of ecological importance and various DNA polymerases. Resolution of community profiles by molecular techniques was also influenced by the ATAD sludge extraction procedure as demonstrated by PCR-DGGE profiling and comparison of taxonomic affiliations of the most predominant members within 16S rRNA gene libraries constructed from ATAD DNA extracted by different methods. Several modifications have been shown to be necessary to optimize the molecular analysis of the ATAD thermal niche which may have general applicability to diversity recovery from similar environments.

Anna V. Piterina

2010-03-01

356

Analysis of bacterial community structure in the natural circulation system wastewater bioreactor by using a 16S rRNA gene clone library.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of physical and chemical parameters are routinely monitored during operation of the Natural Circulation System, a wastewater purification bioreactor in which only natural materials and no synthetic chemicals are used. However, the microbial community structures existing in the Natural Circulation System have not been well characterized. Thus, bacterial community structure and composition in this system were studied using clone library analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes amplified using PCR with universal bacterial primer sets. The PCR products were then subcloned into the pGEM-T vector. Each unique restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern, created by using two pairs of restriction endonucleases, was designated as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The Natural Circulation System comprises five tanks, the second and third of which play a major role in the bioreactor. Clone library pro-files and principal component analysis revealed differences in the bacterial community structures of the second (anaerobic chamber) and the third (aerobic chamber) tanks. However, the beta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes/ Chlorobi and gamma-proteobacteria groups were dominant in both tanks. Bacterial composition was more complex in the second tank (107 OTUs) than in the third tank (68 OTUs). Of a total of 154 OTUs in the clone libraries, only 21 were common to the two tanks. The results obtained in this study should provide important information for future research into and management of the Natural Circulation System wastewater bioreactor. PMID:17179661

Niu, Shi-Quan; Fukushima, Jun; Jiang, Ying; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Ueda, Tohru; Matsumoto, Satoshi

2006-01-01

357

Content analysis and key informant interviews to examine community response to the purchase, possession, and/or use of tobacco by minors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify and describe local ordinances in New Jersey that make it illegal for minors to purchase, possess, and/or use tobacco (PPU). A coding instrument was formulated and content analysis of each ordinance was conducted between March 1999 andJanuary 2002. Additionally, key informant interviews with community officials were conducted by telephone between September 2000 and February 2002 to collect qualitative information on implementation and enforcement. Content analysis of identified ordinances assessed when the ordinance was enacted, specific laws and clauses included, enforcing party, area of jurisdiction, and penalties associated with a citation. Key informant interviews assessed the catalyst for enacting the ordinance, penalties, enforcement activity, and method of tracking citations. As of January 2002, 48 municipalities in New Jersey had passed mandates banning minor purchase, possession, and/or use of tobacco. Of the 48 ordinances reviewed, 71% were passed during or after 1998. Nearly all of the ordinances (94%) included prohibited minor usage of tobacco, 77% prohibited minor possession of tobacco and 23% prohibited minor purchase of tobacco. In over 80% of communities, municipal police departments were responsible for enforcement. Two out of 35 communities reached for interview reported having a formal system for tracking enforcement or citations. The results illustrate that local PPU ordinances in New Jersey vary widely both in principle and in practice, suggesting that such ordinances may be too heterogeneous and lacking in cohesion to have any impact on youth smoking. PMID:15141896

Hrywna, Mary; Adler, Raychel Kubby; Delnevo, Cristine D; Slade, John D

2004-06-01

358

Elucidation of the Microbial Community in Activated Sludge Using PCR-DGGE Analysis in Arid and Semi Arid Regions of Rajasthan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Activated sludge is the most commonly used process to treat sewage and industrial waste waterby micro organisms. The activated sludge system depends on the activities of microbial communitiespresent in the sludge. However, exact knowledge of the microbial community structure in waste watertreatment plants is limited. In this study, the bacterial diversity of activated sludge was investigated inthe two waste water treatment plants by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of PCRamplified16S ribosomal DNA fragments. Dominant bands from DGGE profiles were excised andsubjected to sequencing to identify the dominant genotypes. Sequence analysis gave insights into theidentities of the predominant bacterial populations present. The DNA sequencing results indicated themicrobial diversity, revealing that the dominant bacteria present in Bramhapuri waste water treatmentplant is Acinetobacter sp. whereas the dominant bacteria in Pratapnagar (Delawas waste watertreatment plant is Alpha-proteobacteria. Futhermore, cluster analysis of the DGGE profiles indicatedsignificant diversity in the bacterial community by depicting two distinct clusters for each waste watertreatment plant. These data endorse the ability of PCR-DGGE method to identify and characterizebacterial community from activated sludge.

Chandra Shivani

2013-01-01

359

Bacterial communities of traditional salted and fermented seafoods from Jeju Island of Korea using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jeotgal, which is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in Korea, is traditional type of preserved seafood that is prepared by salting and fermenting. Here, we report on the bacterial community structure and diversity of jeotgal obtained from the Korean island of Jeju, which has a subtropical climate. Two samples of Jeotgal were collected from Jeju, made from either damselfish (Chromis notata; jari-dom-jeot, J1 and J2) or silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis; ggot-myulchi-jeot, K1 and K2). The physical characteristics (pH and salinity) were assessed and the bacterial communities characterized using 16S rRNA gene-clone library analysis and cultural isolation. No difference was found in the community composition between the J and K fermented seafoods. Both fermented seafoods had relatively high salinity (26% to 33%) and high pH values (pH 6.08 to 6.72). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the halophilic lactic-acid bacteria Tetragenococcus halophilus and T. muriaticus were observed to be dominant in the J and K fermented seafoods, accompanied by halophilic bacteria including Halanaerobium spp., Halomonas spp., and Chromohalobacter spp. When compared with 7 other types of fermented seafood from a previous study, the communities of the J and K fermented seafoods were separated by the most influential group, the genus Tetragenococcus. The results suggest that these 2 types of traditional salted fermented seafood from Jeju have distinct communities dominated by Tetragenococcus spp., which are derived from the raw ingredients and are dependent on the physical conditions. This may explain how the seafoods that are made in Jeju may differ from other jeotgals. PMID:24689962

Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin

2014-05-01

360

Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths. PMID:24358124

Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis Reveals High Taxonomic Diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

2013-01-01

362

Dworkin's liberal theory of community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is an analysis of Dworkin's attempt to develop, within liberal theory, a conception of community and associative obligations, where community is taken as a particular intrinsic value. Certainly, this attempt encounters various difficulties, like the insufficiently robust distinction between political community and other types of communities, as well as Dworkin's too narrow delimitation of the scope of activities and competences of political community. It is argued nevertheless that this endeavor is highly significant, complementing substantially the theoretical concerns of standard liberal theories.

Slâdecek Michal

2004-01-01

363

Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Rhinovirus Isolates Collected from Otherwise Healthy Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia during Five Successive Years  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to evaluate the circulation of the different human rhinovirus (HRV) species and genotypes in Italian children with radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a nasopharyngeal swab was obtained from 643 children admitted to hospital because of CAP during five consecutive winter and early spring seasons (2007-2012). Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to identify HRV, and the HRV-positive samples were used for sequencing analysis and to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree. HRV was identified in 198 samples (42.2%), and the VP4/VP2 region was successfully amplified in 151 (76.3%). HRV-A was identified in 78 samples (51.6%), HRV-B in 14 (9.3%) and HRV-C in 59 (39.1%). Forty-seven (31.1%) of the children with HRV infection were aged <1 year, 71 (47.0%) were aged 1-3 years, and 33 (21.9%) were aged ?4 years. Blast and phylogenetic analyses showed that the HRV strains were closely related to a total of 66 reference genotypes, corresponding to 29 HRV-A, 9 HRV-B and 28 HRV-C strains. Nucleotide variability was 37% between HRV-A and HRV-B, 37.3% between HRV-A and HRV-C, and 39.9% between HRV-B and HRV-C. A number of sequences clustered with known serotypes and, within these clusters, there were strains circulating during several seasons. The most frequently detected genotypes were HRV-A78 (n=17), HRV-A12 (n=9) and HRV-C2 (n=5). This study shows that, although it is mainly associated with HRV-A, pediatric CAP can also be diagnosed in subjects infected by HRV-C and, more rarely, by HRV-B. Moreover, a large number of genotypes may be involved in causing pediatric CAP and can be different from year to year. Although the prolonged circulation of the same genotypes can sometimes be associated with a number of CAP episodes in different years.

Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Senatore, Laura; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

2013-01-01

364

Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.  

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In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After a 6-h fermentation, 83.27% of total sugars detected after inoculation were consumed (228.4 mM hexose equivalents) and a carbon (C) recovery of 66.18% in fermentation products was estimated. They were produced 284.4 mM C as ethanol, 71.5 mM C as acetic acid and 19 mM C as lactic acid, demonstrating the presence of homo- and heterofermentative, acetic and alcoholic metabolisms in the final product. It was also found, after hydrolysis, that the exopolysaccharide produced during the fermentation was mainly composed by fructose residues, probably inulin or levan. PMID:18450312

Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

2008-05-31

365

A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: Evidence from a community sample of 16?20 year olds  

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The aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of underage problem drinking by using an empirically based method to characterize the variation in patterns of drinking in a community sample of underage drinkers. A total of 4056 16?20-year-old current drinkers from 212 communities in the US were surveyed by telephone as part of the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) Program. Latent class models were used to create homogenous groups of drinkers with simila...

Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-young; Shrestha, Anshu; Lohman, Kurt K.; Wolfson, Mark

2006-01-01

366

A quantitative analysis of plant community structure in an abandoned rubber plantations on Kho-Hong Hill, southern Thailand  

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The present study aimed to characterize plant community structure of rubber plantations abandoned 26 years previously and now a protected area of Prince of Songkla University on the west slope of Kho-Hong Hill. Trees whose girth at breast high were at least 30 cm were recorded from thirty-one plots (10*10 m) which were laid out systematically at every 100 m along three transects. Among native trees, this plant community is dominated by Schima wallichii Choisy, Castanopsis schefferiana Hance, ...

2006-01-01

367

COMPARATIVE INTEGRATION: A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU AND THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to compare the European Union and the Economic Community of West African States. It contends that economic integration has the potential to enhance the relative strength of the integrating economies in their bargaining with other economic groupings in the world. It however frowns at the indiscriminate implementation by the Economic Community of West African States of ideas and theories borrowed from the European experience without recourse to West Africa’s peculiar socio-economic and historical problems.

Michael M. OGBEIDI

2010-01-01

368

Ultra-high-throughput microbial community analysis on the Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms  

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DNA sequencing continues to decrease in cost with the Illumina HiSeq2000 generating up to 600?Gb of paired-end 100 base reads in a ten-day run. Here we present a protocol for community amplicon sequencing on the HiSeq2000 and MiSeq Illumina platforms, and apply that protocol to sequence 24 microbial communities from host-associated and free-living environments. A critical question as more sequencing platforms become available is whether biological conclusions derived on one platform are con...

Caporaso, J. Gregory; Lauber, Christian L.; Walters, William A.; Berg-lyons, Donna; Huntley, James; Fierer, Noah; Owens, Sarah M.; Betley, Jason; Fraser, Louise; Bauer, Markus; Gormley, Niall; Gilbert, Jack A.; Smith, Geoff; Knight, Rob

2012-01-01

369

[Canonical correspondence analysis between phytoplankton community and environmental factors in macrophtic lakes of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River].  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytoplankton communities in 4 macrophtic lakes (Longgan Lake, Liangzi Lake, Futou Lake and Baoan Lake) in Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain were investigated in September 2011, and 7 phylum and 231 species of phytoplankton were detected in the waters. The results indicated that phytoplankton was mainly composed of Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. The four lakes were mesotrophic. And the main phytoplankton was Phormidium foveolarum, Synedra ulna, Phormidium tenu and Tribonema minus. The relationships between the distribution of phytoplankton and environmental factors in each sampling site were studies by canonical correspondence analysis. The results demonstrated that pH and Total phosphorus are the key factors for the distribution of phytoplankton communities in 4 typical macrophtic lakes in Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain. PMID:24027987

Meng, Rui; He, Lian-Sheng; Guo, Long-Gen; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Zhong-Qiang; Shu, Jian-Min; Diao, Xiao-Jun; Li, Bi-Cai

2013-07-01

370

Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria in the maize mycorrhizosphere in a long-term fertilization trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the impact of organic and mineral fertilizers on the community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and bacteria in the mycorrhizosphere of maize in a field experiment established in 1956, in south-east Sweden. Roots and root-associated soil aggregates were sampled four times during the growing season in 2005, in control plots and in plots amended with calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, green manure, farmyard manure or sewage sludge. Fungi in roots were identified by cloning and sequencing, and bacteria in soil aggregates were analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing. The community composition of AM fungi and bacteria was significantly influenced by the different fertilizers. Changes in microbial community composition were mainly correlated with changes in pH induced by the fertilization regime. However, other factors, including phosphate and soil carbon content, also contributed significantly to these changes. Changes in bacterial community composition and a reduction in bacterial taxon richness throughout the growing season were also manifest. The results of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long-term application of different fertilizers on edaphic factors and specific groups of fungi and bacteria playing a key role in arable soils. PMID:18547325

Toljander, Jonas F; Santos-González, Juan C; Tehler, Anders; Finlay, Roger D

2008-08-01

371

GeoChip-based analysis of functional microbial communities in a bioreduced uranium-contaminated aquifer during reoxidation by oxygen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot-scale system was established for in situ biostimulation of U(VI) reduction by ethanol addition at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN). After achieving U(VI) reduction, stability of the bioreduced U(IV) was evaluated under conditions of (i) resting (no ethanol injection), (ii) reoxidation by introducing dissolved oxygen (DO), and (iii) reinjection of ethanol. GeoChip, a functional gene array with probes for N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and contaminant degradation genes, was used for monitoring groundwater microbial communities. High diversity of all major functional groups was observed during all experimental phases. The microbial community was extremely responsive to ethanol, showing a substantial change in community structure with increased gene number and diversity after ethanol injections resumed. While gene numbers showed considerable variations, the relative abundance (i.e. percentage of each gene category) of most gene groups changed little. During the reoxidation period, U(VI) increased, suggesting reoxidation of reduced U(IV). However, when introduction of DO was stopped, U(VI) reduction resumed and returned to pre-reoxidation levels. These findings suggest that the community in this system can be stimulated and that the ability to reduce U(VI) can be maintained by the addition of electron donors. This biostimulation approach may potentially offer an effective means for the bioremediation of U(VI)-contaminated sites.

Van Nostrand, J.D.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; Deng, Y.; Carley, J.; Carroll, S.; He, Z.; Gu, B.; Luo, J.; Criddle, C. S.; Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T. C.; Zhou, J.

2009-07-15

372

The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP): An Analysis of One Model's Efforts to Promote Achievement in Underserved Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Many claim that the Knowledge is Power Program has experienced success in closing the achievement gap in urban and rural communities across America. Studies suggest that KIPP charter schools enroll an overwhelming proportion of poor and minority students and often outperform their district peers. However, the purpose of this study is not to…

Macey, Erin; Decker, Janet; Eckes, Suzanne

2009-01-01

373

Understanding the Early Years: Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area, Montreal, Quebec. An Analysis of the Communities Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents survey findings from two cycles of data collection in a 45-km area of Montreal located east of the city centre. The study was conducted by Statistics Canada as part of the second pilot phase of the Understanding the Early Years initiative (UEY-II), using the Communities Survey, a research tool adapted from the National…

Xu, Gong-Li; Ahmed, Nina; Abbes, Chahreddine

2010-01-01

374

Analysis of SCAT V and Q %ile Scores Made by Maui Community College Students Enrolled in Fall Semester 1967.  

Science.gov (United States)

Having the SCAT V and Q percentile scores for 308 of the 504 students enrolled at Maui Community College (Hawaii) in the 1967 fall semester, a statistical test was made to determine whether or not a significant percentage of the students had scored at or below the 50th percentile. By categorizing students according to their areas of study--liberal…

Maier, R.O.

375

Comparative analysis of the quality of water supply in the National Forest of Ipanema and Communities Mursa and Smith  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object of this research is the water quality of the Conservation Unit, Ipanema National Forest - National Forest, which has an important remnant of Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio, Ministry of the Environment (MMA. The National Forest is located between the cities of Araçoiaba da Serra / SP, Iperó / SP and Capela do Alto / SP, has an area of approximately 5,000 ha, in which about 80 families totaling 270 people. Of this total, the families are divided into two categories: officials and ICMBio Tourist Guides. In both categories of homes, water supply is done in two ways: through a central borehole and water coming from the Ribeirão River Iron. Ribeirão Rio Iron, in addition to supplying families residing in the National Forest, also supplies two communities that go beyond the limit of the National Forest of Ipanema, which are the Community and the Community of Smith Mursa. In this context, this article aims to present the results of water quality Ribeirão River and Iron and the artesian well located in central National Forest. The study aims to contribute to the comm