WorldWideScience

Sample records for midrobial community analysis

  1. Community analysis in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, A; Díaz-Guilera, A; Gleiser, P M; Guimera, R; Arenas, Alex; Danon, Leon; Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Gleiser, Pablo M.; Guimera, Roger

    2003-01-01

    We present an empirical study of different social networks obtained from digital repositories. Our analysis reveals the community structure and provides a useful visualising technique. We investigate the scaling properties of the community size distribution, and that find all the networks exhibit power law scaling in the community size distributions with exponent either -0.5 or -1. Finally we find that the networks' community structure is topologically self-similar using the Horton-Strahler index.

  2. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  3. Link Analysis for Communities Detection on Facebook

    CERN Document Server

    Mellah, Mohamed Adnane; Hamou, Reda Mohamed; Kumar, A V Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Social networks have become a part in the daily life of millions of users, which offer wide range of interests and practices. The main characteristic of social networks is its ability to gather different individuals around a common point of view or collective beliefs. Among the current social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular, which has the highest number of users. However, in Facebook, the existence of communities (groups)is a critical question; thus, many researchers focus on potential communities by using techniques like data mining and web mining. In this work, we present four approaches based on link analysis techniques to detect prospective groups and their members

  4. Community detection algorithms: a comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lancichinetti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering the community structure exhibited by real networks is a crucial step towards an understanding of complex systems that goes beyond the local organization of their constituents. Many algorithms have been proposed so far, but none of them has been subjected to strict tests to evaluate their performance. Most of the sporadic tests performed so far involved small networks with known community structure and/or artificial graphs with a simplified structure, which is very uncommon in real systems. Here we test several methods against a recently introduced class of benchmark graphs, with heterogeneous distributions of degree and community size. The methods are also tested against the benchmark by Girvan and Newman and on random graphs. As a result of our analysis, three recent algorithms introduced by Rosvall and Bergstrom, Blondel et al. and Ronhovde and Nussinov, respectively, have an excellent performance, with the additional advantage of low computational complexity, which enables one to analyze large s...

  5. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  6. An Analysis of Chinese Community Education Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing PAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the systematic review of the government- issued regulatory documents related to community education using the leading Chinese data base of WanFang, the article maps the terrain of community education in china from 1992 to present. It is found that community education in China has experienced a fundamental change from being responsible merely for out-of-school ethic education for primary and secondary school students before 21st century to training and education activities for adults ...

  7. Analysis of Community Forest Management in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The major role tropical forests play in biodiversity and climate change has led the world to search for effective ways to slow down deforestation. Community forest management (CFM) is an example of the broader concept of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM). As part of the decentralization policy in many countries, mainly in Africa and Asia, CFM was expected to promote: (i) ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvena DENCHEVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet has changed the way companies interact with customers. Customers have become the active part of the communication with business. Virtual communities are the most popular implication of the usage of Internet into business world. The article presents the nature of virtual communities and how they are functioning in the hospitality industry. The web site of hotel Dobruzda-Dobrich has been analyzed regarding its Internet presence. Internet marketing strategy for improving its internet presence is presented in the paper.

  9. An Analysis of Chinese Community Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing PAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the systematic review of the government- issued regulatory documents related to community education using the leading Chinese data base of WanFang, the article maps the terrain of community education in china from 1992 to present. It is found that community education in China has experienced a fundamental change from being responsible merely for out-of-school ethic education for primary and secondary school students before 21st century to training and education activities for adults in need of them under social transformation. In addition, it grows from mere community education committee responsible for its work to a comparatively complete system capable of rallying necessary human and material resources to ensure its function. The changes of community education policy were directly motivated by the domestic socioeconomic development in the past 30 years and the global educational notion of lifelong learning and building a learning society. Finally, the problems such as the absence of national laws and some others in current community education in China are discussed.

  10. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be filled with some species previously with no significant associations. In addition, a Java program, associCoeff, re-writed from my earlier work, was introduced. A large number of data were thus given also.

  11. Community health psychology : promoting analysis and action for social change

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine; Murray, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Community health psychology is concerned with the theory and method of working with communities to combat disease and to promote health. This introductory article outlines key assumptions and debates underlying this area of research and practice – in the interests of framing the papers in this special edition of the Journal of Health Psychology. Attention is given to the value of emphasising the community level of analysis and action; the role of collective action in improving health; psycho-...

  12. Density Analysis of Network Community Divisions

    CERN Document Server

    Holmström, E; Brännlund, J; Holmstr\\"om, Erik; Bock, Nicolas; Br\\"{a}nnlund, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We present a compact matrix formulation of the modularity, a commonly used quality measure for the community division in a network. Using this formulation we calculate the density of modularities, a statistical measure of the probability of finding a particular modularity for a random but valid community division into $C$ communities. We present our results for some well--known and some artificial networks, and we conclude that the general features of the modularity density are quite similar for the different networks. From a simple model of the modularity we conclude that all nnected networks must show similar shapes of their modularity densities. The general features of this density may give valuable information in the search for good optimization schemes of the modularity.

  13. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Lars

    From small clone libraries to large next-generation sequencing datasets – the field of community genomics or metagenomics has developed tremendously within the last years. This chapter will summarize some of these developments and will also highlight pitfalls of current metagenomic analyses. It w...

  14. Vulnerability metrics and analysis for communities in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies the problem of community detection in complex networks to identify sets of network elements that are critical to the connectivity of the network and its communities. Specifically, the paper defines a vulnerability set and value for each of the communities in a complex network. Also, for each community it identifies a value of relative vulnerability in comparison with the remaining communities. The approach allows to visualize/identify the critical elements of a complex network. This is an important first step for many recent problems arising in social networks, critical infrastructures and homeland security. By identifying these elements one can prioritize resource allocation to protect, interdict or improve performance in these types of systems. The sets and metrics introduced are illustrated with numerous examples and discussions. Based on the analysis of the examples the manuscript provides an intuitive description of a community's presence in the interior or periphery of a network.

  15. Vulnerability metrics and analysis for communities in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco S, Claudio M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel, E-mail: jmarquez@stevens.edu [Systems Development and Maturity Lab, School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This paper applies the problem of community detection in complex networks to identify sets of network elements that are critical to the connectivity of the network and its communities. Specifically, the paper defines a vulnerability set and value for each of the communities in a complex network. Also, for each community it identifies a value of relative vulnerability in comparison with the remaining communities. The approach allows to visualize/identify the critical elements of a complex network. This is an important first step for many recent problems arising in social networks, critical infrastructures and homeland security. By identifying these elements one can prioritize resource allocation to protect, interdict or improve performance in these types of systems. The sets and metrics introduced are illustrated with numerous examples and discussions. Based on the analysis of the examples the manuscript provides an intuitive description of a community's presence in the interior or periphery of a network.

  16. Link Analysis for Communities Detection on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Mellah, Mohamed Adnane; Amine, Abdelmalek; HAMOU Reda Mohamed; Kumar, A. V. Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Social networks have become a part in the daily life of millions of users, which offer wide range of interests and practices. The main characteristic of social networks is its ability to gather different individuals around a common point of view or collective beliefs. Among the current social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular, which has the highest number of users. However, in Facebook, the existence of communities (groups)is a critical question; thus, many rese...

  17. Community Analysis of Social Network in MMOG

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng PANG; chen, changjia

    2010-01-01

    Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) have attracted millions of players in recent years. In MMOG, players organize themselves voluntarily and fulfill collective tasks together. Because each player can join different activities, one player may show different social relationship with others in different activities. In the paper we proposed the incremental label propagation algorithm to search the cliques accurately and quickly. Then we analyzed community structure characteristics on multi-ac...

  18. Community resilience assessment and literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M; Walsh, John J

    2015-01-01

    Earlier and current disaster-related research emphasised the sociological/behavioural perspective. This led to a significant amount of literature devoted to descriptive context of natural, man-made and technological disasters and sequelae. This paper considers a next step involving a more expanded approach in research methodology. The phases include: (1) the development of a comprehensive database of ideas provided by authors of scholarly and scientific papers; (2) the development of computer-supported algorithms to prepare an array of scenarios representing relationships, gaps and inconsistencies in existing knowledge; (3) a process for evaluating the scenarios to determine a feasible and interesting next research strategy or programmatic action that will provide enhanced description of the problems as well as possible insights to their correction by interventions. The intent is to develop interventions as an essential component for better prevention, mitigation, rehabilitation, reconstruction and problem-solving affected by disaster events. To illustrate this approach, community resilience, a relatively new and important idea was studied. The phrase was used to describe relationships and omissions. The ideas associated with this central idea were considered in the building of a new instrument for evaluation of community vulnerability and readiness. This methodology addresses the time constraints realised by practitioners and investigators. The methods should eliminate tedious, clerical functions and focus on the intellectual functions representing optimal use of human energy. PMID:26420398

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community in kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Cakar, Atilla; Dogan, Haluk; Abaci, Neslihan; Ustek, Duran; Sayood, Khalid; Can, Handan

    2014-08-01

    Kefir grains as a probiotic have been subject to microbial community identification using culture-dependent and independent methods that target specific strains in the community, or that are based on limited 16S rRNA analysis. We performed whole genome shotgun pyrosequencing using two Turkish Kefir grains. Sequencing generated 3,682,455 high quality reads for a total of ?1.6 Gbp of data assembled into 6151 contigs with a total length of ?24 Mbp. Species identification mapped 88.16% and 93.81% of the reads rendering 4 Mpb of assembly that did not show any homology to known bacterial sequences. Identified communities in the two grains showed high concordance where Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus with a mapped abundance of 99.42% and 99.79%. This genus was dominantly represented by three species Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus helveticus with a total mapped abundance of 97.63% and 98.74%. We compared and verified our findings with 16S pyrosequencing and model based 16S data analysis. Our results suggest that microbial community profiling using whole genome shotgun data is feasible, can identify novel species data, and has the potential to generate a more accurate and detailed assessment of the underlying bacterial community, especially for low abundance species. PMID:24750812

  20. Analysis of virtual communities supporting OSS projects using social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Toral Marín, Sergio Luis; Martínez Torres, María del Rocío; Barrero, Federico

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the behaviour of virtual communities for Open Source Software (OSS) projects. The development of OSS projects relies on virtual communities, which are built on relationships among members, being their final objective sharing knowledge and improving the underlying project. This study addresses the interactive collaboration in these kinds of communities applying social network analysis (SNA). In particular, SNA techniques will be used to identify those members pl...

  1. Metagenomics meets time series analysis: unraveling microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Karoline; Lahti, Leo; Gonze, Didier; de Vos, Willem M; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-06-01

    The recent increase in the number of microbial time series studies offers new insights into the stability and dynamics of microbial communities, from the world's oceans to human microbiota. Dedicated time series analysis tools allow taking full advantage of these data. Such tools can reveal periodic patterns, help to build predictive models or, on the contrary, quantify irregularities that make community behavior unpredictable. Microbial communities can change abruptly in response to small perturbations, linked to changing conditions or the presence of multiple stable states. With sufficient samples or time points, such alternative states can be detected. In addition, temporal variation of microbial interactions can be captured with time-varying networks. Here, we apply these techniques on multiple longitudinal datasets to illustrate their potential for microbiome research. PMID:26005845

  2. Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

  3. Reducing bias in bacterial community analysis of lower respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Geraint B.; Cuthbertson, Leah; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Wing, Peter A.C.; Pope, Christopher; Hooftman, Danny A. P.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Oliver, Anna; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce , Kenneth D.; van der Gast, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis offer greatly improved accuracy and depth of characterisation of lower respiratory infections. However, such approaches suffer from an inability to distinguish between DNA derived from viable and non-viable bacteria. This discrimination represents an important step in characterising microbial communities, particularly in contexts with poor clearance of material or high antimicrobial stress, as non-viable bacteria...

  4. A Large-Scale Community Structure Analysis In Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Understanding social dynamics that govern human phenomena, such as communications and social relationships is a major problem in current computational social sciences. In particular, given the unprecedented success of online social networks (OSNs), in this paper we are concerned with the analysis of aggregation patterns and social dynamics occurring among users of the largest OSN as the date: Facebook. In detail, we discuss the mesoscopic features of the community structure ...

  5. A microbial community analysis of the octocoral Eunicea fusca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Duque-Alarcón; Lory Z, Santiago-Vázquez; Russell G, Kerr.

    2012-09-15

    Full Text Available While there is a significant and growing body of knowledge describing the microbial communities of marine invertebrates such as sponges, there are very few such studies focused on octocorals. The octocoral Eunicea fusca is common on reefs in various regions of the Caribbean and has been the subject [...] of natural product investigations. As part of an effort to describe the microbial community associated with octocorals, a culture-independent analysis of the bacterial community of E. fusca was conducted. Specifically, a 16S rDNA clone library analysis was performed to provide baseline data. A total of 40 bacteria members from 11 groups were found. In general, Proteobacteria were the dominant group with a total of 24 species and ?-Proteobacteria represented the highest percentage of bacteria associated with E. fusca (27.5%). Other prominent groups observed were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, ?-Proteobacteria, Lentisphaerae and Nitrospirae. This is the first analysis of bacterial populations associated with the gorgonian E. fusca.

  6. Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Amundsen

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community...

  7. A Large-Scale Community Structure Analysis In Facebook

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a large-scale community structure detection and analysis applied to the largest Online Social Network actually existing, namely Facebook. This network gathers more than 500 millions users at 2011. The structure and the characteristics of this social network have been widely investigated during the last years. Although some related work focuses on analyzing clustering phenomena on a small scale, this is the first large-scale study which considers a significant sample of the network. The process of data mining from the social network platform is here described, in order to clarify how the required information has been acquired avoiding privacy related issues. Data have been collected adopting two different techniques of graph mining, and are here discussed accordingly to the structural properties of these samples which have been already investigated in previous works. To the purpose of discovering the community structure of the considered samples, we devised and described two efficient c...

  8. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These analyses have important application for species conservation and for predicting the regeneration of tree seedlings, and provide unique information about the interspecies interactions of New England forest communities during one of the most rich and dynamic phases of succession, allowing for more informed decisions to be made regarding the regrowth of forests following a high-intensity disturbance.

  9. Dynamic flux balance analysis for synthetic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Michael A; Hanly, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) is an extension of classical flux balance analysis that allows the dynamic effects of the extracellular environment on microbial metabolism to be predicted and optimised. Recently this computational framework has been extended to microbial communities for which the individual species are known and genome-scale metabolic reconstructions are available. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the emerging DFBA approach with a focus on two case studies involving the conversion of mixed hexose/pentose sugar mixtures by synthetic microbial co-culture systems. These case studies illustrate the key requirements of the DFBA approach, including the incorporation of individual species metabolic reconstructions, formulation of extracellular mass balances, identification of substrate uptake kinetics, numerical solution of the coupled linear program/differential equations and model adaptation for common, suboptimal growth conditions and identified species interactions. The review concludes with a summary of progress to date and possible directions for future research. PMID:25257022

  10. Seasonal and Spatial Changes of Microorganism Communities in Constructed Wetlands: A Community Level Physiological Profiling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Merlin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In constructed wetlands, microorganisms associated with plants are assumed to play a major role. A one-year survey was conducted in five vertical flow constructed wetland systems that had been operating from 2 months to 8 years in small French villages (100–500 People Equivalent to provide a better understanding of microbiological activity. The objective of our study was to highlight the most important factor generating variability between microorganisms communities compared to treatment performances. Results of community level physiological profiling using Biolog Ecoplates were analyzed using principal component analysis. The greatest microbial activity was observed in the oldest wetland during summer. Profiles of fed and rest bed were differentiated by the nature of the main carbon source metabolized. Whereas carbohydrates and carboxylic acids appeared to be better assimilated with fed beds, it seemed that phosphate compounds as well as amines allowed better growth in the plates inoculated with samples of rest beds. In all fed beds, the most important parameters affecting the diversity were the season and the age of the wetlands. There were only slight profile differences between surface and subsurface samples and between the first and second stage samples.

  11. Community-centric analysis of user engagement in Skype social network

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Giulio; Pappalardo, Luca; Kikas, Riivo; Pedreschi, Dino; GIANNOTTI, Fosca; Dumas, Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approaches to user engagement analysis focus on individual users. In this paper we address user engagement analysis at the level of groups of users (social communities). From the entire Skype social network we extract communities by means of representative community detection methods each one providing node partitions having their own peculiarities. We then examine user engagement in the extracted communities putting into evidence clear relations between topological and geographic...

  12. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  14. GeoChips for Analysis of Microbial Functional Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-09-30

    Functional gene arrays (FGA) are microarrays that contain probes for genes encoding proteins or enzymes involved in functions of interest and allow for the study of thousands of genes at one time. The most comprehensive FGA to date is the GeoChip, which contains ~;;24,000 probes for ~;;10,000 genes involved in the geochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, as well as genes involved in metal resistance and reduction and contaminant degradation. This chapter details the methods necessary for GeoChip analysis. Methods covered include preparation of DNA (whole community genome amplification and labeling), array setup (prehybridization steps), hybridization (sample and hybridization buffers), and post hybridization steps (slide washing and array scanning).

  15. Detecting network communities: an application to phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto F S; Rocha-Neto, Ivan C; Santos, Leonardo B L; de Santana, Charles N; Diniz, Marcelo V C; Lobão, Thierry Petit; Goés-Neto, Aristóteles; Pinho, Suani T R; El-Hani, Charbel N

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method to identify communities in generally weighted complex networks and apply it to phylogenetic analysis. In this case, weights correspond to the similarity indexes among protein sequences, which can be used for network construction so that the network structure can be analyzed to recover phylogenetically useful information from its properties. The analyses discussed here are mainly based on the modular character of protein similarity networks, explored through the Newman-Girvan algorithm, with the help of the neighborhood matrix . The most relevant networks are found when the network topology changes abruptly revealing distinct modules related to the sets of organisms to which the proteins belong. Sound biological information can be retrieved by the computational routines used in the network approach, without using biological assumptions other than those incorporated by BLAST. Usually, all the main bacterial phyla and, in some cases, also some bacterial classes corresponded totally (100%) or to a great extent (>70%) to the modules. We checked for internal consistency in the obtained results, and we scored close to 84% of matches for community pertinence when comparisons between the results were performed. To illustrate how to use the network-based method, we employed data for enzymes involved in the chitin metabolic pathway that are present in more than 100 organisms from an original data set containing 1,695 organisms, downloaded from GenBank on May 19, 2007. A preliminary comparison between the outcomes of the network-based method and the results of methods based on Bayesian, distance, likelihood, and parsimony criteria suggests that the former is as reliable as these commonly used methods. We conclude that the network-based method can be used as a powerful tool for retrieving modularity information from weighted networks, which is useful for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21573202

  16. An Analysis of Health Care Assessments Used for Sustaining Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vereda Johnson Williams

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the needs for creating realistic health care assessment methodologies. The informationacquired from health care assessments shape the policies which will ultimately sustain communities. Health careassessment tools and methods dictate the priorities of community health care. These priorities assist with thedevelopment of community health care research, the exploration of community based need initiatives and thedesign of pertinent policies which meet the demands of commu...

  17. The Ambivalence of Community: A Critical Analysis of Rural Education's Oldest Trope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of community has been central to the discourse of rural education for generations. At the same time, community has been and continues to be a deeply problematic concept. I begin this analysis with Raymond Williams's characterization of the idea of community as a uniquely positive concept, arguing that this framing is, as Williams…

  18. USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING OF A REGIONAL COMMUNITY CANCER NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. In order to describe the network characteristics of the TBCCN as part of our ongoing evaluation efforts, we conducted ...

  19. Enhancing the Analysis of Rural Community Resilience: Evidence from Community land Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerratt, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Resilience, and specifically the resilience of (rural) communities, is an increasingly-ubiquitous concept, particularly in the contexts of resistance to shocks, climate change, and environmental disasters. The dominant discourse concerning (community) resilience centres around bounce-back from external shocks. In this paper, I argue that it is…

  20. Analysis of residential choice behavior at community scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kawano, Masaya; Yoshitake, Tetsunobu; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    The complex problems shared by many cities throughout Japan are evidence of the impacts of land use plans that have been poorly designed and managed. Most of the existing plans in Japan have focused on the metropolitan areas but nowadays the physical layout or land use of communities is fundamental to sustainability. Community sustainability requires a transition from poorly-managed large-scale plans to land use planning practices at the community scale that maintain efficient infrastructures...

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Communities That Care Outcomes at Eighth Grade

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Briney, John S.; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; CATALANO, RICHARD F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, a public health approach to reducing risk, enhancing protection, and reducing the prevalence of adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. The analysis is based on outcomes from a panel of students followed from Grade 5 through Grade 8 in a randomized controlled trial involving 24 communities in 7 states. Previous analyses have shown that CTC prevented the initiation of cigarette smo...

  2. Community Development in Israel and the Netherlands. A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ralph M.

    This exploratory study seeks to analyze and compare the practice of community work in The Netherlands and Israel, and the key variables shaping its character, role, and influence. The two countries are small, highly urbanized welfare democracies relying on central government financing of community and social work, and are characterized by…

  3. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Though there are at least 12.4 million community college students, accounting for 44% of all undergraduates within the United States (Cohen & Brawer, 2008), little academic research has explored the mental health needs of community college students as a distinct population ( Floyd, 2003; Townsend & LaPaglia, 2000; Townsend, Donaldson,…

  4. Community Robustness Analysis : Theoretical Approaches to Identifying Keystone Structures in Ecological Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world’s ecosystems suffer from stress caused by human activities such as habitat destruction, fragmentation, overexploitation of species and climate change. These factors affect the reproduction and/or survival of individual species as well as interactions between species in ecological communities. Forthcoming effects of this are altered abundances, direct species loss, and indirect cascading extinctions, with yet largely unknown consequences on community structure and functioning...

  5. New spectral approach for community structure analysis on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    A simple but efficient spectral approach for analyzing the community structure of complex networks is introduced. It works the same way for all types of networks by spectrally splitting the adjacency matrix into a "unipartite" and a "multipartite" component whose entries provide measures of the affinity or antagonism between the nodes in a manner that clearly reveals the communities and also provides additional information, including a ranking of the links and nodes and the highlighting of the "gateway" links that are important in connecting the communities together. Two algorithms are then proposed to achieve the actual partition into communities. These algorithms can be tuned to discard the overlaps and produce the most meaningful non-overlapping community structure.

  6. Finding Astronomical Communities Through Co-readership Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna; Bohlen, Elizabeth; Murray, Stephen S.

    2007-01-01

    Whenever a large group of people are engaged in an activity, communities will form. The nature of these communities depends on the relationship considered. In the group of people who regularly use scholarly literature, a relationship like ``person i and person j have cited the same paper'' might reveal communities of people working in a particular field. On this poster, we will investigate the relationship ``person i and person j have read the same paper''. Using the data logs of the NASA/Smi...

  7. Determining Biosignatures by Complexity Analysis in Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Bhartia, R.; Nealson, K. H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems of life detection is that of identifying biosignatures across a wide range of scales using multiple co-registered probes. The technique should be of equal utility across a wide range of search spaces from remote sensors probing volumes of space or planetary surfaces, visual eye or camera searches across the surface of a rock in Antarctica, low resolution microscopic scanning of a rock or a space craft in situ, or high resolution electron microscope and computerized tomography scanning of geobiological samples. We describe here an approach to this problem which derives in large part from past work done in the area of astrophysics - namely the analysis of complexity in galactic signals by data compression methods. This approach is a radically new one for geobiology and astrobiology, and allows us to assess the complexity (and thus potential biogenicity) of an object being examined. This is done by considering the information within pixels of an image (regardless the sensor used to gather the information) as an energetic system capable of description in terms of classical thermodynamics. The image data space is searched by an algorithm that judges complexity via data compression (e.g., the more compressible it is, the less complex, and vice versa) and maximum entropy as originally outlined by Shannon. At present we are implementing methods to utilize images from multiple sensors gathering different kinds of information (e.g., visible gray-scale data, color analyses, UV fluorescence, chemical information, etc). We present here preliminary data from deep UV fluorescence and ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) images from a layered cryptoendolithic community of an Antarctic rock.

  8. Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Amundsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community resources, community networks, institutions and services, people–place connections, active agents, and learning; are activated in processes and activities in the village to respond to current challenges. Although this corroborates findings from other community resilience research, this research suggests that community resilience is both complex and dynamic over time. Although communities may consider themselves resilient to today’s challenges, the rate and magnitude of expected systemic global changes, especially climate change, means that future resilience cannot be taken for granted. This work concludes that there is a risk that community resilience may be an illusion, leading to complacency about the need for adaption to multiple factors of change. Hence, the ability of communities to actively engage in reflexive learning processes is of importance for both adaptation and future resilience.

  9. A Unified Community Detection, Visualization and Analysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Crampes, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Community detection in social graphs has attracted researchers' interest for a long time. With the widespread of social networks on the Internet it has recently become an important research domain. Most contributions focus upon the definition of algorithms for optimizing the so-called modularity function. In the first place interest was limited to unipartite graph inputs and partitioned community outputs. Recently bipartite graphs, directed graphs and overlapping communities have been investigated. Few contributions embrace at the same time the three types of nodes. In this paper we present a method which unifies commmunity detection for the three types of nodes and at the same time merges partitionned and overlapping communities. Moreover results are visualized in such a way that they can be analyzed and semantically interpreted. For validation we experiment this method on well known simple benchmarks. It is then applied to real data in three cases. In two examples of photos sets with tagged people we reveal...

  10. Pyrosequencing analysis of eukaryotic and bacterial communities in faucet biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruyin; Yu, Zhisheng; Guo, Hongguang; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Hongxun; Yang, Min

    2012-10-01

    In order to understand the microbial communities in drinking water biofilms, both eukaryotic and bacterial communities in three faucet biofilms were characterized by 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR approaches. Microbial assemblages of the biofilms were dominated by bacteria, with Sphingomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Burkholderiales comprising the major bacterial populations. Although about 2 years of biofilm development occurred, the microbial community at site WSW still demonstrates the characteristics of a young biofilm community, e.g. low biomass, abundant aggregating bacteria (Blastomonas spp. and Acidovorax spp.) etc. Hartmannella of amoebae was the dominant eukaryotic predator in the biofilms, and correlated closely with biofilm bacterial biomass. Nonetheless, there was no obvious association of pathogens with amoebae in the faucet biofilms. In contrast, residual chlorine seems to be a dominant factor impacting the abundance of Legionella and Mycobacterium, two primary potential opportunistic pathogens detected in all faucet biofilms. PMID:22846772

  11. Analysis of Computer Science Communities Based on DBLP

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Maria; Dong, Cailing

    2010-01-01

    It is popular nowadays to bring techniques from bibliometrics and scientometrics into the world of digital libraries to analyze the collaboration patterns and explore mechanisms which underlie community development. In this paper we use the DBLP data to investigate the author's scientific career and provide an in-depth exploration of some of the computer science communities. We compare them in terms of productivity, population stability and collaboration trends.Besides we us...

  12. Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyokawa Satoshi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with the physician population and show which characteristics of a community determine its "attractiveness" to physicians. Methods Associations between the number of physicians and selected demographic/economic/life-related variables of all of Japan's 3132 municipalities were examined. In order to exclude the confounding effect of community size, correlations between the physician-to-population ratio and other variable-to-population ratios or variable-to-area ratios were evaluated with simple correlation and multiple regression analyses. The equity of physician distribution against each variable was evaluated by the orenz curve and Gini index. Results Among the 21 variables selected, the service industry workers-to-population ratio (0.543, commercial land price (0.527, sales of goods per person (0.472, and daytime population density (0.451 were better correlated with the physician-to-population ratio than was population density (0.409. Multiple regression analysis showed that the service industry worker-to-population ratio, the daytime population density, and the elderly rate were each independently correlated with the physician-to-population ratio (standardized regression coefficient 0.393, 0.355, 0.089 respectively; each p Conclusion Daytime population and service industry population in a municipality are better parameters of community attractiveness to physicians than population. Because attractiveness is supposed to consist of medical demand and the amenities of urban life, the two parameters may represent the amount of medical demand and/or the extent of urban amenities of the community more precisely than population does. The conventional demand-supply analysis based solely on population as the demand parameter may overestimate the inequity of the physician distribution among communities.

  13. Analysis on Influencing Factors of Community Safety Culture Based on the Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhixin; Jingzhen XU; Zhang, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research community safety culture building train of thought through the analysis of the influence factors of community safety culture, This study employs a Likert scale method for the design of questionnaire, investigate community through questionnaire, obtain the relevant data, and by use of the structural equation model (SEM) of statistics, puts forward that the factors including economy, society, education, since and technology, and management form important...

  14. Impact analysis and community development needs at the salt site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) has developed a socioeconomic program for a nuclear waste repository constructed in salt. The program is comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation, and impact monitoring. The first element, impact assessment, is the focus of ONWI's current activities. Socioeconomic data has been collected for seven salt sites in Texas, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana. Demographic, economic, community service, governmental and social structure information has been assembled into data base reports for each site area. These socioeconomic reports will be the basis for analyzing community-related impacts. Socioeconomic effects are currently being evaluated for the environmental assessment document required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The approach to evaluating socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment impact includes developing the data base necessary for evaluation; assessing impacts of baseline population projected by the states; assessing project-related impacts through the use of an inmigration model and responding to socioeconomic issues raised in public meetings and hearings. The siting, construction, and operation of nuclear repositories will involve an extended period of time and an increased workforce, which can result in some impacts similar to those of other large development projects. The communities affected by a repository site will face increased demands for housing, community services (transportation, sewer and water, schools, etc.) and land, as well as a desire to maintain the community's ''character''. The management of this expansion and other related community impacts should be structured to meet community needs and goals. The management process should include the formation of an impact management comment, a public participation program, and a technical assistance program

  15. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: "Omic" Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the "Omic" technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. "Omic" technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current "Omic" tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  16. Perspective for Aquaponic Systems: “Omic” Technologies for Microbial Community Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Fragozo, Perla; Alatorre-Jacome, Oscar; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernandez, Andres; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V.; Garcia-Trejo, Juan F.; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaponics is the combined production of aquaculture and hydroponics, connected by a water recirculation system. In this productive system, the microbial community is responsible for carrying out the nutrient dynamics between the components. The nutrimental transformations mainly consist in the transformation of chemical species from toxic compounds into available nutrients. In this particular field, the microbial research, the “Omic” technologies will allow a broader scope of studies about a current microbial profile inside aquaponics community, even in those species that currently are unculturable. This approach can also be useful to understand complex interactions of living components in the system. Until now, the analog studies were made to set up the microbial characterization on recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). However, microbial community composition of aquaponics is still unknown. “Omic” technologies like metagenomic can help to reveal taxonomic diversity. The perspectives are also to begin the first attempts to sketch the functional diversity inside aquaponic systems and its ecological relationships. The knowledge of the emergent properties inside the microbial community, as well as the understanding of the biosynthesis pathways, can derive in future biotechnological applications. Thus, the aim of this review is to show potential applications of current “Omic” tools to characterize the microbial community in aquaponic systems. PMID:26509157

  17. Funding Ohio Community Colleges: An Analysis of the Performance Funding Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Ohio's community college performance funding model that is based on seven student success metrics. A percentage of the regular state subsidy is withheld from institutions; funding is earned back based on the three-year average of success points achieved in comparison to other community colleges in the state. Analysis of…

  18. Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Sense of Community in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Demei; Nuankhieo, Piyanan; Huang, Xinxin; Amelung, Christopher; Laffey, James

    2008-01-01

    This study uses social network analysis (SNA) in an innovative way to describe interaction and explain how interaction influences sense of community of students in online learning environments. The findings reveal differences on sense of community between two similarly structured online courses, and show unique interaction patterns for students in…

  19. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  20. Shared Governance in the Community College: An Analysis of Formal Authority in Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines shared governance in Washington State's community and technical colleges and provides an analysis of faculty participation in governance based on formal authority in collective bargaining agreements. Contracts from Washington's thirty community and technical college districts were reviewed in order to…

  1. Course-Shopping in the Urban Community Colleges: An Analysis of Student Drop and Add Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Maxwell, William B.; Cypers, Scott; Moon, Hye Sun; Lester, Jaime

    This study examines the course shopping behaviors of approximately 5,000 community college students enrolled across the nine campuses of the Los Angeles Community College District in spring 2001. The sample students are representative of the district. For the purpose of this analysis, the authors define course shopping as: (1) cyclic shopping, the…

  2. Analysis of Computer Science Communities Based on DBLP

    CERN Document Server

    Biryukov, Maria; 10.1007/978-3-642-15464-5_24

    2010-01-01

    It is popular nowadays to bring techniques from bibliometrics and scientometrics into the world of digital libraries to analyze the collaboration patterns and explore mechanisms which underlie community development. In this paper we use the DBLP data to investigate the author's scientific career and provide an in-depth exploration of some of the computer science communities. We compare them in terms of productivity, population stability and collaboration trends.Besides we use these features to compare the sets of topranked conferences with their lower ranked counterparts.

  3. Seasonal and Spatial Changes of Microorganism Communities in Constructed Wetlands: A Community Level Physiological Profiling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Merlin; Florent Chazarenc; Jacques Brisson

    2010-01-01

    In constructed wetlands, microorganisms associated with plants are assumed to play a major role. A one-year survey was conducted in five vertical flow constructed wetland systems that had been operating from 2 months to 8 years in small French villages (100–500 People Equivalent) to provide a better understanding of microbiological activity. The objective of our study was to highlight the most important factor generating variability between microorganisms communities compared to treatme...

  4. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations. PMID:23350565

  5. Defining Campus Violence: A Phenomenological Analysis of Community Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Goldman, Emily Grey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive an empirically based understanding of campus violence. Grounded in a communication paradigm offered by sociolinguistic scholars, we adopted a phenomenological approach for conducting and analyzing 23 interviews from campus community stakeholders, including students, staff, faculty, administrators, and…

  6. Professional Communities and Student Achievement--A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomos, Catalina; Hofman, Roelande H.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 3 decades, the concept of professional community has gained considerable momentum in the theoretical and empirical studies in this field. At the same time, the concept has faced conceptual and methodological difficulties in that as yet no universal definition has been formulated and that its operationalization differs in the various…

  7. Control of Community Information: An Analysis of Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Karen E.; Wilkinson, Margaret Ann

    1996-01-01

    Explores the differences between information and referral agencies and online community networks from an information policy perspective. Analyzes which has control within the following six facets: agency ownership and governance, funding, information flow, access, ownership of information, and quality control. Confirms distinctive roles, and…

  8. FUTISTREFFIT : Participatory Action Research: analysis and evaluation of football as a community youth development tool

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseh, Cucu

    2012-01-01

    Wesseh Cucu. Thesis: Futistreffit – analysis and evaluation. Language: English. Content: 53 pages, 2 appendices. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. Focus: Community Development. Institution: Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Järvenpää The aim of this research is to examine football as a positive youth development tool for Learning-Integration. It focuses on community youth work and uses action research as the prime method of analysis and evaluation. The subject of researc...

  9. On the Analysis of a Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kothapalli, Kishore; Pemmaraju, Sriram V.; Sardeshmukh, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper initiates formal analysis of a simple, distributed algorithm for community detection on networks. We analyze an algorithm that we call \\textsc{Max-LPA}, both in terms of its convergence time and in terms of the "quality" of the communities detected. \\textsc{Max-LPA} is an instance of a class of community detection algorithms called \\textit{label propagation} algorithms. As far as we know, most analysis of label propagation algorithms thus far has been empirical in nature and in thi...

  10. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others. PMID:26133481

  11. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  12. Biogas from Livestock Manure : Microbial Community Analysis of Biogas Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen Forsberg, Ida-Renée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to monitor the microbial communities in two biogas reactors and evaluate the efficiency of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as a technique for visualizing shifts in the microbial compositions. The reactors were followed from September 2011 to May 2012. The first reactor is a pilot scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor situated at Foss farm outside of Porsgrunn, running on cow manure. The second reactor is lab scale and situated at Te...

  13. An analysis of open source principles in diverse collaborative communities

    OpenAIRE

    Coffin, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Open source culture and practice emerged as software hackers took control over the production, ownership and distribution of their skilled work. This revolution, quiet and unnoticed by most, began over twenty years ago. Along the way, free and open source software hackers developed organizational and dialog structures to support their ethos, creating a successful model for collaboration. This paper applies traits common to successful free software and open source hacker communities as a frame...

  14. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjelmsØ, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2014-01-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition.

  15. High-resolution melt analysis for rapid comparison of bacterial community compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Baelum, Jacob; Feld, Louise; Holben, William E; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-06-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized that HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition. PMID:24610853

  16. Newcomer Integration in Online Knowledge Building Communities: Automated Dialogue Analysis in Integrative vs. Non-Integrative Blogger Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Nistor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online knowledge building communities (OKBC reunite participants engaged in collaborative discourse. OKBCs can be made „smart“ by adding tools that predict how likely an OKBC is to integrate newcomers in existing dialogues and socio-cognitive structures. Starting from Bakhtin’s dialogical approach and polyphony theory, and building on the concept of inter- animation of voices, this study explores the relationship between newcomer integration and dialogue quality in OKBCs. The automated analysis tool “Important Moments” was employed to compare two dialogues, from an integrative and from a non-integrative blog-based OKBC. In the former, the concepts, lexical chains and inter-animation moments occurred more frequently than in the latter. Also, newcomer comments were linked to less lexical chains in the integrative community than in the non-integrative OKBC. These findings suggest close relationships between dialogue quality and newcomer integration, which can be used for designing smart OKBCs.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association, Provincial and District Health Offices. To practise such as stated by the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009. Conclusion: The Standards of Pharmaceutical Services and GPP requires prevailing role of pharmacists in community pharmacy in terms of time and capability Training or continuing development is also needed through upgrading, seminars, socialization and supervision in the community pharmacy practices which may involve cooperation with professional organizations needs to be improved. Key words: Pharmacist, Qualification, Community Pharmacy, Pharmacy Practices ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Di lndonesia sampai saat ini terdapat lebih dari 60 Perguruan Tinggi Farmasi dengan berbagai tingkat akreditasi. Penelitian sebelumnya menemukan bahwa Standard Pelayanan Farmasi belum dapat dilaksanakan sepenuhnya pada berbagai fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan (rumah sakit, puskesmas dan apotek karena keterbatasan kompetensi apoteker. Studi ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi kualifikasi apoteker yang melakukan pelayanan farmasi di apotek komunitas dalam rangka memenuhi ketentuan Undang-Undang RI No. 36 tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan. Sebagaimana diamanatkan oleh Undang-Undang pemerintah berkewajiban persyaratan mimimum yang harus dimiliki. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang ini dilaksanakan dalam tahun 2010 pada masing-masing 2 apotek komunitas di 3 kota, yaitu Bandung, DI Yogyakarta dan Surabaya. Sebagai responden penelitian selain 10 orang apoteker apotek komunitas juga diambil 6 apoteker dari 6 PT Farmasi, 3 apoteker dari Pengurus Ikatan Apoteker lndonesia dan 6 apoteker dari Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi dan Kota. Di samping data primer dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi dengan menggunakan daftar tilik di unit apotek, juga dikumpulkan data sekunder tentang SOP pelayanan farmasi, dokumentasi monitoring dan kurikulum PT Farmasi. Hasil: Analisis data secara kualitatif deskriptif menunjukkan bahwa kualifikasi apoteker yang memberikan pelayanan farmasi di apotek komunitas dalam rangka memenuhi ketentuan Peraturan Pemerintah No. 51 tahun 2009, Standard Pelayanan Farmasi di Apotek dan Good Pharmacy Practice bervariasi. Pada umumnya apoteker memahami perannya dalam pelayanan farmasi, tetapi untuk melaksanakannya sesuai dengan standard atau pedoman masih menghadapi berbagai kendala. Hal ini juga diakui oleh apoteker dari PT Farmasi, Pengurus lAI dan Dinas Kesehatan. Pelaksanaan sesuai dengan Undang­Undang RI No. 36 tahun 2009, Peraturan Pemerintah No. 51 tahun 2009. Kesimpulan: Standard Pelayanan Farmasi di Apotek dan GPP menuntut peran yang dominan dari apoteker di apotek komunitas dalam hal waktu dan kemampuan. Pelatihan dan pendidikan berkelanjutan juga dibutuhkan, antara lain melalui penataran, seminar, sosialisasi dan supervisi praktik farmasi di apotek komunitas yang mungkin melibatkan kerja sama dengan organisasi profesi dan PT Farmasi. Kata kunci: Apotek, Kualifikasi, Apotek Komunitas, Praktek Kefarmasian

  18. Identifying Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the concept of “aging in place” and potential policy implications, the study analyzed naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs; 40% or greater house owners and renters aged 65 years and older) and whether there were spatiotemporal patterns in Ohio between 2000 and 2010. Method Data were derived from the 2000 and 2010 census tracts. Geovisualization was used to visually examine the distribution of NORCs in 2000 and 2010. Global Moran’s I was used to quantify the spatial distribution of NORCs in Ohio and Local Moran’s I was used to identify clusters of NORCs (i.e., hot spots). Results The number of NORCs slightly decreased despite the overall increase of the older population from 2000 to 2010. NORCs were identified in one of the 3 most populous counties (i.e., Cuyahoga) and its neighboring counties. A number of hot spots were identified in Cuyahoga County (among Ohio’s most populous and NORC-rich counties), both in 2000 and 2010. There were different patterns including emerging, disappearing, and enduring NORCs and disproportionate distributions of NORCs across the state between 2000 and 2010. Discussion Locating NORCs could aid governments to create “aging in place” sensitive policies to address issues of independence, social care, health care, volunteerism, and community participation. PMID:24958694

  19. Evaluation of SOVAT: An OLAP-GIS decision support system for community health assessment data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Parmanto Bambang; Scotch Matthew; Monaco Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Data analysis in community health assessment (CHA) involves the collection, integration, and analysis of large numerical and spatial data sets in order to identify health priorities. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) enable for management and analysis using spatial data, but have limitations in performing analysis of numerical data because of its traditional database architecture. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a multidimensional datawarehouse designed to facil...

  20. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob; Feld, Louise; Holben, William E.; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-01-01

    HRM analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes from a soil ecosystem could be used as a screening tool to identify changes in bacterial community structure. This hypothesis was tested using a soil microcosm setup exposed to a total of six treatments representing different combinations of pesticide and...... fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon...... sequencing. HRM analysis was shown to be a fast, high-throughput technique that can serve as an effective alternative to gel-based screening methods to monitor microbial community composition....

  1. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Qian, Depei; Zhang, Han; Cai, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network’s stability by adjusting the network’s properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability. PMID:26551649

  2. A global meta-analysis of the relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Andrew; Violle, Cyrille; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Albert, Cécile H; Taudiere, Adrien; Fajardo, Alex; Aarssen, Lonnie W; Baraloto, Christopher; Carlucci, Marcos B; Cianciaruso, Marcus V; de L Dantas, Vinícius; de Bello, Francesco; Duarte, Leandro D S; Fonseca, Carlos R; Freschet, Grégoire T; Gaucherand, Stéphanie; Gross, Nicolas; Hikosaka, Kouki; Jackson, Benjamin; Jung, Vincent; Kamiyama, Chiho; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Kembel, Steven W; Kichenin, Emilie; Kraft, Nathan J B; Lagerström, Anna; Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann Le; Li, Yuanzhi; Mason, Norman; Messier, Julie; Nakashizuka, Tohru; Overton, Jacob McC; Peltzer, Duane A; Pérez-Ramos, I M; Pillar, Valério D; Prentice, Honor C; Richardson, Sarah; Sasaki, Takehiro; Schamp, Brandon S; Schöb, Christian; Shipley, Bill; Sundqvist, Maja; Sykes, Martin T; Vandewalle, Marie; Wardle, David A

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that accounting for intraspecific trait variation (ITV) may better address major questions in community ecology. However, a general picture of the relative extent of ITV compared to interspecific trait variation in plant communities is still missing. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relative extent of ITV within and among plant communities worldwide, using a data set encompassing 629 communities (plots) and 36 functional traits. Overall, ITV accounted for 25% of the total trait variation within communities and 32% of the total trait variation among communities on average. The relative extent of ITV tended to be greater for whole-plant (e.g. plant height) vs. organ-level traits and for leaf chemical (e.g. leaf N and P concentration) vs. leaf morphological (e.g. leaf area and thickness) traits. The relative amount of ITV decreased with increasing species richness and spatial extent, but did not vary with plant growth form or climate. These results highlight global patterns in the relative importance of ITV in plant communities, providing practical guidelines for when researchers should include ITV in trait-based community and ecosystem studies. PMID:26415616

  3. Analysis of the microbial community and geochemistry of a sediment core from Great Slave Lake, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jesmine; Woodward, John; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Christoffersen, Poul; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Sediment cores taken from Great Slave Lake, Canada, were analysed to investigate their metabolically active microbial populations and geochemistry. The amplification of cDNA detected metabolically active bacterial (50 separate bands) and archaeal (49 separate band) communities. The bacterial communities were further resolved indicating active actinobacterial and ?-proteobacterial communities (36 and 43 individual bands respectively). Redundancy discriminate analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing demonstrated the significant impact of geochemical parameters on microbial community structures. Geochemical analyses suggest that the upper 0.4 m represents soil weathering and erosion in the lake catchment. An increase in organic carbon in the lower core suggests either more primary productivity, indicating warmer climate conditions, associated with Holocene Climatic Optimum conditions pre 5,000 years BP or change from a reducing environment in the lower core to an oxidizing environment during more recent deposition. Drivers for bacterial, archaeal and actinobacterial community structures were sediment particle size, and its mineral composition. Depth also significantly affected ?- proteobacterial community structure. In contrast the organic carbon content did not significantly shape the microbial community structures within the sediment. This study indicates that geochemical parameters significantly contribute to microbial community structure in these sediments. PMID:20803250

  4. Analysis of the cost of water use in selected local communities

    OpenAIRE

    ?erkez, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The graduation thesis includes the presentation of prices of municipial services and analysis of the cost of water use for the average Slovenian household in the sample of local communities. Under the concept of water use is dealt with municipal services within the mandatory local public services of environmental protection as water supply service and drainage and treatment of waste water. The selection of local communities was based on the criterion of the river basins in Slovenia and on the...

  5. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the community. PMID:26203872

  6. Regional-scale analysis of subtidal rocky shore community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien-Courtel, Sandrine; Le Gal, Aodren; Grall, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The French monitoring network, REseau BENThique (REBENT), was launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 2003 following the 1999 Erika oil spill. REBENT aimed to acquire baseline knowledge of coastal benthic habitat distributions with a special focus on biological diversity. This study analyzed data from 38 subtidal rocky reef sites collected by a single diving team of marine biologists along the coast of Brittany from 2004 to 2010. At each site, the depth limits of the algal belts were determined between 0 and -40 m Chart Datum (CD); the flora and fauna compositions and abundances were sampled at -3 and -8 m CD. A total of 364 taxa (156 flora and 208 fauna), belonging to 12 phyla, were identified. The results showed that the depth limit and density of kelp beds increased as water turbidity decreased; moreover, several changes in community structure could be related to water turbidity and temperature. Thus, northern and southern Brittany showed strong differences in diversity and structure of the dominant kelp species ( Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides). The results from this kelp habitat composition survey (dominant kelp species and indicator species) provided important information for local pressure assessments, like increases in turbidity. The data also provided a reference that could be useful for detecting changes in coastal water temperatures due to global warming.

  7. Metaproteomic analysis of bacterial communities in marine mudflat aquaculture sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui; Lin, Xiangmin; Guo, Tingting; Wu, Linkun; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria living in marine sediment play crucial roles in the benthic-pelagic interface coupling process. However, the complexity of the marine environment and the abundance of interfering materials hamper metaproteomic research of the marine mudflat environment. In this study, a modified sequential protein extraction method was used for marine mudflat sediment metaproteomic investigation. For marine sediment samples in cultured clam mudflat, more than 1000 protein spots were visualized in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map and 78 % of 194 randomly selected spots were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. We further applied this method to compare long-term clam aquaculture and natural mudflat sediment and identified 53 altered proteins from different microbe resources, which belonged to different functional categories or metabolic pathways. We found that proteins involved in stress/defense response process, ATP regeneration and protein folding more inclined to increase abundance while arginine biosynthesis and signal transduction process related proteins preferred to decrease in clam cultured mudflat sediment. Meanwhile, proteins were abundant in pathogens of bivalves, such as Vibrio and Photobacterium, and decreased in Acinetobacter, after about 8 months clam cultured. Furthermore, the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was performed to compare microbial community composition between sediments mentioned above. Results showed that the top three enrich genera in natural sediment were Cytophaga, Butyrivibrio and Spirochaeta, while Cytophaga, Spirochaeta and Azoarcus were found enrichment in long-term mudflat aquaculture sediment. PMID:26169485

  8. Investigating Student Communities with Network Analysis of Interactions in a Physics Learning Center

    CERN Document Server

    Brewe, Eric; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sense of community among students is one of the three pillars of an overall reform effort to increase participation in physics, and the sciences more broadly, at Florida International University. The emergence of a research and learning community, embedded within a course reform effort, has contributed to increased recruitment and retention of physics majors. Finn and Rock [1] link the academic and social integration of students to increased rates of retention. We utilize social network analysis to quantify interactions in Florida International University's Physics Learning Center (PLC) that support the development of academic and social integration,. The tools of social network analysis allow us to visualize and quantify student interactions, and characterize the roles of students within a social network. After providing a brief introduction to social network analysis, we use sequential multiple regression modeling to evaluate factors which contribute to participation in the learning community. ...

  9. Simulation and Strategy Analysis of the Eco-community Planning by Using of Computer Software Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jingxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the living comfort level of the low-income groups, and the belonging of the affordable housing community residents, the research group take Nanyang green community housing design as the research object, using the computer software for community planning phase of the thermal environment, wind environment, light environment for simulation analysis. The result showed the micro-climate, thermal environment, and adjusting the temperature of the district as well which is the affordable housing community worthy of promotion of green building technologies for small and medium-sized cities. It also provides the reference for the similar project planning in the process of ventilation, lighting, shading, such as green design strategy research.

  10. Sport participation analysis: an empirical study on an academic community

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Pedro Miguel Monteiro; Campos, José de; Miguel Dávila, José Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Information about Sport Participation Index (SPI) is a critical factor in the sport development process. Socio-demographic data can be a cost effective instrument to increase efficiency of local policies that promote sport participation (SP). Although bibliography about SP is vast, the analysis and comparison of previous works is complex due to heterogeneity in methodologies. There is an enormous disparity in SP results in Portugal: Marivoet (2001) refers that SPI in Portugal i...

  11. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Salhi, Carmel; Achille, Erline; Baril, Nashira; D'Entremont, Kerrie; Grullon, Milagro; Judge, Christine; Oppenheimer, Sarah; Reeves, Chrasandra; Savage, Clara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT). As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate). Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree) increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity). We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications). We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement). The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities. The findings support investment in infrastructure-building and intersectoral mobilization in addressing disparities and highlight the benefits of using CBPR approaches for such work. PMID:22384156

  12. Assessment of diversity indices for the characterization of the soil prokaryotic community by metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    The diversity indices used in ecology for assessing the metagenomes of soil prokaryotic communities at different phylogenetic levels were compared. The following indices were considered: the number of detected taxa and the Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices. The diversity analysis of the prokaryotic communities in the upper horizons of a typical chernozem (Haplic Chernozem (Pachic)), a dark chestnut soil (Haplic Kastanozem (Chromic)), and an extremely arid desert soil (Endosalic Calcisol (Yermic)) was based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The Menhinick, Margalef, Chao1, and ACE indices gave similar results for the classification of the communities according to their diversity levels; the Simpson index gave good results only for the high-level taxa (phyla); the best results were obtained with the Shannon index. In general, all the indices used showed a decrease in the diversity of the soil prokaryotes in the following sequence: chernozem > dark chestnut soil > extremely arid desert soil.

  13. The Sustainable Communities Act: Analysis of Proposals Submitted by Councils. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Monica; Featherstone, Gill; Bielby, Gill; Passy, Rowena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate the findings from an analysis of the proposals submitted by English councils under the Sustainable Communities Act for England 2007 (SCA), conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) in August/September 2009, as requested by the Local Government Association (LGA). It aims to…

  14. Evaluation for Community-Based Programs: The Integration of Logic Models and Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne; Van Deusen, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the utility of and value of the use of logic models for program evaluation of community-based programs and more specifically, the integration of logic models and factor analysis to develop and revise a survey as part of an effective evaluation plan. Principal results: Diverse stakeholders with varying outlooks used a logic…

  15. Bacterial community and proteome analysis of fresh-cut lettuce as affected by packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; De Rossi, Patrizia; Paganin, Patrizia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Lecce, Francesca; Capodicasa, Cristina; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Mengoni, Alessio; Bacci, Giovanni; Daroda, Lorenza; Dalmastri, Claudia; Donini, Marcello; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of fresh-cut vegetables, a variety of packaging films are produced specifically to improve safety and quality of the fresh vegetables over the storage period. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of different packaging films on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce analyzing changes in bacterial community composition and modifications at the proteome level, by means of culture-dependent/culture-independent methods and differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis. Total viable counts indicated the presence of a highly variable and complex microbial flora, around a mean value of 6.26 log10 CFU g(-1). Analysis of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism data indicated that bacterial communities changed with packaging films and time, showing differences in community composition and diversity indices between the commercially available package (F) and the new packages (A and C), in the first days after packaging. Also proteomic analysis revealed significant changes, involving proteins related to energy metabolism, photosynthesis, plant defense and oxidative stress processes, between F and A/C packages. In conclusion, microbiological and proteomic analysis have proved to be powerful tools to provide new insights into both the composition of leaf-associated bacterial communities and protein content of fresh-cut lettuce during the shelf-life storage process. PMID:26511951

  16. Critical Social Network Analysis in Community Colleges: Peer Effects and Credit Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the importance of conducting critical social network analysis (CSNA) in higher education. To illustrate the benefits of CSNA, the authors use existing institutional data to examine peer effects in community colleges. The chapter ends with a discussion of the implications of using a CSNA approach to measure inequities in…

  17. Analysis of the attempt to establish a community currency into a Scottish Neighbourhood; focusing on community participation and engagement

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, James

    2012-01-01

    The Transition Town Movement is a grassroots, community development movement which emerged in the UK and which aims to make communities more sustainable, stronger and more resilient in the face of environmental, economic and social problems we currently face. One initiative which has been adopted by the Transition Town Movement is community currencies; a broad term for a currency that operates within defined boundary (such as a community), alongside national currency and which facilitates th...

  18. Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Toyokawa Satoshi; Noguchi Satomi; Inoue Kazuo; Matsumoto Masatoshi; Kajii Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with t...

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Brian E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral enteric disease is an ongoing economic burden to poultry producers worldwide, and despite considerable research, no single virus has emerged as a likely causative agent and target for prevention and control efforts. Historically, electron microscopy has been used to identify suspect viruses, with many small, round viruses eluding classification based solely on morphology. National and regional surveys using molecular diagnostics have revealed that suspect viruses continuously circulate in United States poultry, with many viruses appearing concomitantly and in healthy birds. High-throughput nucleic acid pyrosequencing is a powerful diagnostic technology capable of determining the full genomic repertoire present in a complex environmental sample. We utilized the Roche/454 Life Sciences GS-FLX platform to compile an RNA virus metagenome from turkey flocks experiencing enteric disease. This approach yielded numerous sequences homologous to viruses in the BLAST nr protein database, many of which have not been described in turkeys. Our analysis of this turkey gut RNA metagenome focuses in particular on the turkey-origin members of the Picornavirales, the Caliciviridae, and the turkey Picobirnaviruses.

  20. Comparative analysis of cyanobacterial communities from polluted reservoirs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Book; Moon, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Sung-Taik; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Kim, Chi-Kyung

    2004-09-01

    Cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophic bacteria in water environments. Here, the diversity of cyanobacteria in seven Korean reservoir waters where different levels of algal blooms were observed during the summer of 2002, was examined by T-RFLP analysis. The number of T-RF bands in the HaeIII T-RFLP profiles analyzed from those water samples ranged from 20 to 44. Of these, cyanobacteria accounted for 6.1 to 27.2% of the total bacteria. The water samples could be clustered into 2 groups according to the Dice coefficient of the T-RF profiles. The eutrophic Dunpo and oligotrophic Chungju reservoirs were selected, and several representative clones from both reservoir waters analyzed for the nucleotide sequences of their 16S rDNA. The major clones were found to belong to the Microcystis and Anabaena species in the waters from the Dunpo and Chungju reservoirs, respectively, which was in agreement with the T-RFLP result. That is, the Microcystis and Anabaena species were dominant in the eutrophic and polluted Dunpo and oligotrophic Chungju reservoir waters, respectively. These results indicated that there is a correlation between prevalence of cyanobacterial species and levels of pollution in reservoir waters. PMID:15459645

  1. Biological soil crusts from arctic environments: characterization of the prokaryotic community and exopolysaccharidic matrix analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Ventura, Stefano; Mascalchi, Cristina; Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are highly specialized topsoil microbial communities widespread in many ecosystems, from deserts to polar regions. BSCs play an active role in promoting soil fertility and plant growth. In Arctic environments BSCs are involved in promoting primary succession after deglaciation, increasing moisture availability and nutrient immission at the topsoil. The organisms residing on BSCs produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in response to the environmental characteristics, thus contributing to the increase of constraint tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, together with the analysis of the chemical features of EPS, from BSC samples collected in several sites near Ny-?lesund, Norway. The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed through a metagenomic approach. Exopolysaccharidic fractions were quantified using ion-exchange chromatography to determine the monosaccharidic composition. Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the distribution of the EPS fractions. Abundance of phototrophic microorganisms, which are known to contribute to EPS excretion, was also evaluated. Results underlined the complexity of the microbial communities, showing a high level of diversity within the BSC sampled analyzed. The analysis of the polysaccharide composition displayed a high number of constituent sugars; the matrix was found to be constituted by two main fractions, a higher molecular weight (2 10 exp(6) Da) and a lower molecular weight fraction (EPS of BSCs matrix in relationship with the microbial communities in cold environments.

  2. Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in four main ethnic communities in Taiwan during 2005 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Pui-Jen Tsai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess spatial features of tuberculosis prevalence and their relationships with four main ethnic communities in Taiwan. Methods of spatial analysis were clustering pattern determination (such as global version of Moran’s test and local version of Gi*(d) statistic), using logistic regression calculations to identify spatial distributions over a contiguous five years and identify significant similarities, discriminant analysis to classi...

  3. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Childs Kevin L; Dickens C Michael; Sundaram Jaideep P; Childers Christopher P; Reese Justin T; Vile Donald C; Elsik Christine G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org) has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC) in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort...

  4. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob; Feld, Louise; Holben, William E.; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-01-01

    In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to ra...

  5. Separation of the bacterial species, Escherichia coli, from mixed-species microbial communities for transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Diane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of bacterial species interactions in a mixed-species community can be facilitated by transcriptome analysis of one species in the community using cDNA microarray technology. However, current applications of microarrays are mostly limited to single species studies. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to separate one species, Escherichia coli as an example, from mixed-species communities for transcriptome analysis. Results E. coli cells were separated from a dual-species (E. coli and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia community using immuno-magnetic separation (IMS. High recovery rates of E. coli were achieved. The purity of E. coli cells was as high as 95.0% separated from suspended mixtures consisting of 1.1 - 71.3% E. coli, and as high as 96.0% separated from biofilms with 8.1% E. coli cells. Biofilms were pre-dispersed into single-cell suspensions. The reagent RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, TX was used during biofilm dispersion and IMS to preserve the transcriptome of E. coli. A microarray study and quantitative PCR confirmed that very few E. coli genes (only about eight out of 4,289 ORFs exhibited a significant change in expression during dispersion and separation, indicating that transcriptional profiles of E. coli were well preserved. Conclusions A method based on immuno-magnetic separation (IMS and application of RNAlater was developed to separate a bacterial species, E. coli as an example, from mixed-species communities while preserving its transcriptome. The method combined with cDNA microarray analysis should be very useful to study species interactions in mixed-species communities.

  6. Learning Communities in Undergraduate STEM Education: A Quantitative Analysis of how Sense of Community Influences Retention of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, T.; Newman, P.

    2012-12-01

    Countless programs are aimed at retaining first year college students in their majors and at their institutions. Additionally, first year students in STEM majors are retained at lower rates, than non-STEM majors. Previous research has shown that students who leave the institution are not as academically and socially integrated into the campus community than students who persist at an institution. Residential learning communities can be thought of as a retention tool by enhancing the academic and social integration of their participants. Academic integration has historically been measured by academic success as indicated by GPA, while social integration has been more difficult to measure. We adapted the Sense of Community Index (SCI) as a measure of social integration. Sense of community (SOC) has been defined as ''a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together''. This quantitative study examines sense of community as a means of social integration and explores the relationship between learning communities, students' sense of community, and their intent to persist at a large public university and within their current major. An online survey of 60 first-year college students in a Natural Resources College, examined the relationships between learning community participation, sense of community, and student retention. A logistic regression of sense of community was very effective in predicting students' intent to stay or leave the institution. Structural equation models showed that sense of community was strongly positively related to a students' intent to stay or leave the institution for non-learning community participants, but not for learning community participants. We hypothesized that learning community participants sense of community needs would be more fully met than non-learning community participants. Learning community students showed a weak correlation between sense of community and intent to persist in their major, indicating that these students' departure decisions were based on factors other than sense of community. These finding were consistent with previous research of sense of community which has supported this construct as a needs based hierarchical theory. For example, if students' sense of community needs are met, then they can focus on higher level needs, such as academic success. Conversely, if students' sense of community needs are not being fully met, then this factor remains salient in terms of influencing their departure decision. Our results suggest that learning communities fulfill students' sense of community needs, thus this factor has less influence on learning community participants' decision to leave the institution than their counterparts who do not participate in a learning community. Our results suggest that learning communities are effective in fulfilling students' sense of community needs, thus allowing them to focus their energies on higher order needs such as academic success.

  7. Individual and community risk factors and sexually transmitted diseases among arrested youths: a two level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2009-08-01

    High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system. Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed to assess the influence of individual-level and community-level predictors on STD test results among arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility. Results from weighted two level logistic regression analyses (n = 1,368) indicated individual-level factors of gender (being female), age, race (being African American), and criminal history predicted the youths' positive STD status. For the community-level predictors, concentrated disadvantage significantly and positively predicted the youths' STD status. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:19224357

  8. Molecular community analysis of magnesium-rich bittern brine recovered from a Tunisian solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baati, Houda; Jarboui, Raja; Gharsallah, Néji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2011-12-01

    The microbial community of a magnesium-rich bittern brine saturated with NaCl (380-400 g/L) from a Tunisian solar saltern was investigated using a molecular approach based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and viability tests. The results revealed the existence of microbial flora. Viability test assessment showed that 46.4% of this flora was viable but not detectable by culturability tests. 16S rRNA genes from 49 bacterial clones and 38 archaeal clones were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Eleven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by the DOTUR program with 97% sequence similarity were generated for Bacteria. These OTUs were affiliated with Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. The archaeal community composition exhibited more diversity with 38 clones, resulting in 13 OTUs affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Diversity measurement showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the saturated pond. PMID:22107448

  9. Habitat niche community-level analysis of an amphibian assemblage at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behangana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Community structure was studied across six different habitat types in an amphibian assemblage constituted by 24 species belonging to five families, from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We employed a suite of different statistical methods, including univariate, multivariate, and Monte Carlo procedures to investigate the randomness/nonrandomness and the seasonal effects (wet versus dry season of the community assembly. We calculated for each species in each habitat type an index of relative abundance by using a time constrained counting technique, with 48 1-h counts for each habitat type. Co-occurrence was analysed by C score with 30 000 simulations; resource partitioning patterns by RA2 and RA3 algorithms with 30 000 simulations; and apparent dissimilarity among species in terms of habitat use by UPGMA dendrograms. After pooling data from wet and dry seasons, it resulted that the amphibian community was non-randomly assembled according to C-score analyses, but both RA2 and RA3 were unable to uncover any competitive structure for the dataset. Seasonal effects were evident, and although C score analyses confirmed a nonrandom structure for the community under study (particularly in wet season, RA3 showed that species with high relative abundance tended to significantly concentrate in one habitat type (swamp forest rather than to partition the habitat resource. UPGMA dendrograms grouped the species differently in dry versus wet seasons. Overall, the comparative evidence of 1 non-random community structure according to C-score analysis, and 2 absence of resource partitioning according to niche overlap null models analysis, suggests that community organization in Lake Nabugabo amphibians is generated by habitat affinities rather than by interspecific competition.

  10. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

  11. Sensitivity analysis in the WWTP modelling community – new opportunities and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Ruano, M.V.; Neumann, Marc B.; Ribes, J.; Gernaey, Krist; Ferrer, J.; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.van; Gujer, Willi

    2010-01-01

    A mainstream viewpoint on sensitivity analysis in the wastewater modelling community is that it is a first-order differential analysis of outputs with respect to the parameters – typically obtained by perturbing one parameter at a time with a small factor. An alternative viewpoint on sensitivity...... design (BSM1 plant layout) using Standardized Regression Coefficients (SRC) and (ii) Applying sensitivity analysis to help fine-tuning a fuzzy controller for a BNPR plant using Morris Screening. The results obtained from each case study are then critically discussed in view of practical applications of...

  12. Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition.

  13. A causal loop analysis of the sustainability of integrated community case management in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriot, Eric; Morrow, Melanie; Langston, Anne; Weiss, Jennifer; Landegger, Justine; Tsuma, Laban

    2015-04-01

    Expansion of community health services in Rwanda has come with the national scale up of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. We used a sustainability assessment framework as part of a large-scale project evaluation to identify factors affecting iCCM sustainability (2011). We then (2012) used causal-loop analysis to identify systems determinants of iCCM sustainability from a national systems perspective. This allows us to develop three high-probability future scenarios putting the achievements of community health at risk, and to recommend mitigating strategies. Our causal loop diagram highlights both balancing and reinforcing loops of cause and effect in the national iCCM system. Financial, political and technical scenarios carry high probability for threatening the sustainability through: (1) reduction in performance-based financing resources, (2) political shocks and erosion of political commitment for community health, and (3) insufficient progress in resolving district health systems--"building blocks"--performance gaps. In a complex health system, the consequences of choices may be delayed and hard to predict precisely. Causal loop analysis and scenario mapping make explicit complex cause-and-effects relationships and high probability risks, which need to be anticipated and mitigated. PMID:25779620

  14. Multivariate analysis of the crustacean plankton community of an acid reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicki, A.; DeCosta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The crustacean zooplankton in three stations of an acid water impoundment and in two less acid backwater stations were sampled during 1974. Principal components analysis indicated that the backwater plankton community differed from that of the lake and was associated with the difference in H/sup +/ concentration. The species characteristic of the backwater stations were Mesocyclops edax, Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Diaptomus pallidus, Daphnia parvula, and Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus, Bosmina longirostris was the most abundant and common species in the lake during the study period. A seasonal change at the three lake stations in the crustacean community from one dominated by Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Paracyclops fimbriatus poppei, and Eucyclops agilis to dominance by B. longirostris and Cyclops vernalis occurred. This season change was coincident with increases in both in vivo fluorescence and H/sup +/ concentrations. The differences between the lake and backwater communities and between the early and late season communities of the lake stations were highly significant according to a discriminant analysis of the data. 16 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

  16. “Does Community Make Any Sense?” A Semantic Analysis of the Term “Community” Among Albanian Immigrants and Italian Majority Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Mannarini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bridging Community Psychology and the Theory of Social Representations, the study was aimed at exploring how the concept of community and sense of belonging to various communities vary across diverse ethno-cultural groups (namely, immigrant and native-born groups and how the meanings and the experience of community affect or are affected by the relationships that each group establishes with the other group. Participants were 30 native-born Italians and 30 immigrants from Albania living in an area located in the south-east of Italy. They participated in an open-ended semi-structured interview, which was analysed using T-Lab software. Results indicated that the concept of community and sense of belonging to multiple communities do vary across diverse ethno-cultural groups and that each group is cross-cut by multiple axes of differentiation, one of which is linked to the experience of inter-cultural relations. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the functions served by the diverse communities affect the representations shared by the distinct sub-groups and that the simultaneous orientation of individuals toward multiple communities stimulate the development of a compound and even conflicting sense of attachment towards them. Implications for acculturation processes are discussed.

  17. Analysis of domestic tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities: specialization and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Benítez Rochel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of shift share analysis ofnational tourism between the Spanish peninsular autonomous communities withovernight stays in hotels data. Thus, it achieves a more complete interpretation ofthe available statistical information. Among other things, it allows us to know theposition which each region has in terms of specialization and competitive advantageand, hence, the potential markets for development can be identified.

  18. Constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis: hints from community sampling

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A set of methodology for constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis of community sampling data was presented in this study. Nearly 30 data sets at different levels of taxa for different sampling seasons and locations were used to construct networks and find network properties. I defined the network constructed by Pearson linear correlation is the linear network, and the network constructed by quasi-linear correlation measure (e.g., Spearman correlation) is the quasi-...

  19. Spectral methods for the detection of network community structure: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2010-01-01

    Spectral analysis has been successfully applied at the detection of community structure of networks, respectively being based on the adjacency matrix, the standard Laplacian matrix, the normalized Laplacian matrix, the modularity matrix, the correlation matrix and several other variants of these matrices. However, the comparison between these spectral methods is less reported. More importantly, it is still unclear which matrix is more appropriate for the detection of communi...

  20. Analysis of a Pool of Small Plasmids from Soil Heterotrophic Cultivable Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Bevivino, Annamaria; Dalmastri, Claudia; Fani, Renato

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the plasmid presence on soil aerobic cultivable heterotrophic bacterial communities was carried out checking a panel of 1,200 isolates, in order to establish the frequency of plasmid presence as well as the degree of plasmid flow between strains affiliated to the same or different taxon. Bacterial communities were isolated from two different sites of a 13-year experimental field with a clay-silt texture. Plasmid molecules were detected at low frequency (27 isolates, 2%) with a size ranging between 2 Kb and 40 Kb. The RAPD analysis performed on the plasmid-harboring isolates and the phylogenetic analysis of the whole community using the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the existence of transfer of the same plasmids between strains belonging to the same species and, in some cases, to different species of the same genus. As it might be expected, even though the viable cells title did not differ significantly between the two samplings, the overall data disclosed an uneven distribution of both species and plasmid-harboring strains. PMID:26464609

  1. Analysis of Bacterial Communities during Clostridium difficile Infection in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, Ekaterina G; Poroyko, Valeriy A; Johnston, Pehga F; Jones, Sara E; Knight, Katherine L; Gerding, Dale N; Driks, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of health care-associated disease. CDI initiates with ingestion of C. difficile spores, germination in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and then colonization of the large intestine. The interactions between C. difficile cells and other bacteria and with host mucosa during CDI remain poorly understood. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that, in a mouse model of CDI, C. difficile resides in multicellular communities (biofilms) in association with host mucosa. To do this, we paraffin embedded and then sectioned the GI tracts of infected mice at various days postinfection (p.i.). We then used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA probes targeting most bacteria as well as C. difficile specifically. The results revealed that C. difficile is present as a minority member of communities in the outer (loose) mucus layer, in the cecum and colon, starting at day 1 p.i. To generate FISH probes that identify bacteria within mucus-associated communities harboring C. difficile, we characterized bacterial populations in the infected mouse GI tract using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of bacterial DNA prepared from intestinal content. This analysis revealed the presence of genera of several families belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. These data suggest that formation of multispecies communities associated with the mucus of the cecum and colon is an important early step in GI tract colonization. They raise the possibility that other bacterial species in these communities modulate the ability of C. difficile to successfully colonize and, thereby, cause disease. PMID:26324536

  2. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the foundation for Malawi's road to early adoption of iCCM. PMID:26516153

  3. Does social media users’ commenting behavior differ by their local community tie? A computer–assisted linguistic analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weiai Wayne; Department of Communication at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York; Li, Liangyue; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Northeastern University in Boston, Mass.; Stefanone, Michael A.; Department of Communication at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York; Fu, Yun; Assistant Professor and Founding Director of the SMILE Lab in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Northeastern University at Boston, Mass.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an exploratory attempt to use automatic linguistic analysis for understanding social media users’ news commenting behavior. The study addresses geographically–based dynamics in human–computer interaction, namely, users’ tie to a geographic community. Specifically, the study reveals that commenting behavior differs between users of different levels of local community tie. Comments by local users, those with higher level of local community tie, exhibit different linguistic pattern...

  4. Bacterioplankton community analysis in tilapia ponds by Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li Min; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Geng Dong; Meng, Shun Long; Song, Chao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jia Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2016-01-01

    The changes of microbial community in aquaculture systems under the effects of stocking densities and seasonality were investigated in tilapia ponds. Total DNAs were extracted from the water samples, 16S rRNA gene was amplified and the bacterial community analyzed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing obtaining 3486 OTUs, from a total read of 715,842 sequences. Basing on the analysis of bacterial compositions, richness, diversity, bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, water sample comparisons and existence of specific bacterial taxa within three fish ponds in a 4 months period, the study conclusively observed that the dominant phylum in all water samples were similar, and they included; Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Chlorobi, distributed in different proportions in the different months and ponds. The seasonal changes had a more pronounced effect on the bacterioplankton community than the stocking densities; however some differences between the ponds were more likely caused by feed coefficient than by stocking densities. At the same time, most bacterial communities were affected by the nutrient input except phylum Cyanobacteria that was also affected by the feed control of tilapia. PMID:26712625

  5. MG-RAST, a Metagenomics Service for Analysis of Microbial Community Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Kevin P; Glass, Elizabeth M; Meyer, Folker

    2016-01-01

    Approaches in molecular biology, particularly those that deal with high-throughput sequencing of entire microbial communities (the field of metagenomics), are rapidly advancing our understanding of the composition and functional content of microbial communities involved in climate change, environmental pollution, human health, biotechnology, etc. Metagenomics provides researchers with the most complete picture of the taxonomic (i.e., what organisms are there) and functional (i.e., what are those organisms doing) composition of natively sampled microbial communities, making it possible to perform investigations that include organisms that were previously intractable to laboratory-controlled culturing; currently, these constitute the vast majority of all microbes on the planet. All organisms contained in environmental samples are sequenced in a culture-independent manner, most often with 16S ribosomal amplicon methods to investigate the taxonomic or whole-genome shotgun-based methods to investigate the functional content of sampled communities. Metagenomics allows researchers to characterize the community composition and functional content of microbial communities, but it cannot show which functional processes are active; however, near parallel developments in transcriptomics promise a dramatic increase in our knowledge in this area as well. Since 2008, MG-RAST (Meyer et al., BMC Bioinformatics 9:386, 2008) has served as a public resource for annotation and analysis of metagenomic sequence data, providing a repository that currently houses more than 150,000 data sets (containing 60+ tera-base-pairs) with more than 23,000 publically available. MG-RAST, or the metagenomics RAST (rapid annotation using subsystems technology) server makes it possible for users to upload raw metagenomic sequence data in (preferably) fastq or fasta format. Assessments of sequence quality, annotation with respect to multiple reference databases, are performed automatically with minimal input from the user (see Subheading 4 at the end of this chapter for more details). Post-annotation analysis and visualization are also possible, directly through the web interface, or with tools like matR (metagenomic analysis tools for R, covered later in this chapter) that utilize the MG-RAST API ( http://api.metagenomics.anl.gov/api.html ) to easily download data from any stage in the MG-RAST processing pipeline. Over the years, MG-RAST has undergone substantial revisions to keep pace with the dramatic growth in the number, size, and types of sequence data that accompany constantly evolving developments in metagenomics and related -omic sciences (e.g., metatranscriptomics). PMID:26791506

  6. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. PMID:25688567

  7. Use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA for supporting community forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadka C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management usually involves the use of criteria and indicators (C&I allowing the monitoring, reporting and assessment of management activities at national, regional and forest management unit levels. Experiences of such concepts are scarce in Nepal, particularly with regard to the evaluation of management activities within a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA framework. In this contribution we describe how a MCA approach can be used to efficiently exploit information, knowledge, and preferences of stakeholders to address community forest management problems. Beside rating and ranking techniques, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to examine the importance of six criteria and forty-four indicators in a sustainable forest management context with a broad range of stakeholder groups. An evaluation of four management strategies in the Shree Gyneshwar community forest user group allows to demonstrate the relevance of changing priorities for different criteria. A passive adaptive management strategy focusing on a multiple use of natural resources and the introduction of production-oriented measures were identified as the most preferable option. The results of this study show that the multi-criteria analysis approach, and in particular the AHP, can assist decision-makers in efficiently evaluating management problems and generating ideas for the long-term strategic planning process of community forest management, even under complex socio-economic and ecological conditions. In that context, compromise solutions enjoy a higher possibility of being successful, taking into account the different views of stakeholder groups.

  8. Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities in oil reservoirs from a southern offshore Brazilian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara D; Simioni, Karen C M; Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Dussan, Lucia J; Neto, Eugênio V S; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial community structure of two distinct oil samples from a petroleum field in Brazil by using both molecular, based on the construction of 16S rRNA gene libraries, and cultivation methods. Statistical comparisons of libraries based on Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) data revealed no significant differences between the communities recovered in the non-biodegraded (NBD) and highly biodegraded oils (HBD). BlastN analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of distinct ribotypes from both oils showed the presence of nine different bacterial genera in these samples, encompassing members of the genera Arcobacter, Halanaerobium, Marinobacter, Propionibacterium, Streptomyces, Leuconostoc, Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Streptococcus. Enrichments obtained using oil as inoculum and sole carbon source yielded bacterial isolates showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus sp., Dietzia sp. and Methylobacterium sp. Comparison between the data obtained using cultivation-independent and enrichment cultures suggests that different selection of community members may occur when using distinct approaches. All the organisms found, except for Leuconostoc sp. and Streptococus sp., have been previously reported in the literature as hydrocarbon degraders and/or associated to oil field environments. PMID:17072536

  9. On the Analysis of a Label Propagation Algorithm for Community Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kothapalli, Kishore; Sardeshmukh, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper initiates formal analysis of a simple, distributed algorithm for community detection on networks. We analyze an algorithm that we call \\textsc{Max-LPA}, both in terms of its convergence time and in terms of the "quality" of the communities detected. \\textsc{Max-LPA} is an instance of a class of community detection algorithms called \\textit{label propagation} algorithms. As far as we know, most analysis of label propagation algorithms thus far has been empirical in nature and in this paper we seek a theoretical understanding of label propagation algorithms. In our main result, we define a clustered version of \\er random graphs with clusters $V_1, V_2,..., V_k$ where the probability $p$, of an edge connecting nodes within a cluster $V_i$ is higher than $p'$, the probability of an edge connecting nodes in distinct clusters. We show that even with fairly general restrictions on $p$ and $p'$ ($p = \\Omega(\\frac{1}{n^{1/4-\\epsilon}})$ for any $\\epsilon > 0$, $p' = O(p^2)$, where $n$ is the number of nodes...

  10. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Zwi B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted.

  11. Analysis of strategic plans to assess planning for sustainability of comprehensive community initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Go, Sodam; Zinzow, Heidi; Gray, Aracelis; Barrett, Melissa Gutierrez

    2007-02-01

    In order to achieve the intended impact on a community, comprehensive community initiatives must sustain programs once they have been implemented. However, planning for sustainability is challenging and is rarely incorporated in the planning process of an initiative. The current study examined 19 5-year plans developed during the planning phase of the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to assess the extent to which the construct of sustainability was incorporated. The plan analysis was supplemented with results from other components of the complex evaluation design implemented as part of the process evaluation of Comprehensive Strategy. Results suggested that sustainability was not accounted for during the planning phase of this initiative. The implications of these findings, including the importance of planning for sustainability in order to achieve sustainability, are discussed. PMID:17689317

  12. An Analysis of Interactions Within and Between Extreme Right Communities in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    O'Callaghan, Derek; Conway, Maura; Carthy, Joe; Cunningham, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Many extreme right groups have had an online presence for some time through the use of dedicated websites. This has been accompanied by increased activity in social media websites in recent years, which may enable the dissemination of extreme right content to a wider audience. In this paper, we present exploratory analysis of the activity of a selection of such groups on Twitter, using network representations based on reciprocal follower and mentions interactions. We find that stable communities of related users are present within individual country networks, where these communities are usually associated with variants of extreme right ideology. Furthermore, we also identify the presence of international relationships between certain groups across geopolitical boundaries.

  13. Mean-variance portfolio analysis data for optimizing community-based photovoltaic investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Lee, Hyun Woo

    2016-03-01

    The amount of electricity generated by Photovoltaic (PV) systems is affected by factors such as shading, building orientation and roof slope. To increase electricity generation and reduce volatility in generation of PV systems, a portfolio of PV systems can be made which takes advantages of the potential synergy among neighboring buildings. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment [1]. We present a set of data relating to physical properties of 24 houses in Oregon, USA, along with simulated hourly electricity data for the installed PV systems. The developed Matlab code to construct optimized portfolios is also provided in . The application of these files can be generalized to variety of communities interested in investing on PV systems. PMID:26937458

  14. Metagenome analysis of a complex community reveals the metabolic blueprint of anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZiyeHu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anammox bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for up to 50% of global nitrogen loss. Because of their cost effective application in anaerobic nitrogen removal, the anammox bacteria are widely implemented in wastewater treatment. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium- Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants, but metagenomic information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of an enrichment dominated by ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’. The whole microbial community o\tf a granular sludge anammox reactor was sequenced using both illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The sludge was previously shown to have a ~50% enrichment of the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’ by 16S rRNA gene analysis. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571 nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase NirS that is responsible for the nitrite reduction of ‘Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. Scalindua profunda’. Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methane producing microorganisms and denitrifying methanotroph 'Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera'.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Fujie; Hiroyuki Daimon; Yoichi Atsuta; Muhammad Hanif

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysi...

  16. Strainer: software for analysis of population variation in community genomic datasets

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    Tyson Gene W

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomic analyses of microbial communities that are comprehensive enough to provide multiple samples of most loci in the genomes of the dominant organism types will also reveal patterns of genetic variation within natural populations. New bioinformatic tools will enable visualization and comprehensive analysis of this sequence variation and inference of recent evolutionary and ecological processes. Results We have developed a software package for analysis and visualization of genetic variation in populations and reconstruction of strain variants from otherwise co-assembled sequences. Sequencing reads can be clustered by matching patterns of single nucleotide polymorphisms to generate predicted gene and protein variant sequences, identify conserved intergenic regulatory sequences, and determine the quantity and distribution of recombination events. Conclusion The Strainer software, a first generation metagenomic bioinformatics tool, facilitates comprehension and analysis of heterogeneity intrinsic in natural communities. The program reveals the degree of clustering among closely related sequence variants and provides a rapid means to generate gene and protein sequences for functional, ecological, and evolutionary analyses.

  17. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility, with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29 and community-dwelling (n = 74 elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume and free water reserve (FWR was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  18. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability

  19. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. PMID:26611168

  20. Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity of marine ecosystems is integral to their stability and function and is threatened by anthropogenic processes. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of 216 studies to understand the effects of common contaminants upon diversity in various marine communities. The most common diversity measures were species richness, the Shannon-Wiener index (H') and Pielou evenness (J). Largest effect sizes were observed for species richness, which tended to be the most sensitive index. Pollution was associated with marine communities containing fewer species or taxa than their pristine counterparts. Marine habitats did not vary in their susceptibility to contamination, rather a ?40% reduction in richness occurred across all habitats. No class of contaminant was associated with significantly greater impacts on diversity than any other. Survey studies identified larger effects than laboratory or field experiments. Anthropogenic contamination is strongly associated with reductions in the species richness and evenness of marine habitats. - Contamination substantially reduces the biodiversity of marine communities in all major habitat types and across all major contaminant classes.

  1. Ecomorphological analysis of trophic niche partitioning in a tropical savannah bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis F; Herrel, Anthony; van Damme, R; Matthysen, E

    2002-06-22

    The exceptional diversity of neotropical bat communities is sustained by an intricate partitioning of available resources among the member species. Trophical specialization is considered an important evolutionary avenue towards niche partitioning in neotropical phyllostomid bats. From an ancestral insectivorous condition, phyllostomids evolved into highly specialized frugivorous, carnivorous, nectarivorous, piscivorous and even sanguivorous species. Previously, correlations between cranial morphology and trophic ecology within this group have been documented. Here, we examine the evolutionary relationships between bite force and head shape in over 20 species of bats from a single tropical savannah bat community. The results show that bite force increases exponentially with body size across all species examined. Despite the significant differences between large dietary groups using traditional analysis (i.e. non-phylogenetic) and the strong evolutionary correlations between body mass and bite force, phylogenetic analyses indicated no differences in bite performance between insectivorous, omnivorous and frugivorous bats. Comparisons of three species with highly specialized feeding habits (nectarivory, piscivory and sanguivory) with the rest of the species in the community indicate that specialization into these niches comes at the expense of bite performance and, hence, may result in a reduction of the trophic niche breadth. PMID:12065044

  2. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

    2014-01-01

    The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment. PMID:24600849

  3. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer. PMID:25384534

  4. Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Microbial Community Structure and Gene Expression of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

    2012-01-01

    The present study applied both metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to characterize microbial structure and gene expression of an activated sludge community from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. DNA and cDNA were sequenced by Illumina Hi-seq2000 at a depth of 2.4 Gbp. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST showed bacteria were dominant in both DNA and cDNA datasets. The taxonomic profile obtained by BLAST against SILVA SSUref database and annotation by MEGAN showed that ac...

  5. Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Banta, G.; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård

    2014-01-01

    This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors rang...... pulicaris. Furthermore, Culicoides riethi and Culicoides puncticollis (subgenus Monoculicoides) were recorded in high numbers on individual farms. C. puncticollis was found for the first time in Denmark and so far only recorded from Zealand....

  6. Evaluation of SOVAT: An OLAP-GIS decision support system for community health assessment data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmanto Bambang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data analysis in community health assessment (CHA involves the collection, integration, and analysis of large numerical and spatial data sets in order to identify health priorities. Geographic Information Systems (GIS enable for management and analysis using spatial data, but have limitations in performing analysis of numerical data because of its traditional database architecture. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is a multidimensional datawarehouse designed to facilitate querying of large numerical data. Coupling the spatial capabilities of GIS with the numerical analysis of OLAP, might enhance CHA data analysis. OLAP-GIS systems have been developed by university researchers and corporations, yet their potential for CHA data analysis is not well understood. To evaluate the potential of an OLAP-GIS decision support system for CHA problem solving, we compared OLAP-GIS to the standard information technology (IT currently used by many public health professionals. Methods SOVAT, an OLAP-GIS decision support system developed at the University of Pittsburgh, was compared against current IT for data analysis for CHA. For this study, current IT was considered the combined use of SPSS and GIS ("SPSS-GIS". Graduate students, researchers, and faculty in the health sciences at the University of Pittsburgh were recruited. Each round consisted of: an instructional video of the system being evaluated, two practice tasks, five assessment tasks, and one post-study questionnaire. Objective and subjective measurement included: task completion time, success in answering the tasks, and system satisfaction. Results Thirteen individuals participated. Inferential statistics were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis. SOVAT was statistically significant (α = .01 from SPSS-GIS for satisfaction and time (p Conclusion Using SOVAT, tasks were completed more efficiently, with a higher rate of success, and with greater satisfaction, than the combined use of SPSS and GIS. The results from this study indicate a potential for OLAP-GIS decision support systems as a valuable tool for CHA data analysis.

  7. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam : a stakeholder analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi

    2012-01-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP.A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis.Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP.It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve future RHSP in Vietnam and are also of relevance for health promotion in other minority population groups in the region and globally.

  8. Microbial community analysis of an Alabama coastal salt marsh impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, M. J.; Martinez, R.; Rajan, S.; Powell, J.; Piceno, Y.; Tom, L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Van Nostrand, J. D.; Zhou, J.; Mortazavi, B.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial community responses of an Alabama coastal salt marsh environment to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were studied by 16S rRNA (PhyloChip) and functional gene (GeoChip) microarray-based analysis. Oil and tar balls associated with the oil spill arrived along the Alabama coast in June 2010. Marsh and inlet sediment samples collected in June, July, and September 2010 from a salt marsh ecosystem at Point Aux Pines Alabama were analyzed to determine if bacterial community structure changed as a result of oil perturbation. Sediment total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranged from below detection to 189 mg kg-1 and were randomly dispersed throughout the salt marsh sediments. Total DNA extracted from sediment and particulates were used for PhyloChip and GeoChip hybridization. A total of 4000 to 8000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in marsh and inlet samples. Distinctive changes in the number of detectable OTUs were observed between June, July, and September 2010. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated a significant increase in the total number of OTUs between June and September that correlated with TPH concentrations. The most significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacterial richness in marsh sediments also correlated with TPH concentrations with significant changes primarily in Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria. GeoChip microarray analysis detected 5000 to 8300 functional genes in marsh and inlet samples. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated distinctive increases in the number of detectable genes and gene signal intensities in July samples compared to June. Signal intensities increased (> 1.5-fold) in genes associated with petroleum degradation. Genes related to metal resistance, stress, and carbon cycling also demonstrated increases in oiled sediments. This study demonstrates the value of applying phylogenetic and functional gene microarray technology to characterize the extensive microbial diversity of marsh environments. Moreover, this technology provides significant insight into bacterial community responses to anthropogenic oil events.

  9. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve future RHSP in Vietnam and are also of relevance for health promotion in other minority population groups in the region and globally. PMID:22258471

  10. Applying Social Network Analysis to Analyze a Web-Based Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Taie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available this paper deals with a very renowned website (that is Book-Crossing from two angles: The first angle focuses on the direct relations between users and books. Many things can be inferred from this part of analysis such as who is more interested in book reading than others and why? Which books are most popular and which users are most active and why? The task requires the use of certain social network analysis measures (e.g. degree centrality. What does it mean when two users like the same book? Is it the same when other two users have one thousand books in common? Who is more likely to be a friend of whom and why? Are there specific people in the community who are more qualified to establish large circles of social relations? These questions (and of course others were answered through the other part of the analysis, which will take us to probe the potential social relations between users in this community. Although these relationships do not exist explicitly, they can be inferred with the help of affiliation network analysis and techniques such as m-slice. Book-Crossing dataset, which covered four weeks of users' activities during 2004, has always been the focus of investigation for researchers interested in discovering patterns of users' preferences in order to offer the most possible accurate recommendations. However; the implicit social relationships among users that emerge (when putting users in groups based on similarity in book preferences did not gain the same amount of attention. This could be due to the importance recommender systems attain these days (as compared to other research fields as a result to the rapid spread of e-commerce websites that seek to market their products online. Certain social network analysis software, namely Pajek, was used to explore different structural aspects of this community such as brokerage roles, triadic constraints and levels of cohesion. Some overall statistics were also obtained such as network density, average geodesic distance and average degree.

  11. Integrated Community Energy Systems: engineering analysis and design bibliography. [368 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.; Sapienza, G.R.

    1979-05-01

    This bibliography cites 368 documents that may be helpful in the planning, analysis, and design of Integrated Community Energy Systems. It has been prepared for use primarily by engineers and others involved in the development and implementation of ICES concepts. These documents include products of a number of Government research, development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected studies and references from the literature of various technical societies and institutions; and other selected material. The key programs which have produced cited reports are the Department of Energy Community Systems Program (DOE/CSP), the Department of Housing and Urban Development Modular Integrated Utility Systems Program (HUD/MIUS), and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Integrated Utility Systems Program (HEW/IUS). The cited documents address experience gained both in the U.S. and in other countries. Several general engineering references and bibliographies pertaining to technologies or analytical methods that may be helpful in the analysis and design of ICES are also included. The body of relevant literature is rapidly growing and future updates are therefore planned. Each citation includes identifying information, a source, descriptive information, and an abstract. The citations are indexed both by subjects and authors, and the subject index is extensively cross-referenced to simplify its use.

  12. End to End Digitisation and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Coral Models, from Communities to Corallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Heredia, Luis; Benzoni, Francesca; Murphy, Emma; Reynaud, Emmanuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs hosts nearly 25% of all marine species and provide food sources for half a billion people worldwide while only a very small percentage have been surveyed. Advances in technology and processing along with affordable underwater cameras and Internet availability gives us the possibility to provide tools and softwares to survey entire coral reefs. Holistic ecological analyses of corals require not only the community view (10s to 100s of meters), but also the single colony analysis as well as corallite identification. As corals are three-dimensional, classical approaches to determine percent cover and structural complexity across spatial scales are inefficient, time-consuming and limited to experts. Here we propose an end-to-end approach to estimate these parameters using low-cost equipment (GoPro, Canon) and freeware (123D Catch, Meshmixer and Netfabb), allowing every community to participate in surveys and monitoring of their coral ecosystem. We demonstrate our approach on 9 species of underwater colonies in ranging size and morphology. 3D models of underwater colonies, fresh samples and bleached skeletons with high quality texture mapping and detailed topographic morphology were produced, and Surface Area and Volume measurements (parameters widely used for ecological and coral health studies) were calculated and analysed. Moreover, we integrated collected sample models with micro-photogrammetry models of individual corallites to aid identification and colony and polyp scale analysis. PMID:26901845

  13. FoodMicrobionet: A database for the visualisation and exploration of food bacterial communities based on network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Cocolin, Luca; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Ferrocino, Ilario; O'Sullivan, Orla; Neviani, Erasmo; De Angelis, Maria; Cotter, Paul D; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-02-16

    Amplicon targeted high-throughput sequencing has become a popular tool for the culture-independent analysis of microbial communities. Although the data obtained with this approach are portable and the number of sequences available in public databases is increasing, no tool has been developed yet for the analysis and presentation of data obtained in different studies. This work describes an approach for the development of a database for the rapid exploration and analysis of data on food microbial communities. Data from seventeen studies investigating the structure of bacterial communities in dairy, meat, sourdough and fermented vegetable products, obtained by 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing, were collated and analysed using Gephi, a network analysis software. The resulting database, which we named FoodMicrobionet, was used to analyse nodes and network properties and to build an interactive web-based visualisation. The latter allows the visual exploration of the relationships between Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and samples and the identification of core- and sample-specific bacterial communities. It also provides additional search tools and hyperlinks for the rapid selection of food groups and OTUs and for rapid access to external resources (NCBI taxonomy, digital versions of the original articles). Microbial interaction network analysis was carried out using CoNet on datasets extracted from FoodMicrobionet: the complexity of interaction networks was much lower than that found for other bacterial communities (human microbiome, soil and other environments). This may reflect both a bias in the dataset (which was dominated by fermented foods and starter cultures) and the lower complexity of food bacterial communities. Although some technical challenges exist, and are discussed here, the net result is a valuable tool for the exploration of food bacterial communities by the scientific community and food industry. PMID:26704067

  14. Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaevaara, M.; Suihko, M.-L.; Kapanen, A.; Piskonen, R.; Juvonen, R. [VTT Biotechnology, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

  15. Microbial community analysis of shallow subsurface samples with PCR-DGGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. The purpose of the research was to study the suitability of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) method for monitoring of hydrogeomicrobiology of Olkiluoto repository site. PCR-DGGE method has been applied for monitoring microbial processes in several applications. The benefit of the method is that microorganisms are not cultivated but the presence of microbial communities can be monitored by direct DNA extractions from the environmental samples. Partial 16SrDNA gene sequence is specifically amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) which detect bacteria as a group. The gene sequences are separated in DGGE, and the nucleotide bands are then cut out, extracted, sequenced and identified by the genelibraries by e.g. Blast program. PCR-DGGE method can be used to detect microorganisms which are present abundantly in the microbial communities because small quantities of genes cannot be separated reliably. However, generally the microorganisms involved in several environmental processes are naturally enriched and present as major population. This makes it possible to utilize PCRDGGE as a monitoring method. In this study, we studied the structure of microbial communities in ten ground water samples originating from Olkiluoto. Two universal bacterial primer sets were compared which amplified two different regions of the 16SrDNA gene. The longer sequence amplified resulted in fewer bands in DGGE, in addition there were problems with purification of the sequences after DGGE. The shorter sequence gave more bands in DGGE and more clear results without any amplification problems. Comparison of the sequences from the gene-libraries resulted in the detection of the same species by both primer sets, in addition some different species were detected. Several species were anaerobic bacteria, such as acetogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) indicating low redox potential of the samples. In addition phylogenetic trees were constructed for the sequences identified with both long and short primer sets. Phylogenetic trees were in good agreement with each other and indicated similar communties with both methods. In addition we also evaluated the suitability of primers amplifying SRB from the water samples. However, even though the microbial community analysis with the 16SrDNA gene indicated that SRB were present in the microbial community their amplification with the primers used was not successful. (orig.)

  16. An Analysis of the Collaborations between the California Workforce Investment Boards and the California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver-Dockins, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Various types of partnerships exist between community colleges and community agencies, groups, and organizations (Cohen & Brawer, 2003). Community colleges partner with business and industry, non-profit organizations, governmental agencies and other educational institutions. One such partnership is between California community colleges and…

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices for Treating Gastrointestinal Disorders Used by Communities Living in Three National Parks (Korea)

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Kim; Mi-Jang Song; Heldenbrand Brian; Kyoungho Choi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practi...

  18. Cambio : a file format translation and analysis application for the nuclear response emergency community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasche, George P.

    2009-10-01

    Cambio is an application intended to automatically read and display any spectrum file of any format in the world that the nuclear emergency response community might encounter. Cambio also provides an analysis capability suitable for HPGe spectra when detector response and scattering environment are not well known. Why is Cambio needed: (1) Cambio solves the following problem - With over 50 types of formats from instruments used in the field and new format variations appearing frequently, it is impractical for every responder to have current versions of the manufacturer's software from every instrument used in the field; (2) Cambio converts field spectra to any one of several common formats that are used for analysis, saving valuable time in an emergency situation; (3) Cambio provides basic tools for comparing spectra, calibrating spectra, and isotope identification with analysis suited especially for HPGe spectra; and (4) Cambio has a batch processing capability to automatically translate a large number of archival spectral files of any format to one of several common formats, such as the IAEA SPE or the DHS N42. Currently over 540 analysts and members of the nuclear emergency response community worldwide are on the distribution list for updates to Cambio. Cambio users come from all levels of government, university, and commercial partners around the world that support efforts to counter terrorist nuclear activities. Cambio is Unclassified Unlimited Release (UUR) and distributed by internet downloads with email notifications whenever a new build of Cambio provides for new formats, bug fixes, or new or improved capabilities. Cambio is also provided as a DLL to the Karlsruhe Institute for Transuranium Elements so that Cambio's automatic file-reading capability can be included at the Nucleonica web site.

  19. Voluntary Participation in Community Economic Development in Canada: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an empirical analysis of an individual's decision to participate in community economic development (CED initiatives in Canada. The objective of the analysis is to better understand how individuals make decisions to volunteer time toward CED initiatives and to determine whether the determinants of participation in CED are unique when compared to those of participation in volunteer activities in general. The dataset employed is Statistics Canada's 2004 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP. To date, there has been no prior econometric analysis of the decision to participate in community economic development initiatives in Canada. Results suggest a role for both public policymakers and practitioners in influencing participation in CED. / Cet article constitue une analyse empirique du processus de prise de décision chez les individus en ce qui a trait à la participation aux initiatives canadiennes de développement économique communautaire (DÉC. Le but de l'analyse est de mieux comprendre la façon dont les individus prennent la décision de consacrer du temps au bénévolat dans les initiatives de DÉC. Elle sert aussi à trancher la question de savoir si les facteurs de participation aux initiatives de développement économique communautaire sont uniques ou communs à la participation à des activités bénévoles en général. Les données employées dans le cadre de cette analyse sont puisées de l'Enquête canadienne sur le don, le bénévolat et la participation effectuée par Statistique Canada en 2004. À ce jour, aucune analyse économétrique n'a été menée sur la décision de participer aux initiatives canadiennes de DÉC. Les résultats suggèrent que les responsables de l'élaboration des politiques ainsi que les praticiens influencent tous deux la participation aux initiatives de DÉC.

  20. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures. PMID:25319238

  1. Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M. Venkateswar; Devi, M. Prathima; Chandrasekhar, K.; Goud, R. Kannaiah [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India); Mohan, S. Venkata, E-mail: vmohan_s@yahoo.com [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad 500 607 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of {gamma}-proteobacteria; 16.6% of {beta}-proteobacteria; 8.3% of {alpha}-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

  2. Comparative analysis of microbial community between different cathode systems of microbial fuel cells for denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xu, Ming; Lu, Yi; Fang, Fang; Cao, Jiashun

    2016-03-01

    Two types of cathodic biofilm in microbial fuel cells (MFC) were established for comparison on their performance and microbial communities. Complete autotrophic simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) without organics addition was achieved in nitrifying-MFC (N-MFC) with a total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 0.35?mg/(L·h), which was even higher than that in denitrifying-MFC (D-MFC) at same TN level. Integrated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis based on both 16S rRNA and nirK genes showed that Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria were the main denitrifier communities. Some potential autotrophic denitrifying bacteria which can use electrons and reducing power from cathodes, such as Shewanella oneidensis, Shewanella loihica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Starkeya novella and Rhodopseudomonas palustris were identified and selectively enriched on cathode biofilms. Further, relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria characterized by nirK/16S ratios was much higher in biofilm than suspended sludge according to real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest enrichment efficiency for denitrifiers was obtained in N-MFC cathode biofilms, which confirmed autotrophic denitrifying bacteria enrichment is the key factor for a D-MFC system. PMID:26278100

  3. Multilevel analysis of HIV related risk behaviors among heroin users in a low prevalence community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injecting drug users (IDU are at increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Their HIV prevalence however varies from place to place and may not be directly linked with the level of individual risk. This study explores the relative importance of individual and community level characteristics in the practice of HIV-related risk behaviors in IDU in Hong Kong where the HIV prevalence has remained low at below 1%. Methods Methadone clinics were used as the channel for accessing drug users in Hong Kong. HIV-related risk factors in drug users attending these clinics were retrieved from a questionnaire routinely administered to newly admitted and readmitted clients, and assessed using logistic regression and multilevel analyses. Results Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 41196 person-admissions were recorded by 20 methadone clinics. Male gender, older age and new admissions in bigger clinics located in districts with older median age were more likely to have engaged in HIV related risk behaviors including heroin injection, needle sharing, unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners (p Conclusion Multilevel analysis is a useful adjunct for determining the association between risk behaviors and both individual and community factors in IDUs, which can be demonstrated even in low HIV prevalence settings.

  4. Aerobic remediation of petroleum sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Enhanced aerobic-degradation of PAHs was noticed with increasing soil concentration. ? Lower ring PAHs showed superior degradation over higher ring PAHs. ? Role of dehydrogenase activity, redox pattern and dissolved oxygen was investigated. ? Community analysis detected survival of efficient aromatic degrading microorganisms. - Abstract: The effect of soil concentration on the aerobic degradation of real-field petroleum sludge was studied in slurry phase reactor. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed effective removal but found to depend on the soil concentration. Aromatic fraction (48.12%) documented effective degradation compared to aliphatics (47.31%), NSO (28.69%) and asphaltenes (26.66%). PAHs profile showed efficient degradation of twelve individual aromatic compounds where lower ring compounds showed relatively higher degradation efficiency compared to the higher ring compounds. The redox behaviour and dehydrogenase activity showed a linear increment with the degradation pattern. Microbial community composition and changes during bioremediation were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the 12 organisms identified, Proteobacteria was found to be dominant representing 50% of the total population (25% of ?-proteobacteria; 16.6% of ?-proteobacteria; 8.3% of ?-proteobacteria), while 33.3% were of uncultured bacteria and 16.6% were of firmicutes.

  5. Evaluation of phytoplankton community composition in the eutrophic Masan Bay by HPLC pigment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Bae; Hong, Sokjin; Lee, Won-Chan; Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hyung Chul; Cho, Yoonsik

    2015-03-01

    To assess the spatiotemporal changes in phytoplankton community composition in relation to the environment of Masan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southern coast of Korea, photosynthetic pigments and environmental variables were analyzed in seawater, every month between March and November 2010. The level of dissolved inorganic nutrients was highest between July and September when the freshwater influx was at its peak, whereas chlorophyll a level was highest in April and August. Phosphate concentration was low in April (average: 0.22 +/- 0.17 microM), indicating the role of phosphate as a growth-limiting factor for phytoplankton. The results of pigment analysis indicate that dinoflagellate blooms occurred under favorable conditions, where competition with diatoms occurred. Fucoxanthin- and chlorophyll b-containing phytoplankton dominated the surface layer of Masan Bay from July to September. The composition of phytoplankton community in Masan Bay changed dramatically each month according to variations in the amount and composition of nutrients introduced through surface runoff. PMID:25895275

  6. [Removal of BTEX by a biotrickling filter and analysis of corresponding bacterial communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-07-01

    The pre-acclimated microbial consortium and the activated sludge were used as start inoculums of a bench-scale biotrickling filter (BTF). The performance of the biotrickling filter on the removal of BTEX mixture was evaluated, and the changes in the bacterial community structure of the BTF were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the BTF could be acclimated within a short time, the biomass that adhered to the surface of packing materials increased rapidly from 5.7 mg x g(-1) at 10th day to 112 mg x g(-1) at 30th day. BTF could simultaneously remove all components of the BTEX mixture efficiently. The maximum removal capacity of the BTF was 216.6 g x (m3 x h)(-1), which was achieved with an inlet loading rate of 269.7 g x (m3 x h)(-1) and an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 39 s. DGGE analysis indicated that the dominant microorganisms may be derived from the pre-acclimated microbial consortiums rather than the activated sludge. Although the bacterial community changed with run time, the spatial distribution was very uniform. PMID:24027982

  7. GeoChip-based analysis of the functional gene diversity and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities of mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shijie; Li, Jiangwei; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Tian, Yun; Lin, Guanghui; Zhou, Jizhong; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-08-01

    Mangroves are unique and highly productive ecosystems and harbor very special microbial communities. Although the phylogenetic diversity of sediment microbial communities of mangrove habitats has been examined extensively, little is known regarding their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 4.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of microbial communities in mangrove habitats from mangrove national nature reserves in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 4.0 were detected in the mangrove microbial communities, including carbon (C) fixation, C degradation, methane generation, nitrogen (N) fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, N reduction, sulfur (S) metabolism, metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that Spartina alterniflora (HH), an invasive species, did not harbor significantly different microbial communities from Aegiceras corniculatum (THY), a native species, but did differ from other species, Kenaelia candel (QQ), Aricennia marina (BGR), and mangrove-free mud flat (GT). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results indicated the microbial community structure was largely shaped by surrounding environmental variables, such as total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), pH, C/N ratio, and especially salinity. This study presents a comprehensive survey of functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from different mangrove habitats/species and provides new insights into our understanding of the functional potential of microbial communities in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:23135227

  8. Microchip-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for on-site analysis of bacterial communities in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Matsukawa, Syuhei; Shintome, Yoko; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Assessing microbiological quality assurance by monitoring bacteria in various sources of freshwater used for human consumption, recreation, and food preparation is important for a healthy life. Bacterial number and their community structure in freshwater should be determined as quickly as possible, and "real-time" and "on-site" microbiological methods are required. In this study, we examined the protocol for microchip-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, which uses microchip electrophoresis for rapid microbial community analysis. The availability of microchip-based T-RFLP was compared with conventional T-RFLP analysis, which uses a capillary electrophoresis system, with freshwater samples (spring water, river water, groundwater, and hydroponics solution). The detection limit of targeted bacteria by on-chip T-RFLP analysis was 1% (10(3) cells/mL). The fragment sizes determined by the two analysis methods were highly correlated (r(2)=0.98). On-chip T-RFLP analysis was completed within 15 min. T-RFLP profiles of nine hydroponics solution samples were analyzed by multidimensional scaling. Considerable changes and stability in bacterial community structure during hydroponic culture were detected by both analyses. These results show that on-chip T-RFLP analysis can monitor changes in bacterial community structure, as well as conventional T-RFLP analysis. The present results indicate that on-chip T-RFLP analysis is an effective tool for rapid and "on-site" bacterial community profiling in freshwater environments, as well as freshwater used for medical and industrial purposes. PMID:23902975

  9. Social acceptance of wind energy development and planning in rural communities of Australia: A consumer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social acceptance is necessary for widespread adoption of new renewable energy technologies. A lack of social acceptance by local community residents is a barrier to increasing the renewable energy mix and targets in Australia. This study empirically evaluated predictor importance of key constructs of social acceptance, using responses from a sample of 226 survey respondents in Australia. Regression analysis suggest that ‘Concerns with wind turbines’ was the predictor most strongly correlated with Social Acceptance, followed by ‘Annoyance with wind turbines’, and then ‘Consultation with stakeholders’. Implications of the study and recommendations for consideration by various interest groups (such as policy makers, and potential entrepreneurs) are discussed. This research contributes to theory building rather than theory testing of social acceptance of wind energy development

  10. An analysis of a low-energy, low-water use community in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez Alcocer, Jose Luis

    This study investigated how to determine a potential scenario to reduce energy, water and transportation use in Mexico City by implementing low-energy, low-water use communities. The proposed mixed-use community has multi-family apartments and a small grocery store. The research included the analysis of: case studies, energy simulation, and hand calculations for water, transportation and cost analysis. The previous case studies reviewed include: communities in Mexico City, Mexico, Austin, Texas, Phoenix, Arizona, New York City, New York and San Diego, California in terms of successful low-energy, low-water use projects. The analysis and comparison of these centers showed that the Multifamiliar Miguel Aleman is an excellent candidate to be examined for Mexico City. This technical potential study evaluated energy conserving measures such as low-energy appliances and efficient lighting that could be applied to the apartments in Mexico City to reduce energy-use. The use of the simulations and manual calculations showed that the application of the mixed-use concept was successful in reducing the energy and water use and the corresponding carbon footprint. Finally, this technical potential study showed taking people out of their cars as a result of the presence of the on-site grocery store, small recreation center and park on the ground floor also reduced their overall transportation energy-use. The improvement of the whole community (i.e., apartments plus grocery store) using energy-efficient measures provided a reduction of 70 percent of energy from the base-case. In addition a 69 percent reduction in water-use was achieved by using water-saving fixtures and greywater reuse technologies for the complex. The combination of high-efficiency automobiles and the presence of the on-site grocery store, small recreation center and park potentially reduced the transportation energy-use by 65 percent. The analysis showed an energy cost reduction of 82 percent reduction for apartments and a 22 percent reduction for the store. In addition, for water cost there was a 70 percent reduction for apartments and a 16 percent reduction for the store. Overall, a 64 total percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) was accomplished by saving energy-use in the apartments, the grocery store and transportation. Finally, a guide has been created for Mexico City to establish strategies and actions based on the results of this work in order to reduce overall energy and water-use in Mexico City. The guide is expected to be useful in the short term in Mexico City, and could be potentially adopted in the long term in other countries in the same manner as which Brazil and Colombia adopted the Mexican CONAVI's 2010 Housing Building Code.

  11. A study of microbial communities in selected samples using phospholipid fatty acids analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids were determined in different environmental samples using phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) in order to characterise microbial community structures. Hyporheic gravel-sand sediment samples were collected from Sitka Stream, muddy sediment samples from several weirs on Morava River, activated and digested sludge from Olomouc water purification plant and sand samples from filters in Olomouc-Cernovir water treatment plant. Profiles of PLFA indicate a clear difference between these types of samples. The muddy sediments showed high percentages of ester-linked polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed by river phytoplankton. The longer chain fatty acids (26 - 30 grad C), indicators for organic matter of allochthonous origin, increased in the hyporheic sediments. Activated and digested sludge contain much poorer profiles than other samples, probably because of the lower occurrence of bacteria. (authors)

  12. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with a general sense of the types of communities in tsunami hazard zones based on similar exposure characteristics instead of only providing an exhaustive list of attributes for individual communities. This community-exposure classification scheme can be then used to target and prioritize risk-reduction efforts that address common issues across multiple communities, instead of community-specific efforts. Examples include risk-reduction efforts that focus on similar demographic attributes of the at-risk population or on the type of service populations that dominate tsunami-prone areas. The presentation will include a discussion of the utility of proposed place classifications to support regional preparedness and outreach efforts.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Prokaryotic Communities Associated with Organic and Conventional Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, Elizaveta; Valkonen, Jari; Kurki, Päivi; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Chirak, Evgeny; Korvigo, Ilia; Provorov, Nykolay; Andronov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in agriculture is to determine the effectiveness and environmental impact of certain farming practices. The aim of present study was to determine and compare the taxonomic composition of the microbiomes established in soil following long-term exposure (14 years) to a conventional and organic farming systems (CFS and OFS accordingly). Soil from unclared forest next to the fields was used as a control. The analysis was based on RT-PCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea. The number of bacteria was significantly lower in CFS than in OFS and woodland. The highest amount of archaea was detected in woodland, whereas the amounts in CFS and OFS were lower and similar. The most common phyla in the soil microbial communities analyzed were Proteobacteria (57.9%), Acidobacteria (16.1%), Actinobacteria (7.9%), Verrucomicrobia (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.7%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Woodland soil differed from croplands in the taxonomic composition of microbial phyla. Croplands were enriched with Proteobacteria (mainly the genus Pseudomonas), while Acidobacteria were detected almost exclusively in woodland soil. The most pronounced differences between the CFS and OFS microbiomes were found within the genus Pseudomonas, which significantly (pRhizobium (mainly Rhizobium leguminosarum) and Clostridium. Thus, the fields under OFS and CFS did not differ greatly for the composition of the microbiome. These results, which were also confirmed by cluster analysis, indicated that microbial communities in the field soil do not necessarily differ largely between conventional and organic farming systems. PMID:26684619

  14. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  15. Microbial community analysis of perchlorate-reducing cultures growing on zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic microbial mixed cultures demonstrated its ability to completely remove perchlorate in the presence of zero-valent iron. In order to understand the major microbial reaction in the iron-supported culture, community analysis comprising of microbial fatty acids and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques was performed for perchlorate reducing cultures. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear distinctions not only between iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture and seed bacteria, but also among perchlorate-reducing cultures receiving different electron donors. The DGGE pattern targeting the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene showed that iron-supported perchlorate reducing culture is similar to hydrogen-fed cultures as compared to acetate-fed culture. The phylogenetic tree suggested that the dominant microbial reaction may be a combination of the autotrophic and heterotrophic reduction of perchlorate. Both molecular and chemotaxonomic experimental results support further understanding in the function of zero-valent iron as an adequate electron source for enhancing the microbial perchlorate reduction in natural and engineered systems.

  16. A Statistical Analysis of the Community Structure of a Weighted Collaboration Network Among Rappers

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R D

    2006-01-01

    The social network formed by the collaboration between rappers is studied using standard statistical techniques for analyzing complex networks. In addition, the community structure of the rap music community is analyzed using a new method that uses weighted edges to determine which connections are most important and revealing among all the communities. The results of this method as well as possible reasons for the structure of the rap music community are discussed.

  17. Back to basics – the influence of DNA extraction and primer choice on phylogenetic analysis in activated sludge communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, SØren Michael

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in all phylogenetic analyses. Although the biases are well known, no comprehensive analysis have been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we investigated the effect of bead beating intensity and primer choice on the observed community using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was used as a DNA extraction independent method to evaluate the results. The bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength and showed that the manufacture recommended settings were insufficient to retrieve a large part of the community. In addition, the in silico “best” primer set was found to greatly underestimate a number of important phyla when compared to qFISH results. The findings underline the need for sample specific and DNA extraction independent validation in all DNA extraction based studies.

  18. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; de Courten, Maximilian; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A

    2009-01-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing...... prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours...... communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the...

  19. A three-scale analysis of bacterial communities involved in rocks colonization and soil formation in high mountain environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alfonso; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Borruso, Luigimaria; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    Alpha and beta diversities of the bacterial communities growing on rock surfaces, proto-soils, riparian sediments, lichen thalli, and water springs biofilms in a glacier foreland were studied. We used three molecular based techniques to allow a deeper investigation at different taxonomic resolutions: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, length heterogeneity-PCR, and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria with distinct variations among sites. Proteobacteria were more represented in sediments, biofilms, and lichens; Acidobacteria were mostly found in proto-soils; and Cyanobacteria on rocks. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly found in biofilms. UniFrac P values confirmed a significant difference among different matrices. Significant differences (P rocks which shared a more similar community structure, while at deep taxonomic resolution two distinct bacterial communities between lichens and rocks were found. PMID:23712376

  20. [On two ends of minority politics: an anthropological analysis of hattatsu sh?gai and hikikomori communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruyama, Junko; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of two communities in Japan based on long-term anthropological fieldwork: one is the community of those with hattatsu sh?gai (developmental disorder) and their families and the other is the community of those who have experienced hikikomori and their families. The purpose of this paper is to examine the similarities and differences between the two communities in terms of the ways in which medical diagnoses are understood, identities are formed and certain perspectives on society are shared. By doing so, we attempt to move beyond the clinical sphere to capture the sociocultural significance of "being" an individual with developmental disorder or hikikomori experience. PMID:23234196

  1. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin L; Beall, Clifford J; Kutsch, Stacey R; Firestone, Noah D; Leys, Eugene J; Griffen, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health. PMID:23091642

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract in Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ryan; Schreier, Harold J; Watts, Joy E M

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical detritivorous catfish Panaque nigrolineatus imbibes large quantities of wood as part of its diet. Due to the interest in cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin degradation pathways, this organism provides an interesting model system for the detection of novel microbial catabolism. In this study, we characterize the microbial community present in different regions of the alimentary tract of P. nigrolineatus fed a mixed diet of date palm and palm wood in laboratory aquaria. Analysis was performed on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from anterior and posterior regions of the alimentary tract and the auxiliary lobe (AL), an uncharacterized organ that is vascularly attached to the midgut. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct microbial communities in each tissue region. The foregut community shared many phylotypes in common with aquarium tank water and included Legionella and Hyphomicrobium spp. As the analysis moved further into the gastrointestinal tract, phylotypes with high levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp. and Clostridium xylanovorans and Clostridium saccharolyticum, dominated midgut and AL communities. However, the hindgut was dominated almost exclusively by phylotypes with the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Species richness was highest in the foregut (Chao(1) = 26.72), decreased distally through the midgut (Chao(1) = 25.38) and hindgut (Chao(1) = 20.60), with the lowest diversity detected in the AL (Chao(1) = 18.04), indicating the presence of a specialized microbial community. Using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we report that the P. nigrolineatus gastrointestinal tract possesses a microbial community closely related to microorganisms capable of cellulose degradation and nitrogen fixation. Further studies are underway to determine the role of this resident microbial community in Panaque nigrolineatus. PMID:23133540

  3. An analysis of energy consumption for a selection of countries in the Southern African Development Community

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno, Merven; Alison, Hughes; Stephen, Davis.

    Full Text Available This paper examines the energy consumption, supply and resources of some of the countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 2005, the base year for this analysis. The region is rich in energy resources and currently enjoys relatively stable and affordable electricity. Except in [...] the case of Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia and South Africa, final energy demand is dominated by the residential sector in the form of biomass. Energy consumption or final energy demand in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe is projected to 2030 using a Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model in a 'business as usual' scenario, the other countries being left out because of poor quality data. The projections are carried out by relating historic sectoral GDP and population growth in each country to energy demand and then using the historical link and the projections of these drivers to project energy demand. The analysis under this 'business as usual' scenario seems to indicate that we can expect to see a large increase in consumption in these countries, especially in the form of biomass and electricity. In both cases, supply is a concern. Having established what the present resources are; what some of the supply elements are currently in place; what the base-year demand is; and some basic relationships between demand and socio-economic drivers, this paper sets the stage for further studies that include the future energy supply; regional trade; and scenario analysis using indicators of sustainable development for the region. However, further analysis of the regional energy system, is only valuable if it is supported by good data. A reliable energy balance is needed for the countries not modelled here, and in the case of the modelled countries, better data is also needed, especially in the use biomass.

  4. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well. PMID:26162431

  5. Bacterial community analysis of cypermethrin enrichment cultures and bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Cypermethrin is widely used for insect control; however, its toxicity toward aquatic life requires its complete removal from contaminated areas where the natural degradation ability of microbes can be utilized. Agricultural soil with extensive history of CM application was used to prepare enrichment cultures using cypermethrin as sole carbon source for isolation of cypermethrin degrading bacteria and bacterial community analysis using PCR-DGGE of 16?S rRNA gene. DGGE analysis revealed that dominant members of CM enrichment culture were associated with ?-proteobacteria followed by ?-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Three potential CM-degrading isolates identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi JCm1, Bacillus megaterium JCm2, and Rhodococcus sp. JCm5 degraded 86-100% of CM (100?mg?L(-1) ) within 10 days. These isolates were also able to degrade other pyrethroids, carbofuran, and cypermethrin degradation products. Enzyme activity assays revealed that enzymes involved in CM-degradation were inducible and showed activity when strains were grown on cypermethrin. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200?mg?kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates JCm1, JCm2, and JCm5 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0516, 0.0425, and 0.0807?d(-1), respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The isolated bacterial strains were among dominant genera selected under CM enriched conditions and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters. PMID:25656248

  6. Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining companies are faced with growing societal demands that a sufficient portion of the benefits from mining should flow to local communities to ensure they are adequately compensated for the negative social impacts they experience. This paper considers how a more equitable benefit distribution system can be achieved through voluntary initiatives, recognising companies as potential agents for social development through the provision of improved services and infrastructure, capacity-building, employment and local economic development initiatives. Social Development Needs Analysis is introduced as an enhancement to participatory Social Impact Assessment methods to give practical guidance to site managers in evaluating community investment alternatives. Social Development Needs Analysis aims to identify the priority social issues that need to be addressed in order for a company to contribute to a net positive impact in the community while building assets for the business

  7. Pyrosequencing analysis of the protist communities in a High Arctic meromictic lake: DNA preservation and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ConnieLovejoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High Arctic meromictic lakes are extreme environments characterized by cold temperatures, low nutrient inputs from their polar desert catchments and prolonged periods of low irradiance and darkness. These lakes are permanently stratified with an oxygenated freshwater layer (mixolimnion overlying a saline, anoxic water column (monimolimnion. The physical and chemical properties of the deepest known lake of this type in the circumpolar Arctic, Lake A, on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, have been studied over the last 15 years, but little is known about the lake’s biological communities. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to investigate the protist communities down the water column at three sampling times: under the ice at the end of winter in 2008, during an unusual period of warming and ice-out the same year, and again under the ice in mid-summer 2009. Sequences of many protist taxa occurred throughout the water column at all sampling times, including in the deep anoxic layer where growth is highly unlikely. Furthermore, there were sequences for taxonomic groups including diatoms and marine taxa, which have never been observed in Lake A by microscopic analysis. However the sequences of other taxa such as ciliates, chrysophytes, Cercozoa and Telonema varied with depth, between years and during the transition to ice-free conditions. These results imply that there are seasonally active taxa in the surface waters of the lake that are sensitive to depth and change with time. DNA from these taxa is superimposed upon background DNA from multiple internal and external sources that is preserved in the deep, cold, largely anoxic water column.

  8. In-depth diversity analysis of the bacterial community resident in the camel rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Javad; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    The rumen compartment of the ruminant digestive tract is an enlarged fermentation chamber which houses a diverse collection of symbiotic microorganisms that provide the host animal with a remarkable ability to digest plant lignocellulosic materials. Characterization of the ruminal microbial community provides opportunities to improve animal food digestion efficiency, mitigate methane emission, and develop efficient fermentation systems to convert plant biomasses into biofuels. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied in order to explore the structure of the bacterial community inhabiting the camel rumen. Using 76,333 quality-checked, chimera- and singleton-filtered reads, 4954 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at a 97% species level sequence identity. At the phylum level, more than 96% of the reads were affiliated to OTUs belonging to Bacteroidetes (51%), Firmicutes (31%), Proteobacteria (4.8%), Spirochaetes (3.5%), Fibrobacteres (3.1%), Verrucomicrobia (2.7%), and Tenericutes (0.95%). A total of 15% of the OTUs (746) that contained representative sequences from all major taxa were shared by all animals and they were considered as candidate members of the core camel rumen microbiome. Analysis of microbial composition through the solid and liquid fractions of rumen digesta revealed differential enrichment of members of Fibrobacter, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, and Treponema in the solid fraction, as well as members of Prevotella, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, and Succinivibrio in the liquid fraction. The results clearly showed that the camel rumen microbiome was structurally similar but compositionally distinct from that of other ruminants, such as the cow. The unique characteristic of the camel rumen microbiome that differentiated it from those of other ruminants was the significant enrichment for cellulolytic bacteria. PMID:25467553

  9. Sampling at community level by using satellite imagery and geographical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escamilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem Traditional random sampling at community level requires a list of every individual household that can be randomly selected in the study community. The longitudinal demographic surveillance systems often used as sampling frames are difficult to create in many resource-poor settings. Approach We used Google Earth imagery and geographical analysis software to develop a sampling frame. Every household structure within the catchment area was digitized and assigned coordinates. A random sample was then generated from the list of households. Local setting The sampling took place in Lilongwe, Malawi and formed a part of an investigation of the intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in a multi-site Phase III trial of a candidate malaria vaccine. Relevant changes Creation of a complete list of household coordinates within the catchment area allowed us to generate a random sample representative of the population. Once the coordinates of the households in that sample had been entered into the hand-held receivers of a global positioning system device, the households could be accurately identified on the ground and approached. Lessons learnt In the development of a geographical sampling frame, the use of Google Earth satellite imagery and geographical software appeared to be an efficient alternative to the use of a demographic surveillance system. The use of a complete list of household coordinates reduced the time needed to locate households in the random sample. Our approach to generate a sampling frame is accurate, has utility beyond morbidity studies and appears to be a cost-effective option in resource-poor settings.

  10. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final state 2 report. Cost benefit analysis, operating costs and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    A grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) with a coal-burning power plant located on the University of Minnesota campus is planned. The cost benefit analysis performed for this ICES, the cost accounting methods used, and a computer simulation of the operation of the power plant are described. (LCL)

  11. Professional Learning Communities and Teacher Well-Being? A Comparative Analysis of Primary Schools in England and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Sarja, Anneli; Hamalainen, Seppo; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The article is a comparative analysis of the policy and practice of professional learning communities (PLCs) in primary schools in England and Finland. The concept of PLC has become a globally fashionable one and has been explicitly advocated in policy documents in both countries. Drawing from a database of qualitative semi-structured interviews…

  12. Comparative study of three analysis methods (TTGE, flow cytometry and HPLC) for xenobiotic impact assessment on phytoplankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski-Haberkorn, Sabine; Quiniou, Louis; Beker, Beatriz; Haberkorn, Hansy; Marie, Dominique; de la Broise, Denis

    2009-04-01

    The impacts of the fungicide Opus (epoxiconazole) on marine phytoplankton communities were assessed in a 12-day field experiment using in situ microcosms maintained underwater at 6 m depth. Three community analysis methods were compared for their sensitivity threshold in fungicide impact detection. When phytoplankton communities were exposed to 1 microg l(-1) of epoxiconazole, no effects could be demonstrated using TTGE (Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis), flow cytometry or HPLC. When exposed to 10 microg l(-1), TTGE fingerprints from PCR amplified 18S rDNA of communities exhibited significant differences compared with controls (ANOSIM, P = 0.028). Neither flow cytometry counts, nor HPLC pigment profiles allowed to show significant differences in microcosms exposed to 10 microg l(-1) of epoxiconazole. When exposed to 100 microg l(-1), all three methods allowed to detect significant differences in treated microcosms, as compared to controls. The TTGE analysis appears in this study as the most sensitive method for fungicide impact assessment on eukaryote microbial communities. PMID:19096934

  13. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to characterize microbial communities in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Scow, Kate M.

    This paper reviews published applications of lipid-based biochemical techniques for characterizing microbial communities in aquifers and other deep subsurface habitats. These techniques, such as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, can provide information on a variety of microbial characteristics, such as biomass, physiology, taxonomic and functional identity, and overall community composition. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis of lipid data can relate spatial or temporal changes in microbial communities to environmental factors. The use of lipid-based techniques in the study of groundwater microbiology is advantageous because they do not require culturing and can provide quantitative data on entire communities. However, combined effects of physiological and phylogenetic changes on the lipid composition of a community can confound interpretation of the data, and many questions remain about the validity of various lipid techniques. Despite these caveats, lipid-based research has begun to show trends in community composition in contaminated and pristine aquifers that contribute to our understanding of groundwater microbial ecology and have potential for use in optimization of bioremediation of groundwater pollutants. Résumé Ce papier passe en revue les applications des techniques biochimiques basées sur les lipides pour caractériser les communautés microbiennes présentes dans les aquifères et dans les autres habitats souterrains profonds. Ces techniques, telles que l'analyse des acides gras phospholipidiques (PLFA), peuvent fournir des informations sur un ensemble de caractères microbiens, tels que la biomasse, la physiologie, l'identité taxonomique et fonctionnelle, et surtout la composition de la communauté. En outre, l'analyse statistique multivariée des données sur les lipides peut établir les liens entre des changements spatiaux ou temporels dans la communauté microbienne et des facteurs environnementaux. L'utilisation des techniques basées sur les lipides dans l'étude de la microbiologie des eaux souterraines est intéressante parce qu'elle ne nécessite pas de mise en culture et qu'elle peut fournir des données quantitatives sur les communautés dans leur ensemble. Toutefois, les effets combinés de changements physiologiques et phylogénétiques sur la composition d'une communauté peuvent brouiller l'interprétation des données de nombreuses questions se posent sur la validité des différentes techniques lipidiques. Malgré ces oppositions, la recherche basée sur les lipides a commencéà montrer des tendances dans la composition des communautés dans les aquifères pollués et dans ceux non perturbés ces résultats contribuent ainsi à notre compréhension de l'écologie microbienne des eaux souterraines et montrent qu'il existe un potentiel pour leur utilisation en vue d'une optimisation de la dépollution biologique des eaux souterraines. Resumen Se revisan distintas técnicas bioquímicas que se basan en el análisis de lípidos para caracterizar las comunidades microbianas en hábitats subsuperficiales, incluyendo acuíferos. Estas técnicas, entre las que se incluye el análisis de ácidos grasos fosfolípidos (PLFA), pueden proporcionar información sobre toda una serie de características de las comunidades microbianas, como su biomasa, fisiología, identidad taxonómica y funcional y composición. Además, el análisis estadístico multivariado de los datos de lípidos permite relacionar los cambios espaciales o temporales en las comunidades microbianas con factores ambientales. Las técnicas basadas en lípidos son muy útiles para el estudio microbiológico de las aguas subterráneas, puesto que no requieren cultivos y además proporcionan datos cuantitativos de comunidades completas. Sin embargo, la acción combinada de los cambios fisiológicos y filogenéticos en la composición de lípidos en una comunidad pueden confundir la interpretación de los datos, por lo existen muchas cuestiones abiertas respecto a la validez de algunas de estas técnicas. A pesar de estas dificultades, estas técnicas han permitido detectar diferentes tendencias en la composición de las comunidades en acuíferos con y sin contaminación, lo que contribuye a nuestro entendimiento de la ecología microbiana de los acuíferos. Este último aspecto tiene un uso potencial en la optimización de los métodos de biorremediación de acuíferos.

  14. Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge for microbial ecology that has become more tractable in the advent of new molecular techniques is characterizing gene expression in complex microbial communities. We are using meta-transcriptomic analysis to characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions through various electron-accepting conditions. We inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site, namely, nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III). The microcosms progressed successively through various electron-accepting conditions (e.g., denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and ferric iron-reducing conditions, as well as nitrate-dependent, chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions). Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced initially and again upon further Cr(VI) amendments. Extensive geochemical sampling and analysis (e.g., lactate, acetate, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, dissolved Cr(VI), total Fe(II)), RNA/DNA harvesting, and PhyloChip analyses were conducted. Methods were developed for removal of rRNA from total RNA in preparation for meta-transcriptome sequencing. To date, samples representing denitrifying and fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions have been sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Of the non-rRNA related reads for the denitrifying sample (which was also actively reducing chromate), ca. 8% were associated with denitrification and ca. 0.9% were associated with chromate resistance/transport, in contrast to the fermentative/sulfate-reducing sample (in which chromate had already been reduced), which had zero reads associated with either of these categories but many predicted proteins associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. We observed sequences for key functional transcripts that were unique at the nucleotide level compared to the GenBank non-redundant database [such as L-lactate dehydrogenase (iron-sulfur-cluster-binding subunit), cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (nirS) (from the denitrifying phase), and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA, dsrB) (from the sulfate-reducing phase)]. One potential advantage of this approach is that such important genes may not have been detected using more traditional techniques, including PCR-based methods and a priori functional microarrays.

  15. Communities and beyond: mesoscopic analysis of a large social network with complementary methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tibely, Gergely; Kovanen, Lauri; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertesz, Janos; Saramaki, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Large complex networks show different levels of organization. At the mesoscopic scale communities are considered the most important structures that relate to system function but also other formations like trees or stars may appear. Communities are characterized as groups of nodes with dense internal and loose inter-group connectivity, but beyond this simple notion, even the definition of a community is a controversial issue. Numerous community detection methods have been proposed and assessed either on small empirical networks or larger synthetic benchmarks. However, little is known about their performance on large real-world networks and about the meaningfulness of the community structure they produce. Here we apply three community detection methods, Infomap, the Louvain method, and clique percolation to a large real-world social network based on mobile telephone calls and compare their results. Benchmarks are fabricated to capture only selected aspects of reality, while large empirical networks are much mor...

  16. Simultaneous Assessment of Soil Microbial Community Structure and Function through Analysis of the Meta-Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Urich, Tim; Lanzén, Anders; Qi, Ji; Huson, Daniel H.; Schleper, Christa Maria; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Soil ecosystems harbor the most complex prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities on Earth. Experimental approaches studying these systems usually focus on either the soil community’s taxonomic structure or its functional characteristics. Many methods target DNA as marker molecule and use PCR for amplification.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we apply an RNA-centered meta-transcriptomic approach to simultaneously obtain information on both structure ...

  17. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community of the Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, D. G.; Stakheev, V. V.; Chirak, E. L.; Glushchenko, G. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    The taxonomic composition of microorganisms in the Sea of Azov has been estimated by the methods of multiple parallel sequencing. The true level of biological diversity of microorganisms has been shown. The prokaryotic community throughout the Sea of Azov, including the Taganrog Bay, demonstrates the structural features typical of a marine community. Despite the shallowness of the body of water, microbial communities in the Sea of Azov are clearly distinguishable between the surface and bottom clusters.

  18. The Deaf community in Flanders and South Africa : An ethnographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Schein (1989) proposes a theory of Deaf Community development and applies his theory to the situation in the USA. He hypothesizes five factors: “These factors and their interactions account for the unique social-psychological behavior of Deaf people that resulted in the development of the phenomenon called the Deaf community" (p. 200). The demographic factor refers to a first precondition for the development of a Deaf community, viz. that there is a critical mass, i.e. both in actual numbers ...

  19. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  20. Taxonomic and functional metagenomic analysis of anodic communities in two pilot-scale microbial fuel cells treating different industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K; Ma, Hongwu; Simpson, David J W; Fedorovich, Viatcheslav; Cohen, Michael F; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The combined processes of microbial biodegradation accompanied by extracellular electron transfer make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) a promising new technology for cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment. Although a number of microbial species that build biofilms on the anode surfaces of operating MFCs have been identified, studies on the metagenomics of entire electrogenic communities are limited. Here we present the results of whole-genome metagenomic analysis of electrochemically active robust anodic microbial communities, and their anaerobic digester (AD) sludge inocula, from two pilot-scale MFC bioreactors fed with different distillery wastewaters operated under ambient conditions in distinct climatic zones. Taxonomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were abundant in AD sludge from distinct climatic zones, and constituted the dominant core of the MFC microbiomes. Functional analysis revealed species involved in degradation of organic compounds commonly present in food industry wastewaters. Also, accumulation of methanogenic Archaea was observed in the electrogenic biofilms, suggesting a possibility for simultaneous electricity and biogas recovery from one integrated wastewater treatment system. Finally, we found a range of species within the anode communities possessing the capacity for extracellular electron transfer, both via direct contact and electron shuttles, and show differential distribution of bacterial groups on the carbon cloth and activated carbon granules of the anode surface. Overall, this study provides insights into structural shifts that occur in the transition from an AD sludge to an MFC microbial community and the metabolic potential of electrochemically active microbial populations with wastewater-treating MFCs. PMID:26673789

  1. Back to Basics – The Influence of DNA Extraction and Primer Choice on Phylogenetic Analysis of Activated Sludge Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, SØren Michael

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in allmicrobial amplicon sequencing analyses. Although the biases are well known, no com- prehensive analysis has been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we systematically explored the impact of a number of parameters on the observed microbial community: bead beating intensity, primer choice, extracellular DNA removal, and various PCR settings. In total, 176 samples were subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and selected samples were investigated throughmetagenomics and metatranscriptomics. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization was used as a DNA extraction-independent method for qualitative comparison. In general, an effect on the observed community was found on all parameters tested, although bead beating and primer choice had the largest effect. The effect of bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength as seen by a large increase in DNA from Gram-positive bacteria (up to 400%). However, significant differ- ences were present at lower phylogenetic levels within the same phylum, suggesting that additional factors are at play. The best primer set based on in silico analysis was found to underestimate a number of important bacterial groups. For 16S rRNA gene analysis in acti- vated sludge we recommend using the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil with four times the normal bead beating and V1-3 primers.

  2. Reliability analysis of time series force plate data of community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christoph; Gröger, Ines; Rupprecht, Roland; Meichtry, André; Tibesku, Carsten Oliver; Gassmann, Karl-Günter

    2010-01-01

    Frequency-based analysis of body sway has been used to distinguish between healthy young, healthy elderly adults and elderly adults with Huntingtons disease. Our aim was to assess the reliability of spectral-based outcomes of the centre of pressure (CoP) kinematics in order to determine if these outcomes could be tested for their capability to distinguish between elderly fallers and non-fallers in a future study. We have studied balance for 30 community dwelling healthy older adults 60 years or older. Four test conditions were used. Three successive trials were performed for each condition. CoP kinematics were estimated with a force platform with three strain gauges set in a triangular position. The frequency content of these signals was estimated. Intrasession correlation coefficients (ICC's) were then calculated for all test conditions. The reliability of the selected parameters varied between low and high (ICC 0.652-0.939). The ICC's for the narrow stance tests were higher compared to tests with normal standing conditions (0.771-0.94) to (0.652-0.865). The highest value was obtained in the high frequency band (0.939). These measures should be viewed with caution when screening geriatric patients because their reliability cannot always be assumed. PMID:20153904

  3. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of problem gambling among a sample of community-recruited gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Hong, Song Iee

    2007-11-01

    Problem gambling rates are relatively low (2%-4%), yet these gamblers experience multisystemic negative consequences, high comorbidity, and low treatment utilization. We aimed to characterize variations in gambling patterns to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Using community advertising, we recruited a diverse sample of lifetime gamblers (n = 312) for telephone interviews for a psychometric study of the newly developed Computerized-Gambling Assessment Module. Latent Class Analysis enumerated and classified gambling subgroups by distinctive gambling patterns, based on 8 composite scales functioning as validators of latent class membership (i.e., diagnostic gambling symptoms, reasons for gambling, gambling "withdrawal-like" symptoms, problem gambling perceptions, gambling venues, financial sources for gambling, gambling treatment/help-seeking, and religiosity/spirituality). Based on a distinguishing clustering pattern driven by 6 of 8 factors, we found a 6-class solution was the best-fitting solution. Gambling severity is most strongly characterized not only by symptomatology but also by the number of gambling treatment/help-seeking sources used. PMID:18000457

  4. Analysis of a microbial community associated with polychlorinated biphenyl degradation in anaerobic batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B C; Adorno, M A T; Okada, D Y; Delforno, T P; Lima Gomes, P C F; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B A

    2014-11-01

    The degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated under fermentative-methanogenic conditions for up to 60 days in the presence of anaerobic biomass from a full-scale UASB reactor. The low methane yields in the PCBs-spiked batch reactors suggested that the biomass had an inhibitory effect on the methanogenic community. Reactors containing PCBs and co-substrates (ethanol/sodium formate) exhibited substantial PCB reductions from 0.7 to 0.2 mg mL(-1). For the Bacteria domain, the PCBs-spiked reactors were grouped with the PCB-free reactors with a similarity of 55 %, which suggested the selection of a specific population in the presence of PCBs. Three genera of bacteria were found exclusively in the PCB-spiked reactors and were identified using pyrosequencing analysis, Sedimentibacter, Tissierela and Fusibacter. Interestingly, the Sedimentibacter, which was previously correlated with the reductive dechlorination of PCBs, had the highest relative abundance in the RCS-PCB (7.4 %) and RCS-PCB-PF (12.4 %) reactors. Thus, the anaerobic sludge from the UASB reactor contains bacteria from the Firmicutes phylum that are capable of degrading PCBs. PMID:25104219

  5. Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Tempeh as Reveal by Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA ANNA SEUMAHU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is an Indonesian traditional fermented food produced using Rhizopus as a starter culture. In practice, however, the starter culture as well as fermentation processes would yield a polymicrobial fermentation, which generated a unique tempeh flavor and texture. This condition makes Indonesian tempeh as one of the most complex fermented food, while at the same time would make it difficult to scale up tempeh production with uniform quality and consistency. The aim of this study was to compare a number of tempeh microbial communities employing Amplified Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis (ARISA. Fresh tempeh samples were obtained from tempeh producers in Java and Moluccas. 16S rRNA gene libraries and DNA sequencing were employed to analyze further the nature of bacterial diversity in two selected tempeh samples. The results of our study showed that different tempeh producer possessed different Bacterial ARISA (BARISA or fungi ARISA (FARISA profiles. However, BARISA profiles were found to be more discriminative than FARISA, and therefore BARISA would be more useful for tempeh genetic fingerprint or barcoding.

  6. [Canonical correspondence analysis of summer phytoplankton community and its environmental factors in Hanfeng Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; He, Bing-Hui; Huang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    The phytoplankton community in Hanfeng Lake Reservoir, located in the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas of Yangtze River, was investigated from Jun to August 2013. The results showed that 72 species belonging to 7 phyla of phytoplankton were detected in the water. The dominant species were Synedra, Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Scenedesmus, Pseudoanabaena and Merismopedia. The phytoplankton at the entrance of Donghe River was mainly composed of Bacillariophyta, while that at the entrance of Nanhe River was dominated by Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to investigate the relationships between the distribution of phytoplankton and the environmental factors. The results showed that the species of phytoplankton at the entrance of the Donghe River were influenced by the physiochemical properties of the water, while those at the entrance of Nanhe River were affected by the nutrient status of the water. The key factors influencing the distributions of phytoplankton were temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total nitrogen (TN), dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP). PMID:25929059

  7. A comprehensive study on volatile fatty acids production from rice straw coupled with microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Seo, Charles; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Woong; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Rice straw is one of the most abundant renewable energy sources available. Through anaerobic acidogenesis, the substance of rice straw can be converted to volatile fatty acids (VFAs). VFAs itself is of value and is a precursor to biofuels. Hence, it can be converted to mixed alcohols by addition of hydrogen, and biodiesel can be produced as a carbon source for oleaginous microorganism. To maximize VFAs production during anaerobic digestion (AD), response surface analysis (RSM) was carried out with respect to temperature, substrate concentration, and pH variables. Optimization results showed maximal VFAs concentration of 12.37 g/L at 39.23 °C, 52.85 g/L of rice straw, and pH 10. In quantification of microbial community by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the bacterial profile showed that the growth of methanogens was effectively inhibited by methanogenic inhibitors. Furthermore, 454 pyrosequencing showed that members of the Ruminococcaceae family, capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic biomass, were the most dominant species in many RSM trials. This study provided a useful insight on the biological improvement of AD performance through the combinational linkage between process parameters and microbial information. PMID:25651880

  8. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  9. Riparian plant community responses to increased flooding: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2015-08-01

    A future higher risk of severe flooding of streams and rivers has been projected to change riparian plant community composition and species richness, but the extent and direction of the expected change remain uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize globally available experimental evidence and assess the effects of increased flooding on (1) riparian adult plant and seedling survival, (2) riparian plant biomass and (3) riparian plant species composition and richness. We evaluated which plant traits are of key importance for the response of riparian plant species to flooding. We identified and analysed 53 papers from ISI Web of Knowledge which presented quantitative experimental results on flooding treatments and corresponding control situations. Our meta-analysis demonstrated how longer duration of flooding, greater depth of flooding and, particularly, their combination reduce seedling survival of most riparian species. Plant height above water level, ability to elongate shoots and plasticity in root porosity were decisive for adult plant survival and growth during longer periods of flooding. Both 'quiescence' and 'escape' proved to be successful strategies promoting riparian plant survival, which was reflected in the wide variation in survival (full range between 0 and 100%) under fully submerged conditions, while plants that protrude above the water level (>20 cm) almost all survive. Our survey confirmed that the projected increase in the duration and depth of flooding periods is sufficient to result in species shifts. These shifts may lead to increased or decreased riparian species richness depending on the nutrient, climatic and hydrological status of the catchment. Species richness was generally reduced at flooded sites in nutrient-rich catchments and sites that previously experienced relatively stable hydrographs (e.g. rain-fed lowland streams). Species richness usually increased at sites in desert and semi-arid climate regions (e.g. intermittent streams). PMID:25752818

  10. Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ammophila arenaria in Dutch coastal sand dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalchuk, George A; de Souza, Francisco A; van Veen, Johannes A

    2002-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach for the detection and characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was developed and applied to the study of AMF communities associated with the main sand-stabilizing plant species of the Dutch sand dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria, L.). DNA was extracted directly from plant roots, soil or isolated AMF spores, and prominent bands resulting from AMF-specific DGGE profiles were excised for sequence analysis. This strategy provided a robust means of detecting and identifying AMF-like species without the use of trap plant cultivation methods. A number of Glomus-like and Scutellospora-like sequences was detected, including a putatively novel Glomus species, and differences were observed in the dominant AMF-like populations detected in healthy vs. degenerating stands of A. arenaria and in bulk sand dune soil. It has previously been suggested that plant pathogens, such as fungi and nematodes, may contribute to the decline of A. arenaria. Although no causal relationship can be drawn between the observed differences in the dominantly detected AMF-like populations and the vitality of plant growth, these results indicate that mutualistic interactions between this plant and AMF should not be overlooked when examining the role of soil-borne microorganisms in vegetation dynamics. In addition, there were discrepancies observed between the AMF-like groups detected in spore populations vs. direct 18S rDNA analysis of root material, corroborating previous suggestions that spore inspection alone may poorly represent actual AMF population structure. PMID:11928709

  11. Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|Speedshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-06-30

    Peta-scale computing environments pose significant challenges for both system and application developers and addressing them required more than simply scaling up existing tera-scale solutions. Performance analysis tools play an important role in gaining this understanding, but previous monolithic tools with fixed feature sets have not sufficed. Instead, this project worked on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a general, flexible tool infrastructure supporting the construction of performance tools as “pipelines” of high-quality tool building blocks. These tool building blocks provide common performance tool functionality, and are designed for scalability, lightweight data acquisition and analysis, and interoperability. For this project, we built on Open|SpeedShop, a modular and extensible open source performance analysis tool set. The design and implementation of such a general and reusable infrastructure targeted for petascale systems required us to address several challenging research issues. All components needed to be designed for scale, a task made more difficult by the need to provide general modules. The infrastructure needed to support online data aggregation to cope with the large amounts of performance and debugging data. We needed to be able to map any combination of tool components to each target architecture. And we needed to design interoperable tool APIs and workflows that were concrete enough to support the required functionality, yet provide the necessary flexibility to address a wide range of tools. A major result of this project is the ability to use this scalable infrastructure to quickly create tools that match with a machine architecture and a performance problem that needs to be understood. Another benefit is the ability for application engineers to use the highly scalable, interoperable version of Open|SpeedShop, which are reassembled from the tool building blocks into a flexible, multi-user interface set of tools. This set of tools targeted at Office of Science Leadership Class computer systems and selected Office of Science application codes. We describe the contributions made by the team at the University of Wisconsin. The project built on the efforts in Open|SpeedShop funded by DOE/NNSA and the DOE/NNSA Tri-Lab community, extended Open|Speedshop to the Office of Science Leadership Class Computing Facilities, and addressed new challenges found on these cutting edge systems. Work done under this project at Wisconsin can be divided into two categories, new algorithms and techniques for debugging, and foundation infrastructure work on our Dyninst binary analysis and instrumentation toolkits and MRNet scalability infrastructure.

  12. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  13. Conceptualizing the impact of special events on community health service levels: an operational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A; Bowles, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Mass gatherings (MG) impact their host and surrounding communities and with inadequate planning, may impair baseline emergency health services. Mass gatherings do not occur in a vacuum; they have both consumptive and disruptive effects that extend beyond the event itself. Mass gatherings occur in real geographic locations that include not only the event site, but also the surrounding neighborhoods and communities. In addition, the impact of small, medium, or large special events may be felt for days, or even months, prior to and following the actual events. Current MG reports tend to focus on the events themselves during published event dates and may underestimate the full impact of a given MG on its host community. In order to account for, and mitigate, the full effects of MGs on community health services, researchers would benefit from a common model of community impact. Using an operations lens, two concepts are presented, the "vortex" and the "ripple," as metaphors and a theoretical model for exploring the broader impact of MGs on host communities. Special events and MGs impact host communities by drawing upon resources (vortex) and by disrupting normal, baseline services (ripple). These effects are felt with diminishing impact as one moves geographically further from the event center, and can be felt before, during, and after the event dates. Well executed medical and safety plans for events with appropriate, comprehensive risk assessments and stakeholder engagement have the best chance of ameliorating the potential negative impact of MGs on communities. PMID:25188753

  14. Network Analysis of a Virtual Community of Learning of Economics Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontainha, Elsa; Martins, Jorge Tiago; Vasconcelos, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at understanding virtual communities of learning in terms of dynamics, types of knowledge shared by participants, and network characteristics such as size, relationships, density, and centrality of participants. It looks at the relationships between these aspects and the evolution of communities of learning. It…

  15. Structure in Community College Career-Technical Programs: A Qualitative Analysis. CCRC Working Paper No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noy, Michelle; Weiss, Madeline Joy; Jenkins, Davis; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Wachen, John

    2012-01-01

    Using data obtained from interviews and program websites at Washington community and technical colleges, the authors of this study examine the structure of community college career-technical programs in allied health, business and marketing, computer and information studies, and mechanics and repair. A framework for structure with four…

  16. How Are Community Interventions Conceptualized and Conducted? An Analysis of Published Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Espino, Susan Ryerson; Hawe, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Recent discussions about the conduct of community interventions suggest the importance of developing more comprehensive theorizing about their nature and effects. The present study is an effort to infer how community interventions are theorized by the way they are represented in the peer-reviewed scholarly literature. A coding of a random sample…

  17. Regional inequalities in under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a population-based analysis of individual- and community-level determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions with geographically diverse ecology and socioeconomic circumstances may have different disease exposures and child health outcomes. This study assessed variations in the risks of death in children under age 5 across regions of Nigeria and determined characteristics at the individual and community levels that explain possible variations among regions. Methods Multilevel Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed using a nationally representative sample of 6,029 children from 2,735 mothers aged 15-49 years and nested within 365 communities from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to express measures of association among the characteristics. Variance partition coefficients and Wald statistic were used to express measures of variation. Results Patterns of under-5 mortality cluster within families and communities. The risks of under-5 deaths were significantly higher for children of mothers residing in the South South (Niger Delta region (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.76-2.20 and children of mothers residing in communities with a low proportion of mothers attending prenatal care by a doctor (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.15-1.86. In addition, the cross-level interaction between mothers' education and community prenatal care by a doctor was associated with a more than 40% higher risk of dying (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.21-1.78. Conclusion The findings suggest the need to differentially focus on community-level interventions aimed at increasing maternal and child health care utilization and improving the socioeconomic position of mothers, especially in disadvantaged regions such as the South South (Niger Delta region. Further studies on community-levels determinants of under-5 mortality are needed.

  18. Constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis: hints from community sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of methodology for constructing ecological interaction networks by correlation analysis of community sampling data was presented in this study. Nearly 30 data sets at different levels of taxa for different sampling seasons and locations were used to construct networks and find network properties. I defined the network constructed by Pearson linear correlation is the linear network, and the network constructed by quasi-linear correlation measure (e.g., Spearman correlation is the quasi-linear network. Two taxa with statistically significant linear or quasi-linear correlation are determined to interact. The quasi-linear network is more general than linear network.The results reveled that correlation distributions of Pearson linear correlation and partial linear correlation constructed networks are unimodal functions and most of them are short-head (mostly negative correlations and long-tailed (mostly positive correlations. Spearman correlation distributions are either long-head and short-tailed unimodal functions or monotonically increasing functions. It was found that both mean partial linear correlation and mean Pearson linear correlation were approximately 0. The proportion of positive (partial linear correlations declined significantly with the increase in taxa. The mean (partial linear correlation declined significantly with the increase of taxa. More than 90% of network interactions are positive interactions. The average connectance was 9.8% (9.3% for (partial linear correlation constructed network. The parameter ? in power low distribution (L(x=x-? increased as the decline of taxon level (from functional group to species for the partial linear correlation constructed network. ? is in average 0.8 to 0.9. The number of (positive interactions increased with the number of taxa for both linear and partial linear correlations constructed networks. The addition of a taxon would result in an increase of 0.4 (0.3 interactions (positive interactions in the partial linear correlation constructed network. And the addition of a taxon would result in an increase of 3 interactions (positive interactions in the linear correlation constructed network. For partial linear correlation constructed network, the network connectance decreased as the number of taxa. The constant connectance hypothesis did not hold for our networks. It was found that network structure changed with season and location. The same taxon in the network would connect to different taxa as the change of season and location. A higher level of species aggregation may used to find a more stable network structure. Positive interactions were considered to be caused mainly by mutualism, predation/parasitism, etc. the number and portion of positive interactions may be the most important indices for community stability and functionality. Mutualism is the most significant trophic relationship, seconded by predation/parasitism, and competition is the worst for community stability.

  19. Community health orientation of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: A bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanica Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM, a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011-2014 was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section "endocrinology and gender" directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders.

  20. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and quantitative real-time PCR in mcrA-based methanogen community analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different quantitative PCR platforms, droplet digital PCR (dd-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, were compared in a mcrA-based methanogen community assay that quantifies ten methanogen sub-groups. Both technologies exhibited similar PCR efficiencies over at least four orders of magnitude and the same lower limits of detection (8 copies ?L-DNA extract?1. The mcrA-based methanogen communities in three full-scale anaerobic digesters were examined using the two technologies. dd-PCR detected seven groups from the digesters, while qPCR did five groups, indicating that dd-PCR is more sensitive for DNA quantification. Linear regression showed quantitative agreements between both of the technologies (R2 = 0.59–0.98 in the five groups that were concurrently detected. Principal component analysis from the two datasets consistently indicated a substantial difference in the community composition among the digesters and revealed similar levels of differentiation among the communities. The combined results suggest that dd-PCR is more promising for examining methanogenic archaeal communities in biotechnological processes.

  1. ClimatePipes: User-Friendly Data Access, Manipulation, Analysis & Visualization of Community Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, A.; DeMarle, D.; Burnett, B.; Harris, C.; Silva, W.; Osmari, D.; Geveci, B.; Silva, C.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of climate change will resonate through a broad range of fields including public health, infrastructure, water resources, and many others. Long-term coordinated planning, funding, and action are required for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Unfortunately, widespread use of climate data (simulated and observed) in non-climate science communities is impeded by factors such as large data size, lack of adequate metadata, poor documentation, and lack of sufficient computational and visualization resources. We present ClimatePipes to address many of these challenges by creating an open source platform that provides state-of-the-art, user-friendly data access, analysis, and visualization for climate and other relevant geospatial datasets, making the climate data available to non-researchers, decision-makers, and other stakeholders. The overarching goals of ClimatePipes are: - Enable users to explore real-world questions related to climate change. - Provide tools for data access, analysis, and visualization. - Facilitate collaboration by enabling users to share datasets, workflows, and visualization. ClimatePipes uses a web-based application platform for its widespread support on mainstream operating systems, ease-of-use, and inherent collaboration support. The front-end of ClimatePipes uses HTML5 (WebGL, Canvas2D, CSS3) to deliver state-of-the-art visualization and to provide a best-in-class user experience. The back-end of the ClimatePipes is built around Python using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK, http://vtk.org), Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT, http://uv-cdat.llnl.gov), and other climate and geospatial data processing tools such as GDAL and PROJ4. ClimatePipes web-interface to query and access data from remote sources (such as ESGF). Shown in the figure is climate data layer from ESGF on top of map data layer from OpenStreetMap. The ClimatePipes workflow editor provides flexibility and fine grained control, and uses the VisTrails (http://www.vistrails.org) workflow engine in the backend.

  2. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  3. [Numerical analysis on ecological gradient of plant communities in Donggou catchment, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Qiu, Yang; Fu, Bojie; Zhang, Ying

    2004-05-01

    Based on DCCA-OAC, the plant communities in Donggou catchment, Bashang region, Hebei Province, were classified into 8 types of community. The environmental gradient, structural gradient and human-disturbance could be well expressed in the ordination plot. Axis 1 reflected the spatial pattern of plant communities along the gradient of altitude and slope, while axis 2 showed the plant community distribution on different aspects. The plant communities showed a distribution gradient along moisture gradient as shown by the combination of both axes of DCCA. The communities exhibited different trends in the synusia and species composition. Betula platyphylla was only existed on the high and steep northern aspect. The dominate species of shrub and herbaceous synusia on northern aspect were Potentilla fruticosa and Carex rigescens respectively, while on southern aspect were Artemisia spp. and Agropyron cristatum. The distribution along altitude and slope also existed among dominate species of each synusia on southern aspect. In addition, human disturbance, including grazing, farming and logging, had significant influence on the temporal and spatial distribution of communities. In general, the better the habitat, the more intensive the human disturbance. PMID:15320397

  4. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  5. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity. PMID:20130693

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ and menaquinones (MK without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography of respiratory quinones for microbial community analysis in environmental and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces). PMID:22391598

  8. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded ?-1,3-glucanase (18 per 10(5) reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 10(5) reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the (15)N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  9. Determinants of participation restriction among community dwelling stroke survivors: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke survivors into their family and community. The identification of key factors influencing long-term outcome are essential in developing more effective rehabilitation measures for reducing stroke-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of predictors of participation restriction which included the direct and indirect effects between psychosocial outcomes, physical outcome, and socio-demographic variables at 12 months after stroke. Methods Data were collected from 188 stroke survivors at 12 months following their discharge from one of the two rehabilitation hospitals in Hong Kong. The settings included patients' homes and residential care facilities. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model of participation restriction at 12 months. Results The path coefficients show functional ability having the largest direct effect on participation restriction (β = 0.51. The results also show that more depressive symptoms (β = -0.27, low state self-esteem (β = 0.20, female gender (β = 0.13, older age (β = -0.11 and living in a residential care facility (β = -0.12 have a direct effect on participation restriction. The explanatory variables accounted for 71% of the variance in explaining participation restriction at 12 months. Conclusion Identification of stroke survivors at risk of high levels of participation restriction, depressive symptoms and low self-esteem will assist health professionals to devise appropriate rehabilitation interventions that target improving both physical and psychosocial functioning.

  10. Integrating Phenological, Trait and Environmental Data For Continental Scale Analysis: A Community Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Walls, R.; Guralnick, R. P.; Rosemartin, A.; Deck, J.; Powers, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is a wealth of biodiversity and environmental data that can provide the basis for addressing global scale questions of societal concern. However, our ability to discover, access and integrate these data for use in broader analyses is hampered by the lack of standardized languages and systems. New tools (e.g. ontologies, data standards, integration tools, unique identifiers) are being developed that enable establishment of a framework for linked and open data. Relative to other domains, these tools are nascent in biodiversity and environmental sciences and will require effort to develop, though work can capitalize on lessons learned from previous efforts. Here we discuss needed next steps to provide consistently described and formatted ecological data for immediate application in ecological analysis, focusing on integrating phenology, trait and environmental data to understand local to continental-scale biophysical processes and inform natural resource management practices. As more sources of data become available at finer spatial and temporal resolution, e.g., from national standardized earth observing systems (e.g., NEON, LTER and LTAR Networks, USA NPN), these challenges will become more acute. Here we provide an overview of the standards and ontology development landscape specifically related to phenological and trait data, and identify requirements to overcome current challenges. Second, we outline a workflow for formatting and integrating existing datasets to address key scientific and resource management questions such as: "What traits determine differential phenological responses to changing environmental conditions?" or "What is the role of granularity of observation, and of spatiotemporal scale, in controlling phenological responses to different driving variables?" Third, we discuss methods to semantically annotate datasets to greatly decrease time needed to assemble heterogeneous data for use in ecological analyses on varying spatial scales. We close by making a call to interested community members for a working group to model phenology, trait and environmental data products from continental-scale efforts (e.g. NEON, USA-NPN and others) focusing on ways to assure discoverability and interoperability.

  11. Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtner, Gérald; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspaces and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of three community detection algorithms, also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococ...

  13. Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gurtner, Gérald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monit...

  14. Community Detecting and Feature Analysis in Real Directed Weighted Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Liu; Qiao Liu; Zhiguang Qin

    2013-01-01

    Real social networks usually have some structural features of the complex networks, such as community structure, the scale-free degree distribution, clustering, "small world" network, dynamic evolution and so on. A new community detecting algorithm for directed and weighted social networks is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of more reference information, the accuracy of the algorithm is better than some of the typical detecting algorithms. And because of the use of heap structure and m...

  15. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    OpenAIRE

    AK Gregg; Hatay, M; AF Haas; NL Robinett; Barott, K.; MJA Vermeij; KL Marhaver; Meirelles, P.; Thompson, F.; F Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cult...

  16. Analysis of microbial community in Japanese vineyard soils by culture-independent molecular approach

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Fujita; Seiichi Furuya; Minako Kohno; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Keiko Fujita, Seiichi Furuya, Minako Kohno, Shunji Suzuki, Tsutomu TakayanagiInstitute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi, JapanAbstract: Soil microbes play an important role in the management of soil environment. They form various microbial communities in response to environmental factors, including soil texture and chemical components. Because of this, it is difficult to determine the microbial community structure of soil. In vineyard soils, the overall mic...

  17. Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

  18. Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popula...

  19. Quantitative Microbial Community Analysis of Three Different Sulfidic Mine Tailing Dumps Generating Acid Mine Drainage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at t...

  20. Inside an Open Source Software Community: Empirical Analysis on Individual and Group Level

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maass

    2004-01-01

    An established Open Source Software community (Apache Cocoon) was explored using an online questionnaire about demographic data and individual and group-related factors. Individual factors encompassed forms of contributions, motivation, expertise and knowledge. Role structures, expectations towards other members, trust and collaboration issues were analysed at group level. More than 60% of the developer community completed this questionnaire. Results provide a valuable basis for deeper unders...

  1. Litter quality versus soil microbial community controls over decomposition: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cory C; Reed, Sasha C; Keller, Adrienne B; Nemergut, Diana R; O'Neill, Sean P; Ostertag, Rebecca; Vitousek, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of soil microbial community structure on organic matter decomposition rates have been widely acknowledged, but are poorly understood. Understanding these relationships is complicated by the fact that microbial community structure and function are likely to both affect and be affected by organic matter quality and chemistry, thus it is difficult to draw mechanistic conclusions from field studies. We conducted a reciprocal soil inoculum × litter transplant laboratory incubation experiment using samples collected from a set of sites that have similar climate and plant species composition but vary significantly in bacterial community structure and litter quality. The results showed that litter quality explained the majority of variation in decomposition rates under controlled laboratory conditions: over the course of the 162-day incubation, litter quality explained nearly two-thirds (64%) of variation in decomposition rates, and a smaller proportion (25%) was explained by variation in the inoculum type. In addition, the relative importance of inoculum type on soil respiration increased over the course of the experiment, and was significantly higher in microcosms with lower litter quality relative to those with higher quality litter. We also used molecular phylogenetics to examine the relationships between bacterial community composition and soil respiration in samples through time. Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial community composition explained 32 % of the variation in respiration rates. However, equal portions (i.e., 16%) of the variation in bacterial community composition were explained by inoculum type and litter quality, reflecting the importance of both the meta-community and the environment in bacterial assembly. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of changing microbial community composition on decomposition are likely to be smaller than the potential effects of climate change and/or litter quality changes in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations or atmospheric nutrient deposition. PMID:24022257

  2. Environmental and ecological factors that shape the gut bacterial communities of fish: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sullam, Karen E.; Essinger, Steven D.; Lozupone, Catherine A.; O’Connor, Michael P.; Rosen, Gail L; Knight, Rob; Kilham, Susan S.; Russell, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria often help their hosts acquire nutrients from their diet, showing trends of co-evolution and independent acquisition by hosts from the same trophic levels. While these trends hint at important roles for biotic factors, the effects of the abiotic environment on symbiotic community composition remain comparably understudied. In this investigation, we examined the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the gut bacterial communities of fish from different taxa, trophic leve...

  3. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR = 1.9, those who reported myocardial infarction (OR = 3.8, urinary incontinence (OR = 2.7, those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR = 3.2, and those who did not use dental services (OR = 2.1. For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail.

  4. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  5. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  6. Spontaneous Communities of Learning: A Social Analysis of Learning Ecosystems in Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming (MMOG) Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Galarneau, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This research project is comprised of a cross-cultural ethnography and social network analysis that seeks to illuminate the spontaneous communities of learning/practice that emerge around the relatively recent phenomenon of massively multiplayer online games. While these games can be played individually to greater or lesser degrees depending on the game, the game play mechanics are generally such that true mastery of the game can often only be achieved by working collaboratively with other pl...

  7. Cost and cost-effectiveness analysis of a community mobilisation intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in Kampala, Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels-Igbokwe, C; Abramsky, T.; DeVries, K.; Michau, L.; Musuya, T; Watts, C

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a major public health concern. To date there are few rigorous economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing IPV in low-income settings. This study provides a cost and cost effectiveness analysis of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to change social norms and prevent IPV. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Both financial and economic costs were collected retrospectively from the provider's p...

  8. Potential therapeutic drug target identification in Community Acquired-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) using computational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar YADAV; Singh, Gurmit; Singh, Satendra; Gautam, Budhayash; Saad, Esmaiel IF

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant strain of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain has highlighted the urgent need for the alternative and effective therapeutic approach to combat the menace of this nosocomial pathogen. In the present work novel potential therapeutic drug targets have been identified through the metabolic pathways analysis. All the gene products involved in different metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA in KEGG database were searc...

  9. Regional inequalities in under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a population-based analysis of individual- and community-level determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Antai Diddy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Regions with geographically diverse ecology and socioeconomic circumstances may have different disease exposures and child health outcomes. This study assessed variations in the risks of death in children under age 5 across regions of Nigeria and determined characteristics at the individual and community levels that explain possible variations among regions. Methods Multilevel Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed using a nationally representative sample of 6,029...

  10. Poverty dynamics : an analysis of the 1994 and 1995 waves of the European Community Household Panel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Layte, Richard; Maitre, Bertrand; Nolan, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Recent poverty research internationally based on analysis of panel data has highlighted the importance of income dynamics. In this paper, we study mobility into and out of relative income poverty from one year to the next using data for twelve countries from the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP). The ECHP has unique potential as a harmonised data set to serve as the basis for comparisons of income and poverty dynamics across EU countries, and here we begin exploiting this poten...

  11. Effectiveness of community-based health services by nurse practitioners: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Mikiko; Ota, Erika; Fukuda, Hiromi; Miyauchi, Shinji; Gilmour, Stuart; Kono, Yuko; Nakagama, Erika; Murashima, Sachiyo; Shibuya, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To realise universal health coverage in an ageing society, adequate provision of appropriately trained human resources is essential. The nurse practitioner (NP) is an autonomous and independent, advanced practice nurse capable of providing treatment and care that can be substituted for some aspects of a medical doctor's (MD's) role, especially in a community setting. Previous systematic reviews found higher levels of patient satisfaction with services provided by NPs than those provided by MDs. As non-communicable diseases become a major health burden requiring long-term healthcare in community settings, this systematic review aims to assess the equivalence of NP services to standard care provided by MDs, and to determine whether their practice is an effective alternative to that of MDs in community settings. Methods and analysis Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs will be searched in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the British Nursing Index. We will assess patient and health system utilisation outcomes of interventions comparing treatment and care provided by NPs in community settings with that provided by MDs. Two authors will independently screen studies for inclusion, consulting with a third author where necessary to resolve discrepancies. The risk of bias of included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool, and quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Meta-analysis of included studies will be conducted using fixed-effect or random-effects models depending on the degree of between-study heterogeneity. Results will be presented using risk ratios with 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences with 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol does not require ethical approval. We will disseminate the findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis via publications in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number PROSPEROCRD42014009627. PMID:26105030

  12. Effects of site and plant species on rhizosphere community structure as revealed by molecular analysis of microbial guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Götz, Monika; Mrotzek, Nicole; Lottmann, Jana; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2006-05-01

    The bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were analysed using molecular fingerprints. We aimed to determine to what extent the structure of different microbial groups in the rhizosphere is influenced by plant species and sampling site. Total community DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soil taken from three sites in Germany in two consecutive years. Bacterial, fungal and group-specific (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria) primers were used to PCR-amplify 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene fragments from community DNA prior to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Bacterial fingerprints of soil DNA revealed a high number of equally abundant faint bands, while rhizosphere fingerprints displayed a higher proportion of dominant bands and reduced richness, suggesting selection of bacterial populations in this environment. Plant specificity was detected in the rhizosphere by bacterial and group-specific DGGE profiles. Different bulk soil community fingerprints were revealed for each sampling site. The plant species was a determinant factor in shaping similar actinobacterial communities in the strawberry rhizosphere from different sites in both years. Higher heterogeneity of DGGE profiles within soil and rhizosphere replicates was observed for the fungi. Plant-specific composition of fungal communities in the rhizosphere could also be detected, but not in all cases. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from dominant DGGE bands detected in the bacterial profiles of the Rostock site revealed that Streptomyces sp. and Rhizobium sp. were among the dominant ribotypes in the strawberry rhizosphere, while sequences from Arthrobacter sp. corresponded to dominant bands from oilseed rape bacterial fingerprints. PMID:16629753

  13. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States : Comparative Analysis and Specificities of Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most-similar case selection was applied to data from eight EU Member States. Data from semi-structured key informant qualitative interviews, focus group interviews with experts and policy-makers, as well as document analysis were linked to corresponding Eurobarometer data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The framework on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework application and comparative analysis indicates how to relate theory to empirical research and complex data sets. In-depth analysis of country-specific contexts and longitudinal observation on changes within and between countries might advise on how to integrate the framework into intervention research.

  14. Effect of methamidophos on soil fungi community in microcosms by plate count, DGGE and clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Wu, Minna; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2008-01-01

    Methamidophos was widely used a pesticide in northern China. The potential influences of methamidophos on soil fungal community in black soil were assessed by plate count, 28S rDNA-PCR-DGGE, and clone library analysis. Three methamidophos levels (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg) were tested in soil microcosms. Results from plate count during a 60-d microcosm experiment showed that high concentrations of methamidophos (250 mg/kg) could significantly stimulate fungal populations. DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) fingerprinting patterns showed a significant difference between the responses of culturable and total fungi communities under the stress of methamidophos. Shannon diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles indicated that culturable fungi in all microcosms with methamidophos treatment increased after 1 week of incubation. However, the diversity indices of total fungi decreased in the first week, as compared to the stimulation of culturable fungi. At the 8th week, however, all the microcosms treated by methamidophos were similar to the control microcosms in community structure as suggested by the Shannon diversity indices for both culturable and total fungi. In contrast, after 1 week the fungal structure of culturable and unculturable both were disturbed to different extent under the stresses of methamidophos by clustering analysis. Clone sequencing analysis indicated the stimulation of pathogenic and unculturable fungal populations by methamidophos treatment, suggetsing potential risks of plant disease outbreak. PMID:18575117

  15. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 ?m) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 ?m), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 ?m). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  16. Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerloff, U.; HARTUNG, B; Fruth, B.; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, ...

  17. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-06-01

    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  19. Analysis of the social network development of a virtual community for Australian intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Kaye Denise; Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Social media platforms can create virtual communities, enabling healthcare professionals to network with a broad range of colleagues and facilitate knowledge exchange. In 2003, an Australian state health department established an intensive care mailing list to address the professional isolation experienced by senior intensive care nurses. This article describes the social network created within this virtual community by examining how the membership profile evolved from 2003 to 2009. A retrospective descriptive design was used. The data source was a deidentified member database. Since 2003, 1340 healthcare professionals subscribed to the virtual community with 78% of these (n = 1042) still members at the end of 2009. The membership profile has evolved from a single-state nurse-specific network to an Australia-wide multidisciplinary and multiorganizational intensive care network. The uptake and retention of membership by intensive care clinicians indicated that they appeared to value involvement in this virtual community. For healthcare organizations, a virtual community may be a communications option for minimizing professional and organizational barriers and promoting knowledge flow. Further research is, however, required to demonstrate a link between these broader social networks, enabling the exchange of knowledge and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25310223

  20. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3–6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1–2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site.

  1. Determining in situ periphyton community responses to nutrient and atrazine gradients via pigment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Rebecca L; Boutin, Céline; Pick, Frances R

    2015-05-15

    Agrochemicals, including fertilizers and herbicides, are significant contributors of non-point source pollution to surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect periphyton. We characterized periphyton communities using pigment markers to assess the effects of nutrient enrichment and the herbicide atrazine with in situ experimental manipulations and by examining changes in community structure along existing agrochemical gradients. In 2008, the addition of nutrients (20 mg/L nitrate and 1.25 mg/L reactive phosphate), atrazine (20 ?g/L) and a combination of both nutrients and atrazine had no significant effect on periphyton biomass or community structure in a stream periphytometer experiment. In 2009, similar experiments with higher concentrations of atrazine (200 ?g/L) at two stream sites led to some minor effects. In contrast, at the watershed scale (2010) periphyton biomass (mg/m(2) chlorophyll a) increased significantly along correlated gradients of nitrate and atrazine but no direct effects of reactive phosphate were observed. Across the watershed, the average periphyton community was composed of Bacillariophyceae (60.9%), Chlorophyceae (28.1%), Cryptophyceae (6.9%) and Euglenophyceae (4.1%), with the Bacillariophyceae associated with high turbidity and the Chlorophyceae with nitrate enrichment. Overall, effects of nitrate on periphyton biomass and community structure superseded effects of reactive phosphate and atrazine. PMID:25700361

  2. [Analysis of the bacterial community developing in the course of Sphagnum moss decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Belova, S E; Kevbrin, V V; Dedysh, S N; Zavarzin, G A

    2007-01-01

    Slow degradation of organic matter in acidic Sphagnum peat bogs suggests a limited activity of organotrophic microorganisms. Monitoring of the Sphagnum debris decomposition in a laboratory simulation experiment showed that this process was accompanied by a shift in the water color to brownish due to accumulation of humic substances and by the development of a specific bacterial community with a density of 2.4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1). About half of these organisms are metabolically active and detectable with rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Molecular identification of the components of this microbial community showed the numerical dominance of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Phanctomycetes. The population sizes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are believed to be the main agents of bacterially-mediated decomposition in eutrophic wetlands, were low. The numbers of planctomycetes increased at the final stage of Sphagnum decomposition. The representative isolates of Alphaproteobacteria were able to utilize galacturonic acid, the only low-molecular-weight organic compound detected in the water samples; the representatives of Planctomycetes were able to decompose some heteropolysaccharides, which points to the possible functional role of these groups of microorganisms in the community under study. Thus, the composition of the bacterial community responsible for Sphagnum decomposition in acidic and low-mineral oligotrophic conditions seems to be fundamentally different from that of the bacterial community which decomposes plant debris in eutrophic ecosystems at neutral pH. PMID:18069332

  3. Molecular analysis of microbial community in arsenic-rich groundwater of Kolsor, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-02-23

    Bacterial community composition within the highly arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater from Kolsur, West Bengal was analyzed over a period of 3 years using 16S rRNA gene clone library and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Molecular phylogenetic study revealed abundance of ?-Proteobacteria (56%) and Firmicutes (29%) along with members of ?-Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Sphingobacteria as relatively minor groups. Along with consistent physicochemical environment, a stable microbial community structure comprising of bacterial genera Agrobacterium-Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Anoxybacillus and Penibacillus was recorded over the three years study period. Presence of cytosolic arsenate reductase (arsC) gene was observed within the microbial community. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the arsC sequences were closely related to the same gene from ?-proteobacterial members while the community was consisted of mainly ?-proteobacterial groups. Such phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA and arsC genes possibly indicated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the ars genes within the groundwater community. Overall, the study reported a nearly stable geomicrobial environment and genetic determinant related to As homeostasis gene, and provided a better insight on biogeochemistry of As contaminated aquifer of West Bengal. PMID:26634393

  4. The current status of community drug testing via the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites in sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. Reid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the analysis of drug residues in sewage has been promoted as a means of estimating the level of drug use in communities. Measured drug residue concentrations in the sewage are used to determine the load (total mass of the drug being used by the entire community. Knowledge of the size or population of the community then allows for the calculation of drug-use relative to population (typically drug-mass/day/1000 inhabitants which facilitates comparisons between differing communities or populations. Studies have been performed in many European countries, including Norway, as well as in the US and Australia. The approach has successfully estimated the use of cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, cannabis, nicotine and alcohol. The analysis of biomarkers of drug use in sewage has great potential to support and complement existing techniques for estimating levels of drug use, and as such has been identified as a promising development by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA; www.emcdda.europa.eu/wastewater-analysis. The approach is not without its challenges, and ongoing collaboration across Europe aims at agreeing upon best-practice and harmonising the methods being used. In Norway development is being performed through the NFR RUSMIDDEL funded DrugMon (www.niva.no/drugmon project that has led to the development of many new techniques, significantly improved our understanding of the uncertainties associated with the approach and allowed the coordination of Europe wide collaboration which has included all important intercalibration exercises. Application of the technique can provide evidence-based and real-time estimates of collective drug use with the resulting data used to improve the much needed estimates of drug use and dependency.

  5. Adjunctive Corticotherapy for Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Christophe; Grosgurin, Olivier; Harbarth, Stephan; Combescure, Christophe; Abbas, Mohamed; Rutschmann, Olivier; Perrier, Arnaud; Garin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) induces lung and systemic inflammation, leading to high morbidity and mortality. We systematically reviewed the risks and benefits of adjunctive corticotherapy in the management of patients with CAP. Methods We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing adjunctive corticotherapy and antimicrobial therapy with antimicrobial therapy alone in patients with CAP. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, time to clinical stability and severe complications. Results 14 trials (2077 patients) were included. The reported 30-day mortality was 7.9% (80/1018) among patients treated with adjunctive corticotherapy versus 8.3% (85/1028) among patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (RR 0.84; 95%CI 0.55 to1.29). Adjunctive corticotherapy was associated with a reduction of severe complications (RR 0.36; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.56), a shorter length of stay (9.0 days; 95%CI 7.6 to 10.7 vs 10.6 days; 95%CI 7.4 to 15.3) and a shorter time to clinical stability (3.3 days; 95% CI 2.8 to 4.1 vs 4.3 days; 95%CI 3.6 to 5.1). The risk of hyperglycemia was higher among patients treated with adjunctive corticotherapy (RR 1.59; 95%CI 1.06 to 2.38), whereas the risk of gastro-intestinal bleeding was similar (RR 0.83; 95%CI 0.35 to 1.93). In the subgroup analysis based on CAP severity, a survival benefit was found among patients with severe CAP (RR 0.47; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.96). Conclusion Adjunctive corticotherapy is associated with a reduction of length of stay, time to clinical stability, and severe complications among patients with CAP, but the effect on mortality remains uncertain. PMID:26641253

  6. Microbial community analysis of a single chamber microbial fuel cell using potato wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Haynes, Rishika; Sato, Eugene; Shields, Malcolm S; Fujita, Yoshiko; Sato, Chikashi

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bio-electrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. This study investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that used potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that use potato wastewater. PMID:24851328

  7. Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

  8. Communities and Hierarchical Structures in Dynamic Social Networks: Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Zaidi, Faraz; Jourdan, Fabien; Bourqui, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Detection of community structures in social networks has attracted lots of attention in the domain of sociology and behavioral sciences. Social networks also exhibit dynamic nature as these networks change continuously with the passage of time. Social networks might also present a hierarchical structure led by individuals that play important roles in a society such as Managers and Decision Makers. Detection and Visualization of these networks changing over time is a challenging problem where communities change as a function of events taking place in the society and the role people play in it. In this paper we address these issues by presenting a system to analyze dynamic social networks. The proposed system is based on dynamic graph discretization and graph clustering. The system allows detection of major structural changes taking place in social communities over time and reveals hierarchies by identifying influential people in a social networks. We use two different data sets for the empirical evaluation and...

  9. Multiple myeloma in South Cumbria 1974-80: problems of health analysis in small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of seven cases of multiple myeloma over seven years in a small community 15 miles from a plant reprocessing nuclear fuel caused much local concern. A case control study of 34 confirmed cases in the health district during 1974 to 1980 revealed no excess of known risk factors among the 23 cases for whom informants could be traced. The possible effects of exposure to marine discharges of radioactive material cannot be completely ruled out, but dose estimates make this highly unlikely. Such studies are a necessary response by community physicians to the population they serve but have major practical and theoretical limitations. (author)

  10. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  11. Analysis of soil fungal communities by amplicon pyrosequencing: current approaches to data analysis and the introduction of the pipeline SEED.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    V?trovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 8 (2013), s. 1027-1037. ISSN 0178-2762 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12050; GA MŠk LD12048; GA ?R GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fungal community * Internal transcribed spacer * Pyrosequencing pipeline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2013

  12. Evaluating community investments in the mining sector using multi-criteria decision analysis to integrate SIA with business planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining senior management's commitment to long-term social development projects, which are characterised by uncertainty and complexity, is made easier if projects are shown to benefit the site's strategic goals. However, even though the business case for community investment may have been accepted at a general level, as a strategy for competitive differentiation, risk mitigation and a desire to deliver - and to be seen to deliver - a 'net benefit' to affected communities, mining operations are still faced with implementation challenges. Case study research on mining companies, including interviews with social investment decision-makers, has assisted in developing the Social Investment Decision Analysis Tool (SIDAT), a decision model for evaluating social projects in order to create value for both the company and the community. Multi-criteria decision analysis techniques integrating business planning processes with social impact assessment have proved useful in assisting mining companies think beyond the traditional drivers (i.e. seeking access to required lands and peaceful relations with neighbours), to broader issues of how they can meet their business goals and contribute to sustainable development in the regions in which they operate

  13. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  14. MARRIAGE RITUAL TEXT OF BALINESE TRADITIONAL COMMUNITY: AN ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMIC LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Sutama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Marriage Ritual Text of Balinese Traditional Community (Teks Ritual‘Pewiwahan’ Masyarakat Adat Bali, hereon abbreviated to TRPMAB in this dissertationis analyzed in the perspective of linguistic studies using the functional systemic linguistictheory. TRPMAB is a dialogic text containing a discussion, and is terminologicallytermed as a conversational text. It refers to the use of Balinese language (Bahasa Bali,hereon abbreviated to BB in a marriage ritual. There are two inseparable systems in it;they are BB system and social system, which are widely termed as cultural system.The method employed in this study is field method, meaning that the researcherwent directly to the field or to the location where TRPMAP took place. The researcherdirectly took part as both the active and passive participant. In this way, the researchcould observe TRPMAB directly.The population of the study includes all TPRB in Bali. Considering that thepopulation is too wide, then samples were taken to represent all the population. Thesamples total 10 which were obtained from the biggest marriage processions in Bali. Outof the 10 samples, 6 units of text were selected as the corpus of the study. The selectionwas made based on particular criteria including quality. It is this corpus which wasanalyzed to support and examine the hypothesis related to the text analyzed.The analysis of TRPMAB includes: the structure of the texts, the mood, thetransitivity, the theme-rheme and the logical relationship between the clause and theideology. The findings are as follows:(1 TRPMAB is a text which has a number of structural dimensions such as (acultural structure, (b macro structure, that is, the structure related to the situationalcontext made up of field, tenor and mode, (c micro structure, (d structure of meaning,that is, the structure related to the sequence of meanings between the participants withinthe dialogue, and (e the texture, that is, the intact successive relationship of meaningsamong parts of the text.(2 TRPMB is a text which has a particular system of mood according to thesystem in Balinese language. The structure of clausal mood is made up of subjectfollowed predicate (S?P, the structure of clausal mood is made up of mood and residue,and the system of modality is made up of modalization.(3 TRPMB is a text which has macro transitivity termed as transitivity, that is,the system of valency existing among the processes and participants. The processes usedare ordered as follows: mental process (1,361, existential process (1.071, verbal process(461, relational process (222, behavior process (105 and material process (225. Addedtogether, there are 3,445 processes.(4 TRPMAB is a text which has complete composition of theme - rheme such as(a the theme of intra participants, that is, the theme which occupies the first position inthe structure of mood; (b the topical theme, that is, the theme which occupies the initialposition in the structure of transitivity; and (c the textual theme, that is, the theme whichoccupies the initial position in the text.(5 TRAPMAB is a text which is constructed by the logic syntactic and semanticrelationships. As far as the logic semantic relationship is concerned, only expandedrelationship of meaning has been found, that is, a type of relationship in which themeaning of the secondary clause extends or develops the meaning of the primary clauseby elaboration, extension and multiplicity.Apart from being bound to the Balinese cultural context, it is also bound toideology. As far as the Balinese culture is concerned, the ideology referred to is the onewhich is adhered to in the Balinese culture, that is, the one which is related to Hinduismand covers values, esthetics and social patterns. The ideological analysis formulates thatthat the ideology of TRPMAB can be identified through field, participants and mode.

  15. Analysis of institutional mechanisms that support community response to impacts of floods in the middle-zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonda, P.; Mabiza, C.; Makurira, H.; Kujinga, K.; Nhapi, I.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    In recent years, the frequency of occurrence of floods has increased in Southern Africa. An increase in the frequency of extreme events is partly attributed to climate change. Floods negatively impact on livelihoods, especially those classified as poor, mainly by reducing livelihood options and also contributing to reduced crop yields. In response to these climatic events, governments within Southern Africa have formulated policies which try to mitigate the impacts of floods. Floods can be deadly, often occurring at short notice, lasting for short periods, and causing widespread damage to infrastructure. This study analysed institutional mechanisms in Mbire District of Zimbabwe which aim at mitigating the impact of floods. The study used both quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations) data collection methods. Secondary data such as policy and legislation documents and operational manuals of organisations that support communities affected by disasters were reviewed. Qualitative data was analysed using the thematic approach and social network analysis using UCINET 6. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The study found out that there exists institutional framework that has been developed at the national and local level to support communities in the study area in response to the impacts of floods. This is supported by various pieces of legislation that are housed in different government departments. However, the existing institutional framework does not effectively strengthen disaster management mechanisms at the local level. Lack of financial resources and appropriate training and skills to undertake flood management activities reduce the capacity of communities and disaster management organisations to effectively mitigate the impacts of floods. The study also found that there are inadequate hydro-meteorological stations to enable accurate forecasts. Even in those cases where forecasts predicting extreme weather events have been made, communities have difficulties accessing and interpreting such forecasts due to inadequate communication systems. Such factors reduce the preparedness of communities to deal with extreme weather events.

  16. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

    2011-05-15

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

  17. Out of the laboratory and into the community. 26 years of applied behavior analysis at the Juniper Gardens Children's Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, C R; Carta, J J; Hart, B; Kamps, D; Terry, B; Arreaga-Mayer, C; Atwater, J; Walker, D; Risley, T; Delquadri, J C

    1992-11-01

    Application of Skinner's principles to socially significant human behavior had been well articulated by 1968 (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968). Applications of these principles by Baer, Wolf, Risley, Hall, Hart, Christophersen, and their colleagues were in evidence as early as 1964 in the homes, schools, and clinics of inner-city Kansas City, Kansas, at the Juniper Gardens Housing Project. The work continues relatively uninterrupted, having contributed extensively to the literature of applied behavior analysis and the lives of community residents. This article describes the project and illustrates how applied behavioral research was initiated and extended, how the work addressed general concerns in psychology, and how it continues to address contemporary concerns within the community. PMID:1482007

  18. A guide to statistical analysis in microbial ecology: a community-focused, living review of multivariate data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ramette, Alban

    2014-12-01

    The application of multivariate statistical analyses has become a consistent feature in microbial ecology. However, many microbial ecologists are still in the process of developing a deep understanding of these methods and appreciating their limitations. As a consequence, staying abreast of progress and debate in this arena poses an additional challenge to many microbial ecologists. To address these issues, we present the GUide to STatistical Analysis in Microbial Ecology (GUSTA ME): a dynamic, web-based resource providing accessible descriptions of numerous multivariate techniques relevant to microbial ecologists. A combination of interactive elements allows users to discover and navigate between methods relevant to their needs and examine how they have been used by others in the field. We have designed GUSTA ME to become a community-led and -curated service, which we hope will provide a common reference and forum to discuss and disseminate analytical techniques relevant to the microbial ecology community. PMID:25314312

  19. Bacterial community analysis of the water surface layer from a rice-planted and an unplanted flooded field

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Fernández, Scavino; Javier, Menes; Lucía, Ferrando; Silvana, Tarlera.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities in floodwater, from a rice-planted and an unplanted field were characterized at the beginning (flooding stage) and at the end (harvest stage) of the rice cropping cycle. Most probable number estimations and plate counts of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and of [...] several metabolic bacterial groups (methanogens, sulfate-reducers, anaerobic sulfur and nonsulfur phototrophs, denitrifiers and ammonifiers) were similar in rice and unplanted floodwater at both sampling times. The analysis of denitrifiers and methanogens by fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a shift in the phylogenetic affiliation only of the former group in the rice-planted floodwater. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that the bacterial communities of the rice-planted and unplanted soils were consistently diverse and strongly influenced by the season.

  20. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25373234

  1. Analysis of the microbial communities on corroded concrete sewer pipes--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke, E; Boon, N; Verstraete, W

    2001-12-01

    Conventional as well as molecular techniques have been used to determine the microbial communities present on the concrete walls of sewer pipes. The genetic fingerprint of the microbiota on corroded concrete sewer pipes was obtained by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The DGGE profiles of the bacterial communities present on the concrete surface changed as observed by shifts occurring at the level of the dominance of bands from non-corroded places to the most severely corroded places. By means of statistical tools, it was possible to distinguish two different groups, corresponding to the microbial communities on corroded and non-corroded surfaces, respectively. Characterization of the microbial communities indicated that the sequences of typical bands showed the highest level of identity to sequences from the bacterial strains Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Acidithiobacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp. and different heterotrophs belonging to the alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. In addition, the presence of N-acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules was shown by two bio-assays of the biofilm on the concrete under the water level and at the most severely corroded places on the concrete surface of the sewer pipe. PMID:11778893

  2. RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF PCR-AMPLIFIED NIFH SEQUENCES FROM WETLAND PLANT RHIZOSPHERE COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a method to assess the community structure of N2-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Total DNA was extracted from Spartina alterniflora and Sesbania macrocarpa root zones by bead-beating and purified by CsCl-EtBr gradient centrifugation. The average DNA yield was 5.5 ...

  3. Math College-Readiness of Texas Community College Students: A Multi-Year Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reni A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the college-readiness in math of Texas community college students using archival data from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB). Data analyzed were the rate of all first-time in college (FTIC) developmental education students who scored below the Texas college-readiness standards…

  4. Math Readiness of Texas Community College Developmental Education Students: A Multiyear Statewide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reni A.; Slate, John R.; Saxon, D. Patrick; Barnes, Wally

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the college readiness in math of Texas community college students using archival data from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Data analyzed were the rate of all first-time in college (FTIC) developmental education students who scored below the Texas college readiness standards in math and the rates of…

  5. Continuing Care Retirement Communities: An Analysis of Financial Viability and Health Care Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated financial ratios for 109 Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs). Noted problems with regard to asset productivity, profitability, and equity levels. Found that a risk-spreading charge structure for financing health care needs appeared to exist among CCRCs providing a full-care contract. (Author/ABL)

  6. Implications of the "My School" Website for Disadvantaged Communities: A Bourdieuian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…

  7. East Side Story: Behavioral Analysis of a High Juvenile Crime Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumphauzer, Jerome S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Behavioral Disorders, Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia 22091. The whole behavioral ecology of a high juvenile crime community in East Los Angeles (California) is being studied so that preventative strategies can be implemented to encourage the learning of incompatible, nondelinquent…

  8. Microbial Communities in Biofilms of an Acid Mine Drainage Site Determined by Phospholipid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, S.; Fang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Phospholipids were extracted to determine the microbial biomass and community structure of biofims from an acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana. The distribution of specific biomarkers indicated the presence of a variety of microorganisms. Phototrophic microeukaryotes, which include Euglena mutabilis, algae, and cyanobacteria were the most dominant organisms, as indicated by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The presence of terminally methyl branched fatty acids suggests the presence of Gram-positive bacteria, and the mid-methyl branched fatty acids indicates the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Fungi appear to also be an important part of the AMD microbial communities as suggested by the presence of 18:2 fatty acid. The acidophilic microeukaryotes Euglena dominated the biofilm microbial communities. These microorganisms appear to play a prominent role in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and in releasing oxygen to the atmosphere by oxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the AMD environment comprises a host of microorganisms spreading out within the phylogenetic tree of life. Novel insights on the roles of microbial consortia in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and the production of oxygen through photosynthesis in AMD systems may have significance in the understanding of the interaction of Precambrian microbial communities in environments that produced microbially-mediated sedimentary structures and that caused oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Community Involvement and Victimization at School: An Analysis through Family, Personal and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…

  10. System Analysis of Library and Information Services to the Spanish Speaking Community of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Argandona, Roberto; Haro, Roberto Peter

    This study focuses on factors contributing to the low level of effectiveness of library and information services to the Spanish speaking community as reported in the literature. It analyzes, using an open system approach, models developed by public and academic libraries to serve the Spanish speaking population. Problems contributing to the…

  11. Internationalization Efforts in United States Community Colleges: A Comparative Analysis of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Natalie J.

    2011-01-01

    With community colleges educating up to one-half of all U.S. undergraduates, more focus on internationalization is warranted in order to ensure student competitiveness in today's global labor pool. This ex post facto study of 2006 survey data from the American Council on Education (ACE) found a low level of internationalization occurring at most…

  12. Course Shopping in Urban Community Colleges: An Analysis of Student Drop and Add Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Maxwell, William E.; Cypers, Scott; Moon, Hye Sun; Lester, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the course shopping behaviors among a sample of approximately 5,000 community college students enrolled across nine campuses of a large urban district. The sample was purposely designed as an analytic, rather than a random, sample that sought to obtain adequate numbers of students in course areas that were of theoretical and of…

  13. Learning and Sense of Community: A Comparative Analysis of African American and Caucasian Online Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Gallien, Louis B., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A study addressed how four variables used to operationalize learning and sense of community differed between African American and Caucasian students enrolled in an online graduate course. The African American only section of the course and the Caucasian students in the mixed section represented a homogeneous subset, while the African American…

  14. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Biofilm Communities in Water Meters of a Drinking Water Distribution System? †

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L.; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of 454 pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial biofilm communities from two water meters of a drinking water distribution system was assessed. Differences in bacterial diversity and composition were observed. A better understanding of the bacterial ecology of drinking water biofilms will allow for effective management of water quality in distribution systems.

  15. A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

  16. The change of microbial community from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater after biostimulation using the metagenome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chih-Ming; Liao, Hung-Yu; Chien, Chih-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Kuan; Tang, Petrus; Lin, Chih-En; Chen, Ssu-Ching

    2016-01-25

    The compositions of bacterial community in one site contaminated with PCE/TCE after the slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) (contained vegetable oil, cane molasses, and surfactants) addition were analyzed. Results show that SPRS caused a rapid enhancement of reductive dechlorination of TCE. The transformation of PCE/TCE into ethene was observed after 20 days of operation. To compare the change of bacterial communities before and after SPRS addition, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using the metagenome analysis was performed. Results demonstrated the detection of the increased amounts of Dehalogenimonas by 2.2-fold, Pseudomonas by 3.4-fold and Sulfuricurvum by 4-fold with the analysis of the ribosomal database project (RDP). Metagenomic DNA was extracted from PCE/TCE-contaminated groundwater after SPRS addition, and subjected to sequencing. Results obtained from metagenomic sequencing indicate that genes from Dehalococcoides mccartyi was ranked as the second abundant bacteria among all of the detected bacteria via the analysis of the lowest common ancestor (LCA). Abundance of these bacterial groups, as shown above suggests their role in TCE biodegradation. Functional analysis of the metagenome, with the specific reference to chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation, revealed the presence of some genes responsible for TCE biodegradation. Overall, results of this study provided new insights for a better understanding of the potential of biostimulation on TCE-contaminated sites. PMID:26474376

  17. A comparative analysis of traditional and online lab science transfer courses in the rural community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrea

    Through distance learning, the community college system has moved beyond geographical boundaries to serve all students and provide educational opportunities at a distance to individuals previously out of reach of the college community. With the inception of the Mississippi Virtual Community College (MSVCC) in January 2000, Mississippi's public community colleges have experienced unprecedented growth in online enrollments and online course offerings to include the laboratory sciences; however, transfer of online lab science courses are problematic for individuals who wish to gain admittance to Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy schools in Mississippi. Currently online lab science courses are not accepted for transfer for students seeking admission to Mississippi Medical, Dental, or Pharmacy schools. The need for this study, the statement of the problem, and the purpose of the study address transfer issues related to the transfer of online lab science courses in Mississippi and the impact of such on the student and community college. The study also addresses existing doubts regarding online course delivery as a viable method of lab science delivery. The purpose of the study was to investigate differences between online instructional delivery as compared to traditional face-to-face delivery with the following research questions to: (1) Investigate the perception of quality of online courses as compared to traditional face-to-face courses. (2) Investigate the difference in student performance in online transfer lab science courses as compared to student performance in traditional face-to-face lab science courses. The results of this 13 semester study show significant differences in both perception of quality and student performance between online instructional delivery as compared to traditional face-to-face delivery. The findings demonstrate a need for Mississippi Dental, Medical, and Pharmacy schools to reexamine the articulation agreement between IHL and Community and Junior Colleges and consider accepting online lab sciences courses taken at the community college as transfer for admission to Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy schools. Conclusions are included in the study; however, additional studies are needed to address the issue of student performance in the online lab science classroom.

  18. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file transfer and remote job execution on the grid network of machines. In addition, science support was needed to vet that the grid technology did not have any adverse affects of the science module outputs. Other open source, unproven technologies, such as a workflow package to manage jobs submitted by the user, were infused into the overall system with successful results. This presentation will discuss the basic capabilities of LC-ComPS, explain how the technology was infused, and provide lessons learned for using and integrating the various technologies while developing and operating the system, and finally outline plans moving forward (maintenance and operations decisions) based on the experience to date.

  19. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  20. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  1. Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenville D. Barnes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social–ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

  2. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream

  3. Analysis of a benthic community food web using isotopically labelled potential food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments was designed to reveal the trophic structure of a benthic community using kelp holdfasts as microcosms within the kelp-bed community. The experimental food comprised zooplankton represented by 3H2O-labelled Artemia sp. eggs and nauplii (200 to 300 ?m), detritus derived from 14C-labelled kelp (60 to 90 ?m), and phytoplankton represented by 14C-labelled Dunaliella primolecta (5 to 10 ?m) cultures. Separate experiments of short duration (1 to 2 h) were used to indicate the primary consumers on each type of food, while longer experiments (4, 8 and 16 h) suggested the secondary consumers (coprophagous and carnivorous species). Several species were found to be omnivorous. (orig.)

  4. Community Detecting and Feature Analysis in Real Directed Weighted Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Real social networks usually have some structural features of the complex networks, such as community structure, the scale-free degree distribution, clustering, "small world" network, dynamic evolution and so on. A new community detecting algorithm for directed and weighted social networks is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of more reference information, the accuracy of the algorithm is better than some of the typical detecting algorithms. And because of the use of heap structure and multi-task modular architecture, the algorithm also got a high computational efficiency than other algorithms. The effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm is validated by experiments on real social networks. Based on the theories and models of complex networks, the features of the real large social networks are analyzed.

  5. Analysis of lipophilic pigments from a phototrophic microbial mat community by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    As assay for lipophilic pigments in phototrophic microbial mat communities using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was developed which allows the separation of 15 carotenoids and chloropigments in a single 30 min program. Lipophilic pigments in a laminated mat from a commercial salina near Laguna Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico reflected their source organisms. Myxoxanthophyll, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin were derived from cyanobacteria; chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin from diatoms; chlorophyll a from cyanobacteria and diatoms; bacteriochlorophylls a and c, bacteriophaeophytin a, and gamma-carotene from Chloroflexus spp.; and beta-carotene from a variety of phototrophs. Sensitivity of detection was 0.6-6.1 ng for carotenoids and 1.7-12 ng for most chloropigments. This assay represents a significant improvement over previous analyses of lipophilic pigments in microbial mats and promises to have a wider application to other types of phototrophic communities.

  6. Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedden, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

  7. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed

  8. Dynamic social network analysis and recommender technologies in scientific communities : the case of computer science

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Manh Cuong

    2013-01-01

    The Web in general, and the Web 2.0, in particular, have changed the way in which scientific information is created, exchanged and consumed. Online accessible digital libraries bring the access to large collection of scientific literature to the research community. Information sharing and research results dissemination are much faster than before. The large amount of scientific data available on the Web gives unique opportunities and also raise challenges for understanding the organization an...

  9. Community Analysis of Ammonia and Nitrite Oxidizers during Start-Up of Nitritation Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Konrad; Langer, Christian; Siegrist, Hans-Ruedi; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Wagner, Michael; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2003-01-01

    Partial nitrification of ammonium to nitrite under oxic conditions (nitritation) is a critical process for the effective use of alternative nitrogen removal technologies from wastewater. Here we investigated the conditions which promote establishment of a suitable microbial community for performing nitritation when starting from regular sewage sludge. Reactors were operated in duplicate under different conditions (pH, temperature, and dilution rate) and were fed with 50 mM ammonium either as ...

  10. Molecular Analysis of a Bacterial Chitinolytic Community in an Upland Pasture†

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, A. C.; Krsek, M.; Gooday, G. W.; Prosser, J.I.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of agricultural-improvement treatments on the chitinolytic activity and diversity of a microbial community were investigated within an upland pasture. The treatments of interest were lime and treated sewage sludge, both commonly applied to pasture land to improve fertility. Burial of chitin-containing litter bags at the field site resulted in enrichment of bacteria according to 16S rRNA fingerprinting. Chitinolytic-activity measurements showed that the highest activity occurred in...

  11. Carbon flows in a subtidal fine sand community from the western Encrlish Channel: a simulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chardy, Pierre; Dauvin, Jean-claude

    1992-01-01

    Organic carbon flows through the Pierre Noire fine sand community (Bay of Morlaix, France) are described with a trophodynamic point model, Data collected during several annual cycles are used to calibrate the seasonal variations of each benthic compartment. Mean annual values of state variables are correctly simulated. In a first approach, the seasonal variations were simulated using 2 forcing functions: input of energy and temperature influence. In a second run, spawning and recruitment effe...

  12. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Keun Shin; Young-Don Choi; Dong-Hwa Jeong; Jae-Ki Byun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building,...

  13. Analysis of Sclerotia-Associated Fungal Communities in Cool-Temperate Forest Soils in North Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Amasya, Anzilni F.; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    We herein investigated sclerotia that were obtained from cool-temperate forests in Mt. Chokai and Mt. Iwaki in north Japan and tentatively identified as the resting bodies of Cenococcum geophilum. The profiles of sclerotia-associated fungal communities were obtained through T-RFLP combined with clone library techniques. Our results showed that sclerotia in Mt. Chokai and Mt. Iwaki were predominated by Arthrinium arundinis and Inonotus sp., respectively. The results of the present study sugges...

  14. International Trade and Integration of the European Community : An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaquemin, Alexis; Sapir, André

    1987-01-01

    The paper contributes to the policy debate on European integration by analyzing intra-Community trade and studying the structural determinants of European competitiveness. Four types of explanatory factors of intra-EC trade are distinguished: (1) factors related to inter-industry trade; (2) factors pertaining to intra-industry trade; (3) factors which reflect natural and policy-induced barriers to trade; and (4) factors reflecting supply constraints. Distinction is drawn between two contrasti...

  15. A Fast-Track East African Community Monetary Union? Convergence Evidence from a Cointegration Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Buigut

    2011-01-01

    There is a proposal for a fast-tracked approach to the African Community (EAC) monetary union. This paper uses cointegration techniques to determine whether the member countries would form a successful monetary union based on the long-run behavior of nominal and real exchange rates and monetary base. The three variables are each analyzed for co-movements among the five countries. The empirical results indicate only partial convergence for the variables considered, suggesting there could be su...

  16. Determinants of participation restriction among community dwelling stroke survivors: A path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Anne M; Twinn Sheila; Thompson David R; Chau Janita PC; Woo Jean

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke survivors into their family and community. The identification of key factors influencing long-term outcome are essential in developing more effective rehabilitation measures for reducing stroke-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of...

  17. Direct ribosome isolation from soil to extract bacterial rRNA for community analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Felske, A.; Engelen, B (Baziel) van; Nübel, U; Backhaus, H

    1996-01-01

    A simple method that combines an adapted ribosome isolation method and a common RNA extraction step has been developed for selective recovery of intact rRNA from natural microbial communities in soil. After mechanical cell lysis, ribosomes are separated by centrifugation steps, avoiding massive humic acid contamination and RNA degradation. The protocol accommodates the complex composition of soils by blocking adsorbing surfaces and humic acids with polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumi...

  18. A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Small, N; Mulder, M; MacKenzie, M. J.; Nel, M.

    2002-01-01

    The management of pressure sores in community settings, poses a clinical problem which challenges the patient’s tolerance and the clinician’s diligence and ingenuity. Pressure sores can be painful, lead to infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality (Patterson & Bennett, 1995:919; Bale, Banks, Hagelstein & Harding, 1998:65). Treatment costs of these wounds are high in terms of resources (Colin 1995:65; Wood, Griffiths & Stoner, 1997:256). Howev...

  19. Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteria in the Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Arpin, Corinne; Dubois, Véronique; Maugein, Jeanne; Jullin, Jacqueline; Dutilh, Brigitte; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Larribet, Gilberte; Fischer, Isabelle; Quentin, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    During a previous survey, five extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria (ESBLE) (two Enterobacter aerogenes isolates expressing TEM-24b, two Escherichia coli isolates expressing TEM-21 or TEM-24b, and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate expressing SHV-4/TEM-15) responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) were found among 1,584 strains collected from community patients. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the route of emergence of these typically nosocomial org...

  20. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Use and Perception of Insults: Tlemcen Speech Community

    OpenAIRE

    Babou-Sekkal, Meryem

    2013-01-01

    The present research paper aims at elucidating the relationship between language, culture, and emotions. It focuses on the unpleasantness of insult and name calling as a sociolinguistic behaviour and the paradox which concerns these unkind habits in a Muslim’s speech community - Tlemcenian people are taken as a case in point-. The research work is also based on a quantitative and qualitative analyses presented and interpreted under the form of graphs and numbers.

  1. The Analysis of Global Problems of the World Community and the Purposes of a Millenium ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizim Nikolay A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In article sights of scientists at modern global problems of the world community are analyzed. Results of researches on this point in question of scientists and the organizations are considered: the Roman club, the United Nations Organization, the World bank of reconstruction and development, the World Economic Forum. The history of researches of global problems of mankind is analyzed. Author's vision of classification of global problems of mankind is offered.? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????: ???????? ?????, ???, ?????????? ????? ????????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????.

  2. Meiofaunal community analysis by high-throughput sequencing: Comparison of extraction, quality filtering, and clustering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Pamela M; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-10-01

    Using molecular tools to examine community composition of meiofauna, animals 45?m to 1mm in size living between sediment grains in aquatic environments, is relatively new in comparison to bacterial and archaeal microbial studies. Although high-throughput molecular approaches are starting to be applied to these ccommunities, effectiveness of different approaches for nucleic acid extraction from meiofauna is poorly known and bioinformatic pipelines vary between studies. Given this situation, there is a need for protocols to be developed that promote consistency in sample collection and processing, sequence quality filtering, and Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) clustering methods. Herein, we assess different approaches used for DNA extraction (DNA extracted directly from sediment versus elutriated material retained on a 45?m sieve) as well as how different quality filtering methods of sequences and OTU clustering algorithms impact genetic assessment of meiofauna community composition. DNA extracted directly from sediment resulted in higher presence of non-metazoan eukaryotic taxa; in contrast, an elutriation (resuspension with decanting) approach increased meiofauna abundance and enriched metazoan OTUs. In regards to bioinformatics analyses, the number of overall OTUs varied by clustering algorithm, primarily due to the applied method of sequence quality filtering. However, alpha and beta diversity analyses showed similar trends regardless of bioinformatics pipeline utilized. Based on our results, we recommend studies of meiofauna communities first elutriate samples prior to DNA extraction and include multiple biological replicates to account for variation in community-level composition. The quality filtering method should be carefully considered as this step accounted for large discrepancy in the number of OTUs inferred. PMID:26001512

  3. Assessment of bioinformatic pipelines for the analysis of 454 pyrosequencing data using artificial cyanobacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Stelmach Pessi, Igor; De Carvalho Maalouf, Pedro; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood; Baurain, Denis; Wilmotte, Annick

    2013-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has undergone a revolution with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which revealed a higher microbial diversity than what was previously observed. The possibility of analyzing tens to hundreds of thousands sequences in a single sequencing run has provided information on rare taxa that could constitute an important fraction of microbial communities. However, this comes with the cost of relatively high error rates for individual reads, whi...

  4. Numeric Input Relations for Relational Learning with Applications to Community Structure Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jiuchuan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Most work in the area of statistical relational learning (SRL) is focussed on discrete data, even though a few approaches for hybrid SRL models have been proposed that combine numerical and discrete variables. In this paper we distinguish numerical random variables for which a probability distribution is defined by the model from numerical input variables that are only used for conditioning the distribution of discrete response variables. We show how numerical input relations can very easily be used in the Relational Bayesian Network framework, and that existing inference and learning methods need only minor adjustments to be applied in this generalized setting. The resulting framework provides natural relational extensions of classical probabilistic models for categorical data. We demonstrate the usefulness of RBN models with numeric input relations by several examples. In particular, we use the augmented RBN framework to define probabilistic models for multi-relational (social) networks in which the probability of a link between two nodes depends on numeric latent feature vectors associated with the nodes. A generic learning procedure can be used to obtain a maximum-likelihood fit of model parameters and latent feature values for a variety of models that can be expressed in the high-level RBN representation. Specifically, we propose a model that allows us to interpret learned latent feature values as community centrality degrees by which we can identify nodes that are central for one community, that are hubs between communities, or that are isolated nodes. In a multi-relational setting, the model also provides a characterization of how different relations are associated with each community.

  5. A strategic analysis of NOKIA diversifying into the provision of community phone services

    OpenAIRE

    Gikunda, Agatha Mutheu

    2007-01-01

    Nokia predicts that by 2008, 80% of mobile phone sales will come from New-Growth Markets. New-Growth Markets consist of high-income consumers capable of purchasing expensive handsets, and low-income consumers that have thus far been unable to afford cellular phones. This paper investigates the feasibility of Nokia creating Community Phone Services. A prospective business model involves rollout of services by Franchisees, following guidelines from the firm. This paper finds that the business p...

  6. Specific deterrence, community context, and drunk driving: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Bae; Teske, Raymond H C

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies about recidivism of offenders have focused primarily on the nature of the sanctions and factors specific to the individual offender. This study addressed both individual and community factors, using a cohort of felony-level, driving while intoxicated (DWI) probationers (N = 370) charged in Harris County, Texas. The study investigated specific deterrent effects of sanctions on success or failure of probationers while controlling for the community contexts to observe how informal social control processes contextualize individual-level predictors. Results of a series of event history analyses tracking probationers for a period of 8 years indicated that severity of punishment, swiftness of punishment, criminal history, and completion of DWI education programs significantly affected the probationer's survival time, whereas no significant influence of community contexts on survival time or success was observed. Reducing the felony charge to a misdemeanor, a shorter period of probation, and past criminal history, combined with an almost immediate guilty plea, were significantly associated with short-term failure on probation. PMID:25646012

  7. Analysis of Bacterial Community Associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote and Seribu Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKOWATI CHASANAH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aaptos sp. is a marine sponge that could produce bioactive compounds such as aaptamin, aaptosin, and isoaaptamin which have activities as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral. Community of bacteria associated with the sponge might correlate with production of those bioactive compounds and be affected by water environment where the sponge grow. The presence of anthropogenic stressor such as pollutans might become a burden to the waters where the biota grown and could affect the microbial biodiversity in the sponge and its active metabolite produced. The objective of this research was to analyze bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote Island and Seribu Islands, using T-RFLP method. The results showed that bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from both sampling sites shared 40.81% similarity in which they were dominated by the same bacteria class of Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and γ–proteobacteria. The bacteria collected from Rote island were more highly distributed and diverse than those from Seribu Islands. A total of 23 classes of microorganism were identified in Rote Island waters, while in Seribu Islands was 14 classes of microorganism. The presence of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in Aaptos sp., is allegedly involved in the production of secondary metabolites.

  8. Integrated metagenomics and network analysis of soil microbial community of the forest timberline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang; Deng, Ye; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Sun, Xin; Yang, Caiyun; Yuan, Tong; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The forest timberline responds quickly and markedly to climate changes, rendering it a ready indicator. Climate warming has caused an upshift of the timberline worldwide. However, the impact on belowground ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles remain elusive. To understand soil microbial ecology of the timberline, we analyzed microbial communities via 16s rRNA Illumina sequencing, a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 and a random matrix theory-based association network approach. We selected 24 sampling sites at two vegetation belts forming the timberline of Shennongjia Mountain in Hubei Province of China, a region with extraordinarily rich biodiversity. We found that temperature, among all of measured environmental parameters, showed the most significant and extensive linkages with microbial biomass, microbial diversity and composition at both taxonomic and functional gene levels, and microbial association network. Therefore, temperature was the best predictor for microbial community variations in the timberline. Furthermore, abundances of nitrogen cycle and phosphorus cycle genes were concomitant with NH4+-N, NO3--N and total phosphorus, offering tangible clues to the underlying mechanisms of soil biogeochemical cycles. As the first glimpse at both taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial community of the timberline, our findings have major implications for predicting consequences of future timberline upshift.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of epibacterial communities on the surfaces of four red macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongqing; Liu, Min; Zhang, Wuchang; Xiao, Tian

    2014-12-01

    Macroalgal surfaces are prone to being attached by bacteria. Epibacterial community structures on marine macroalgae are host-specific but temporally and spatially variable. In this study, we investigated the structure of epibacterial communities on the surfaces of four red macroalgae, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Gloiopeltis furcata, Mazzaella sp. and Porphyra yezoensis, by analyzing the sequences of 16S rRNA gene libraries. Healthy individuals of all macroalgae species were collected in winter from a farm at Dalian, China. The results showed that the epibacterial communities were mainly dominated by ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Deinococcus-Thermus, Spirochaetes and ?-Proteobacteria were also found. The majority of cloned sequences shared the greatest similarity to those of culturable organisms. A large portion of sequences from the ?-Proteobacteria homed in Roseobacter clade, i.e., genera Ahrensia, Roseovarius, Litoreibacter, Octadecabacter, Thaiassobacter and Sulfitobacter, while members of Bacteroidetes mainly belonged to family Flavobacteriaceae. The cloned sequences could be separated into 66 OTUs at 0.01 distance value, and rare common OTUs were found among libraries. At genus level, Pseudoalteromonas dominated Gr. lemaneiformis and Gl. furcata libraries, accounting for 72.2% and 47.3%, respectively. Sulfitobacter dominated P. yezoensis library, accounting for 35.4%. A previously undefined cluster within Deinococcus-Thermus dominated Mazzaella sp. library, accounting for 24.6% of the all. These results indicated that a broad range of bacteria inhabited the surfaces of these macroalgae.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed. PMID:25564037

  11. Mangrove community in an abandoned crick kiln: A structural and association analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly river sites of lower Bengal is very usualand this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to other south Asian countries.The abandoned brick kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due totidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim ofthe present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the communitydynamics of a mangrove ecosystem.Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m.Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency,relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image andground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2contingency/species association table.Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratiacaseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangroveassociates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. Thehigh importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparumindicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3species also suggests helping in developing community in stressed environment.Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their communitydynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for futureafforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  12. Ad hoc supervision of general practice registrars as a 'community of practice': analysis, interpretation and re-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, T; Brown, J; Morrison, J; Nestel, D

    2016-05-01

    General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also provide an opportunity for learning and teaching. Wenger's (Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) social theory of learning ('communities of practice') guided a secondary analysis of audio-recordings of ad hoc encounters. Data from one encounter is re-presented as an extended sequence to maintain congruence with the theoretical perspective and enhance vicariousness. An interpretive commentary communicates key features of Wenger's theory and highlights the researchers' interpretations. We argue that one encounter can reveal universal understandings of clinical supervision and that the process of naturalistic generalisation allows readers to transfer others' experiences to their own contexts. The paper raises significant analytic, interpretive, and representational issues. We highlight that report writing is an important, but infrequently discussed, part of research design. We discuss the challenges of supporting the learning and teaching that arises from adopting a socio-cultural lens and argue that such a perspective importantly captures the complex range of issues that work-based practitioners have to grapple with. This offers a challenge to how we research and seek to influence work-based learning and teaching in health care settings. PMID:26384813

  13. Building ties: social capital network analysis of a forest community in a biosphere reserve in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reyes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Governance of the commons depends on the capacity to generate collective action. Networks and rules that foster that collective action have been defined as social capital. However, their causal link is still not fully understood. We use social network analysis to assess social capital, decision-making, and collective action in a forest-based common pool resource management in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve (Chiapas, Mexico. Our research analyzes the productive networks and the evolution of coffee groups in one community. The network shows some centrality, with richer landholders tending to occupy core positions and poorer landless peasants occupying peripheral ones. This has fostered the community's environmentally oriented development but has also caused internal conflicts. Market requirements have shaped different but complementary productive networks, where organic coffee commercialization is the main source of bridging ties, which has resulted in more connectivity and resilience. Conservation attitudes, along with the institutional setting of the community, have promoted collective action. The unresolved conflicts, however, still leave some concerns about governance in the future.

  14. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Community in Healthy Persons, Defined by Metagenomics Analysis of Human Microbiome Project Shotgun Sequencing Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yingfei; Madupu, Ramana; Karaoz, Ulas; Nossa, Carlos W.; Yang, Liying; Yooseph, Shibu; Yachimski, Patrick S; Brodie, Eoin L.; Nelson, Karen E; Pei, Zhiheng

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a number of neoplastic diseases in humans. Here, we show a complex normal HPV community in a cohort of 103 healthy human subjects, by metagenomics analysis of the shotgun sequencing data generated from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. The overall HPV prevalence was 68.9% and was highest in the skin (61.3%), followed by the vagina (41.5%), mouth (30%), and gut (17.3%). Of the 109 HPV types as well as additional unclassified types detected, most were undetecta...

  16. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C)2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  17. The analysis of spatial changes in the cadastral community of Postojna based on archival materials of franziscean land cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    Bajec, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, the archived documents of Franziscean Land Cadastre is presented, which we used to analyse the spatial characteristics in the 19th century for the case of the area in the cadastral community of Postojna. A brief introduction about the history of land cadastre in Slovenia is followed by the presentation of results of comparative analysis, where the situation of land use was analysed from the perspective of plot’s structure and land use patterns. Here we compared the sit...

  18. Analysis of links between groundwater recharge and discharge areas and wetland plant communities distribution in Middle Biebrza Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoruk, Mateusz; Batelaan, Okke; Okruszko, Tomasz; Kotowski, Wiktor; Rycharski, Marek; Chormanski, Jaroslaw; Miroslaw-Swiatek, Dorota

    2010-05-01

    Natural evolution of wetlands is strongly dependent on groundwater dynamics, soil aeration and climate. These environmental factors determine the constant development of wetland plant communities and peat forming processes. Depending on spatial distribution of groundwater flow systems and recharge and discharge conditions, shallow groundwater can also be influenced by phreatophytic plants. Such feedback plays an important role in wetland development, especially when landuse or climate changes occur. Thus, understanding the links between dynamics of biotopic and biocenotic relations is crucial for wetland management aimed at the comprehensive set of conservation strategies. Main aim of this study was to review links between valuable wetland plant communities and the groundwater recharge/discharge conditions of particular habitats of Middle Biebrza Basin, Poland. The study area consists of various types of wetland landscapes, of which the dominant are fens. Organogenic top layer is intersected locally by sandy dunes and glaci-fluvial residual plateaus. The northern boundary of the study area is covered with an outwash plateau. A three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model was set up to quantify groundwater system and flow paths. Model calibration involved measured heads of the unconfined organogenic top layer and the underlaying, confined sandy aquifer. Measured thickness of unsaturated zone as well as physical parameters of organogenic layer were taken into account in interpretation of shallow groundwater dynamics. Recharge to groundwater was spatially distributed in accordance to analysis of measured precipitation-groundwater level relationships. Cell-by-cell flow analysis and groundwater exfiltration analysis were applied to map groundwater recharge and discharge areas within the modelled area. Results of groundwater modelling were validated with phytosociologic research combined with remote-sensing based spatial analysis of wetland habitats distribution. Results indicated spatial distibution of water balance components of different wetland habitats. In areas of fen plant communities, modelled intensity of vertical upward groundwater flow to the top layer is significantly higher than in ombrotrophic habitats. Research indicated, that spatial patterns of groundwater recharge/discharge intensity is strongly linked to areal distribution of water quality dependent phreatophytic plant communities. In certain areas, simulated drainage conditions increased the thickness of the unsaturated zone, which explains a crucial response of wetland evolution in the last centuries: redirection of groundwater flow towards artificial canals resulted in diminished throughflow in organogenic layer, which causes accumulation of acidic rain water and - consequently - development of ombrotrophic habitats.

  19. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46). Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

  20. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education. Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91, feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66, having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66, and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99 were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90 or of knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.46. Conclusions Stigma towards PLHIV is high generally, and very high in some sub-groups, in this community setting. Future stigma prevention efforts could be enhanced by analyzing community stigma sub-groups and tailoring intervention messages to community patterns of stigma.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of atmospheric halotolerant bacterial communities at high altitude in an Asian dust (KOSA) arrival region, Suzu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. However, the atmospheric microbial community has not been investigated at high altitude in the KOSA arrival area. In this study, to estimate the viability and diversity of atmospheric halotolerant bacteria, which are expected to resist to various environmental stresses as well as high salinities, bioaerosol samples were collected at 10 and 600 m above the ground within the KOSA arrival area, Suzu City, Japan, during KOSA events. During the sampling period, the particle numbers at 600 m were higher than those at 10 m, suggesting that large particles of aerosol fall from the high altitude of 600 m to the ground surface. The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15% NaCl concentrations demonstrating the viability of the halotolerant bacteria in bioaerosol samples. The PCR-DGGE analysis using 16S rDNA revealed that the bacterial species in NaCl-amended cultures were similar to the bacteria detected from the genomic DNA directly extracted from the bioaerosol samples. The 16S rDNA sequences of bacterial communities in bioaerosol samples were classified into 4 phylotypes belonging to the Bacilluscereus or Bacillussubtilis group. The bioaerosol samples collected at 600 m included 2 phylotypes belonging to B. subtilis, and one phylotype among all 4 phylotypes was identical between the samples at 10 and 600 m. In the atmosphere at 600 m, the halotolerant bacterial community was expected to remain viable, and the species composition was expected to include a few species of the genus Bacillus. During this investigation period, these atmospheric bacteria may have been vertically transported to the ground surface, where the long-range KOSA particle transport from China is frequently observed.

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen on elemental sulfur generation in sulfide and nitrate removal process: characterization, pathway, and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-03-01

    Microaerobic bioreactor treatment for enriched sulfide and nitrate has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to improve the efficiencies of elemental sulfur (S(0)) generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction. However, there is little detailed information for the effect and mechanism of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the variations of microbial community in sulfur generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction systems. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was employed to evaluate the variations of microbial community structures in a sulfide oxidation and nitrate reduction reactor under different DO conditions (DO 0-0.7 mg?·?L(-1)). Experimental results revealed that the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) could be greatly stimulated in 0.1-0.3 mg-DO?·?L(-1). However, when the DO concentration was further elevated to more than 0.5 mg?·?L(-1), the abundance of NRB was markedly decreased, while the heterotrophic microorganisms, especially carbon degradation species, were enriched. The reaction pathways for sulfide and nitrate removal under microaerobic conditions were also deduced by combining batch experiments with functional species analysis. It was likely that the oxidation of sulfide to sulfur could be performed by both aerobic heterotrophic SOB and sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification bacteria with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptor, respectively. The nitrate could be reduced to nitrite by both autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification, and then the generated nitrite could be completely converted to nitrogen gas via heterotrophic denitrification. This study provides new insights into the impacts of microaerobic conditions on the microbial community functional structures of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing, and sulfur-producing bioreactors, which revealing the potential linkage between functional microbial communities and reactor performance. PMID:26603764

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of atmospheric halotolerant bacterial communities at high altitude in an Asian dust (KOSA) arrival region, Suzu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Teruya, E-mail: makiteru@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Susuki, Shinzi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Kakikawa, Makiko [Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Tobo, Yutaka [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Maromu [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Science, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Higashi, Tomomi [Hygiene, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640 (Japan); Matsuki, Atsushi; Hong, Chunsang [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hiroshi [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Iwasaka, Yasunobu [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. However, the atmospheric microbial community has not been investigated at high altitude in the KOSA arrival area. In this study, to estimate the viability and diversity of atmospheric halotolerant bacteria, which are expected to resist to various environmental stresses as well as high salinities, bioaerosol samples were collected at 10 and 600 m above the ground within the KOSA arrival area, Suzu City, Japan, during KOSA events. During the sampling period, the particle numbers at 600 m were higher than those at 10 m, suggesting that large particles of aerosol fall from the high altitude of 600 m to the ground surface. The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15% NaCl concentrations demonstrating the viability of the halotolerant bacteria in bioaerosol samples. The PCR-DGGE analysis using 16S rDNA revealed that the bacterial species in NaCl-amended cultures were similar to the bacteria detected from the genomic DNA directly extracted from the bioaerosol samples. The 16S rDNA sequences of bacterial communities in bioaerosol samples were classified into 4 phylotypes belonging to the Bacilluscereus or Bacillussubtilis group. The bioaerosol samples collected at 600 m included 2 phylotypes belonging to B. subtilis, and one phylotype among all 4 phylotypes was identical between the samples at 10 and 600 m. In the atmosphere at 600 m, the halotolerant bacterial community was expected to remain viable, and the species composition was expected to include a few species of the genus Bacillus. During this investigation period, these atmospheric bacteria may have been vertically transported to the ground surface, where the long-range KOSA particle transport from China is frequently observed.

  4. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n?=?88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n?=?58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n?=?40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR?=?3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence. PMID:26045571

  5. Adirondack lakes survey: An interpretive analysis of fish communities and water chemistry, 1984--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.P. (Baker (Joan P.), Raleigh, NC (USA)); Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Gallagher, J. (Adirondack Lakes Survey Corp., Ray Brook, NY (USA)); Newton, R.M. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (USA)); Reckhow, K.H. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schofield, C.L. (Co

    1990-01-01

    The Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) was formed as a cooperative effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to better characterize the chemical and biological status of Adirondack lakes. Between 1984 and 1987, the ALSC surveyed 1469 lakes within the Adirondack ecological zone. As a follow-up to the survey, the ALSC sponsored a series of interpretive analyses of the ALSC data base. The primary objectives of these analyses were as follows: Evaluate the influence of mineral acids (from acidic deposition) and nonmineral acids (natural organic acids) on lake pH levels; classify Adirondack lakes according to lake and watershed features expected to influence their responsiveness to changes in acidic deposition; evaluate the sensitivity of Adirondack lakes to changes in environmental conditions, such as changes in mineral acids or dissolved organic carbon concentrations; identify lake characteristics important in explaining the observed present-day status of fish communities in Adirondack lakes, in particular the relative importance of lake acidity; evaluate changes that have occurred over time in Adirondack fish communities and probable causes for these trends by using the available historical data on fish communities in the Adirondacks and the ALSC data base; and determine the degree to which the existing fish resource might be at risk from continued acidic deposition, or might recover if acidity levels were reduced. The basic approach examined relationships observed in the ALSC data base among watershed characteristics, lake chemistry, and fish status. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Nitrifying Community Analysis in a Single Submerged Attached-Growth Bioreactor for Treatment of High-Ammonia Waste Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, April Z.; Pedros, Philip B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the nitrifying community structure in a single-stage submerged attached-growth bioreactor (SAGB) that successfully achieved stable nitrogen removal over nitrite of a high-strength ammonia wastewater. The reactor was operated with intermittent aeration and external carbon addition (methanol). With influent ammonia and total Kjeldahl nitrogen ranging from 537 to 968 mg/L and 643 to1510 mg/L, respectively, 85% nitrogen removal was obtained, and effluent was dominated by nitrite (NO2 ?/NOx >0.95). Nitrifying community analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), with a hierarchical set of probes targeting known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) within beta-proteobacteria, showed that the AOB community of the biofilter consists almost entirely of members of the Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and the Nitrosococcus mobilis lineages. Image analysis of FISH pictures was used to quantify the identified AOB, and it was estimated that Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha-like AOB accounted for 4.3% of the total volume of the biofilm, while Nitrosococcus mobilis-like AOB made up 1.2%; these numbers summed up to a total AOB fraction of 5.5% of the total volume on the biofilm. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were not detectable in the biofilm samples with probes for either Nitrospira sp. or Nitrobacter sp., which indicated that NOB were either absent from the biofilters or present in numbers below the detection limit of FISH (<0.1% of the total biofilm). Nitrite oxidizers were likely outcompeted from the system because of the free ammonia inhibition and the possibility that the aeration period (from intermittent aeration) was not sufficiently long for the NOB to be released from the competition for oxygen with heterotrophs and AOB. The nitrogen removal via nitrite in a SAGB reactor described in this study is applicable for high-ammonia-strength wastewater treatment, such as centrate or industrial wastes. Udgivelsesdato: December 2007

  7. A trait-interpersonal analysis of suicide proneness among lesbian, gay, and bisexual community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Stroud, Caroline H; Fraser, Theresa; Graham, James

    2014-12-01

    Suicide remains a concerning issue for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. The integrated effects of five-factor model personality traits and interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) constructs on suicide proneness in a community sample of 336 LGB adults were examined. Results supported a model inclusive of all five-factor model domains predicting IPTS constructs leading to suicide proneness. Effects of neuroticism and extraversion were both mediated by perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Thwarted belongingness mediated the effect of agreeableness on suicide proneness. Identified mediation pathways build on existing trait-interpersonal theory and may inform clinical services for sexual minority persons. PMID:24702204

  8. Spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern for a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a...... maximum likelihood approach to inference where problems arise due to unknown interaction radii for the plants. We next demonstrate that a Bayesian approach provides a flexible framework for incorporating prior information concerning the interaction radii. From an ecological perspective, we are able both...

  9. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine B.; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maximum...... likelihood approach to inference where problems arise due to unknown interaction radii for the plants. We next demonstrate that a Bayesian approach provides a flexible framework for incorporating prior information concerning the interaction radii. From an ecological perspective, we are able both to confirm...

  10. Wisdom Way Solar Village: Design, Construction, and Analysis of a Low Energy Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.

    2012-08-01

    This report describes work conducted at the Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of 10 high performance duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA, constructed by Rural Development, Inc. (RDI). Building America's CARB team monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010, and tracked utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    OpenAIRE

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G S; Pace, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of a well-known pink filament community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was examined. Three phylogenetic types ("phylotypes"), designated EM 3, EM 17, and EM 19, were identified by cloning and sequencing the small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) obtained by PCR amplification of mixed-population DNA. All three phylotypes diverge deeply within the phylogenetic domain Bacteria sensu Woese (C. R. Woese, O. Kan...

  12. A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Small

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of pressure sores in community settings, poses a clinical problem which challenges the patient’s tolerance and the clinician’s diligence and ingenuity. Pressure sores can be painful, lead to infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality (Patterson & Bennett, 1995:919; Bale, Banks, Hagelstein & Harding, 1998:65. Treatment costs of these wounds are high in terms of resources (Colin 1995:65; Wood, Griffiths & Stoner, 1997:256. However, since there are untold cost in terms of pain and suffering to the patient, it is impossible to calculate the true cost of pressure sores (Dealey, 1994:87.

  13. Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F. C.; McClenahan, J. D.

    1981-02-01

    Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single unit dwellings, 10 unit, and 200 unit apartment complexes in 50, 200, 400, and 1000 unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system.

  14. An analysis of a ‘community-driven’ reconstruction of the human metabolic network

    OpenAIRE

    Swainston, Neil; Mendes, Pedro; Kell, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Following a strategy similar to that used in baker’s yeast (Herrgård et al. Nat Biotechnol 26:1155–1160, 2008). A consensus yeast metabolic network obtained from a community approach to systems biology (Herrgård et al. 2008; Dobson et al. BMC Syst Biol 4:145, 2010). Further developments towards a genome-scale metabolic model of yeast (Dobson et al. 2010; Heavner et al. BMC Syst Biol 6:55, 2012). Yeast 5—an expanded reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network (Heavner et a...

  15. Multi criteria analysis for sustainability assessments of electricity generation systems in a rural community in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigun, B.; Mehlwana, M. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment; Musango, J.K. [Department of Energy (DoE), Pretoria (South Africa); Brent, A.C. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

    2011-07-01

    One of the key challenges of the energy policy in South Africa is to ensure that rural areas have access to electricity. This is reflected in the key energy policy documents (the 1998 Energy White Paper and the 2002 Renewable Energy White Paper). Both these documents identified renewable energy resources as immediate alternatives to grid electricity in especially remote rural communities that are characterised by low population densities. Centralised energy generation and transmission is very costly and inefficient in these areas due to greater transmission and distribution losses. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is relatively cheaper, it is not accessible for many rural households. There are still over two million households in rural areas without access to electricity. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to compare various electricity technologies (mainly renewables) in a specific rural community of South Africa using social, economic, environment and technical indicators. These technologies were than ranked against each indicator assuming that the high-level criteria have equal importance for sustainable development. It is demonstrated that energy from wind is the most sustainable, followed by photovoltaic, anaerobic digestion (biogas) and then gasification. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to verify the stability of the priority ranking. The outcome of this study will specifically assist energy planners and decision-makers to choose the best alternative from a range of technology alternatives in a milieu of conflicting and competing criteria. (orig.)

  16. Community-Based HIV-1 Early Diagnosis and Risk Behavior Analysis of Men Having Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mandy; Lee, Man-Po; Wang, Haibo; Li, Chun-ho; Chan, Chun-Chung; Nishiura, Kenji; Tang, Xian; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Cheung, Ka-Wai; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of HIV-1 among men having sex with men (MSM) calls for an investigation of HIV-1 prevalence and incidence in MSM by early diagnosis to assist with early preventive interventions in Hong Kong. The participants were recruited randomly from MSM communities within a one-year period. Rapid HIV Test (RHT) and real-time dried blood spot (DBS)-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (DBS-qPCR) were used for the early diagnosis of 474 participants. Risk behavior analysis was performed by studying information obtained from the participants during the study period. The HIV-1 prevalence and incident rates in the studied MSM population were 4.01% (19/474) and 1.47% (7/474), respectively. Three infected participants were found at the acute phase of infection by DBS-qPCR. Only 46.4% (220/474) MSM were using condoms regularly for anal sex. HIV infection significantly correlated with unprotected receptive anal sex and syphilis infection. An increased number of infections was found among foreign MSM in Hong Kong. This study is the first to use DBS-qPCR to identify acutely infected individuals in a community setting and to provide both the prevalence and incident rates of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Hong Kong. The risk analysis provided evidence that behavior intervention strengthening is necessary to fight against the increasing HIV-1 epidemic among MSM in Hong Kong and surrounding regions in Asia. PMID:25915755

  17. A local scale analysis on influencing factors of NOx emissions: Evidence from the Community of Madrid, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an important pollution problem affecting millions of people, especially in urban areas and large cities: NOx. This dangerous pollutant is emitted by high temperature combustion and therefore its main source is transportation, which in turn is a consequence of an increase in population and better economic conditions. To examine the determinants of NOx emissions in the Community of Madrid, which is one of the most densely populated regions in Europe, we use an augmented STIRPAT model and a massive dataset which includes kriging estimates of pollution records and integrates various sources of information. Unlike previous research, we carry out our analysis at local level, where the relationship between socio-economic factors and environment becomes more complex, by considering the 179 municipalities of the Community over the period 2000–2009. Our results suggest a positive and statistically significant relationship between private transport-related variables and NOx. Interestingly, the coefficients of the variables related to public transportation are all significant with different signs. The overall outcome illustrates that policy makers should encourage a significant modal shift towards public transport and invest in attractive alternative means of transport and particularly railways in order to reduce transport energy use and mitigate pollutant emissions. - Highlights: • We analyse the impact of transportation on NOx emissions in Madrid, Spain. • An augment STIRPAT model is used for empirical analysis. • We use a massive database which includes kriging estimates of pollution records. • Public transport-related variables show significant relationships with NOx

  18. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them

  19. An objective analysis of the QBO in ERA-Interim and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Abraham; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2014-11-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical stratosphere, which is in large part driven by upward propagating atmospheric waves. For over three decades researchers have investigated an extratropical impact due to the vacillation of the tropical winds. The choice of a single altitude to define the QBO introduces an ambiguity into the analysis of correlations between the tropical and extratropical manifestations of this wave-driven phenomenon. It has been previously demonstrated that using empirical orthogonal functions, this ambiguity can be resolved, by calculating the phase of the QBO from the first two principal components of the stratospheric zonal mean wind. As general circulation models begin to simulate the QBO, a standard and objective means of comparing simulations with observations should be adopted. This objective analysis of the extratropical QBO is presented for the ERA-Interim reanalysis and a version of the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5, which exhibits a spontaneously generated QBO.

  20. Online participation: a content analysis of differences in utilization of two online cancer communities by men and women, patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    The Internet provides a new modality for health communication by facilitating the creation of virtual communities. These communities have the potential to influence health behavior beyond traditional FTF support groups. This study utilized content analysis of 1,424 e-mail messages posted to 2 online cancer communities to examine uses of these groups. Findings revealed (a) similarities in the content of communication in the 2 virtual communities, (b) gender differences in participation, and (c) differences in utilization of these online groups between patients and family members. These results are discussed in light of the diverse uses of online cancer communities that they reveal, the role of family members in support seeking and provision, and gender communication styles in health computer-mediated communication. PMID:18443988

  1. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  2. Analysis of Knowledge Level and Perception on Singkawang City Community towards Generic Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forid Morison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey data show that the use of generic medicines in Indonesia is relatively very small, which only amounted 7%. This is due to lack of knowledge and poor perceptions towards generic medicines. Knowledge level and perceptions towards generic medicines are inflenced by community characteristics and information resource regarding generic medicines. The aim of this study was to determine the association between community characteristic and information resources with knowledge level and perception towards generic medicines. This study was an analytical survey with cross-sectional descriptive approach on 142 selected respondents who were fulfi inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study was conducted in June 2014 at several randomly selected locations on Singkawang City. The study show that 76 respondents (53.5% had inadequate knowledge and 123 respondents (86.6% had a good perception towards generic medicines. There is signifiant relationship between ethnicity (p=0.000 and information resources (p=0.009 with knowledge level regarding generic medicines at signifiance level of p<0.05. Although good perceptions were noted among the respondents, widespread dissemination of information regarding generic medicines should be continued to increase generic medicines used.

  3. Nitrogen removal efficiency and microbial community analysis of ANAMMOX biofilter at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taotao, Zeng; Dong, Li; Huiping, Zeng; Shuibo, Xie; Wenxin, Qiu; Yingjiu, Liu; Jie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    An upflow anaerobic biofilter (AF) was developed to investigate anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) efficiency in treating low-strength wastewater at ambient temperature (15.3-23.2 °C). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to investigate treatment effects on the microbial community. Stepwise decreases in influent ammonia concentration could help ANAMMOX bacteria selectively acclimate to low-ammonia conditions. With an influent ammonia concentration of 46.5 mg/L, the AF reactor obtained an average nitrogen removal rate of 2.26 kg/(m³ day), and a removal efficiency of 75.9%. polymerase chain reaction-DGGE results showed that microbial diversity in the low matrix was greater than in the high matrix. Microbial community structures changed when the influent ammonia concentration decreased. The genus of functional ANAMMOX bacteria was Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, which remained stationary across study phases. Visual observation revealed that the relative proportions of ANAMMOX bacteria decreased from 41.6 to 36.3% across three study phases. The AF bioreactor successfully maintained high activity due to the ANAMMOX bacteria adaptation to low temperature and substrate conditions. PMID:25768219

  4. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350?m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella),?Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ??0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda). PMID:24911121

  5. Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    The economics of community-scale solar systems that incorporate a centralized annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) coupled to a distribution system is examined. Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single-unit dwellings, 10-unit, and 200-unit apartment complexes in 50-, 200-, 400-, and 1000-unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: (1) identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and (2) identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system. In more northerly locations, collectors are a larger component of cost. In southern locations, distribution networks are a larger proportion of total cost. Larger, more compact buildings are, in general, less expensive to heat. For the two smaller-scale building configurations, a broad minima in total costs versus system size is often observed.

  6. Metagenomic and Meta-transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Lim, H.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.; Brodie, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    As part of a highly interdisciplinary study of in situ reductive immobilization of Cr at DOE's Hanford 100H site, we are developing a systems biology approach (employing metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic data) to identify highly expressed genes in the native microbial community under conditions of interest, without requiring any a priori sequence information or assumptions about what processes might be occurring. A key scientific goal is to determine if there are diagnostic biomolecular signatures indicative of important aquifer biogeochemical processes that can be used to (a) help discriminate between direct (enzymatic) and indirect (abiotic) oxidation-reduction processes relevant to bioremediation and (b) to inform and constrain reactive transport models even when geochemical field measurements do not reveal all relevant processes. We are in the process of collecting metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequence information from various experimental systems under conditions relevant to in situ chromate reduction at Hanford 100H. This poster focuses on Hanford microcosm studies. To characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions successively through electron-accepting conditions relevant to the Hanford subsurface, we inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site [e.g., nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III)]. Metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic "snapshots" were taken during denitrification, sulfate and Fe(III) reduction, and nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and sulfide. We conducted Illumina paired-end sequencing, assembled with ABySS-pe, and initially annotated using MG-RAST and CAMERA. cDNA samples for meta-transcriptome sequencing represented mRNA enriched using a new subtractive hybridization method resulting in 61-78% of reads mapping to their corresponding metagenomes. Observations from the analyses to date include the following: (1) consistent phylogenetic community transitions were documented by 16S rRNA pyrotag and metagenome sequence data as Hanford microcosms passed successively through denitrifying conditions (dominated initially by beta-Proteobacteria) to fermentative and sulfate- and iron-reducing conditions (dominated by Firmicutes); (2) the greatest diversity of denitrification genes occurred during initial denitrifying phase; (3) high expression of nitrate reductase (nar) and S oxidation (soxWXYZABCD) genes occurred after nitrate was added to cultures following sulfate-reducing phase, even though S oxidation was not detectable based on sulfate measurements; and (4) highly expressed genes in Hanford microcosms and groundwater included "hypothetical proteins", which supports the monitoring approach that we are pursuing, namely, to focus on highly expressed genes specific to Hanford rather than genes chosen a priori.

  7. Social Network Analysis to Examine Interaction Patterns in Knowledge Building Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes use of social network analysis to examine student interaction patterns in a Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building class. The analysis included face-to-face interactions and interactions in the Knowledge Forum[R] Knowledge Building environment. It is argued that sociogram data are useful to reveal group processes; in sociological terms,…

  8. Higher Education Research as Tribe, Territory and/or Community: A Co-Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    This article builds upon existing research which has been mapping and analysing the field of higher education research, and, in particular, on the analysis of the articles (n = 406) in 17 specialist higher education journals published in the English language outside of North America during the year 2000. It extends that analysis by examining the…

  9. COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW AND EMERGENCY PLANNING: USING COMPUTERS TO CONDUCT HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the process of hazards analysis and the basic building blocks of systems used for data storage, retrieval, correlation, and analysis, to better inform people choosing and/or evaluating the systems. The remainder of the paper discusses: (1) the process of hazar...

  10. Analysis of sclerotia-associated fungal communities in cool-temperate forest soils in north Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasya, Anzilni F; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    We herein investigated sclerotia that were obtained from cool-temperate forests in Mt. Chokai and Mt. Iwaki in north Japan and tentatively identified as the resting bodies of Cenococcum geophilum. The profiles of sclerotia-associated fungal communities were obtained through T-RFLP combined with clone library techniques. Our results showed that sclerotia in Mt. Chokai and Mt. Iwaki were predominated by Arthrinium arundinis and Inonotus sp., respectively. The results of the present study suggested that these sclerotia-associated species were responsible for the formation of sclerotia or sclerotia were originally formed by C. geophilum, but were subsequently occupied by these species after C. geophilum germinated or failed to survive due to competition. PMID:25740175

  11. Analysis of Aquatic Insects’ Communities of Awba Reservoir and its Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.O.K. Popoola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the Awba reservoir insects’ communities and the health status through the determination of insects’ abundance, composition, distribution and water qualities parameters. Water samples and insects were collected bi-weekly from August through December, 2009. Insects were sampled using standard entomological methods, while water samples was analyzed using standard Winkler’s titrimetric and APHA methods to determine the chemical properties. Water analyses and insects’ identifications were conducted in the laboratory in Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State. The results show that only DO and phosphate-phosphorus had significant difference (p<0.05. A total of 1,154 insects were recorded, Chironomidae and Culicidae were most abundance. The chemical properties and the distinct taxa found in the water suggest that the water body is polluted and may be dangerous to the health of people around the reservoir.

  12. Illumina-based analysis of bacterial community in Khuangcherapuk cave of Mizoram, Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mandal, Surajit; Panda, Amrita Kumari; Lalnunmawii, Esther; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial community of the Khuangcherapuk cave sediment was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 533,120 raw reads with an average base quality (Phred score) 36.75 and G + C content is 57.61%. A total of 18 bacterial phyla were detected with following abundant genus - Mycobacterium (21.72%), Rhodococcus (7.09%), Alteromonas (1.42%), Holomonas (0.7%) and Salinisphaera (0.20%). Majority portion of the sequences (68%) is unclassified at the genus level indicating the possibilities for the presence of novel species in this cave. This study reports the cave bacterial diversity from the biodiversity hotspot region of Eastern Himalayas. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. SRP056890. PMID:26484212

  13. Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic Hydrothermal Vent Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; Øvreås, L.; Urich, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active vent fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker vents. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the hydrothermal vent sites. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10°C in the top layer to 90°C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ? 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an internal sulfur cycle within the community. The community contained expressed enzymes of a variety of carbon metabolism pathways. Key enzymes of the reverse TCA cycle for fixation of CO2 and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for oxidation of acetyl-CoA and / or the fixation of CO2 were found. Key enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic methane-oxidation pathways were identified as well, namely particulate methane monooxygenase and methyl-Coenzyme M reductase. Various house-keeping gene-products, like cold- and heat shock proteins as well as ribosomal proteins and ATP synthases were identified. This approach has a future potential of broadening our understanding of environmental complexity and regulation in response to geochemical constraints. [1] Dupierris, V., Masselon, C., Court, M., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., and Bruley, C. (2009) A toolbox for validation of mass spectrometry peptides identification and generation of database: IRMa. Bioinformatics 25, 1980-1981.

  14. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROAD AND STREAM NETWORKS IN THE RURAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? Fiedler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Roads and infrastructure strongly influenced on the environment. Therefore an effect of road network on hydrological conditions of watershed should be taken into account. Road networks have an effect on surface water flow and lead to direct and indirect changes of water circulation in the environment. Road networks appear to have increased contribution of impermeable areas and decreased infiltration and retention capabilities. This effect in increasing of flood waves peak and also expedite time to their occurrence. During storms or snow melting junctions of road and stream networks could be additional sources of water flowing directly from road surface or from ditch to the stream. In the paper we describe method which could help to find areas with high interaction between road networks and stream networks. Examined area of Kleszczewo community was divided into grid which consist of 92 square cells of 1 km side size. For each cell we described the interaction of road and stream networks. The generalized factor take into account density of stream network, density of road network, number of junctions of both networks and length of roads closer than 100 m from streams in each cell. Calculated values of the factor allow to distinct three classes of interaction possibilities. Results of investigation showed that the community area has big density of stream network, as well as road network what effect in numerous junction points. The majority of junctions occur between streams and field roads. Analyzed area show great variability in possibility of interaction between road network and stream network occurrence. Areas with highest possibility of such interaction took almost 25% of total area. Such places could effect in higher direct storm water flow into streams, and in consequence higher flood peaks.

  15. Survey of Soybean Insect Pollinators: Community Identification and Sampling Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K A; O'Neal, M E

    2015-06-01

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, flowers can be a source of nectar and pollen for honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), wild social and solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), and flower-visiting flies (Diptera). Our objectives were to describe the pollinator community in soybean fields, determine which sampling method is most appropriate for characterizing their abundance and diversity, and gain insight into which pollinator taxa may contact soybean pollen. We compared modified pan traps (i.e., bee bowls), yellow sticky traps, and sweep nets for trapping pollinators in Iowa soybean fields when soybeans were blooming (i.e., reproductive stages R1-R6) during 2011 and 2012. When all trap type captures were combined, we collected 5,368 individuals and at least 50 species. Per trap type, the most pollinators were captured in bee bowls (3,644 individuals, 44 species), yellow sticky traps (1,652 individuals, 32 species), and sweep nets (66 individuals, 10 species). The most abundant species collected include Agapostemon virescens F. and Lasioglossum (Dialictus) species (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), Melissodes bimaculata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and Toxomerus marginatus Say (Diptera: Syrphidae). To determine if these pollinators were foraging on soybean flowers, we looked for soybean pollen on the most abundant bee species collected that had visible pollen loads. We found soybean pollen alone or intermixed with pollen grains from other plant species on 29 and 38% of the bees examined in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our data suggest a diverse community of pollinators-composed of mostly native, solitary bees-visit soybean fields and forage on their flowers within Iowa. PMID:26313954

  16. Composition and Diversity Analysis of the Gut Bacterial Community of the Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata, Determined by Culture-Independent and Culture-Dependent Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    He, Cai; Nan, Xiaoning; Zhang, Zhengqing; Li, Menglou

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria community structure and diversity of the Oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied by analysis of a 16S rDNA clone library, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,and culture-dependent techniques. The 16S rDNA clone library revealed a bacterial community diversity comprising Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Gracilicutes and Proteobacteria, among which Escherichia coli (Migula) (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) ...

  17. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cle...

  18. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62 projects from previous reviews for a total of 136 projects. The analyses suggest that project design, particularly capacity building in local communities, is critical in generating success across all outcomes. In addition, some community characteristics, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for some aspects of project success. Surprisingly, there is less evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. Conclusions Our study supports the idea that conservation projects should be carefully designed to be effective and that some characteristics of local communities can facilitate success. That well-designed projects can prevail over disadvantages relating to the pre-existing national and local context is encouraging. As the evidence base on CBC grows, it will be useful to repeat this analysis with additional search terms, and consider additional variables related to national context to further evaluate the role of broader socio-political and economic contexts.

  19. Assessing the sustainability of forest management: an application of multi-criteria decision analysis to community forests in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru Babulo; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart

    2010-06-01

    Continuous deterioration of the natural resource base has become a serious threat to both the ecological systems and economic production in Ethiopia. Many of these problems have been attributed directly or indirectly to the rapid dwindling of the country's forest cover which is associated with unsustainable forest use and management. Closing community woodlands from human and livestock intervention to promote natural regeneration of forests has been one of the environmental restoration strategies pursued in the degraded highland areas of northern Ethiopia. However, local pressure to use reforested community lands for economic benefit has become a major threat to forest sustainability. Using locally identified sets of criteria and indicators for sustainable community forest management, this paper applies a multi-criteria decision analysis tool to evaluate forest management problems in the northern province of Tigray, Ethiopia. Three MCA methods - ranking, pair-wise comparison, and scoring - were used in evaluating the sets of criteria and indicators and alternative forest management scenarios. Results from the study indicate a number of noteworthy points: 1) MCA techniques both for identifying local level sustainability criteria and indicators and evaluating management schemes in a participatory decision environment appear to be effective tools to address local resource management problems; 2) Evaluated against the selected sets of criteria and indicators, the current forest management regime in the study area is not on a sustainable path; 3) Acquainting local people with adequate environmental knowledge and raising local awareness about the long-term consequences of environmental degradation ranked first among the set of sustainability criteria; and 4) In order to harmonize both environmental and economic objectives, the present 'ecological-biased' forest management regime needs to be substituted by an appropriate holistic scheme that takes into account stakeholders' multiple preferences and priority rankings. PMID:20206436

  20. Analysis of refractive status and related factors of pupils in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community, Shanghai, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive status of pupils of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai and analyze the relationships between visual acuity and relative factors. METHODS: All the in-school students of Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai were involved in the study. Four hundred and sixty pupils out of 465 pupils were investigated(The rate was 98.9%. There were 445 pupils with fully data collection. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, age, height(H, weight(W, body mass index(BMI, diopter of spherical(S, diopter of cylinder(C, spherical equivalent(SE, axial length(ALand corneal curvature(Kwere examined. The refractive status was described and the influence of relative factors was analyzed. UCVA measurement uses the standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, recording by decimal number, then transform into LogMar vision for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In total, the average age was 9.49±1.47 year, SE was -0.85±1.82D and UCVA was +0.09±0.28. The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 40.9% and 58.9%, respectively. With getting older, the prevalence of myopia increased with the average myopic SE developing significantly(P=0.000. UCVA and AL increased in the same time, SE decreased gradually(PPCONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was high in Hetian Road primary school in Zhabei community of Shanghai. Visual acuity is closely related to AL and growth factors.

  1. New Agilent platform DNA microarrays for transcriptome analysis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei for the malaria research community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafsack Björn F C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have been a valuable tool in malaria research for over a decade but remain in limited use in part due their relatively high cost, poor availability, and technical difficulty. With the aim of alleviating some of these factors next-generation DNA microarrays for genome-wide transcriptome analysis for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei using the Agilent 8x15K platform were designed. Methods Probe design was adapted from previously published methods and based on the most current transcript predictions available at the time for P. falciparum or P. berghei. Array performance and transcriptome analysis was determined using dye-coupled, aminoallyl-labelled cDNA and streamlined methods for hybridization, washing, and array analysis were developed. Results The new array design marks a notable improvement in the number of transcripts covered and average number of probes per transcript. Array performance was excellent across a wide range of transcript abundance, with low inter-array and inter-probe variability for relative abundance measurements and it recapitulated previously observed transcriptional patterns. Additionally, improvements in sensitivity permitted a 20-fold reduction in necessary starting RNA amounts, further reducing experimental costs and widening the range of application. Conclusions DNA microarrays utilizing the Agilent 8x15K platform for genome-wide transcript analysis in P. falciparum and P. berghei mark an improvement in coverage and sensitivity, increased availability to the research community, and simplification of the experimental methods.

  2. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17, 38.8 (50 and 48.0% (62 items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68% items in category I, 53 (41.09% items in category II and 39 (30.23% items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well.

  3. Analysis of community-contributed space- and time-referenced data by example of Panoramio photos

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Bak, Peter; Kisilevich, Slava; Andrienko, Natalia; Andrienko, Gennady

    2009-01-01

    Space- and time-referenced data published on the Web by general people can be viewed in a dual way: as independent spatio-temporal events and as trajectories of people in the geographical space. These two views suppose different approaches to the analysis, which can yield different kinds of valuable knowledge about places and about people. We present several analysis methods corresponding to these two views. The methods are suited to the large amounts of the data.

  4. The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson Janet C; Teal Stephanie B; Lathrop Eva H; Lotke Pamela S; Edelman Alison B; Espey Eve; Turok David K; Simonsen Sara E; Schulz Kenneth F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials ...

  5. Project Final Report: Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James

    2014-01-06

    In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA laboratories Los Alamos and Sandia leveraging co-funding for Krell by ASC’s Common Computing Environment (CCE) program as laid out in the original proposal. The ASC CCE co-funding, coordinated through LLNL, was for 50% of the total project funding, with the ASC CCE portion of the funding going entirely to Krell, while the ASCR funding itself was split between Krell and the funded partners. This report covers the entire project from both funding sources. Additionally, the team leveraged the expertise of software engineering researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, who specialize in software framework design, in order to achieve a broadly acceptable component framework. The Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) software has been released to the community. Information related to the project and the released software can be found on the CBTF wiki page at: http://sourceforge.net/p/cbtf/wiki/Home

  6. EUROPLANET-RI modelling service for the planetary science community: European Modelling and Data Analysis Facility (EMDAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodachenko, Maxim; Miller, Steven; Stoeckler, Robert; Topf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Computational modeling and observational data analysis are two major aspects of the modern scientific research. Both appear nowadays under extensive development and application. Many of the scientific goals of planetary space missions require robust models of planetary objects and environments as well as efficient data analysis algorithms, to predict conditions for mission planning and to interpret the experimental data. Europe has great strength in these areas, but it is insufficiently coordinated; individual groups, models, techniques and algorithms need to be coupled and integrated. Existing level of scientific cooperation and the technical capabilities for operative communication, allow considerable progress in the development of a distributed international Research Infrastructure (RI) which is based on the existing in Europe computational modelling and data analysis centers, providing the scientific community with dedicated services in the fields of their computational and data analysis expertise. These services will appear as a product of the collaborative communication and joint research efforts of the numerical and data analysis experts together with planetary scientists. The major goal of the EUROPLANET-RI / EMDAF is to make computational models and data analysis algorithms associated with particular national RIs and teams, as well as their outputs, more readily available to their potential user community and more tailored to scientific user requirements, without compromising front-line specialized research on model and data analysis algorithms development and software implementation. This objective will be met through four keys subdivisions/tasks of EMAF: 1) an Interactive Catalogue of Planetary Models; 2) a Distributed Planetary Modelling Laboratory; 3) a Distributed Data Analysis Laboratory, and 4) enabling Models and Routines for High Performance Computing Grids. Using the advantages of the coordinated operation and efficient communication between the involved computational modelling, research and data analysis expert teams and their related research infrastructures, EMDAF will provide a 1) flexible, 2) scientific user oriented, 3) continuously developing and fast upgrading computational and data analysis service to support and intensify the European planetary scientific research. At the beginning EMDAF will create a set of demonstrators and operational tests of this service in key areas of European planetary science. This work will aim at the following objectives: (a) Development and implementation of tools for distant interactive communication between the planetary scientists and computing experts (including related RIs); (b) Development of standard routine packages, and user-friendly interfaces for operation of the existing numerical codes and data analysis algorithms by the specialized planetary scientists; (c) Development of a prototype of numerical modelling services "on demand" for space missions and planetary researchers; (d) Development of a prototype of data analysis services "on demand" for space missions and planetary researchers; (e) Development of a prototype of coordinated interconnected simulations of planetary phenomena and objects (global multi-model simulators); (f) Providing the demonstrators of a coordinated use of high performance computing facilities (super-computer networks), done in cooperation with European HPC Grid DEISA.

  7. Study of a two species microbial community by an inferential comparative genomic analysis tool: Spatial Analytical Microbial Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Valverde, Paloma; Daniel, Douglas; Fox, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Most molecular fingerprinting techniques, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) [1], comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) [2], real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [3], destroy community structure and/or cellular integrity, therefore lost the info. of the spatial locus and the in situ genomic copy number of the cells. An alternative technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) doesn't require sample disintegration but needs to develop specific markers and doesn't provide info. related to genomic copy number. Here, a microbial analysis tool, Spatial Analytical Microbial Imaging (SAMI), is described. An application was performed with a mixture of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and E. coli K-12 MG1655. The intrinsic property of their genome, reflected by the average fluorescence intensity (AFI), distinguished them in 3D. And their growth rates were inferred by comparing the total genomic fluorescence binding area (GFA) with that of the pure culture standards. A 93% of accuracy in differentiating the species was achieved. •SAMI does not require sample disintegration and preserves the community spatial structure.•It measures the 3D locus of cells within the mixture and may differentiate them according to the property of their genome.•It allows assessment of the growth rate of the cells within the mixture by comparing their genomic copy number with that of the pure culture standards. PMID:26258051

  8. Analysis of the bacterial community composition in acidic well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2014-08-01

    Potable water is a resource out of reach for millions worldwide, and the available water may be chemically and microbiologically compromised. This is particularly acute in Africa, where water-networks may be non-existent or restricted to a small fraction of the urban population, as in the case of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. This study was carried out seasonally in Bolama (11°N), where unprotected hand-dug wells with acidic water are the sole source of water for the population. We inspected the free-living bacterial community dynamics by automated rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and cloning approaches. The results revealed a clear seasonal shift in bacterial assemblage composition and microbial abundance within the same sampling site. Temperature, pH and turbidity, together with the infiltration and percolation of surface water, which takes place in the wet season, seemed to be the driving factors in the shaping and selection of the bacterial community and deterioration of water quality. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed several potential pathogenic bacteria and uncultured bacteria associated with water and sediments, corroborating the importance of a culture-independent approach in drinking water monitoring. PMID:25108716

  9. The Analysis of Sula’s Eccentricity in Character: Family and Community’s Influence on a Person’s Character

    OpenAIRE

    Guiqin AN

    2011-01-01

    Sula, the heroine in the second novel by Toni Morrison, has attracted the attention of many critics and readers. There are many discussions and reviews on Sula, especially on Sula’s character from every perspective. Based on the previous reviews, this paper mainly analyzes Sula’s eccentricity in character from the family and community’s influence in shaping a person’s character, which is of great help for readers to better understand Sula. 
    Key words: ...

  10. The Analysis of Sula’s Eccentricity in Character: Family and Community’s Influence on a Person’s Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin AN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sula, the heroine in the second novel by Toni Morrison, has attracted the attention of many critics and readers. There are many discussions and reviews on Sula, especially on Sula’s character from every perspective. Based on the previous reviews, this paper mainly analyzes Sula’s eccentricity in character from the family and community’s influence in shaping a person’s character, which is of great help for readers to better understand Sula. 
    Key words: Sula;  Character;  Eccentricity

  11. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. PMID:26505311

  12. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  13. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P; DeAngelis, Kristen M; David, Maude M; Chavarria, Krystle L; Blazewicz, Steven J; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2011-12-15

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672?Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5?°C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. PMID:22056985

  14. HydroDesktop as a Community Designed and Developed Resource for Hydrologic Data Discovery and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    As has been seen in other informatics fields, well-documented and appropriately licensed open source software tools have the potential to significantly increase both opportunities and motivation for inter-institutional science and technology collaboration. The CUAHSI HIS (and related HydroShare) projects have aimed to foster such activities in hydrology resulting in the development of many useful community software components including the HydroDesktop software application. HydroDesktop is an open source, GIS-based, scriptable software application for discovering data on the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and related resources. It includes a well-defined plugin architecture and interface to allow 3rd party developers to create extensions and add new functionality without requiring recompiling of the full source code. HydroDesktop is built in the C# programming language and uses the open source DotSpatial GIS engine for spatial data management. Capabilities include data search, discovery, download, visualization, and export. An extension that integrates the R programming language with HydroDesktop provides scripting and data automation capabilities and an OpenMI plugin provides the ability to link models. Current revision and updates to HydroDesktop include migration of core business logic to cross platform, scriptable Python code modules that can be executed in any operating system or linked into other software front-end applications.

  15. Nucleic acid based quantitative microbial community analysis in different marine and terrestrial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, A.; Blazejak, A.; Köweker, G.

    2009-12-01

    Sub-seafloor sediments harbour over half of all prokaryotic cells on Earth. This immense cell number is calculated from numerous microscopic cell counts (AODC) in ODP sediment cores. Since AODC can not differentiate between living or dead cells, the population size of living microorganisms and the abundance of different prokaryotic groups are unknown. Recent molecular nucleic acid and biomarker analyses showed that a high proportion of the cells are alive and that the microbial communities of deep marine sediments harbour members of distinct, uncultured bacterial and archaeal lineages. The main objective of our project is the quantification of living prokaryotes in various sediments. Deep sediment samples from the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans (ODP Legs 201 and 207, IODP Exp. 307 and 308), sediments from the Indian Ocean (RV Sonne 189-2) and the Black Sea (RV Meteor 51/4) as well as terrestrial Chesapeake Bay Sediments (ICDP) were analyzed using Catalyzed Reporter Deposition - Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (CARD - FISH) and quantitative, real-time PCR (Q-PCR), targeting either the 16S rRNA gene or the functional genes dsrA, mcrA and aprA to quantify microorganisms of various phylogenetic or physiological groups (e.g. JS1 cluster and Chloroflexi). At all sediment sites, cell numbers decreased with depth, however, the abundance of particular microbial groups varied at different sites and depths. The results indicate that global estimates of the deep biosphere should be reconsidered.

  16. Comparative human health risk analysis of coastal community water and waste service options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-08-19

    As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as the common metric. The alternatives included: (1) composting toilets with septic system, (2) urine-diverting toilets with septic system, (3) low flush toilets with blackwater pressure sewer and on-site greywater collection and treatment for nonpotable reuse, and (4) alternative 3 with on-site rainwater treatment and use. Various pathogens (viral, bacterial, and protozoan) and chemicals (disinfection byproducts [DBPs]) were used as reference hazards. The exposure pathways for BAU included accidental ingestion of contaminated recreational water, ingestion of cross-connected sewage to drinking water, and shower exposures to DBPs. The alternative systems included ingestion of treated greywater from garden irrigation, toilet flushing, and crop consumption; and ingestion of treated rainwater while showering. The pathways with the highest health impact included the ingestion of cross-connected drinking water and ingestion of recreational water contaminated by septic seepage. These were also among the most uncertain when characterizing input parameters, particularly the scale of the cross-connection event, and the removal of pathogens during groundwater transport of septic seepage. A comparison of the health burdens indicated potential health benefits by switching from BAU to decentralized water and wastewater systems. PMID:24988142

  17. Considering external information to improve the phylogenetic comparison of microbial communities: a new approach based on constrained Double Principal Coordinates Analysis (cDPCoA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, S; Pavoine, S; Aguirre de Cárcer, D

    2015-03-01

    The use of next-generation sequencing technologies is revolutionizing microbial ecology by allowing a deep phylogenetic coverage of tens to thousands of samples simultaneously. Double Principal Coordinates Analysis (DPCoA) is a multivariate method, developed in community ecology, able to integrate a distance matrix describing differences among species (e.g. phylogenetic distances) in the analysis of a species abundance matrix. This ordination technique has been used recently to describe microbial communities taking into account phylogenetic relatedness. In this work, we extend DPCoA to integrate the information of external variables measured on communities. The constrained Double Principal Coordinates Analysis (cDPCoA) is able to enforce a priori classifications to retrieve subtle differences and (or) remove the effect of confounding factors. We describe the main principles of this new approach and demonstrate its usefulness by providing application examples based on published 16S rRNA gene data sets. PMID:24974884

  18. New Visualization and Analysis Tools for Magnetospheric, Heliospheric, and Solar Models from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, D.; LaSota, J.; Donti, N.; Boblitt, J.; Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed new analysis tools to help scientists analyze space weather simulation data executed at the CCMC. Space Weather Explorer 2 is a Java-based application that can visualize, in 2D and 3D, large data files on common hardware. A new WebGL and HTML5-based version of Space Weather Explorer, along with a data streaming server, allows even more users to access larger datasets than normally possible. The tool allows users to remotely and easily share visualization data with others, bringing collaborative research to a new level. We will demonstrate how these tools enable new insights into the structures and dynamics of complex heliophysics phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flux transfer events (FTEs), and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

  19. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; de Courten, Maximilian; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A

    2009-01-01

    prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours......, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were...... under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potential behavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural...

  20. Microbial community analysis in a long-term membrane-less microbial electrolysis cell with hydrogen and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Ruiz, Yolanda; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert; Cortés, Pilar

    2015-12-01

    A single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) aiming at hydrogen production with acetate as sole carbon source failed due to methanogenesis build-up despite the significant amount of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) dosage, 50 mM. Specific batch experiments and a thorough microbial community analysis, pyrosequencing and qPCR, of cathode, anode and medium were performed to understand these observations. The experimental data rebuts different hypothesis and shows that methanogenesis at high BES concentration was likely due to the capacity of some Archaea (hydrogen-oxidizing genus Methanobrevibacter) to resist high BES concentration up to 200 mM. Methanobrevibacter, of the Methanobacteriales order, represented almost the 98% of the total Archaea in the cathode whereas Geobacter was highly abundant in the anode (72% of bacteria). Moreover, at higher BES concentration (up to 200 mM), methanogenesis activity decreased resulting in an increase of homoacetogenic activity, which challenged the performance of the MEC for H2 production. PMID:26138343

  1. Analysis of expansions of a bus transit network considering the needs identified by the community: case study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Promothes, Saha; Debbie, Shinstine.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expansion analyses are performed on a bus transit network in the City of Laramie area in Wyoming. Expansion analysis is based on the needs identified by the bus transportation agency and the community. This paper examines the expansions, operations and sustainability of a bus transit in a s [...] mall city having a population of 30,000 people. When funding is limited, it is very important to identify the best route that provides the services to the more people. Gravity model and ArcGIS software have been used to analyze the data. This paper examines the background of the transportation agency and existing services, finally develops a bus routing model for identifying future expansions. This research identified that one of the existing bus stops account for 1% of the ridership which can be closed. This research also found that adding a new loop considering same number of buses would increase the ridership significantly without increasing headway.

  2. Trayectorias Organizacionales y Empoderamiento Comunitario: Un Análisis de Interfaz en Dos Localidades de la Región de la Araucanía Organizational Trajectories and Community Empowerment: An Interface Analysis in Two Communities of the Araucanía Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Zambrano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan los principales resultados de una investigación cuyo propósito fue indagar sobre las variables psico-socio-culturales presentes en la interfaz entre organizaciones comunitarias de base y agentes públicos que potencian o restringen procesos de empoderamiento organizacional y comunitario. Se empleó una metodología cualitativa, apoyada por el análisis estructural de redes, analizándose en 2 localidades de la región de la Araucanía 4 tipos de organizaciones comunitarias. Los resultados muestran que en las localidades predomina un interfaz de tipo semiclientelar, clientelar y paternalista, formas de relación que se centran en la entrega de recursos por parte del municipio para resolver algunas necesidades inmediatas de la comunidad, tendiendo a predominar en las organizaciones objetivos inmediatos y una participación centrada en conseguir estos recursos.The main findings of a study that investigated the psychosocial cultural factors affecting the interface between community organizations and public agencies are reported. Four types of organizations are analyzed in 2 different communities, using a qualitative methodology and a structural networks analysis. In both communities the paternalistic, client and semi-client interface type predominate. These types of relationships focus on the delivery of resources by the municipal institution as a way of addressing the immediate needs of the community. In turn, the community organizations center their efforts on short-term objectives and participation aimed at obtaining these resources.

  3. Bacterial community analysis in chlorpyrifos enrichment cultures via DGGE and use of bacterial consortium for CP biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CP) has been used extensively since the 1960s for insect control. However, its toxic effects on mammals and persistence in environment necessitate its removal from contaminated sites, biodegradation studies of CP-degrading microbes are therefore of immense importance. Samples from a Pakistani agricultural soil with an extensive history of CP application were used to prepare enrichment cultures using CP as sole carbon source for bacterial community analysis and isolation of CP metabolizing bacteria. Bacterial community analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that the dominant genera enriched under these conditions were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, along with lower numbers of Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium and Burkholderia. Furthermore, it revealed that members of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were present at initial steps of enrichment whereas ?-Proteobacteria appeared in later steps and only Proteobacteria were selected by enrichment culturing. However, when CP-degrading strains were isolated from this enrichment culture, the most active organisms were strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Pseudomonas mendocina and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains degraded 6-7.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP when cultivated in mineral medium, while the consortium of all four strains degraded 9.2 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP (100 mg L(-1)). Addition of glucose as an additional C source increased the degradation capacity by 8-14 %. After inoculation of contaminated soil with CP (200 mg kg(-1)) disappearance rates were 3.83-4.30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for individual strains and 4.76 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for the consortium. These results indicate that these organisms are involved in the degradation of CP in soil and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters. PMID:25008559

  4. Assessment of Soil Microbial Communities Using a Combined Quantitative PCR and Length Heterogeneity Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular based approaches to assess microbial biomass and diversity from soil and other ecosystems are rapidly becoming the standard methodology for analysis. While these techniques are advantageous because they do not rely on the need to culture organisms, each technique may have its own biases a...

  5. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  6. PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT ANALYSIS BY HPLC FOR ASSESSING COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique to rapidly assess phytoplankton dynamics is being evaluated for its utility in the Great Lakes. Comparison to traditional microscopic techniques and to more recent in-situ FluoroProbe technology will allow us to determine if HPLC pigment analysis can provide unique a...

  7. Multi-scales analysis of the global change impact on the diversity of the aphid communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to investigate the effects of global change on the biodiversity of aphid communities in Western Europe. Biodiversity has been examined at 3 levels: total number of species, phenology and reproductive strategy. Data were provided by EXAMINE, the European suction traps network which has been now operating for 35 years. 392 different species have been identified. At each location, total number of species has been regularly increasing, one additional species being caught every 1 or 2 years depending on location. This is due to introduced species but also to warming which favours rare species. No general trend of increasing density has been detected, but phenological earliness of almost all species (annual date of first appearance in suction traps) is strongly correlated with temperature and especially with mean daily temperature (during more or less long periods of time lying principally in February and March) or number of days below 0 C. Strong relationships between aphid phenology and environmental variables have been found and there is strong discrimination between species with different life cycle strategies, and between species feeding on herbs and trees, suggesting the possible value of trait-based groupings in predicting responses to environmental changes. These preliminary results suggest that 1) biodiversity has increased during the last decades; 2) there is a pool of species among which some of them reach a detectable density only during years where temperatures are high enough; 3) a set of newly introduced species succeed in settling being favoured by warming and 4) phenology of aphids is expected to advance and their abundance to increase with temperature, and the possible role of natural enemies to regulate abundant species is discussed. (author)

  8. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  10. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  11. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR: A Comprehensive Bioinformatics Database and Analysis Resource for the Coronavirus Research Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses within the Coronaviridae family have been categorized as either emerging or re-emerging human pathogens, with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV being the most well known. The NIAID-sponsored Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.viprbrc.org supports bioinformatics workflows for a broad range of human virus pathogens and other related viruses, including the entire Coronaviridae family. ViPR provides access to sequence records, gene and protein annotations, immune epitopes, 3D structures, host factor data, and other data types through an intuitive web-based search interface. Records returned from these queries can then be subjected to web-based analyses including: multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic inference, sequence variation determination, BLAST comparison, and metadata-driven comparative genomics statistical analysis. Additional tools exist to display multiple sequence alignments, view phylogenetic trees, visualize 3D protein structures, transfer existing reference genome annotations to new genomes, and store or share results from any search or analysis within personal private ‘Workbench’ spaces for future access. All of the data and integrated analysis and visualization tools in ViPR are made available without charge as a service to the Coronaviridae research community to facilitate the research and development of diagnostics, prophylactics, vaccines and therapeutics against these human pathogens.

  12. Using Social Network Analysis To Map Participation And Non-participation In Health Promotion and Community-building Among Vulnerable Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    -building project aiming at increasing upward mobility and social capital within the area and increase equity in health. This presentation will outline the tensions and contradictions which accompany policies and interventions that seek to strengthen local communities as a means of promoting health. Emerging......In empowerment and asset-based approaches to community development, the ability to change local residents’ perception of themselves and their neighbours from that of persons with needs that can only be met with the help of professionals to that of a more self-reliant group with assets and...... capacities for collective and collaborative problemsolving is seen as key to successful community building (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993). By using social network analysis and Bourdieu’s definition of capital, this study aimed to identify patterns of participation and non-participation in a community...

  13. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zamin K; Venkateswaran Amudhan; Mosher Jennifer J; Miller Lance D; Palumbo Anthony V; Phelps Tommy J; Podar Mircea; Schadt Christopher W; Keller Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous c...

  14. Black Males in Education: Learning and Achievement. A Summative Community Analysis Response from the Kwanzaa Adult Forum (December 27, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2011-01-01

    Background: Educating black males is critical. No longer can the black community blame the school for the academic failure of this population. The black community must address this pervasive issue. Purpose: The purpose for this inquiry was to explore community support and recommendations for educating black males. Setting: The setting took place…

  15. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community

    OpenAIRE

    Ostraat ML; Mills KC; Guzan KA; Murry D

    2013-01-01

    Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and l...

  16. An analysis of interactions within and between extreme right communities in social media

    OpenAIRE

    O'Callaghan, Derek; Greene, Derek; Conway, Maura; Carthy, Joe; CUNNINGHAM, PADRAIG

    2012-01-01

    Many extreme right groups have had an online presence for some time through the use of dedicated websites. This has been accompanied by increased activity in social media platforms in recent years, enabling the dissemination of extreme right content to a wider audience. In this paper, we present an analysis of the activity of a selection of such groups on Twitter, using network representations based on reciprocal follower and interaction relationships, while also analyzing t...

  17. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda Beltran, Noemí; Guilera Ferré, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gómez Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the prevalence of child sexual abuse in order to establish an overall international figure. Methods: Studies were retrieved from various electronic databases. The measure of interest was the prevalence of ab...

  18. RegaDB: community-driven data management and analysis for infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Summary: RegaDB is a free and open source data management and analysis environment for infectious diseases. RegaDB allows clinicians to store, manage and analyse patient data, including viral genetic sequences. Moreover, RegaDB provides researchers with a mechanism to collect data in a uniform format and offers them a canvas to make newly developed bioinformatics tools available to clinicians and virologists through a user friendly interface.

  19. The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Janet C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta-analysis. Conclusions PMA is a novel research method that improves meta-analysis by including several study sites, establishing uniform reporting of specific outcomes, and yet allowing some independence on the part of individual sites with respect to the conduct of research. The inclusion of several sites increases statistical power to address important clinical questions. Compared to multi-center trials, PMA methodology encourages collaboration, aids in the development of new investigators, decreases study costs, and decreases time to publication. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00613366, NCT00886834, NCT01001897, NCT01147497 and NCT01307111

  20. Microbial community analysis and bioclogging identification in a Managed Artificial Recharge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Carme; Folch, Albert; Gaju, Núria; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Grau, Alba; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) is a well-known technique that aims at increasing the aquifer resources while managing its quality. In order to increase water resources in the Barcelona conurbation, an area with significant quantitative and qualitative groundwater disturbances, a MAR facility was built in Sant Vicenç dels Horts, Catalonia, Spain. The system, constructed in 2009 consists of a sedimentation pond that pre-treats the water that is then diverted to the final recharge pond. The facility was originally aimed at increasing the availability of supply water during scarcity periods. Later, it was considered as a good test site to study best infiltration practices regarding water quality evolution. For this purpose, a reactive layer was installed in 2011 at the bottom of the pond. This was composed by organic compost and autochthonous material. Small proportions of iron oxides and clay were added to promote ionic adsorption and exchange. The objective of the layer was to boost microbial activity that would be structured in depth according to the presence of a marked redox profile, thus enhancing the reduction of all organic matter, including a number of recalcitrant compounds. In the last 3 years, site studies were focused on the layer's efficiency (i.e., percentage of organic pollutants degradation). It was found that degradation is occurring despite the infiltration rate has been significantly reduced. In our most recent work, we took a step further in the study of the processes occurring in the facility, and specifically with those related to the presence of the reactive layer. We focused on characterizing microbial communities in the system by combining the sampling of soil in the recharge pond bottom, water of the vadose zone, and groundwater in the aquifer zone from a series of nearby piezometers. Molecular techniques, such as Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), were applied to the water and soil samples. This information was matched with physicochemical parameters of the water sampled in the existing piezometers, allowing relating them with different measured hydrogeological parameters (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and Eh). This information is an initial step to understand how the reactive layer induces microbiological activity and therefore degradation and bioclogging processes in the studied MAR system.

  1. Community contextual predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening in the USA: spatial multilevel regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Lee R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and endoscopic screening can both detect and prevent cancer, but utilization is suboptimal and varies across geographic regions. We use multilevel regression to examine the various predictors of individuals' decisions to utilize endoscopic CRC screening. Study subjects are a 100% population cohort of Medicare beneficiaries identified in 2001 and followed through 2005. The outcome variable is a binary indicator of any sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy use over this period. We analyze each state separately and map the findings for all states together to reveal patterns in the observed heterogeneity across states. Results We estimate a fully adjusted model for each state, based on a comprehensive socio-ecological model. We focus the discussion on the independent contributions of each of three community contextual variables that are amenable to policy intervention. Prevalence of Medicare managed care in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 12 states and higher probability in 19 states. Prevalence of poor English language ability among elders in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 15 states and higher probability in 6 states. Prevalence of poverty in one's neighborhood was associated with lower probability of screening in 36 states and higher probability in 5 states. Conclusions There are considerable differences across states in the socio-ecological context of CRC screening by endoscopy, suggesting that the current decentralized configuration of state-specific comprehensive cancer control programs is well suited to respond to the observed heterogeneity. We find that interventions to mediate language barriers are more critically needed in some states than in others. Medicare managed care penetration, hypothesized to affect information about and diffusion of new endoscopic technologies, has a positive association in only a minority of states. This suggests that managed care plans' promotion of this cost-increasing technology has been rather limited. Area poverty has a negative impact in the vast majority of states, but is positive in five states, suggesting there are some effective cancer control policies in place targeting the poor with supplemental resources promoting CRC screening.

  2. Analysis of pH-driven disruption of oral microbial communities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, D J; Marsh, P D

    1998-01-01

    Previously, a mixed culture chemostat system was used to demonstrate that the pH generated from carbohydrate metabolism, rather than carbohydrate availability per se, was responsible for the shifts observed in the oral microflora which are associated with high carbohydrate diets and the development of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine more accurately the microbially generated pH at which such shifts occurred. Nine oral bacteria were grown in three independent chemostats, and pulsed with glucose on 10 consecutive days. In one chemostat, pH control was discontinued for 6 h, and the pH fall was restricted to a minimum value of pH 5.5; the pH fall was arrested in the other two chemostats at either pH 5. 0, or at pH 4.5. When the pH was allowed to fall, the numbers and proportions of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus increased; this increase was directly related to the magnitude of the pH fall. Veillonella dispar was the most numerous organism following all glucose pulsing regimes, especially at low pH. The increase in proportions of acidogenic bacteria was accompanied by a fall in the proportions of acid-sensitive species (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis). The counts of these species were relatively stable between pH 5.5 and 4.5, but were markedly reduced when the pH fell below pH 4.5; Neisseria subflava could not persist in the culture at pH 4.5 or below. The data suggest that the disruption of communities associated with glucose metabolism and low pH can be explained in terms of a two-stage process. A fall in pH to a value between pH 5.5 and 4.5 may allow the enrichment of potentially cariogenic species, whilst permitting species associated with health to remain relatively unaffected. A further reduction in pH (mutans streptococci or lactobacilli are competitive at pH values low enough to demineralise enamel, and thus suggest that a broader range of micro-organisms may be associated with caries initiation. PMID:9745120

  3. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Jones, J.; Spielman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunami waves that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community vulnerability to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, include demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. Population distributions also are characterized by a function of travel time to safety, based on anisotropic, path-distance, geospatial modeling. We used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. We selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the vulnerability classification is to provide emergency managers with a general sense of the types of communities in tsunami hazard zones based on similar characteristics instead of only providing an exhaustive list of attributes for individual communities. This classification scheme can be then used to target and prioritize risk-reduction efforts that address common issues across multiple communities. The presentation will include a discussion of the utility of proposed place classifications to support regional preparedness and outreach efforts.

  4. A Community Organizing Case Study: An Analysis of Cap-It's Strategy to Prevent the Location of a Toxic Waste Incinerator in Their Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J

    1992-01-01

    With the great proliferation of chemical manufacturing in the past half-century, the dilemma of dealing with the waste produced has become an increasing problem facing communities. One method that is gaining increased acceptance by both government and industry is incineration. Many citizens have formed groups to protest these facilities because of their concerns about health risks, especially exposure to carcinogens. This case study profiles one such group, CAP-IT, a collection of middle-class residents living in a small working-class town and their successful battle to prevent the siting of a hazardous waste incinerator. CAP-IT's strategy will be critiqued using methods advanced by Lee Staples, Nicholas Freudenburg and Kurt Lewin to demonstrate the power of community organizing activities. PMID:20840988

  5. Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of rRNA Genes for Analysis of Fungal Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Valinsky, Lea; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Jiang, Tao; Borneman, James

    2002-01-01

    Thorough assessments of fungal diversity are currently hindered by technological limitations. Here we describe a new method for identifying fungi, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG). ORFG sorts arrayed rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) clones into taxonomic clusters through a series of hybridization experiments, each using a single oligonucleotide probe. A simulated annealing algorithm was used to design an OFRG probe set for fungal rDNA. Analysis of 1,536 fungal rDNA clones d...

  6. Flexible Community Structure Correlates with Stable Community Function in Methanogenic Bioreactor Communities Perturbed by Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDR...

  7. Development of a bacterial cell enrichment method and its application to the community analysis in soybean stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Okubo, Takashi; Rallos, Lynn E E; Eda, Shima; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2009-11-01

    A method was developed for enriching bacterial cells from soybean stems which was recalcitrant for a culture-independent analysis of bacterial community due to the interference with plant DNA. Stem homogenates were fractionated by a series of differential centrifugations followed by a Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. The efficiency of bacterial cell enrichment was assessed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). The intensity and the number of bacterial amplicons of RISA were markedly increased in the DNA extracted from the enriched bacterial cells compared to that in the DNA directly extracted from soybean stems. The phylogenetic diversity of the enriched bacterial cells was evaluated by analyzing a clone library of 16S rRNA gene in comparison with those of the culturable fractions of the enriched and non-enriched stem-associated bacteria, endophytic bacteria, and epiphytic bacteria. The results indicated that the method was able to enrich both endophytic and epiphytic bacteria from soybean stems, and was useful to assess the bacterial diversity based on a 16S rRNA gene clone library. When the sequence data from all clones (1,332 sequences) were combined, 72 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, which also provided the most comprehensive set of data on the bacterial diversity in the aerial parts of soybeans. PMID:19662454

  8. Characteristics of phytoplankton community structure during and after a bloom of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea by HPLC pigment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wong, Chong-Kim

    2009-06-01

    A bloom of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea was detected for the first time in inner Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong in 2 000. Water samples were collected at eight stations along a transect passing through a red tide patch for microscopic analysis of phytoplankton composition and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of phytoplankton pigments. During the bloom, the density of dinoflagellates was 1.1×106 cells L-1 within the patch and 8.6×105 cells L-1 outside the patch where the phytoplankton community was dominated by diatoms. After the bloom the S. trochoidea began to decrease in density and was replaced by diatoms as the dominating bloom-causing organisms at all stations, and the density of dinoflagellates at most stations was less than 1.0 × 106 cells L-1. The status of S. trochoidea as the causative species of the bloom was indicated by the presence of peridinin, the marker pigment for dinoflagellates. The shift from dinoflagellates to diatoms was marked by the decline of peridinin and the prevalence of fucoxanthin. Phytoplankton pigment markers also revealed the presence of other minor phytoplankton assemblages such as cryptomonads and blue-green algal.

  9. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewin, Aisha N.; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-07-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980-2012. Lethality - deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013-1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003-1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000-2012 period versus 1980-1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615-8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG).

  10. LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2014-09-01

    Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

  11. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Of Microbial Communities From Active Layer And Permafrost After Short-Term Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chauhan, A.; Saarunya, G.; Murphy, J.; Williams, D.; Layton, A. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Sanders, R.; Lau, C. M.; myneni, S.; Phelps, T. J.; Fountain, A. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    .Permafrost areas occupy 20-25% of the Earth and extend of 1 km depths. The total number of prokaryotes and their biomass in cold regions are estimated to be 1 x 1030 cells and 140 x1015 g of C, respectively. Thus these environments serve as a reservoir of microbial and biogeochemical activity, which is likely to increase upon thawing. We are currently performing long-term thawing experiments at 4o C on 18, geochemically well-characterized, 1 meter long, intact cores consisting of active-layer (0-70 cm depth) and permafrost, collected from a 7 meter diameter ice-wedge polygon located at the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. The organic carbon content of these cores averages ~1% at depth but increases to 5.4% in the top 10 cm. The cores were subdivided into four treatment groups: saturated cores (thawed while receiving artificial rain), drained cores (being thawed under natural hydrological conditions), dark cores (thawed under natural hydrological conditions with no light input) and control cores (maintain permafrost table at 70 cm depth). Over the course of 10 weeks the cores were progressively thawed from -4oC to 4oC from the top down to simulate spring thaw conditions in the Arctic. The temperatures at 5 cm, 35 cm, 65 cm, and below the permafrost table in the core were recorded continuously. Pore water and gas samples from 4 depths in each core were collected every two weeks and analyzed for pH, anions, cations, H2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, CO2 and ?13C of CO2. Headspace gas samples were collected weekly and analyzed for the same gases as the pore gases. Sediment sub-samples from the 4 depths were collected and total community genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated using FastDNA SPIN kit followed by Qiagen column purification. The average yield of gDNA was ~3.5 ?g/g of soil for the upper 5 cm active layers and decreased to ~1.5 ?g/g of soil in the permafrost. The bacterial 16S copy numbers estimated by real-time quantitative PCR decreased with depth from 7x108 to 1x108 copies /g of soil. Characterization of the metagenomic sequences derived from the samples before thawing elucidated differences between the permafrost and active-layer with Acidobacteria and Alpha-Proteobacteria are being significantly higher in active layer than in permafrost, on the contrary permafrost had higher abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes than active layer. Currently additional metagenomic DNA illumina libraries for 20 samples after 1 week thawing are in preparation and will be analyzed to determine whether variations in the metagenomic sequences are correlated to the geochemical data.

  12. Metagenome Sequence Analysis of Filamentous Microbial Communities Obtained from Geochemically Distinct Geothermal Channels Reveals Specialization of Three Aquificales Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WilliamP.Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal ‘filamentous streamer’ communities (~40 Mbp per site, which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae populations, whereas the circumneutral pH (6.5 - 7.8 sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae. Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae populations were found primarily in the circumneutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl. The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl CoA synthetase (Ccs and citryl CoA lyase (Ccl. All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2 have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

  13. Microbial community structure analysis of produced water from a high-temperature North Sea oil-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Håkon; Garshol, Frøydis; Madsen, Marit; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2008-01-01

    Molecular and culture-based methods were used to investigate the microbial diversity in produced water obtained from the high-temperature Troll oil formation in the North Sea. 16S rRNA gene libraries were generated from total community DNA, using universal archaeal or bacterial oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of 88 clones in the bacterial library indicated that they originated from members of Firmicutes (48 sequences), Bacteroidetes (17 sequences), delta-Proteobacteria (15 sequences), Spirochaetes (5 sequences), Thermotogales (2 sequences) and gamma-Proteobacteria (1 sequence). Twenty-two sequences in the archaeal library were close relatives to members of the genera Methanococcus (18 sequences), Methanolobus (3 sequences) and Thermococcus (1 sequence). Most of the bacterial sequences shared less than 95% identity with their closest match in GenBank, indicating that the produced water harbours a unique community of novel bacterial species or genera. Members of the thermophilic genera Thermosipho, Thermotoga, Anaerophaga and Thermovirga were isolated. The Troll formations are not injected with sea water. Thus, dramatic changes of the in situ conditions have been avoided, and a common source of continuous contamination from injection water can be excluded. However, the majority of the organisms detected in the gene libraries were most closely related to cultivated organisms with optimum temperatures for growth well below the in situ reservoir temperature (70 degrees C), indicating that produced water from the Troll platform harbours a substantial amount of non-indigenous organisms. This was confirmed by the isolation of a number of mesophilic and moderately thermophilic organisms that were unable to grow at reservoir temperature. PMID:17588160

  14. Comparison of Rock Varnish Bacterial Communities with Surrounding Non-Varnished Rock Surfaces: Taxon-Specific Analysis and Morphological Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alfonso; Ahmed, Engy; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Holmström, Sara J M; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Rock varnish is a thin layer of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides with embedded clay minerals that contain an increased Mn/Fe ratio compared to that of the Earth's crust. Even if the study of rock varnish has important implications in several fields, the composition of epilithic bacterial communities and the distribution of taxa on varnish surfaces are still not wholly described. The aim of this study was (i) to identify the bacterial taxa which show the greatest variation between varnish and non-varnish environments, collected from the same rock, and (ii) to describe the morphology of epilithic communities through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Triplicate samples of rock surfaces with varnish and triplicate samples without varnish were collected from five sites in Matsch Valley (South Tyrol, Italy). The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Fifty-five ubiquitous taxa have been examined to assess variation between varnish and non-varnish. Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria along with minor taxa such as Solirubrobacterales, Conexibaxter, and Rhodopila showed significant variations of abundance, diversity, or both responding to the ecology (presence/absence of varnish). Other taxa, such as the genus Edaphobacter, showed a more marked spatial variation responding to the sampling site. SEM images showed a multitude of bacterial morphologies and structures involved in the process of attachment and creation of a suitable environment for growth. The features emerging from this analysis suggest that the highly oxidative Fe and Mn-rich varnish environment favors anoxigenic autotrophy and establishment of highly specialized bacteria. PMID:25921518

  15. [Effects of temperature on combined process of ABR and MBR for domestic sewage treatment and analysis of microbial community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Lu, Shuang-jun; Xu, Yue-zhong; Liu, Jie; Shen, Yao-liang

    2014-09-01

    Effects of temperature on the combined process of ABR and MBR ( CAMBR) for domestic sewage treatment were investigated and the changes in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The HRT, recycle ratio 1, recycle ratio 2, pH and DO were 7.5 h, 200% , 50%, 6.5~8.5 and 3 mg.L-1, respectively. The temperature were controlled at three gradients: middle (25°C ±5°C ), low (10°C±5°C) and high (35°C±5°C ). The results showed that the change of temperature had little influence on COD removal, and the CAMBR in stable state showed good performance in COD removal. In addition, the CAMBR achieved good effluent quality in middle or high temperature environment, and the average TN removal efficiency was 70% with an effluent TN of 9 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was 73% with the effluent TP below 0. 8 mg L-1. For the process operated in low temperature environment, the average TN removal efficiency was only 57% with an effluent TN of 15 mg L-1, and the average TP removal efficiency was decreased to 67% with an effluent TP of 1 mg.L-1. DGGE analysis indicated that throughout the process, the microbial population within the system maintained its diversity in distribution, while the dominant flora was prominent. During the same period, microbial populations in each compartment were similar. However, the structure of microbial community had significant differences between the ABR and the MBR due to the change of microenvironment in each compartment. Thus, the contributions of the ABR and the MBR were intensified, guaranteeing the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the system. PMID:25518667

  16. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID:24550847

  17. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R; Servaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced by community media organizations in European countries.

  18. Intercomparison of the community multiscale air quality model and CALGRID using process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lamb, Brian K

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences between two advanced photochemical air quality modeling systems: EPA Models-3/CMAQ and CALGRID/CALMET. Both modeling systems were applied to an ozone episode that occurred along the I-5 urban corridor in western Washington and Oregon during July 11-14, 1996. Both models employed the same modeling domain and used the same detailed gridded emission inventory. The CMAQ model was run using both the CB-IV and RADM2 chemical mechanisms, while CALGRID was used with the SAPRC-97 chemical mechanism. Outputfrom the Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5) employed with observational nudging was used in both models. The two modeling systems, representing three chemical mechanisms and two sets of meteorological inputs, were evaluated in terms of statistical performance measures for both 1- and 8-h average observed ozone concentrations. The results showed that the different versions of the systems were more similar than different, and all versions performed well in the Portland region and downwind of Seattle but performed poorly in the more rural region north of Seattle. Improving the meteorological input into the CALGRID/CALMET system with planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameters from the Models-3/CMAQ meteorology preprocessor (MCIP) improved the performance of the CALGRID/CALMET system. The 8-h ensemble case was often the best performer of all the cases indicating that the models perform better over longer analysis periods. The 1-h ensemble case, derived from all runs, was not necessarily an improvement over the five individual cases, but the standard deviation about the mean provided a measure of overall modeling uncertainty. Process analysis was applied to examine the contribution of the individual processes to the species conservation equation. The process analysis results indicated that the two modeling systems arrive at similar solutions by very different means. Transport rates are faster and exhibit greater fluctuations in the CMAQ cases than in the CALGRID cases, which lead to different placement of the urban ozone plumes. The CALGRID cases, which rely on the SAPRC97 chemical mechanism, exhibited a greater diurnal production/loss cycle of ozone concentrations per hour compared to either the RADM2 or CBIV chemical mechanisms in the CMAQ cases. These results demonstrate the need for specialized process field measurements to confirm whether we are modeling ozone with valid processes. PMID:16124311

  19. 'The government cannot do it all alone': realist analysis of the minutes of community health committee meetings in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Molemodile, Shola K; Okonkwo, Ononuju A; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra L

    2016-04-01

    Since the mid-1980s, the national health policy in Nigeria has sought to inspire community engagement in primary health care by bringing communities into partnership with service providers through community health committees. Using a realist approach to understand how and under what circumstances the committees function, we explored 581 meeting minutes from 129 committees across four states in Nigeria (Lagos, Benue, Nasarawa and Kaduna). We found that community health committees provide opportunities for improving the demand and supply of health care in their community. Committees demonstrate five modes of functioning: through meetings (as 'village square'), reaching out within their community (as 'community connectors'), lobbying governments for support (as 'government botherers'), inducing and augmenting government support (as 'back-up government') and taking control of health care in their community (as 'general overseers'). In performing these functions, community health committees operate within and through the existing social, cultural and religious structures of their community, thereby providing an opportunity for the health facility with which they are linked to be responsive to the needs and values of the community. But due to power asymmetries, committees have limited capacity to influence health facilities for improved performance, and governments for improved health service provision. This is perhaps because national guidelines are not clear on their accountability functions; they are not aware of the minimum standards of services to expect; and they have a limited sense of legitimacy in their relations with sub-national governments because they are established as the consequence of a national policy. Committees therefore tend to promote collective action for self-support more than collective action for demanding accountability. To function optimally, community health committees require national government or non-government organization mentoring and support; they need to be enshrined in law to bolster their sense of legitimacy; and they also require financial support to subsidise their operation costs especially in geographically large communities. PMID:26210167

  20. Energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle: Community health and resource change in an Appalachian coal county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of steadily expanding coal development in this decade in the USA, there has been little systematic assessment of occupational and public health implications of increased production in specific regions of the USA. Preliminary analysis of a prototype Appalachian area is presented. Anderson County, Tennessee, the prototype area chosen for evaluation, lies in the Upper East Tennessee Coalfield. This county is uniquely suited for study since every process of the coal fuel cycle (extraction, transport, combustion, power production and waste disposal) takes place within the county boundary. By extensive exploitation of both surface and underground methods of extraction, this county has maintained a leading position in Tennessee's coal production for several years. Concepts of energy analysis and systematized data presentation were used to convert information gathered from diverse sources into comparable energy units (kcal). Concepts and methodology implemented in the analysis can be applied most appropriately to existing conditions in other counties of the Appalachian Coal Basin. Findings are presented for calendar year 1978. For the year of study, the major energy loss to the county was depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniques (a loss of 10.5x1012kcal fuel equivalents). Another loss is to community health, which is depleted by lost productivity of, and compensation payments to, victims of mining accidents and occupational disease such as 'black lung' (15x109kcal). Another countywide depletion process is roadbed and bridge deterioration caused by large volumes of heavy coal-haul vehicular traffic (10x109kcal). These losses are being borne mainly by residents of the Appalachian host region, with little systematic compensation by consumers of the coal resource. It is expected that these losses will increase in magnitude as national coal use increases. (author)

  1. Using Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis for High-Risk Processes at Three Community Hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Fuller, Becky; Nordquist, Kathleen; Kongslie, Anita

    2005-03-01

    The staff at three Washington State hospitals and Battelle Pacific Northwest Division have been collaborating to apply Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) to assess several hospital processes. The staff from Kadlec Medical Center (KMC), located in Richland, Washington; Kennewick General Hospital (KGH), located in Kennewick, Washington; and Lourdes Medical Center (LMC), located in Pasco, Washington, along with staff from Battelle, which is located in Richland, Washington have been working together successfully for two and a half years. Tri-Cities Shared Services, a local organization which implements shared hospital services, has provided the forum for joint activity. This effort was initiated in response to the new JCAHO patient safety standards implemented in July 2001, and the hospitals’ desire to be more proactive in improving patient safety. As a result of performing FMECAs the weaknesses of six medical processes have been characterized and corresponding system improvements implemented. Based on this collective experience, insights about the benefits of applying FMECAs to healthcare processes have been identified.

  2. [Descriptive analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an expatriate community in Yaounde-Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhecke, C; Nguimfack, R Ndi Kweti; Berry, A; Marchou, B

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease in Cameroon. Expatriate population is also affected by malaria risk. Many studies are published on malaria, but few are focused on the expatriate population. The objective was to describe epidemiological characteristics andmanagement ofmalaria at Plasmodium falciparum in Yaounde expatriate population. This is a retrospective analysis of all patients treated at health center of the French Embassy in Yaounde in 2013 with a diagnosis of malaria. 103 cases were recruited. Out of them, 32.7% came from the outskirts of Yaounde, 25.2% from the coastal area of Cameroon, and 20.4% from the center of Yaounde. 22 patients were hospitalized, including 6 in Emergency department. 3 deaths were reported during this period. Severe malaria cases are regularly detected in expatriate population inYaounde and preferentially patients, who are over 50 years old, long stay residents in Cameroon and they paid less attention on prevention and vector control. This study confirms the presence of urban malaria in Yaounde and the need to adopt measures including prophylaxis. To the ignorance of risk and the poor adherence to prophylactic measures, it appears important that the various embassies in northern countries have specific information to their expatriates living in endemic areas. PMID:25158843

  3. Using Social Network Analysis To Map Participation And Non-participation In Health Promotion and Community-building Among Vulnerable Populations : Oral presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    In empowerment and asset-based approaches to community development, the ability to change local residents’ perception of themselves and their neighbours from that of persons with needs that can only be met with the help of professionals to that of a more self-reliant group with assets and capacities for collective and collaborative problemsolving is seen as key to successful community building (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993). By using social network analysis and Bourdieu’s definition of capital, this study aimed to identify patterns of participation and non-participation in a community-building project aiming at increasing upward mobility and social capital within the area and increase equity in health. This presentation will outline the tensions and contradictions which accompany policies and interventions that seek to strengthen local communities as a means of promoting health. Emerging findings from the network analysis and the factors that promote or hinder participation in voluntary activities will be presented. Particular focus will be on the range of factors that hinder widespread voluntary participation in community building with residents having limited opportunities for developing and maintaining more heterogeneous social networks outside the stigmatised neighbourhood.

  4. Analysis of cocaine and nicotine metabolites in wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cross abuse index patterns on a major community

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Álvaro; Silva, Nuno; Bronze, M. R.; Ferreira, João; Morais, José

    2014-01-01

    "A method based on sample preparation by solid phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was validated and used for simultaneous analysis of cocaine, benzoylecgonine and cotinine in samples collected at the major wastewater treatment plant in the city of Lisbon. The aim was to estimate the consumption of both cocaine and nicotine in this community and establish an index involving both drugs supported by the relevance of nicotine as a significant anthropogeni...

  5. Analysis of photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure along an extended Ellett Line transect in the northern North Atlantic reveals a dominance of novel prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte phylotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Amy R.; Jardillier, Ludwig E.; Holland, Ross; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Scanlan, Dave J.

    2011-07-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of a size situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of seawater samples collected along the transect to provide a PCR-independent survey of class level PPE distribution patterns. We found the PPE community was dominated by members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Prasinophyceae and Mamiellophyceae. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed several novel Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae phylotypes (with only 85-96% identity to neighbouring sequences) within lineages for which cultured counterparts are unknown.

  6. Analysis of organic pollutants in sewage sludges from the Valencian community (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rico, M F; Font, R; Aracil, I; Fullana, A

    2007-04-01

    Seventeen sewage sludges were studied to analyse, with the minimum number of steps, the organic pollutants that the European Union proposes to be controlled for land application. The compounds determined were a selection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); a selection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP); nonylphenolic compounds, including nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates with 1 and 2 ethoxy groups (NP1EO + NP2EO); extractable organic halides (EOX); and linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) with an alkylic chain of 10 to 13 carbon atoms. The results were compared with the proposed regulatory limit values, and it was observed that NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS exceeded the maximums in most samples, and DEHP exceeded some of them, whereas PAHs, PCBs, and EOX almost always went beyond the limits. The values obtained are similar to those from other countries, and it can be said that it is difficult to comply with the limits for NP + NP1EO + NP2EO and LAS in many of them, although this latter parameter was not considered in the study carried out by Leschber (2004) concerning the toxicity of sewage sludge. Statistical multivariant analysis was used to look for some relationship between the results of pollutants and the characteristics of the samples, and it was found that the ratio of NP1EO + NP2EO to NP was related to sludge treatment at the sewage plant. At the same time, it was seen that the higher values of organic pollutants belonged to digested sludges. PMID:17384980

  7. Visual analysis of the quantitative composition of metagenomic communities: the AmphoraVizu webserver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szalkai, Balázs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2015-04-01

    Low-cost DNA sequencing methods have given rise to an enormous development of metagenomics in the past few years. One basic--and difficult--task is the phylogenetic annotation of the metagenomic samples studied. The difficulty comes from the fact that the typical environmental sample contains hundreds of unknown and still uncharacterized microorganisms. There are several possible methods to assign at least partial phylogenetic information to these uncharacterized data. Originally, the 16S ribosomal RNA was used as phylogenetic marker, then genome sequence alignments and similarity measures between the unknown genome and the reference genomes were applied (e.g., in the MEGAN software), and more recently, phylogeny-based methods applying suitable sets of marker genes were suggested (AMPHORA, AMPHORA2, and the webserver implementation AmphoraNet). Here, we present a visual analysis tool that is capable of demonstrating the quantitative relations gained from the output of the AMPHORA2 program or the easy-to-use AmphoraNet webserver. Our web-based tool, the AmphoraVizu webserver, makes the phylogenetic distribution of the metagenomic sample clearly visible by using the native output format of AMPHORA2 or AmphoraNet. The user may set the phylogenetic resolution (i.e., superkingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species) along with the chart type and will receive the distribution data detailed for all relevant marker genes in the sample. For publication quality results, the chart labels can be customized by the user. The visualization webserver is available at the address http://amphoravizu.pitgroup.org. The AmphoraNet webserver is available at http://amphoranet.pitgroup.org. The open-source version of the AmphoraVizu program is available for download at http://pitgroup.org/apps/amphoravizu/AmphoraVizu.pl. PMID:25296554

  8. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S.E.; AHMAD, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N.; Ismail, Nahlah E.

    2015-01-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists...

  9. Critical analysis of sustainable community planning and development principles as applied within the Tlokwe Municipality / Bernice Bernadette van Schalkwyk.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schalkwyk, Bernice Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current high levels of urbanisation and the lingering effects of Apartheid, South African municipalities have experienced difficulties in planning for sustainability and more specifically sustainable community development. Sustainable community development is needed in order to achieve more integrated and sustainable towns and cities with an improved urban environment and a higher quality of life. Due to this sustainable community development is of particular relevance to South Afr...

  10. A Multifactor Analysis of Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure in the Root Microbiome of Mature Populus deltoides Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K; Gunter, Lee; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the infl...

  11. Community surveys and risk factor analysis of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu Rong; SUN Tao; Li, Zhengzhi; Zhang, Jianzhong; Teng, Jing; Liu, Xongzhou; Liu, Ruiqi; Zhao, Rui; Malcolm K. Jones; Wang, Yunhai; WEN, HAO; Feng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qin; Zhao, Yumin; Shi, Dazhong

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the true community prevalence of human cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis (hydatid disease) in a highly endemic region in Ningxia Hui, China, by detecting asymptomatic cases. METHODS: Using hospital records and "AE-risk" landscape patterns we selected study communities predicted to be at risk of human echinococcosis in Guyuan, Longde and Xiji counties. We conducted community surveys of 4773 individuals from 26 villages in 2002 and 2003 using questionnaire ana...

  12. Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Baker

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options that specify deferment and timing of harvest for large blocks helped ensure the stable presence of an intact mature forest matrix over time. The management scenario that focused on maintaining compositional targets best supported biodiversity objectives by providing the composition patterns required by the 13 focal species, but this scenario may be improved by adding some broad-scale spatial objectives to better maintain large blocks of interior forest habitat through time.

  13. Analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle in European Community countries up to the year 2000 ESARDA point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy for electricity production has substantially increased during the past years, and present day projections indicate a further increase for the next decade. The presently available safeguards technology satisfies the actual needs but the projected evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle is expected to pose new technical challenges. Experience has taught that much time elapses between the development of safeguard techniques and the routine field application. Therefore it appears reasonable to consider long term trends of RandD activities in the light of the described fuel cycle evolution. ESARDA has made a first step in this direction by making a fuel cycle analysis up to the year 2000, which should provide the orientation for RandD in the future. In May 1988, the seven ESARDA working groups met at Karlsruhe to address this theme and to analyse the safeguards relevant features of the future fuel cycle within the European Community (EC) countries and how they influence the further development of presently available techniques in the field of measurements, containment and surveillance (C/S), data evaluation, etc. The preliminary results of this meeting are presented in the paper

  14. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8 % and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system. PMID:26160121

  15. Effect of storage temperature on prokaryotic cell counts and community composition analysis from fixed and filtered seawater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun M.; Azam, Farooq

    2008-06-01

    Marine, pelagic prokaryotes commonly are visualized and enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with fluorescent, DNA-binding dyes and sample preparation and storage has a major influence on obtaining reliable estimates. However, sampling often takes place in remote locations and the recommended continuous sample storage at -20°C until further sample evaluation is often logistically challenging or infeasible. We investigated the effect of storage temperature on fixed and filtered seawater samples for subsequent enumeration of total prokaryotic cells and community composition analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Prokaryotic abundance in surface seawater was not significantly different after 99 days when filters were stored either at room temperature (RT) or at -20°C. Furthermore, there was no loss in detection rates of phylotypes by FISH from filters stored at RT or -20°C for 28-30 days. We conclude that fixed and filtered seawater samples intended for total prokaryote counts or for FISH may be maintained long-term at room temperature, and this should logistically facilitate diverse studies of prokaryote ecology, biogeography, and the occurrence of human and fish/shellfish pathogens.

  16. A community resource for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor gene expression in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman Julia C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume species that is currently the focus of an international genome sequencing effort. Although several different oligonucleotide and cDNA arrays have been produced for genome-wide transcript analysis of this species, intrinsic limitations in the sensitivity of hybridization-based technologies mean that transcripts of genes expressed at low-levels cannot be measured accurately with these tools. Amongst such genes are many encoding transcription factors (TFs, which are arguably the most important class of regulatory proteins. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most sensitive method currently available for transcript quantification, and one that can be scaled up to analyze transcripts of thousands of genes in parallel. Thus, qRT-PCR is an ideal method to tackle the problem of TF transcript quantification in Medicago and other plants. Results We established a bioinformatics pipeline to identify putative TF genes in Medicago truncatula and to design gene-specific oligonucleotide primers for qRT-PCR analysis of TF transcripts. We validated the efficacy and gene-specificity of over 1000 TF primer pairs and utilized these to identify sets of organ-enhanced TF genes that may play important roles in organ development or differentiation in this species. This community resource will be developed further as more genome sequence becomes available, with the ultimate goal of producing validated, gene-specific primers for all Medicago TF genes. Conclusion High-throughput qRT-PCR using a 384-well plate format enables rapid, flexible, and sensitive quantification of all predicted Medicago transcription factor mRNAs. This resource has been utilized recently by several groups in Europe, Australia, and the USA, and we expect that it will become the 'gold-standard' for TF transcript profiling in Medicago truncatula.

  17. Metagenomics data analysis using a latent block model: application to plant-microbial communities interactions in the rhizosphere .

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Julie; Schbath, Sophie; Laroche, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics is the study of microbial communities directly from environmental samples. We will propose a model and the tools of inference associated for a simultaneous clustering: the one on the populations of bacteria constituting the metagenome, and the other one on the samples. We will apply this model on the plant-microbial communities interactions in the rhizosphere.

  18. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  19. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Timothy J; Noonan, Brice P; Jackson, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities. PMID:26039313

  1. An Analysis of Current Grade Point Averages of Employed Full-Time Students at Wilkes Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Willard M., Jr.; And Others

    This study was conducted to ascertain the effects of employment on the academic performance of community college students. The grade point averages of 830 full-time students at Wilkes Community College (North Wilkesboro, N.C.) were analyzed to determine: (1) if working students' GPA's differed significantly from those of the total student…

  2. Systems level insights into alternate methane cycling modes in a freshwater lake via community transcriptomics, metabolomics and nano-SIMS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstrom, Mary E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chistoserdova, Ludmila [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orphan, Victoria J. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Beck, David A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-08-07

    The research conducted as part of this project contributes significantly to the understanding of the microbes and their activities involved in methane metabolism in freshwater lake sediments and in the environment in a more global sense. Significant new insights have been gained into the identity of the species that are most active in methane oxidation. New concepts have been developed based on the new data on how these organisms metabolize methane, impacting not only environmental microbiology but also biotechnology, including biotechnology of next generation biofuels. Novel approaches have been developed for studying functional microbial communities, via holistic approaches, such as metagenomics, metatrancriptomics and metabolite analysis. As a result, a novel outlook has been obtained at how such communities operate in nature. Understanding methane-oxidizing communities in lakes and other environments is of significant benefit to the public, in terms of methane emission mitigation and in terms of potential biotechnological applications.

  3. Community extraction for social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhu, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields, with applications ranging from citation and friendship networks to food webs and gene regulatory networks. Most of the existing community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that focuses on community extraction instead of partition, extracting one community at a time. The main idea behind extraction is that the strength of a community should not depend on ties between members of other communities, but only on ties within that community and its ties to the outside world. We show that the new extraction criterion performs well on simulated and real networks, and establish asymptotic consistency ...

  4. Shaping Communities out of Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Prat-Pérez, Arnau; Brunat, Josep M; Larriba-Pey, Josep-Lluis

    2012-01-01

    Community detection has arisen as one of the most relevant topics in the field of graph data mining due to its importance in many fields such as biology, social networks or network traffic analysis. The metrics proposed to shape communities are generic and follow two approaches: maximizing the internal density of such communities or reducing the connectivity of the internal vertices with those outside the community. However, these metrics take the edges as a set and do not consider the internal layout of the edges in the community. We define a set of properties oriented to social networks that ensure that communities are cohesive, structured and well defined. Then, we propose the Weighted Community Clustering (WCC), which is a community metric based on triangles. We proof that analyzing communities by triangles gives communities that fulfill the listed set of properties, in contrast to previous metrics. Finally, we experimentally show that WCC correctly captures the concept of community in social networks usi...

  5. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, I.; Spanggaard, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To identify the dominant culturable and nonculturable microbiota of rainbow trout intestine.Methods and Results: Microbial density of rainbow trout intestine was estimated by direct microscopic counts (4('),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) and by culturing on tryptone soya agar (TSA). Differential gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial DNA from intestinal samples, re-amplification of bands and sequence analysis was used to identify the bacteria that dominated samples where aerobic counts were less than or equal to2% of the DAPI counts. 16S rDNA gene sequences of 146 bacterial isolates and three sequences of uncultured bacteria were identified. A set of oligonucleotide probes was constructed and used to detect and enumerate the bacterial community structure of the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Members of the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria (mainly Aeromonas and Enterobacteriaceae) dominated the bacterial population structure. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Plesiomonas and Proteus were also identified together with isolates belonging to the beta subclass of Proteobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria with high and low DNA G + C content. In most samples, the aerobic count (on TSA) was 50-90% of the direct (DAPI) count. A bacterium representing a previously unknown phylogenetic lineage with only 89% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Anaerofilum pentosovorans was detected in intestinal samples where aerobic counts were less than or equal to2% of direct (DAPI) counts. Ten to 75% of the microbial population in samples with low aerobic counts hybridized (FISH) with a probe constructed against this not-yet cultured bacterium.Conclusions: Proteobacteria belonging to the gamma subclass dominated the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout. However, in some samples the microflora was dominated by uncultivated, presumed anaerobic, micro-organisms. The bacterial population structure of rainbow trout intestine, as well as total bacterial counts, varied from fish to fish.Significance and Impact of the Study: Good correlation was seen between cultivation results and in situ analysis, however, a molecular approach was crucial for the identification of organisms uncultivated on TSA

  8. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere. PMID:26591997

  9. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial communities in biofilms from different pipe materials in a city drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongxing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Liu, Jingqing; Hu, Baolan

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could cause several types of problems, such as the deterioration of water quality, corrosion of pipe walls, and potential proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, ten biofilm samples from different pipe materials, including ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP), gray cast iron pipe (GCIP), galvanized steel pipe (GSP), stainless steel clad pipe (SSCP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were collected from an actual DWDS to investigate the effect of pipe material on bacterial community. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the numbers of total bacteria and culturable heterotrophic bacteria from iron pipes were higher than that in PVC, while the numbers of Shigella and vibrios were low in biofilms from iron pipes. Bacterial community analysis showed that Hyphomicrobium or Desulfovibrio were the predominant microorganism in iron pipes, whereas Sphingomonas or Pseudomonas were dominant in other types of pipe. This study revealed differences in bacterial communities in biofilms among different pipe materials, and the results were useful for pipeline material selection in DWDSs. PMID:26311220

  10. Patterns of comorbidity in community-dwelling older people hospitalised for fall-related injury: A cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Caroline F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years sustain falls frequently; these can result in physical injuries necessitating medical attention including emergency department care and hospitalisation. Certain health conditions and impairments have been shown to contribute independently to the risk of falling or experiencing a fall injury, suggesting that individuals with these conditions or impairments should be the focus of falls prevention. Since older people commonly have multiple conditions/impairments, knowledge about which conditions/impairments coexist in at-risk individuals would be valuable in the implementation of a targeted prevention approach. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity in this population group. Methods We analysed hospitalisation data from Victoria, Australia's second most populous state, to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity in patients hospitalised at least once between 2005-6 and 2007-8 for treatment of acute fall-related injuries. In patients with two or more comorbid conditions (multicomorbidity we used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method to cluster comorbidity variables and identify constellations of conditions. Results More than one in four patients had at least one comorbid condition and among patients with comorbidity one in three had multicomorbidity (range 2-7. The prevalence of comorbidity varied by gender, age group, ethnicity and injury type; it was also associated with a significant increase in the average cumulative length of stay per patient. The cluster analysis identified five distinct, biologically plausible clusters of comorbidity: cardiopulmonary/metabolic, neurological, sensory, stroke and cancer. The cardiopulmonary/metabolic cluster was the largest cluster among the clusters identified. Conclusions The consequences of comorbidity clustering in terms of falls and/or injury outcomes of hospitalised patients should be investigated by future studies. Our findings have particular relevance for falls prevention strategies, clinical practice and planning of follow-up services for these patients.

  11. RIM-DB: a taxonomic framework for community structure analysis of methanogenic archaea from the rumen and other intestinal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Seedorf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methane is formed by methanogenic archaea in the rumen as one of the end products of feed fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract. To develop strategies to mitigate anthropogenic methane emissions due to ruminant farming, and to understand rumen microbial differences in animal feed conversion efficiency, it is essential that methanogens can be identified and taxonomically classified with high accuracy. Currently available taxonomic frameworks offer only limited resolution beyond the genus level for taxonomic assignments of sequence data stemming from high throughput sequencing technologies. Therefore, we have developed a QIIME-compatible database (DB designed for species-level taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA gene amplicon data targeting methanogenic archaea from the rumen, and from animal and human intestinal tracts. Called RIM-DB (Rumen and Intestinal Methanogen-DB, it contains a set of 2,379 almost full-length chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene sequences, including 20 previously unpublished sequences from isolates from three different orders. The taxonomy encompasses the recently-proposed seventh order of methanogens, the Methanomassiliicoccales, and allows differentiation between defined groups within this order. Sequence reads from rumen contents from a range of ruminant-diet combinations were taxonomically assigned using RIM-DB, Greengenes and SILVA. This comparison clearly showed that taxonomic assignments with RIM-DB resulted in the most detailed assignment, and only RIM-DB taxonomic assignments allowed methanogens to be distinguished taxonomically at the species level. RIM-DB complements the use of comprehensive databases such as Greengenes and SILVA for community structure analysis of methanogens from the rumen and other intestinal environments, and allows identification of target species for methane mitigation strategies.

  12. Economic Analysis of Delivering Primary Health Care Services through Community Health Workers in 3 North Indian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India’s policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre. Methods We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants. Results Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381), or INR 187 (USD 3.5) per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10) per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14) per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18) per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8) per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432). Conclusion Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India’s policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective. PMID:24626285

  13. Metagenome sequence analysis of filamentous microbial communities obtained from geochemically distinct geothermal channels reveals specialization of three aquificales lineages.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Inskeep, William P

    2013-01-01

    The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal "filamentous streamer" communities (?40 Mbp per site), which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae) populations, whereas the circum-neutral pH (6.5-7.8) sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae). Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae) populations were found primarily in the circum-neutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of thesecommunities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse-TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl). The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl-CoA synthetase (Ccs), and citryl-CoA lyase (Ccl). All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I) involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2) have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

  14. A Community Like "Philadelphia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookey, Robert Alan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that applications of "queer theory" must extend beyond questions of sexual representation. Contends that rhetorical theory can contribute to the investigation of sexuality, offering as an example an analysis of mainstream media representations of the homosexual "community." Concludes that the presentation of this community operates…

  15. A Community Like "Philadelphia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookey, Robert Alan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that applications of "queer theory" must extend beyond questions of sexual representation. Contends that rhetorical theory can contribute to the investigation of sexuality, offering as an example an analysis of mainstream media representations of the homosexual "community." Concludes that the presentation of this community operates…

  16. Analysis of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation according spirographic indicators in community-acquired pneumonia during convalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Y.S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to make a program of physical rehabilitation for convalescents after community-acquired pneumonia, promotes normalization of respiratory function. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the dynamics spirographic indicators during convalescence community-acquired pneumonia. Material: the study involved 28 women aged 19 to 24 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia after convalescent. Results: the positive influence of physiotherapy based dance aerobics; morning hygienic gymnastics; therapeutic massage and physical therapy on indicators of lung volumes, ventilation and bronchial patency according spirographic research. Conclusion: in community-acquired pneumonia during the convalescence period recommended physical rehabilitation, which includes curative gymnastics based on dance aerobics, morning hygienic gymnastics, massage therapy, physiotherapy. It improves the functionality of the cardiorespiratory system, nonspecific immunity and overall physical performance level.

  17. Serotyping group B streptococci in a small community hospital: an analysis of distribution and site of isolation.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackman, Susan H; David G. Chaffin; Jason A. Rexroth; Smith, Jennifer M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and site of isolation of different serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization or infection at a small community hospital. METHODS: GBS isolates were obtained from a small community hospital and were then serotyped as la, Ib, II, III, IV, V or nontypeable. Hospital records were reviewed for patient sex, age and pregnancy status as well as the site of GBS isolation. RESULTS: GBS serotypes Ia, III and V were most common and accounted for over 60%...

  18. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: Dental Caries Onset Linked to Multiple Species by 16S rRNA Community Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Erin L.; Beall, Clifford J.; Kutsch, Stacey R.; Firestone, Noah D; Leys, Eugene J; Griffen, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redun...

  19. Can Joint Forest Management Programme Sustain Rural Life: A Livelihood Analysis from Community-based Forest Management Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nimai

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study assesses the impact of community-based initiative under gender sensitive joint forest management (JFM) programme on sustainable rural livelihoods (SRL) across the socio-economic groups of forest fringe community based on JFM and non-JFM villages. The study suggests that strong livelihood sustainability criteria within the SRL framework meets for all marginal landholding and landless categories of households, which live below poverty line and that are almost dependent on f...

  20. Composition and Predictive Functional Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seawater, Sediment and Sponges in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R; de Voogd, Nicole J; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach to sample bacterial communities from six biotopes, namely, seawater, sediment and four sponge species (Stylissa carteri, Stylissa massa, Xestospongia testudinaria and Hyrtios erectus) inhabiting coral reefs of the Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Samples were collected along a pronounced onshore to offshore environmental gradient. Our goals were to (1) compare higher taxon abundance among biotopes, (2) test to what extent variation in bacterial composition can be explained by the biotope versus environment, (3) identify dominant (>300 sequences) bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and their closest known relatives and (4) assign putative functions to the sponge bacterial communities using a recently developed predictive metagenomic approach. We observed marked differences in bacterial composition and the relative abundance of the most abundant phyla, classes and orders among sponge species, seawater and sediment. Although all biotopes housed compositionally distinct bacterial communities, there were three prominent clusters. These included (1) both Stylissa species and seawater, (2) X. testudinaria and H. erectus and (3) sediment. Bacterial communities sampled from the same biotope, but different environments (based on proximity to the coast) were much more similar than bacterial communities from different biotopes in the same environment. The biotope thus appears to be a much more important structuring force than the surrounding environment. There were concomitant differences in the predicted counts of KEGG orthologs (KOs) suggesting that bacterial communities housed in different sponge species, sediment and seawater perform distinct functions. In particular, the bacterial communities of both Stylissa species were predicted to be enriched for KOs related to chemotaxis, nitrification and denitrification whereas bacterial communities in X. testudinaria and H. erectus were predicted to be enriched for KOs related to the toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, nutrient starvation and heavy metal export. PMID:26072397

  1. Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic nitrogen and litter pH. Freeze treatments resulted in increased fungal abundance and a decline in residual plant litter material, indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Extracellular enzyme activities were especially blocked by heat treatment. Using metaproteomics enabled us to link the composition of the microbial community to its ecosystem function.

  2. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    WAKEFIELD, JEROME C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagn...

  3. Individual and contextual factors associated with community health workers’ performance in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Sugishita, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Junya; Oruenjo, Kennedy; Wakhule, Stephen; Kibosia, Kennedy; Were, Eric; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Several African and South Asian countries are currently investing in new cadres of community health workers (CHWs) as a major part of strategies aimed at reaching the Millennium Development Goals. However, one review concluded that community health workers did not consistently provide services likely to have substantial effects on health and that quality was usually poor. The objective of this research was to assess the CHWs’ performance in Western Kenya and describe determinants o...

  4. What do general practitioners and community mental health teams talk about? Descriptive analysis of liaison meetings in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Midgley, S.; Burns, T.; Garland, C

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liaison meetings between psychiatrists and general practitioners are now well established. Much has been written about their purpose and structure but little about their content. AIM: A study aimed to describe the clinical focus of meetings between a community mental health team and general practitioners and the nature of the professionals' interactions. METHOD: Audiotapes of six consecutive monthly meetings between a community mental health team and general practitioners in two g...

  5. “Until they know how much you care”: A qualitative analysis of an innovative practice in community pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Melczak, PhD; Janice Pringle, PhD.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study was concerned with investigating community pharmacists’ thoughts on the use of two brief scales to measure patient outcomes and therapeutic alliance in the context of their Medication Therapy Management (MTM) services. The scales were originally developed for use in behavioral healthcare, but were used in a novel (community pharmacy) setting as part of a previous parent study. We describe this practice (using these scales in a novel setting) as an innovative pr...

  6. Co-Creating ‘Second Life’ : An Analysis of Collaborative Co-Design Processes in Community-Authored Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2010-01-01

    Developments in digital communication technologies, emergence of Social Media and shifting of digital media landscape towards a more participatory platform are not only the driving forces behind the implication of new technologies to the market, but they also have significant effects on the ways people communicate, interact, participate and create communicative content in social contexts. This PhD project aims to observe how residents of Second Life use the Virtual World as a collaborative tool for creativity and co-design of the world’s content; that is, virtual places and artifacts that mediate communication in Second Life (SL). The outlined theoretical framework and methodological approach is intended to summarize impressions from my observations of Second Life ‘builders’ in order to understand who they are, how they collaborate, and how they make sense of their co-design experiences. In order to theorize the communicative aspects of co-creation processes of virtual places and artifacts that constitute SL’s grid, this PhD project attempts to seek answers to following research questions: - How do the designers (‘builders’) in Second Life collaboratively make use of the virtual world’s affordances, and organize their resources within its constraints, in order to build 3D virtual places that facilitate social interaction among residents? - Can the (presumed) ‘collaborative co-design’ model of Second Life provide implications about how forthcoming models of user-generated content can effectively lead to user-driven innovation in Virtual Worlds? The categories of analysis emerged from combination of theory and observations from 2 pilot studies done in 2009. In these pilot studies, first, a 3-month multidisciplinary design process of a virtual laboratory was observed. Then, the laboratory is used for teaching purposes, where students were asked to create virtual artifacts, and join focus group interviews afterwards. The analysis, so far, indicates that Second Life comprise various affordances to facilitate object-based collaboration in design processes, and allows designers to develop context-specific co-design methods by using available design resources (inspirational or material) situated within the virtual world (i.e., building 3D models, shopping for supplies, outsourcing tasks) . Within this context, user-driven innovation is intended to imply innovative user practices within virtual worlds to find new ways of interaction and participation. The ultimate purpose of the study is to theorize social patterns that transform user-generated content into user-driven innovation, and to provide theoretically grounded empirical knowledge on which aspects of existing collaborative co-design facilities in community-authored virtual worlds affect user creativity and participation.

  7. Population Abundance of Potentially Pathogenic Organisms in Intestinal Microbiome of Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) Shown with 16S rRNA Gene-Based Microbial Community Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taki Naito; Yuri Tani; Naoki Tsukahara; Tsutomu Nozawa-Takeda; Mohammad Shohel Rana Siddiki; Isamu Maeda; Shoei Sugita

    2013-01-01

    Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing t...

  8. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-age men

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, David M; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Risk, Nathan K.; Lewis, Collins E.; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analy...

  9. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Malchy Leslie A; Moffat Barbara M; Johnson Joy L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals,...

  10. A Biopsychosocial Profile of Adult Canadians with and without Chronic Back Disorders: A Population-Based Analysis of the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna Bath; Catherine Trask; Jesse McCrosky; Josh Lawson

    2014-01-01

    Chronic back disorders (CBD) are a significant public health concern. Profiling Canadians with CBD and the associated biopsychosocial factors at a national population level is important to understand the burden of this condition and how clinicians, health systems, and related policies might address this potentially growing problem. We performed a secondary analysis of the 2009 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys to calculate prevalence and to better understand the differences between p...

  11. Determining the Level of Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Principles in Smoked Fish at Two Fishing Communities in Ebonyi State

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nwakpa; T.N. Ikwor; L.L.C. Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed and determined quality control on species of smoked fish using traditional method in two communities of Iyonu in Ishielu Local Government Area and Oziza in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) was determined by the use of questionnaire administered to forty respondents, interview session was conducted to assess the cooperation and acceptability of HACCP programm...

  12. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Yahaya; Antonio Ponce De Leon; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Joaquim Soares; Gloria Macassa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries...

  13. Access all areas? An area-level analysis of accessibility to general practice and community pharmacy services in England by urbanity and social deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, A.; Copeland, A.; Husband, A.; A. Kasim; Bambra, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To determine the percentage of the population in England that has access to a general practitioner (GP) premises within a 20?min walk (the accessibility); (2) explore the relationship between the walking distance to a GP premises and urbanity and social deprivation and (3) compare accessibility of a GP premises to that of a community pharmacy—and how this may vary by urbanity and social deprivation. Design This area-level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all GP pre...

  14. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-09-10

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  15. Bacterial Community Analysis, New Exoelectrogen Isolation and Enhanced Performance of Microbial Electrochemical Systems Using Nano-Decorated Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shoutao

    Microbial electrochemical systems (MESs) have attracted much research attention in recent years due to their promising applications in renewable energy generation, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. In a MES, microorganisms interact with electrodes via electrons, catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions at the anode and the cathode. The bacterial community of a high power mixed consortium MESs (maximum power density is 6.5W/m2) was analyzed by using denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S DNA clone library methods. The bacterial DGGE profiles were relatively complex (more than 10 bands) but only three brightly dominant bands in DGGE results. These results indicated there are three dominant bacterial species in mixed consortium MFCs. The 16S DNA clone library method results revealed that the predominant bacterial species in mixed culture is Geobacter sp (66%), Arcobacter sp and Citrobacter sp. These three bacterial species reached to 88% of total bacterial species. This result is consistent with the DGGE result which showed that three bright bands represented three dominant bacterial species. Exoelectrogenic bacterial strain SX-1 was isolated from a mediator-less microbial fuel cell by conventional plating techniques with ferric citrate as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that it was related to the members of Citrobacter genus with Citrobacter sp. sdy-48 being the most closely related species. The bacterial strain SX-1 produced electricity from citrate, acetate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol, and lactose in MFCs with the highest current density of 205 mA/m2 generated from citrate. Cyclic voltammetry analysis indicated that membrane associated proteins may play an important role in facilitating electron transfer from the bacteria to the electrode. This is the first study that demonstrates that Citrobacter species can transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors. Citrobacter strain SX-1 is capable of generating electricity from a wide range of substrates in MFCs. This finding increases the known diversity of power generating exoelectrogens and provids a new strain to explore the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer from bacteria to electrode. The wide range of substrate utilization by SX-1 increases the application potential of MFCs in renewable energy generation and waste treatment. Anode properties are critical for the performance of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Inexpensive Fe nanoparticle modified graphite disks were used as anodes to preliminarily investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in MECs. Results demonstrated that average current densities produced with Fe nanoparticle decorated anodes were up to 5.9-fold higher than plain graphite anodes. Whole genome microarray analysis of the gene expression showed that genes encoding biofilm formation were significantly up-regulated as a response to nanoparticle decorated anodes. Increased expression of genes related to nanowires, flavins and c-type cytochromes indicate that enhanced mechanisms of electron transfer to the anode may also have contributed to the observed increases in current density. The majority of the remaining differentially expressed genes were associated with electron transport and anaerobic metabolism demonstrating a systemic response to increased power loads. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is another form of nano materials. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified graphite disks were used as anodes to investigate the effects of nanostructures on the performance S. oneidensis MR-1 in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The current densities produced with CNT decorated anodes were up to 5.6-fold higher than plain graphite anodes. Global transcriptome analysis showed that cytochrome c genes associated with extracellular electron transfer are up-expressed by CNT decorated anodes, which is the leading factor to contribute current increase in CNT decorated anode MECs. The up regulated genes encoded to flavin also contribute to current enhancement in CNT decorated anode MECs.

  16. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Migun [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.

  17. Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: a spatial analysis of the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Albertarelli, Nicola; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Khoei, Nazaninalsadat Seyed; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on a real case of contamination due to the chronic leakage of diesel fuel from an underground tank at a dismissed service station. Speciation of the microbial community according to both lateral and vertical gradients from the origin of the contaminant release was analyzed by means of the PCR-DGGE technique. Moreover, the effects of a landfarming treatment on both the microbial community structure and the abatement of contamination were analyzed. The concentration of total petrol hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased along the horizontal gradient (from 7042.2 ± 521.9 to 112.2 ± 24.3 mg kg(-1)), while increased downwards from the position of the tank (from 502.6 ± 43.7 to 4972.5 ± 275.3 mg kg(-1)). PCR-DGGE analyses and further statistical treatment of the data indicated a correlation between structure of the bacterial communities and amount of diesel fuel contamination. On the other hand, level of contamination, soil texture and depth were shown to affect the fungal community. Chloroflexi and Ascomycota were the most abundant microbes ascertained through culture-independent procedures. Landfarming promoted 91.6 % reduction of TPHs in 75 days. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analyses evidenced that both bacterial and fungal communities of the treated soil were restored to the pristine conditions of uncontaminated topsoil. The present study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal communities were affected differently by soil factors such as level of hydrocarbon contamination as well as soil depth and texture. This report shows that a well-planned landfarming treatment can drive the restoration of the soil in terms of both abatement of the contaminants and resilience of the microbial community structure. PMID:26712621

  18. Ecological analysis of the ichthyofaunal community ten years after a diesel oil spill at Serra do Mar, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Horodesky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In February 2001, an accidental spill dumped 52,000 litres of diesel oil in Serra do Mar, Paraná state, Brazil, contaminating streams. This study aimed to evaluate if fish communities currently inhabiting environments exposed to the oil spill still showing evidence of spill-related impacts. Ichthyofauna communities were monitored in five rivers located in the region of the spill. Two sites exposed to oil (Meio and Sagrado rivers were considered treatment sites, and three unexposed sites with environmental characteristics similar to the treatment sites (Pinto, Passa Sete and Marumbi rivers were considered control sites. Analysis of water quality parameters indicated that sites within rivers were more similar than sites among rivers. The diversity and species composition of fish communities differed between the treatment and control groups and among the rivers. The distribution and species composition of ichthyofaunal communities likely reflect the environmental characteristics of each river and not related to the environmental contamination resulting from the oil spill.

  19. Planning and Assessment in Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J., Ed.; Decker, Larry E., Ed.

    Identifying the genuine needs of a community and developing a sound program to respond to those needs represent the primary mission of the community educator. The success of program planning efforts will depend largely on how solid the analysis of the community is. This collection of papers deals with the question of how community analysis is…

  20. Ultra-high-throughput microbial community analysis on the Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, J. Gregory; Lauber, Christian L.; Walters, William A.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Huntley, James; Fierer, Noah; Owens, Sarah M; Betley, Jason; Fraser, Louise; Bauer, Markus; Gormley, Niall; Gilbert, Jack A.; Smith, Geoff; Knight, Rob

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing continues to decrease in cost with the Illumina HiSeq2000 generating up to 600 Gb of paired-end 100 base reads in a ten-day run. Here we present a protocol for community amplicon sequencing on the HiSeq2000 and MiSeq Illumina platforms, and apply that protocol to sequence 24 microbial communities from host-associated and free-living environments. A critical question as more sequencing platforms become available is whether biological conclusions derived on one platform are consi...