WorldWideScience

Sample records for meningeal arteries

  1. Middle meningeal artery aneurysm associated with meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, M; Mottolese, C

    2000-03-01

    The aneurysms of the middle meningeal artery are extremely rare. 30 pseudoaneurysms of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are reported in literature. These are post-traumatic lesions different from the true aneurysms that have a different origin. In fact they can be associated with arteriovenous malformations, Paget's disease and tumors; nevertheless in some cases the genesis remains unknown. Sometimes the berry aneurysm of MMA can cause non traumatic extradural hematomas. The association meningioma-aneurysm of the middle meningeal artery is extremely rare: only a case has been signalled till now in literature. In our case the patient was a 69 year-old woman admitted in our department following an epileptic seizure. Neuroradiological studies (post-contrast CT and RM) showed a meningioma of the right pterion. A preoperative angiography evidenciated a big blush from the afferences of meningioma by the middle meningeal artery and, proximally a small berry aneurysm of this artery. Selective embolization of the tumor and the aneurysm was performed preoperatively with polyvinyl particles and straight platinum coils. A craniotomy a surgical resection of the meningioma were performed. The role of the endovascular treatment in the management of these lesions is underlined to decrease the risks of morbidity. PMID:10961495

  2. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula involving the middle meningeal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, L C; Brinker, R A; Abad, R M; Rovit, R L

    1975-02-01

    Two cases of traumatic pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula involving the middle meningeal artery are reported with a review of the world literature on these specific entities. The two conditions appear to evolve through similar mechanisms and may lead to a confusing clinical picture. High quality angiography is important in making an early diagnosis, prior to performing a definitive surgical procedure. PMID:1118812

  3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a patient with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of the acute onset of fever and headache, which were attributed to bacterial meningitis. Antibiotic treatment was initiated and his condition gradually improved. On day 5 after admission, immediately after masturbation, he developed abrupt onset of severe chest pain and cold sweat and the ECG suggested acute anterior myocardial infarction. Immediate coronary angiography revealed spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery. After conservative management, his cardiac function improved. Acute coronary syndrome may be rarely caused by spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Sepsis was considered as a probable trigger for spontaneous coronary artery dissection, possibly through vascular damage from increased nitric oxide and sympathetic nervous over-activation. PMID:24194165

  4. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries.

  5. Absence of foramen spinosum and abnormal middle meningeal artery in cranial series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya Y; Toneva, Diana H; Yordanov, Yordan A; Lazarov, Nikolai E

    2012-07-01

    In comparative and evolutionary aspects in humans, the middle meningeal artery enters the cranium through the foramen spinosum, whereas in great apes the middle meningeal artery can enter the cranium through foramen spinosum, through foramen ovale or through petrosphenoid fissure. Generally, in nonhuman primates the anterior meningeal system is associated with the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery. The vessels joining the two systems pass through the additional channels: the superior orbital fissure or through the cranio-orbital foramen. In anatomically modern humans, the absence of foramen spinosum involves abnormal development and course of the middle meningeal artery and it is usually accompanied with replacement of the conventional middle meningeal artery with such, arising from the ophthalmic artery system. In these cases the middle meningeal artery most often enters the middle cranial fossa through the superior orbital fissure and rarely through the meningo-orbital foramen. All skulls, investigated in the present study, belonged to adult individuals of both sexes, conditionally grouped into three cranial series--contemporary male, medieval male, and medieval female series. The absence of foramen spinosum was established only among the medieval male and female series--in 1 (0.70%) male and in 1 (0.72%) female skull on the right side and in 3 (2.13%) female skulls on the left side. In 1 (0.72%) female skull, a small atypically located foramen spinosum was established on the right side. In all of the described cases, the intracranial meningeal grooves started from the lateral edge of the superior orbital fissure and probably reflect the ophthalmic origin of the middle meningeal artery. PMID:22928356

  6. Communicating root of auriculotemporal nerve with inferior alveolar nerve-looping around accessory meningeal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala Nallagatla

    2015-06-01

    Results: It was seen that the auriculotemporal nerve had two roots of origin and they formed a loop to enclose the middle meningeal artery in all the 35 specimens except in one side of the cadaveric heads. In only one half of a cadaveric head it was found to arise by three roots which formed two nerve loops. The first and second nerve roots joined with each other to form a nerve loop. The third root joined with the inferior alveolar nerve and formed the second nerve loop. The accessory meningeal artery passed through the second nerve loop. The normal presentation of two roots enclosing the middle meningeal artery was not present. Instead the accessory meningeal artery was enclosed between the third root and the inferior alveolar nerve. The middle meningeal artery entered the skull through the foramen spinosum as usual but was not enclosed by the nerve roots. The trunk of the auriculo temporal nerve was seen between the middle meningeal artery and inferior alveolar nerve and the study reports the presence of variant nerve loops encircling the accessory meningeal artery. Conclusion: The variations in the roots of auriculotemporal nerve have been reported in the past and since it is important in the clinical implications of the region especially for the facio-maxillary surgeons and dental surgeons. The incidence of variation has to be documented as this helps in updating the clinical database for surgical procedures and treatment in the region of infratemporal fossa. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 626-629

  7. Headache and prolonged dilatation of the middle meningeal artery by PACAP38 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    To explore a possible relationship between vasodilatation and delayed headache we examined the effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) on the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using high resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

  8. Effect of intra-arterial injection of lidocaine and methyl-prednisolone into middle meningeal artery on intractable headaches

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Khan, Asif A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes the effect of intra-arterial injection of a dose of 40 mg lidocaine and 20 mg methylprednisolone into the middle meningeal artery of two patients suffering from severe headaches. The effect of injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone was short lasting with effect manifesting within 5 min and lasting 5–8 h after injection. Both patients reported improvement in headache intensity after 24 h post-procedure. Intra-arterial injection of lidocaine and methylpredn...

  9. Angiographically Progressive Change of Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm Arising from the Middle Meningeal Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Yoon; Lee, Cheol-Young

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are rare phenomenon, which are usually associated with head trauma such as an underlying skull fracture. They were usually known to cause acute or delayed epidural hematomas but can be associated with subdural, subarachnoid, or even intracerebral hemorrhage. Sometimes, a high mortality rate was reported in these circumferences. But the natural course of these pseudoaneurysms is not well recognized. The indication and guideline of treatment for pseudoaneurysm are also unclear. This report describes a rare case of angiographically progressive change of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery for one week, which was treated with endovascular embolization. PMID:25535521

  10. Effect of intra-arterial injection of lidocaine and methyl-prednisolone into middle meningeal artery on intractable headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Khan, Asif A; Suri, M Fareed K

    2014-12-01

    The present report describes the effect of intra-arterial injection of a dose of 40 mg lidocaine and 20 mg methylprednisolone into the middle meningeal artery of two patients suffering from severe headaches. The effect of injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone was short lasting with effect manifesting within 5 min and lasting 5-8 h after injection. Both patients reported improvement in headache intensity after 24 h post-procedure. Intra-arterial injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone may represent another treatment strategy for headaches not responsive to standard treatment. PMID:25566345

  11. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Potently Dilates Middle Meningeal Arteries: Implications for Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Arsalan U.; Koide, Masayo; Braas, Karen M.; May, Victor; Wellman, George C.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by mild to severe headache that is often accompanied by aura and other neurological symptoms. Among proposed mechanisms, dilation of the dural vasculature especially the middle meningeal artery (MMA) has been implicated as one component underlying this disorder. Several regulatory peptides from trigeminal sensory and sphenopalatine postganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervating these vessels have been implicated in the process ...

  12. Accessory Meningeal Arterial Supply to the Posterior Nasal Cavity: Another Reason for Failed Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with intractable posterior epistaxis was treated with embolization of the ipsilateral sphenopalatine and facial arteries and contralateral sphenopalatine artery. She continued to bleed despite a seemingly adequate embolization procedure. A second angiogram revealed a significant collateral blood supply to the posterior nasal cavity from the accessory meningeal artery not identified during the first procedure. This was then embolized with no further epistaxis encountered. This case demonstrates yet another collateral arterial pathway that might account for a failed embolization

  13. Primary meningeal CNS lymphoma treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy and blood-brain barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnealy, Marcus W C; Newton, Herbert B; McGregor, John M; Bell, Susan D; Ray Chaudhury, Abhik; Slone, H Wayne; Bourekas, Eric C

    2008-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the meninges is a particularly rare form of primary CNS lymphoma. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman found to have primary meningeal lymphoma (PML) with dural and leptomeningeal involvement whom we treated with multiple cycles of intra-arterial (IA) methotrexate, intravenous (IV) etoposide phosphate, and IV cyclophosphamide after reversible osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). Improvement was evident on gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI one month into therapy. At 67 months post-diagnosis there is no evidence of CNS disease. After completing her therapy regimen, she remained disease-free for 34 months, when stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was discovered in her left adrenal gland and right thigh. Following six cycles of rituximab and CHOP treatment, she is presently in complete remission. IA methotrexate and reversible osmotic BBBD without radiation therapy may be an effective therapy for treating PML. PMID:18758913

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) potently dilates middle meningeal arteries: implications for migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Arsalan U; Koide, Masayo; Braas, Karen M; May, Victor; Wellman, George C

    2012-11-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by mild to severe headache that is often accompanied by aura and other neurological symptoms. Among proposed mechanisms, dilation of the dural vasculature especially the middle meningeal artery (MMA) has been implicated as one component underlying this disorder. Several regulatory peptides from trigeminal sensory and sphenopalatine postganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervating these vessels have been implicated in the process including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Although PACAP has been well described as a potent dilator in many vascular beds, the effects of PACAP on the dural vasculature are unclear. In the current study, we examined the ability of PACAP to dilate MMAs that were isolated from rats and pressurized ex vivo. PACAP38 potently dilated pressurized MMAs with an EC(50) of 1 pM. The PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38), abolished MMA dilation caused by picomolar concentrations of PACAP. In contrast, cerebellar arteries isolated from the brain surface were ~1,000-fold less sensitive to PACAP than MMAs. Although cerebellar arteries expressed transcripts for all three PACAP receptor subtypes (PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors) by RT-PCR analyses, MMA demonstrated only PAC1 and VPAC2 receptor expression. Further, multiple variants of the PAC1 receptor were identified in the MMA. The expression of PAC1 receptors and the high potency of PACAP to induce MMA vasodilation are consistent with their potential roles in the etiology of migraine. PMID:22766684

  15. Expression and Characterization of Purinergic Receptors in Rat Middle Meningeal Artery–Potential Role in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The dura mater and its vasculature have for decades been central in the hypothesis of migraine and headache pathophysiology. Although recent studies have questioned the role of the vasculature as the primary cause, dural vessel physiology is still relevant in understanding the complex pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of the present study was to isolate the middle meningeal artery (MMA) from rodents and characterize their purinergic receptors using a sensitive wire myograph method and RT-PCR. The data presented herein suggest that blood flow through the MMA is, at least in part, regulated by purinergic receptors. P2X1 and P2Y6 receptors are the strongest contractile receptors and, surprisingly, ADP?S caused contraction most likely via P2Y1 or P2Y13 receptors, which is not observed in other arteries. Adenosine addition, however, caused relaxation of the MMA. The adenosine relaxation could be inhibited by SCH58261 (A2A receptor antagonist) and caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist). This gives one putativemolecular mechanism for the effect of caffeine, often used as an adjuvant remedy of cranial pain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression data for the receptors correlate well with the functional findings. Together these observations could be used as targets for future understanding of the in vivo role of purinergic receptors in the MMA.

  16. Aneurysm of the meningeal branch of the occipital artery connecting with the distal portion of the posteroinferior cerebellar artery by the dural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S?oniewski, P; Dzierzanowski, J; Och, W

    2008-11-01

    We describe a case involving a ruptured intradural aneurysm of the meningeal branch of the occipital artery arising from the external carotid artery and connecting with the caudal loop of the posteroinferior cerebellar artery (PICA) by the dural fistula. Angiography of the left external carotid artery showed a saccular aneurysm of the occipital artery, but the picture of the left vertebral artery was normal and no vascular pathology such as an aneurysm or a dural fistula was noticeable between the meningeal branch of the occipital artery and the PICA. The diagnosis was confirmed by three-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). In the knowledge, based on the radiological examinations, that the aneurysm was located intracranially below the tonsil, compressing the lateral surface of the medulla oblongata at the level of the foramen magnum, we decided to operate from the far-lateral suboccipital approach, without removing the arc of the C1. An aneurysm was visualised at the site of the connection of the caudal loop of the PICA and an anastomosis of the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The aneurysm was successfully clipped and the vascular fistula was coagulated and dissected in the extradural section. To our knowledge, the case presented here is the first report of this kind of vascular pathology. Careful analysis of a cross-sectional CT angiogram, MRA and arteriography is necessary for the proper diagnosis of such atypical vascular pathology. In the study presented we focus our attention on the diversity of the PICA anatomy. PMID:19085871

  17. Transcranial direct middle meningeal artery puncture for the onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula involving the superior sagittal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with intermittent paraparesis and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Cerebral angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving superior sagittal sinus (SSS), which was associated with SSS occlusion on the posterior one third. The dural AVF was fed by bilateral middle meningeal arteries (MMAs), superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and occipital arteries with marked retrograde cortical venous reflux. Transfemoral arterial Onyx embolization was performed through right MMA and STA, but it was not successful, which resulted in partial obliteration of dural AVF because of tortuous MMA preventing the microcatheter from reaching the fistula closely enough. Second procedure was performed through left MMA accessed by direct MMA puncture following small decortications of cranium overlying the MMA using diamond drill one week later. Microcatheter could be located far distally to the fistula through 5 F sheath placed into the MMA and complete obliteration of dural AVF was achieved using 3.9 cc of Onyx. PMID:25674345

  18. Transcranial Direct Middle Meningeal Artery Puncture for the Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Involving the Superior Sagittal Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with intermittent paraparesis and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Cerebral angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving superior sagittal sinus (SSS), which was associated with SSS occlusion on the posterior one third. The dural AVF was fed by bilateral middle meningeal arteries (MMAs), superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and occipital arteries with marked retrograde cortical venous reflux. Transfemoral arterial Onyx embolization was performed through right MMA and STA, but it was not successful, which resulted in partial obliteration of dural AVF because of tortuous MMA preventing the microcatheter from reaching the fistula closely enough. Second procedure was performed through left MMA accessed by direct MMA puncture following small decortications of cranium overlying the MMA using diamond drill one week later. Microcatheter could be located far distally to the fistula through 5 F sheath placed into the MMA and complete obliteration of dural AVF was achieved using 3.9 cc of Onyx. PMID:25674345

  19. Dilation by CGRP of middle meningeal artery and reversal by sumatriptan in normal volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, M S; Hansen, A E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of neurovascular headaches. CGRP infusion causes headache and dilation of cranial vessels. However, it is unknown to what extent CGRP-induced vasodilation contributes to immediate head pain and whether the migraine-specific abortive drug sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D agonist, inhibits CGRP-induced immediate vasodilation and headache. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 18 healthy volunteers. We recorded circumference changes of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance angiography before and after infusion (20 minutes) of 1.5 µg/min human aCGRP or placebo (isotonic saline) as well as after a 6-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CGRP caused significant dilation of MMA (p = 0.006) and no dilation of MCA (p = 0.69). Sumatriptan caused a marked contraction of MMA (15%-25.2%) and marginal contraction of MCA (3.9% to 5.3%). Explorative analysis revealed that sumatriptan had a more selective action on MMA compared with MCA on the CGRP day (p <0.0001) and on the placebo day (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that exogenous CGRP dilates extracranial vessels and not intracranial, and that sumatriptan exerts part of its antinociceptive action by constricting MMA and not MCA. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that IV GCRP causes dilation of the MMA but not the MCA in healthy volunteers, and that sumatriptan reverses the dilation of the MMA caused by CGRP.

  20. Direct access to the middle meningeal artery for embolization of complex dural arteriovenous fistula: a hybrid treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Mokin, Maxim; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-06-10

    Endovascular embolization has become increasingly favored over microsurgical resection for treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, endovascular treatment can be restricted by tortuous transarterial access and a transvenous approach is not always feasible. We present a Borden III DAVF treated by direct access to the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and Onyx embolization performed in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite. A middle-aged patient with pulsatile headaches was found to have left transverse sinus occlusion and DAVF with retrograde cortical venous drainage fed by multiple external carotid artery (ECA) feeders. Endovascular attempts via conventional transvenous and transarterial routes were unsuccessful, and the major MMA feeder was accessed directly after temporal craniotomy was performed under neuronavigation. Onyx embolization was performed; complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved. Three-month follow-up angiography showed no residual filling; the patient remains complication-free. A combined surgical-endovascular technique in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite can be an effective treatment for DAVFs complicated by inaccessible arterial and transvenous approaches. PMID:24916414

  1. Subdural and intracerebral hemorrhage caused by spontaneous bleeding in the middle meningeal artery after coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Shinya; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic acute subdural hemorrhage (SDH) with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is rare and is usually caused by severe bleeding from aneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas. We encountered a very rare case of spontaneous bleeding from the middle meningeal artery (MMA), which caused hemorrhage in the temporal lobe and subdural space 2 weeks after coil embolization of an ipsilateral, unruptured internal cerebral artery aneurysm in the cavernous portion. At onset, the distribution of hematoma on a computed tomography scan led us to believe that the treated intracavernous aneurysm could bleed into the intradural space. Emergency craniotomy revealed that the dura of the middle fossa was intact except for the point at the foramen spinosum where the exposed MMA was bleeding. Retrospectively, angiography just before and after embolization of the aneurysm did not show any aberrations in the MMA. Although the MMA usually courses on the outer surface of the dura and is unlikely to rupture without an external force, physicians should be aware that the MMA may bleed spontaneously and cause SDH and ICH. PMID:25134456

  2. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es una inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia y pleocitosis a nivel de LCR. Dependiendo de las variables se pueden agrupar en diferentes clasificaciones, tomando en cuenta el tiempo de evolución se pueden dividir en agudas o crónicas, a las primeras con pocas horas o días de inicio de la sintomatología, mientras que la crónica presenta un curso mas larvado de la enfermedad de aproximadamente 4 semanas de instauración. Existe también diferencia según su etiología, pueden ser infecciosas y no infecciosas. Causas no infecciosas incluyen: drogas antiinflamatorias, antibióticos y carcinomatosis. A su vez existe una clasificación según el agente causal. La meningitis bacteriana aguda remarca el origen bacteriano de este síndrome, el cual se caracteriza por el inicio agudo de sus síntomas y pleocitosis de predominio neutrofílico. Cada uno de los agentes bacterianos, parasíticos o fúngicos terminan por categorizar las diferentes presentaciones de este cuadro clínico (Ej., meningitis meningocóccica, meningitis criptocóccica. Es en este grupo en específico de etiología en el cual se basara el siguiente artículo. Por último pero no menos importante tenemos la meningitis aséptica, denominada de esta forma debido a una respuesta celular no pirógena causada por muchos tipos de agentes. Los pacientes muestran un inicio agudo de síntomas meníngeos, fiebre y pleocitosis pero de predominio linfocítico. Después de análisis especializados, se da pro concluido que la mayoría de los agentes causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After specialized analyses, concluded that majority cause is different viral agents. Also in certai

  3. Meningitis bacteriana / Bacterial meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Teresa, Alvarado Guevara; Lizzie Marie, Castillo Solano.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es u [...] na inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia) y pleocitosis a nivel de LCR. Dependiendo de las variables se pueden agrupar en diferentes clasificaciones, tomando en cuenta el tiempo de evolución se pueden dividir en agudas o crónicas, a las primeras con pocas horas o días de inicio de la sintomatología, mientras que la crónica presenta un curso mas larvado de la enfermedad de aproximadamente 4 semanas de instauración. Existe también diferencia según su etiología, pueden ser infecciosas y no infecciosas. Causas no infecciosas incluyen: drogas antiinflamatorias, antibióticos y carcinomatosis. A su vez existe una clasificación según el agente causal. La meningitis bacteriana aguda remarca el origen bacteriano de este síndrome, el cual se caracteriza por el inicio agudo de sus síntomas y pleocitosis de predominio neutrofílico. Cada uno de los agentes bacterianos, parasíticos o fúngicos terminan por categorizar las diferentes presentaciones de este cuadro clínico (Ej., meningitis meningocóccica, meningitis criptocóccica). Es en este grupo en específico de etiología en el cual se basara el siguiente artículo. Por último pero no menos importante tenemos la meningitis aséptica, denominada de esta forma debido a una respuesta celular no pirógena causada por muchos tipos de agentes. Los pacientes muestran un inicio agudo de síntomas meníngeos, fiebre y pleocitosis pero de predominio linfocítico. Después de análisis especializados, se da pro concluido que la mayoría de los agentes causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos. Abstract in english In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. [...] Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR) due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia) and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics) and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis). Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After specialized analyses, concluded that majority cause

  4. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and military personnel are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis (caused by Neisseria meningitidis ). Certain medical conditions There ... sub-Saharan Africa may be at risk for meningococcal meningitis, particularly during the dry season. Also at risk ...

  5. K-ATP channel expression and pharmacological in vivo and in vitro studies of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A in rat middle meningeal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, K.B.; Boni, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dilatation of cerebral and dural arteries causes a throbbing, migraine-like pain, indicating that these structures are involved in migraine. Clinical trials suggest that adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive K+ (K-ATP) channel opening may cause migraine by dilatating intracranial arteries, including the middle meningeal artery (MMA). We studied the K-ATP channel expression profile in rat MMA and examined the potential inhibitory effects of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A on K-ATP channel opener-induced relaxation of the rat MMA, using the three K-ATP channel openers levcromakalim, pinacidil and P-1075. Experimental approach: mRNA and protein expression of K-ATP channel subunits in the rat MMA were studied by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro effects of the K-ATP channel drugs on rat MMA were studied in the genuine closed cranial window model and in myograph baths, respectively. Key results: Expression studies indicate that inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir)6.1/sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) 2B is the major K-ATP channel complex in rat MMA. PNU-37883A (0.5 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the in vivo dilatory effect of levcromakalim (0.025 mg kg(-1)), pinacidil (0.38 mg kg(-1)) and P-1075 (0.016 mg kg(-1)) in rat MMA. In vitro PNU-37883A significantly inhibited the dilatory responses of the three K-ATP channel openers in rat MMA at 10(-7) and 3 x 10(-7) M. Conclusions and implications: We suggest that Kir6.1/SUR2B is the major functional K-ATP channel complex in the rat MMA. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potent in vivo and in vitro blocking potentials of PNU-37883A on K-ATP channel opener-induced relaxation of the rat MMA Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5

  6. Anatomical variations in the origin of the human ophthalmic artery with special reference to the cavernous sinus and surrounding meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y; Nagashima, M

    1999-01-01

    The origin of the human ophthalmic artery (OA) and surrounding structures was investigated in 109 cadavers by three different methods: macroscopic, stereomicroscopic, and histological observations. The following results were obtained. (1) Macroscopic observation: In 39% of the specimens the origin of the OA was observable in the cranial cavity and defined as the intradural (i.d.) type. The other 61% were named the extradural (e.d.) type. (2) Stereomicroscopic observation: In 59% of the cases, the OA originated from the internal carotid artery over or on the cavernous roof and at least a part of the OA was exposed within the cranial cavity. In the other 41% the OA originated within the cavernous wall or cavity and entered directly the optic dural sheath, thus no part of the OA was visible in the cranial cavity. Therefore, approximately 20% of the origins of the OA might be of the i.d. type, although they could not be macroscopically identified in the cranial cavity since they might emanate from the internal carotid artery between the optic canal and the optic nerve, even above the cavernous roof. (3) Histological observation: The proximal portion of the OA runs alongside the optic nerve within the subarachnoid space in the cases of the i.d. type. In contrast, the corresponding portion of the e.d. type was embedded in the dense fibrous tissue which was continuous both with the dura mater of the cavernous wall and the periosteum of the sphenoid. These anatomical data may provide important information for understanding the variety of the pathology in this region and is also useful for designing operative strategies. PMID:10352889

  7. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L.J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri

    2009-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is probably involved in migraine pathogenesis. Its activation releases a mixture of signalling molecules including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which subsequently stimulate VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, the selective VPAC(1) agonist ([Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27)) and a PAC(1) agonist, maxadilan on rat middle meningeal artery (MMA) diameter using the closed cranial window model. Selective antagonists were used for further characterization of the responses. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments were also conducted to determine expression of mRNA of PACAP receptors in the MMA. The results showed that VIP, PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and the VPAC(1) specific agonist evoked significant dilations with the rank order of potency; VIP = PACAP-38 > PACAP-27 = [Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27). Significant inhibition of dilation was only observed for the VPAC(1) antagonist PG97-269 on PACAP-38-induced dilation of MMA. The VPAC(2) antagonist PG99-465 and PAC(1) antagonist PACAP(6-38) did not significantly block VIP- or PACAP-induced dilation. Expression of mRNA of all three receptors was detected in the MMA. In conclusion, the VPAC(1) receptor seems to be predominant in mediating MMA dilation. A selective VPAC(1) antagonist may be a candidate molecule in the treatment of migraine headacheThe parasympathetic nervous system is probably involved in migraine pathogenesis. Its activation releases a mixture of signalling molecules including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which subsequently stimulate VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, the selective VPAC(1) agonist ([Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27)) and a PAC(1) agonist, maxadilan on rat middle meningeal artery (MMA) diameter using the closed cranial window model. Selective antagonists were used for further characterization of the responses. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments were also conducted to determine expression of mRNA of PACAP receptors in the MMA. The results showed that VIP, PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and the VPAC(1) specific agonist evoked significant dilations with the rank order of potency; VIP = PACAP-38 > PACAP-27 = [Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27). Significant inhibition of dilation was only observed for the VPAC(1) antagonist PG97-269 on PACAP-38-induced dilation of MMA. The VPAC(2) antagonist PG99-465 and PAC(1) antagonist PACAP(6-38) did not significantly block VIP- or PACAP-induced dilation. Expression of mRNA of all three receptors was detected in the MMA. In conclusion, the VPAC(1) receptor seems to be predominant in mediating MMA dilation. A selective VPAC(1) antagonist may be a candidate molecule in the treatment ofmigraine headache Udgivelsesdato: 2009

  8. [Salmonella meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, E

    1982-01-01

    Cultures were done for 14.838 cerebro spinal fluid specimens (CSF) during 1977-1980. Positive results were obtained from 950 specimens. These were identified as 352 Klebsiella-Enterobacter (37.0%), 133 Pseudomonas (14.%), 96 Salmonella (10.1%), 65 Pneumococcus (6,9%), 51 Escherichia coli 5,4%), 50 Meningococcus (.3%), Haemophilus influenzae type B (1.0%) and 127 various miscellaneous bacteria. During the same period of time, total of Salmonella isolations from various sources were 865. These specimens were 488 stool (57.0%), 160 blood (18.6% 7) 96 CSF (11.2%) so forth. The majority of these Salmonella strains were of typhimurium serotype carrying a known antibiotic resistence plasmid. This plasmid, belonging to the fime compatibility group, present in the Salmonella typhimurium strains isolated in Middle-East countries like Iran, Israel and others, conferred resistance to the carrying strain against antibiotics like ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphamide and tetracycline. As started to show up in Ankara too, addition of trimethoprim and gentamicin resistences to this markers were reported. These bacteria were also causing epidemics in pediatric wards of some South America countries which develops with hing rate of bacteremia and meningitis complications as it is in our hospital. PMID:6763663

  9. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Causes Transmission Signs & Symptoms Causes Non–infectious meningitis causes include Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) ...

  10. Primary Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dong Ho [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Primary meningeal melanocytic neoplasms are rare lesions that originate from leptomeningeal melanocytes. An intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine is less common than a malignant melanoma, which is its malignant counterpart. We report a case of a histopathologically confirmed primary intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine along with a literature.

  11. Primary Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary meningeal melanocytic neoplasms are rare lesions that originate from leptomeningeal melanocytes. An intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine is less common than a malignant melanoma, which is its malignant counterpart. We report a case of a histopathologically confirmed primary intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine along with a literature

  12. Medicininduceret aseptisk meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina Podlekareva; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a rare adverse effect of some drugs. We report a patient with four episodes of meningitis caused by ibuprofen. In all episodes the patient had taken ibuprofen for pain, and subsequently developed fever and cerebrovascular symptoms. Drug-induced meningitis cannot be distinguished from meningitis caused by other agents. Diagnosis is therefore based on close association between drug administration and onset of symptoms, as well as negative microbiology tests results, especially if previous episodes of drug-induced meningitis have occurred.

  13. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed inf% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  14. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Prasad, Sreeram; Maurya, Pradeep K.; Misra, Usha K. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)), Email: drukmisra@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Sunil (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  15. Bacterial meningitis in Nottingham.

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, P.

    1983-01-01

    Records of 171 cases of bacterial meningitis admitted to Nottingham hospitals from January 1974 to June 1980 were reviewed. The distribution of organisms producing meningitis and the factors influencing mortality in different age groups were assessed. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 69% of all proven cases. The overall mortality was 26% being lowest in patients with meningococcal meningitis (0%) and highest in those with pneumococcal m...

  16. Intracranial meningeal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in the detection of meningeal pathology, the authors reviewed 100 consecutive patients with suspected intracranial disease. Fifteen patients demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement that represented sarcoid (n = 6), lymphoma (n = 4), carcinomatosis (n = 2), glioblastoma (n = 1), aseptic meningitis (n = 1), and subdural empyema (n = 1). Seven patients had accompanying parenchymal abnormalities, but the majority did not show any abnormalities before contrast enhancement. A diffuse pattern of enhancement was seen in 12 patients, with the remaining three showing a nodular/segmental pattern. In these patients, the demonstration of abnormal enhancement provided the initial evidence of meningeal involvement leading to critical therapeutic decisions

  17. Serratia marcescens meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Theccanat, G.; Hirschfield, L.; Isenberg, H.

    1991-01-01

    A case of Serratia marcescens meningitis in a 66-year-old man is reported. The infection occurred 4 weeks after apparently successful otic surgery, and a nidus of infection in the middle ear was established at autopsy. This is the second case of S. marcescens meningitis following ear surgery reported in the English-language literature.

  18. Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-06

    In this podcast, adolescent vaccine recommendations for meningococcal disease, also known as meningitis, are discussed.  Created: 8/6/2008 by National Center for Infectious and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Disease (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPD).   Date Released: 8/7/2008.

  19. Syringomyelia following tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present three cases with syringomyelia after tuberculous meningitis. The MR findings suggested the syrinx was formed by blockage of the CSF flow at the outlets of the fourth ventricle. We consider this complication is not a rare condition following tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Meningitis M eningitis (infection of the coverings of ... YOURSELF To find this and previous JAMA Patient Pages, go to the Patient Page Index on JAMA ’s ...

  1. MR imaging and angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section; Gupta, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section; Singh, D. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Sharma, B. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kohli, A. [King George Medical Coll., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Paediatrics; Gujral, R.B. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section

    1994-02-01

    MRI was performed on 26 patients with tuberculous meningitis, with particular reference to document the cranial nerve abnormalities. MR angiography (MRA) was performed in 20 of the patients. Meningeal enhancement in the basal cisterns or over the convexity of brain was seen in all patients; two show ependymal enhancement. Tuberculomas, single (3), multiple (12) or military (2) were detected in 17 patients. Of the 9 patients with cranial nerve palsies, 7 showed contrast enhancement with or without thickening of the involved nerve. Abnormality signal intensity of the involved nerve was seen on proton density and T{sub 2}-weighted images in one of these patients. MRA revealed focal arterial narrowing in 10 patients, the vessels commonly affected being the terminal segment of the internal carotid artery and the proximal segments of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. One patient also had a small aneurysm of the proximal middle cerebral artery. Infarcts, haemorrhagic (8) or bland (6), were detected in 14 patients; most were the basal ganglia and internal capsules, large middle or anterior cerebral arterial territory infarcts being seen in only two cases. (orig.)

  2. Meningitis bacteriana aguda Acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Castro R

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas, evolución y complicaciones de la meningitis bacteriana aguda. Pacientes y método: en una encuesta retrospectiva a 14 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos se registraron 358 pacientes que reunión los criterios de diagnostico de meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA durante 1996. Resultados: en 36,6% la etiologia fue Neisseria meilngifidis, Streptococcus pneumonioe en 19,8% y Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en  6%. En 21% no se aisló el agente. La letalidad fue 3,5% para N meningitidis-, 14% para S. pneumonioe y 3% para H. influenzae tipo b. De los 358 pacientes, 21% se hospitalizaron en sola común durante toda su evolución. Las complicaciones mas frecuentes fueron falla circulatoria o cheque (35%, convulsiones (22% e hipertensión intracraneala (18%. Se uso asistencia respiratoria mecánica en 31% de los pacientes, variando su empleo de 9 o 71% Según centre. Fallecieron 23 pacientes 16,3%, 40% antes de 24 h desde el ingresa, 60,8% por hipertensión intracraneana y enclavamiento encefálico, 30,8% por falla circulatoria. Conclusión: los niños con meningitis bacteriana aguda deben ingresar a unidades de cuidados intensivos en las primeras 24 horas. Se requiere uniformar criterios de asistencia mecánico a la respiración.Objective: to describe etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis as seen from pediatric intensive care units. Patients and methods: a retrospective survey was done to 358 patients who met diagnostic criteria of acute bacterial meningitis and were odmited Jo 14 chilean hospitals along year 1996. Results: most frequently isolated bacteriae were: Neisseria meningitidis (36,6%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (19,8% end Haemophilus influenzae type b (16%. In 2 1 % of the coses no etiology was identified. Specific mortality was 3,5% for N. meningitidis, 14% for 5. pneumonioe and 3% for H. influenzae type b. One in five patients was never admitted to an intensive care unit JICU. Shock (35%, seizures (22% and int-acraneal hypertension (13% were the most frecuent complications. Mechanical ventilation was used en 31% patients (9 to 71% depending of center; 23% patients died, 40% ofthern in the first 24hours after admission. Main causes of death were inlracraneal hypertension (61%] and shock (30,8%. Conclusion: most patients with acute bacterial meningitis should be admitted to inlensive care units. Uniform criteriae for mechanical respiratory assistance must be settled.

  3. Meningitis bacteriana aguda / Acute bacterial meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela, Castro R; Jaime, Cordero T.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir las causas, evolución y complicaciones de la meningitis bacteriana aguda. Pacientes y método: en una encuesta retrospectiva a 14 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos se registraron 358 pacientes que reunión los criterios de diagnostico de meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA) [...] durante 1996. Resultados: en 36,6% la etiologia fue Neisseria meilngifidis, Streptococcus pneumonioe en 19,8% y Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en  6%. En 21% no se aisló el agente. La letalidad fue 3,5% para N meningitidis-, 14% para S. pneumonioe y 3% para H. influenzae tipo b. De los 358 pacientes, 21% se hospitalizaron en sola común durante toda su evolución. Las complicaciones mas frecuentes fueron falla circulatoria o cheque (35%), convulsiones (22%) e hipertensión intracraneala (18%). Se uso asistencia respiratoria mecánica en 31% de los pacientes, variando su empleo de 9 o 71% Según centre. Fallecieron 23 pacientes 16,3%), 40% antes de 24 h desde el ingresa, 60,8% por hipertensión intracraneana y enclavamiento encefálico, 30,8% por falla circulatoria. Conclusión: los niños con meningitis bacteriana aguda deben ingresar a unidades de cuidados intensivos en las primeras 24 horas. Se requiere uniformar criterios de asistencia mecánico a la respiración. Abstract in english Objective: to describe etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis as seen from pediatric intensive care units. Patients and methods: a retrospective survey was done to 358 patients who met diagnostic criteria of acute bacterial meningitis and were odmited Jo 14 chilean hospitals along year 1996. [...] Results: most frequently isolated bacteriae were: Neisseria meningitidis (36,6%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (19,8%) end Haemophilus influenzae type b (16%). In 2 1 % of the coses no etiology was identified. Specific mortality was 3,5% for N. meningitidis, 14% for 5. pneumonioe and 3% for H. influenzae type b. One in five patients was never admitted to an intensive care unit JICU). Shock (35%), seizures (22%) and int-acraneal hypertension (13%) were the most frecuent complications. Mechanical ventilation was used en 31% patients (9 to 71% depending of center; 23% patients died, 40% ofthern in the first 24hours after admission. Main causes of death were inlracraneal hypertension (61%] and shock (30,8%). Conclusion: most patients with acute bacterial meningitis should be admitted to inlensive care units. Uniform criteriae for mechanical respiratory assistance must be settled.

  4. Cortical venous thrombosis – a rare complication of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C Aundhakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusion of the central veins and sinuses occurs owing to thrombus, thrombophlebitis, or tumours. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is less frequent than arterial thrombosis, but can produce a cascade of sequelae and may be fatal. The usual predisposing factors for CVT include infections, pregnancy and puerperium, hypercoagulable states, etc. Many infectious causes are related to CVT, but a review of literature showed only few cases related to tuberculosis. Vascular changes consisting of arterial narrowing with or without occlusion are frequently seen at autopsy in cases of tuberculous meningitis. We report one such case of tuberculous meningitis where the patient developed cortical venous thrombosis after 5 days of illness. She was treated empirically, initially, till confirmation of the diagnosis and later was put on antitubercular drugs along with prednisolone therapy and anticoagulation, which led to complete recovery. Thus, if treated aggressively and in time, tuberculous meningitis and its complications are completely curable.

  5. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  6. New Bacterial Meningitis Vaccine Approved

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacterial meningitis among people aged 10 through 25. Meningococcal disease, or meningitis, is a life-threatening bacterial infection of the ... a college dormitory. Some 500 cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded by the U.S. Centers ... disease can be treated with antibiotics, although this ...

  7. Natalizumab and HSV meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Erica Seiguer; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Venna, Nagagopal

    2011-01-01

    Natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) is a monoclonal antibody approved for use in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. We report the first case of a patient with a history of MS, on monthly natalizumab, who developed HSV-2 meningitis. We discuss the mechanism of action of natalizumab and review what is known about the reactivation of herpes infection in association with this medication. The question of herpes s...

  8. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  9. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Willi, U.V.; Martin, E. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandner, S. [Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Niggli, F. [Division of Paediatric Oncology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Kacl, G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  10. Pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfer, R. L.; Katz, R. L.; Fainstein, V.

    1982-01-01

    A pseudooutbreak of cryptococcal meningitis was caused by the use of contaminated albumin solution used in the preparation of Papanicolaou-stained slides of cerebrospinal fluid. Organisms were seen in cytocentrifuge preparations, but not in India ink preparations of cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Cryptococcal antigen tests were positive and Cryptococcus neoformans was cultured from the albumin-treated cerebrospinal fluid specimens and from the albumin solution.

  11. Meningitis sifilítica aguda / Acute syphilitic meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Efraín, Riveros; Fred, Manrique-Abril; Manuel, Bustamante.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un paciente de 28 años de sexo femenino, que presentó un cuadro clínico rápidamente progresivo de cambios en el comportamiento y deterioro del estado de conciencia. Ingresó con puntaje de Glasgow de 8/15 y requirió intubación traqueal. Tenía respuesta plantar extensora bilateral, pupila [...] izquierda midriática de 5 mm, sin respuesta a la luz, ptosis palpebral del mismo lado y nistagmo con componente rápido hacia la izquierda. El contenido de proteínas del líquido cefalorraquídeo fue de 0,86 g/l con pleocitosis moderada de predominio linfocitario. Tres semanas antes del ingreso, presentó parto vaginal eutócico; no tuvo control prenatal durante el embarazo. En el recién nacido se demostró serología reactiva para sífilis y FTA-ABS positivo. La paciente también fue hallada reactiva para serología de sífilis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo, con diagnóstico de meningitis sifilítica aguda. La prueba ELISA para VIH fue negativa. Abstract in english A 28 year-old woman presented with a rapidly progressive clinical picture of behavioral changes and altered level of consciousness. She was admitted with Glasgow Coma Score 8/15, 5 mm dilated non-reactive left pupil, right ptosis and nystagmus with left lateral gaze. Protein content at cerebrospinal [...] fluid was 0,86 g/L with pleocytosis. Three weeks earlier, the patient underwent vaginal delivery of a pregnancy without prenatal care, and the newborn was found to be reactive to syphilis serology and positive on FTA-ABS test. The patient was found positive as well for syphilis on serologic tests for syphilis, corresponding yhe picture to neurosyphilis.HIV testing was negative in the patient.

  12. Natalizumab and HSV meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Erica Seiguer; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Venna, Nagagopal

    2011-01-01

    Natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) is a monoclonal antibody approved for use in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as moderate to severe Crohn’s disease. We report the first case of a patient with a history of MS, on monthly natalizumab, who developed HSV-2 meningitis. We discuss the mechanism of action of natalizumab and review what is known about the reactivation of herpes infection in association with this medication. The question of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prophylaxis for patients is raised. PMID:21487835

  13. Meningitis tras anestesia espinal Meningitis after a spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Vázquez-Martínez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis post-punción es una importante complicación de la anestesia espinal. Describimos el caso de un varón de cuarenta y seis años que ingresó para tratamiento quirúrgico de una hernia umbilical, la cirugía se realizó bajo anestesia intradural. Tras la intervención el paciente comenzó con un cuadro clínico compatible con meningitis, que se confirmó tras examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se trató con antibióticos a pesar de la no identificación de gérmenes, siendo la evolución favorable. El diagnóstico etiológico de una meningitis iatrogénica no siempre es posible, pero siempre debemos tener en cuenta esta posibilidad. En este artículo queremos revisar la situación actual del problema, especialmente la profilaxis y la actitud terapéutica.Post-dural puncture meningitis is a serious complication of spinal anesthesia. We describe the case of a forty six years old male who was admitted for surgical intervention of an umbilical hernia, performed under spinal anesthesia. After surgery the patient developed a clinical syndrome compatible with meningitis, the diagnosis was confirmed by examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were started although spinal cultures were negatives, and the patient's clinical course was favourable. The meningitis differential diagnosis may be difficult, but we must think about this possibility. In this case report ,we want to check the present situation, specially the prevention and medical treatment.

  14. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  15. Bacteriological study of meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vadher P; Vaidya N; Soni P; Kale V

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty samples of cerebro spinal fluid were collected from patients admitted with suspected signs and symptoms of meningococcal meningitis (M. meningitis) during the period from January 1986 to April 1989 and were processed for gram?s staining, cultivation and latex agglutination tests for detection of polysaccharide antigen in the CSF. Totally 41.5% of turbid and hazy spinal fluid were positive for N. meningitidis by smear examination. Only 24.6% were pos...

  16. Meningitis bacteriémica por Pasteurella multocida / Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Soloaga; N., Carrión; J., Pidone; M., Suar; A., Salinas; L., Guelfand; V., Alvarez; A., Margari; D., Cococcella.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Pasteurella multocida en seres humanos habitualmente están relacionadas con mordeduras o arañazos de perros y gatos. Muchas de ellas se acompañan de otros microorganismos de la orofaringe de estos animales. Se presenta un caso de meningitis bacteriémica por P. multocida en una mu [...] jer de 86 años que convivía con siete gatos. Si bien no se documentó una infección de piel o de partes blandas, es posible que ésta haya pasado inadvertida inicialmente y que fuera la causa de la bacteriemia con impacto en meninges, o bien que la meningitis se haya producido luego de la colonización nasofaríngea (no demostrada). Los aislamientos de hemocultivos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron identificados como P. multocida por medio de API 20NE, API 20E y Vitek 1. La cepa aislada presentó sensibilidad a penicilina, cefotaxima, levofloxacina y tetraciclinas, en coincidencia con lo descrito en la literatura. Abstract in english Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living w [...] ith seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated). The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines.

  17. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a ... at 1-866-626-6847 . Document Outline Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

  18. Spinal cord dysfunction complicating meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, J.; Altafullah, I.; Ishaq, M.

    1990-01-01

    A 29 year old male developed paraplegia during the acute phase of meningococcal meningitis. Possible mechanisms for this unusual complication are discussed and the literature regarding spinal cord complications of pyogenic meningitis is reviewed.

  19. Bacterial meningitis in Saudi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srair, H A; Aman, H; al-Madan, M; al-Khater, M

    1992-01-01

    During the four years period from 1988 to 1991, 50 pediatric patients were diagnosed to have bacterial meningitis, out of a total number of 9057 pediatric admissions at Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia, and 82% were less than two years of age. The causative organisms were isolated in 27 (54%) patients. The bacteria grown included Haemophilus influenzae type B in 8 patients (29.6%), Neisseria meningitidis in 8 patients (29.6%), Streptococcus pneumonia in 6 (22%) patients, and other bacteria in 5 patients (18.5%). Cerebro spinal fluid cultures from twenty three patients (46%) showed no organisms, however their clinical and C.S.F. findings were compatible with bacterial meningitis. One case of H. influenzae type B was resistant to ampicillin. Six patients died with an over all mortality of 12%, and 10 patients (20%) developed some kind of C.N.S. sequelae. Partially treated meningitis formed a large percentage of our sample. PMID:1340860

  20. Tuberculous Meningitis in BCG-Vaccinated Children

    OpenAIRE

    Movahhedi, M.; Kheyrandish, N.; Tabatabai, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that BCG vaccination is fully effective in preventing Tuberculous Meningitis and military Tuberculous, although it does not develop complete immunity for Tuberculous infection of lungs and other organs. A series of 3 children with Tuberculous Meningitis who had positive history of BCG vaccination as newborns and distinct BCG scar show that Tuberculous Meningitis may be caught despite successful BCG vaccination.

  1. Meningitis, Clinical Presentation of Tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Agata; Tumiel, Ewa; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Pancewicz, S?awomir; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Zdrodowska, Agnieszka; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease.

  2. Radionuclide studies in coccidioidal meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, H.F.; Lippert, R.G.; Radding, J.

    1976-10-01

    Although the uniformly fatal outcome in untreated meningitis due to Coccidioides immitis has been modified by amphotericin B, use of this drug presents a challenge to therapists striving to maximize its effectiveness and minimize its not inconsiderable toxicity. Many of the complications of intraventricular therapy, using an Ommaya reservoir, were encountered in a patient with coccidioidal meningitis, and this experience is reported to reemphasize the usefulness of radionuclide studies in guiding therapy and assessing the progress of the disease. The examples presented may be of interest to those faced with the difficult task of treating this still dangerous infection.

  3. The future of meningitis vaccines.

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, S.; Pollard, Aj

    2003-01-01

    Without effective vaccines meningitis remains a substantial worldwide threat with major health-care implications. A number of advances have been made in vaccine design and implementation over the last decade, with new vaccine initiatives providing substantial promise for the future reduction of global disease burden.

  4. Meningeal involvement in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Kamel; Mellerio, Charles; Baugier, Alix; Ghnaya, Habib; Denizon, Nathalie; Besançon, Anne; Laly, Margot; Jadeau, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A patient with multiple myeloma with a mass in the nasopharyngeal was diagnosed. He received melphalan autograft and radiotherapy, and obtained complete remission. He relapsed 3 months later, with meningeal involvement and without systemic relapse. He received intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy, without neurological improvement and died 4 weeks after relapse.

  5. Streptococcus bovis Meningitis and Hemorrhoids ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K.; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection. PMID:20421434

  6. Streptococcus bovis Meningitis and Hemorrhoids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K.; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection.

  7. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)e in neonates. (orig.)

  8. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Nath, Kavindra [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Malik, Gyanendra K.; Gupta, Amit [King George' s Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Prasad, Kashi N. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Lucknow (India); Purwar, Ankur; Rathore, Divya; Rathore, Ram K.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Kanpur (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)

  9. Bacteriological study of meningococcal meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadher P

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty samples of cerebro spinal fluid were collected from patients admitted with suspected signs and symptoms of meningococcal meningitis (M. meningitis during the period from January 1986 to April 1989 and were processed for gram?s staining, cultivation and latex agglutination tests for detection of polysaccharide antigen in the CSF. Totally 41.5% of turbid and hazy spinal fluid were positive for N. meningitidis by smear examination. Only 24.6% were positive by culture but 61.5% of sample were positive by latex agglutination tests. All the strains were sensitive to all antibiotics except one strain which was resistant to penicillin but it was sensitive to rifampicin.

  10. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, L E; Hart, C A; Molyneux, M; Mughogho, G H

    1988-12-01

    We have studied prospectively the C-reactive protein values in the cerebrospinal fluid of 54 patients with bacterial meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, and severe malarial infection and convulsions without infections of the central nervous system. CSF CRP above 1 mg/l was observed in 23 out of 28 patients with bacterial meningitis (sensitivity of 82%). The specificity was 73% at the 1 mg/l level. Five out of 19 patients with severe malarial infection had CSF CRP levels above 1 mg/l. Two patients with TB meningitis were also studied. Both of them had CSF CRP above 1 mg/l. Five patients with febrile convulsions or sepsis without meningitis had CSF CRP below 1 mg/l. It is concluded that CSF CRP would not be used as a useful discriminatory test in areas where malaria and TB meningitis are common. PMID:2467609

  11. Atypical Presentation of Mollaret’s Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hassan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mollaret’s meningitis is mostly described in the setting of recurrent attacks of fever along with signs and symptoms of meningitis. It resolves spontaneously without any treatment and in most of the cases no causative organism is identified. Here we present an atypical case of mollaret’s meningitis in which the patient presented with headache and meningismus in the absence of fever.

  12. Tuberculous Meningitis in BCG-Vaccinated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Movahhedi

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that BCG vaccination is fully effective in preventing Tuberculous Meningitis and military Tuberculous, although it does not develop complete immunity for Tuberculous infection of lungs and other organs. A series of 3 children with Tuberculous Meningitis who had positive history of BCG vaccination as newborns and distinct BCG scar show that Tuberculous Meningitis may be caught despite successful BCG vaccination.

  13. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tunkel, A. R.; Scheld, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with associated unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates despite the availability of effective bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Through the use of experimental animal models of infection, a great deal of information has been gleaned concerning the pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms operable in bacterial meningitis. Most cases of bacterial meningitis begin with host acquisition of a new organism by nasopharyngeal colonization followed by syst...

  14. Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution. (orig.)

  15. Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, M.; Romero, F.; Torrent, O.; Ibarra, B.

    1980-04-01

    Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution.

  16. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  17. Post-myelographic meningeal irritation with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 45-year-old woman developed signs of meningeal irritation after myelography with iohexol. Her condition improved very quickly (after antibiotic treatment). Rapid improvement, absence of pathogenic organisms in the pre-treatment CSF culture, the level of CSF pleocytosis and protein were in favor of chemical meningitis. (orig.)

  18. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  19. Meningitis Caused by Pseudallescheria boydii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Yeow Tan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 43-year-old immunocompetent man who developed meningitis caused byPseudallescheria boydii. The patient had no history of near drowning, trauma, steroidadministration, operations or any other underlying systemic disease. He presented withintermittent fever associated with headache, bilateral eye pain, and vomiting. Progressivehydrocephalus was noted during the course of the disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fromthe ventricular system allowed culture of the organism. Although the disease was diagnosedantemortemly, the patient died after antifungal treatment. This case is reported because ofthe unusual pathogen, unresponsiveness to amphotericin B combined with 5-fluocytocin,and immunocompetence of the patient without any predisposing factors.

  20. MR of childhood tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeman, J.; Donald, P.; Hewlett, R.

    1988-12-01

    MR imaging was performed on 27 children with stage II-III tuberculous meningitis for the specific purpose of examining the brainstem, as well as comparison with other CT features of the disease. In addition to defining the ischemic disturbances of basal ganglia and diencephalon more clearly, MR also demonstrates the frequent occurrence of parenchymal signal abnormalities in the brainstem and adjacent temporal lobes, which are invisible or uncertain on CT. Although the presence of brainstem abnormalities on MR correlated well with clinical findings of brainstem dysfunction, clinical staging on admission remains the best prognostic indicator in advanced TBM. We also review the MR features of basal exudation, hydrochephalus and tuberculoma.

  1. Differential vasoactive effects of sildenafil and tadalafil on cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Gupta, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is associated with migraine pathophysiology, stroke recovery and vasospasm treatment. The potential vascular interplay of PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and UK-114,542 was studied by intra- versus extra-luminal administration in rat middle cerebral arteries in vitro and on middle meningeal arteries in vivo. By Western blot PDE5 was detected in both cerebral and meningeal arteries, though with minor variations in band intensity between vascular beds. Rat middle cerebral artery diameter was investigated using pressurised arteriography, applying UK-114,542, sildenafil, and tadalafil intra- or extra-luminally. Effects on the dural middle meningeal artery were studied in the in vivo closed cranial window model. At high concentrations, abluminal sildenafil and UK-114,542, but not tadalafil, induced dilatation of the middle cerebral artery. Luminal application elicited a contraction of 4% (sildenafil, P=0.03) and 10% (tadalafil, P=0.02). In vivo, sildenafil, but not tadalafil, dose-dependently dilated middle meningeal artery concomitant to blood pressure reduction (1-3mg/kg);1mg/kg sildenafil inducing 60 ± 14% (P=0.04) and vehicle (DMSO) 13 ± 6% dilatation. In conclusion, PDE5 inhibitors applied luminally had minor contractile effect, whereas abluminal sildenafil induced middle cerebral artery dilatation above therapeutic levels. In vivo, sildenafil dilated middle meningeal artery concomitant with a reduction in blood pressure. Tadalafil had no dilatory effects. PDE5 inhibitors show differential vascular activity in cerebral arteries from healthy animals; arterial dilatation is seen primarily above therapeutic levels. Such findings support clinical studies showing no vasodilator effects of sildenafil on cerebral arteries in healthy subjects.

  2. Epidemiología de la meningitis Venezuela 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Echezuría; Raiza, León; Eva, Rodríguez; Alejandro, Rísquez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las meningitis en Venezuela constituyen un importante problema de salud pública, que afecta de manera especial a los niños menores de 5 años. Las vacunas antineumocócicas, antimeningocócicas, contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, así como la BCG, obligan a revisar la dinámica de la morbi-mortalidad [...] en nuestro país. La etiología más frecuente es viral, seguida de las meningitis bacterianas y las tuberculosas, mientras que se conoce poco de la micótica y otras causas. Los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica muestran cifras altas de la incidencia de las meningitis que ameritan acciones más enérgicas de salud pública para vigilar, prevenir y mejorar los Programas Nacionales de Inmunizaciones y sus coberturas, además de tratar médicamente las meningitis en cualquiera de sus causas infecciosas. Abstract in english Meningitis constitutes an important public health problem in Venezuela that affects children, specially under 5 years of age. Antimeningococcal, anti-pneumococcal, vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and BCG induce pediatricians to review the dynamics of the morbidity and mortality of the [...] se diseases. The most common etiology is the viral followed by bacterial meningitis followed by tuberculosis, while little is known of the fungal or other causes. Epidemiological surveillance systems show high figures of the incidence which warrant a more intense public health action to monitor, prevent and improve national programs of immunization and their vaccine coverage, and to treat medically any infectious cause of meningitis.

  3. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  4. Spinal cord ischaemia complicating meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, S. S.; Pye, I. F.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive ischaemic cord syndrome developed in a patient with meningococcal meningitis complicated by 2 respiratory arrests but not by any period of prolonged hypotension or other signs of cardiovascular collapse. Excellent functional recovery occurred after intensive rehabilitation.

  5. Carcinomatous meningitis mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vas C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of carcinomatous meningitis diagnosed at autopsy that was clinically diagnosed as a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD because of rapidly evolving dementia. Pathological study revealed diffusely spreading carcinomatous meningitis, infiltrating into cortex along Virchow Robin space. Immunostaining for Prion protein was negative. Despite advances in clinical diagnosis, tissue diagnosis remains a pre-requisite for confirmation of CJD.

  6. Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis in Meningococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Walshe, J.; Dorman, A.; Khilji, S.; Kennedy, C

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a relatively common infection of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and leptomeninges. The clinical picture evolves rapidly and, if treatment is delayed, can result in a variety of long-term sequelae, including death. Acute kidney injury in the setting of bacterial meningitis usually results from hypotension and volume depletion and resolves with appropriate treatment. Meningococcaemia with profound hypotension, and/or disseminated intravascula...

  7. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis simulating tuberculous meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, J.; Balakas, N.; Agathonikou, A.; Hain, S.; Giovanonni, G.; Panayiotopoulos, C.; Luxsuwong, M.; Revesz, T.

    2001-01-01

    Three patients are reported on who presented with communicating hydrocephalus due to presumed tuberculous meningitis. Subsequent clinical deterioration despite antituberculous chemotherapy prompted reassessment with FDG-PET scanning and meningeal biopsy in one case and repeat CSF cytology with special staining in the second. The third patient died and postmortem confirmed a diagnosis of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis. In the first two patients, MRI of the entire neu...

  8. Fatal Subdural Empyema Following Pyogenic Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seok Ki; Kim, Seok Won

    2011-01-01

    Subdural empyema is a rare form of intracranial sepsis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most frequent cause is extension of paranasal sinusitis through emissary veins or of mastoiditis through the mucosa, bone, and dura mater. Development of subdural empyema after pyogenic meningitis is known to be very unusual in adults. We report a rare case of fatal subdural empyema, an unusual complication of pyogenic meningitis. Our bitter experience suggests that subdural empyema should...

  9. Tuberculous Meningitis Associated with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nalbantog?lu Elmas, O?zlem; Ak?nc?, Ays?ehan; Bilir, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening acute complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Infections are the leading cause of DKA, but trauma, myocardial infarction, or surgery may also precipitate this condition. In patients with DKA, although cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological symptoms, other possibilities such as meningitis or encephalitis should also be considered. Herein, we present the case of an 8-year-old girl with DKA and tuberculous meningitis.

  10. Environmental Risk and Meningitis Epidemics in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Molesworth, Anna M.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Connor, Stephen J.; Morse, Andrew P.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur in areas with particular environmental characteristics. We present evidence that the relationship between the environment and the location of these epidemics is quantifiable and propose a model based on environmental variables to identify regions at risk for meningitis epidemics. These findings, which have substantial implications for directing surveillance activities and health policy, provide a basis for monitoring the impact of climate variabilit...

  11. Latex agglutination testing in bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, F. O.; Witherow, H.; Rudd, P. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of the latex agglutination test in meningitis was assessed. This was positive in 60% cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 93% of Haemophilus influenzae type b, and 39% of Neisseria meningitidis infections. We cannot support the view that this test was more valuable than Gram staining in partially treated meningitis and cannot recommend its routine use. It may, however, be valuable if Gram staining does not identify an organism or if it suggests meningococcal infection.

  12. Síndrome de meningitis y retención urinaria / Meningitis-retention syndrome. Report of one case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Cartier R; Fernando, Hansen B.

    1607-16-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The Meningitis-Retention Syndrome associates aseptic meningitis and neurogenic bladder, with a vesical dysfunction that outlasts meningitis widely. Urodynamic assessment shows a detrusor palsy with normal function of the external sphincter. We report a 24-year-old male admitted for headache, fever, [...] myalgias and acute urinary retention, which was diagnosed as a urinary tract infection. Worsening of symptoms and slight meningeal signs prompted for a lumbar puncture that yielded a cerebrospinal fluid with 94 lymphocytes, in which etiological evaluation was inconclusive. Meningeal syndrome and myalgia subsided by the fifth day, while urinary retention persisted. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord done at the fifth day, showed high intensity signals in basal ganglia and central spinal cord, not altered by contrast. These images disappeared in the imaging control performed two months later. Bladder dysfunction lasted at least until the second month of follow up.

  13. An unusual case of chronic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinton Anna

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic meningitis is defined as symptoms and signs of meningeal inflammation and persisting cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities such as elevated protein level and pleocytosis for at least one month. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman, of unremarkable past medical history, was admitted to hospital for investigation of a four-week history of vomiting, malaise an associated hyponatraemia. She had a low-grade pyrexia with normal inflammatory markers. A CT brain was unremarkable and a contrast MRI brain revealed sub-acute infarction of the right frontal cortex but with no evidence of meningeal enhancement. Due to increasing confusion and patient clinical deterioration a lumbar puncture was performed at 17 days post admission. This revealed gram-negative coccobacilli in the CSF, which was identified as Neisseria meningitidis group B. The patient made a dramatic recovery with high-dose intravenous ceftriaxone antibiotic therapy for meningococcal meningitis. Conclusions 1 Chronic bacterial meningitis may present highly atypically, particularly in the older adult. 2 There may be an absent or reduced febrile response, without a rise in inflammatory markers, despite a very unwell patient. 3 Early lumbar puncture is to be encouraged as it is essential to confirm the diagnosis.4 Despite a delayed diagnosis appropriate antibiotic therapy can still lead to a good outcome.

  14. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2002 Study of the Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants ...

  15. Meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinal / Meningitis after spinal anesthesia and analgesia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Robles Romero; M.A., Rojas Caracuel; C. del, Prado Álvarez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es una puesta al día en la etiología, diagnóstico, profilaxis y tratamiento de la meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinales. Aunque es una complicación mayor de esta técnica y su incidencia es baja, cada vez son más frecuentes los casos publicados en la literatura [...] médica. Según su etiología se les clasifica en meningitis sépticas, víricas y asépticas. Las meningitis sépticas son las más frecuentes, y en su etiología cada vez juega un papel más destacado como agente implicado el estreptococo salivarius. Como meningitis asépticas se clasifican aquellas en las que el cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo es negativo, con un periodo de latencia de síntomas inferior a seis horas, que pueden cursar con eosinofilia en el líquido cefalorraquídeo y unos niveles cercanos a la normalidad en la glucorraquia. Suelen tener buena respuesta y evolución con tratamiento antibiótico con vancomicina y cefalosporinas de tercera generación. Como profilaxis incidir en las medidas de asepsia, sobre todo en el uso de mascarilla facial para realizar la técnica, como práctica para disminuir la incidencia de gérmenes cuyo origen está en la cavidad oral y orofaringe. Asimismo podrían reducir la incidencia de meningitis las medidas de asepsia tales como el lavado de manos, uso de guantes y asepsia de la piel. La diferenciación entre meningitis séptica y aséptica se hará con mayor seguridad cuando se estandaricen las técnicas para detectar genoma bacteriano en el líquido cefalorraquídeo; actualmente se etiquetan como meningitis asépticas aquellas en las que el cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo es negativo y cuya tinción de Gram es negativa. Pese a que el pronóstico y evolución en rasgos generales de las meningitis tras anestesia y analgesia espinal es bueno, en comparación con las meningitis adquiridas en la comunidad, por la escasa virulencia de las bacterias implicadas (Estreptococo salivarius), hay descritos casos con mala evolución de meningoencefalitis supurativa que han llevado a la muerte en pocas horas. Abstract in english The objective of this review is an update on etiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meningitis after spinal anesthesia and analgesia. Although it is a major complication of this technique and its incidence is low, there are more and more frequent cases in the medical literature. According [...] to its etiology are classified in septic meningitis, viral and aseptic. The septic meningitis are the most common, and its etiology increasingly plays a more prominent role as Streptococcus salivarius agent involved. Aseptic meningitis are classified as those in which cerebrospinal fluid culture is negative, with a latency period of symptoms less than six hours, which may present with eosinophilia in the cerebrospinal fluid and levels close to normal in the CSF glucose. They usually have good response and evolution with antibiotic treatment with vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporins. Prophylaxis influence the aseptic precautions, especially the use of a face mask to perform the technique, as practical to reduce the incidence of bacteria whose origin is in the oral cavity and oropharynx. They could also reduce the incidence of aseptic meningitis measures such as hand washing, use of gloves and skin antisepsis. The differentiation between aseptic meningitis and septic will more securely when standardize techniques for detecting bacterial genome in the cerebrospinal fluid, now labeled as aseptic meningitis those in which cerebrospinal fluid culture is negative and whose negative Gram stain. Although the prognosis and evolution in general features of meningitis after spinal anesthesia and analgesia is good, compared with community-acquired meningitis, the low virulence of the bacteria involved (Streptococcus salivarius), cases have been described with poor outcome suppurative meningoencephalitis have led to death within hours.

  16. Adjuvant glycerol is not beneficial in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wittwer Matthias; Grandgirard Denis; Klein Matthias; Blaser Cornelia; Peltola Heikki; Weigand Michael; Koedel Uwe; Leib Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis in children causes high rates of mortality and morbidity. In a recent clinical trial, oral glycerol significantly reduced severe neurological sequelae in paediatric meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a tendency towards a benefit of adjunctive glycerol was seen in pneumococcal meningitis. Methods Here we examined the effects of glycerol in pneumococcal meningitis of infant rats and adult mice. All animals received ceftriaxone, and g...

  17. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  18. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981-96.

    OpenAIRE

    Campagne, G.; Schuchat, A.; Djibo, S.; Ousse?ini, A.; Cisse?, L.; Chippaux, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    In the African meningitis belt the importance of endemic meningitis is not as well recognized as that of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis that occur from time to time. Using retrospective surveillance, we identified a total of 7078 cases of laboratory-diagnosed bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, from 1981 to 1996. The majority (57.7%) were caused by Neisseria meningitidis, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.2%) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) (9.5%). The mean annual incidenc...

  19. Aseptic meningitis and herpes simplex proctitis. A case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Atia, W. A.; Ratnatunga, C. S.; Greenfield, C.; Dawson, S.

    1982-01-01

    A male homosexual patient developed an aseptic meningitis during the course of acute ano-proctitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Aseptic meningitis (sometimes proved to be due to HSV-2) has been associated with genital but not with anal herpes. This sexually transmissible virus should be considered when patients with aseptic meningitis are investigated.

  20. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiographonal, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  1. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  2. Anthrax Meningitis - Report Of An Autopsied Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a rare cause of hemorrhagic meningitis in man. This report illustrates the characteristic hemorrhagic manifestations in the brain of a patient dying of anthrax meningitis secondary to overwhelming bacteremia. Gross examination of the brain revealed a thick dense subarachnoid hemorrhage with numerous petechial hemorrhages in the cortex. Histologically, meningoencephalitis with vascular necrosis, edema, perivascular cortical hemorrhages and clumps of Gram positive bacilli in the vascular lumen and invading vessel wall were the salient features. The anthrax bacillus was isolated from CSF and brain tissue and further its pathogenecity was confirmed by animal inoculation.

  3. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  4. Meningitis tuberculosa. Un caso: complicaciones oftalmológicas / Tuberculous meningitis. One case: ophthalmic complications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MJ, Pérez Álvarez; M, Moreno López.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Caso clínico: Presentamos una mujer de 18 años afecta de meningitis tuberculosa con amaurosis bilateral y oftalmoplegia completa, además de pérdida de conciencia y parálisis de otros pares craneales. Discusión: La meningitis tuberculosa es una causa infrecuente de aracnoiditis basal con pronóstico i [...] nfausto. Se valoran las posibles causas de la pérdida de agudeza visual y la afectación oculomotora , y se destaca la evolución favorable del caso sin secuelas. Abstract in english Case Report: An 18 year old female suffering from tuberculous meningitis with bilateral amaurosis, ophthalmoplegia, other cranial nerve palsies and loss of consciousness, is presented. Discussion: Tuberculous meningitis is a rare cause of basal arachnoiditis with a bad prognosis. Possible causes of [...] visual acuity loss and ophthalmoplegia are discussed and a favourable outcome without sequelae is noteworthy in our case.

  5. Meningitis tuberculosa. Un caso: complicaciones oftalmológicas Tuberculous meningitis. One case: ophthalmic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Pérez Álvarez

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Presentamos una mujer de 18 años afecta de meningitis tuberculosa con amaurosis bilateral y oftalmoplegia completa, además de pérdida de conciencia y parálisis de otros pares craneales. Discusión: La meningitis tuberculosa es una causa infrecuente de aracnoiditis basal con pronóstico infausto. Se valoran las posibles causas de la pérdida de agudeza visual y la afectación oculomotora , y se destaca la evolución favorable del caso sin secuelas.Case Report: An 18 year old female suffering from tuberculous meningitis with bilateral amaurosis, ophthalmoplegia, other cranial nerve palsies and loss of consciousness, is presented. Discussion: Tuberculous meningitis is a rare cause of basal arachnoiditis with a bad prognosis. Possible causes of visual acuity loss and ophthalmoplegia are discussed and a favourable outcome without sequelae is noteworthy in our case.

  6. Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit Hemant J; Chandak Nitin H; Agarwal Neha P; Satpute Ravindra M; Kainthla Rani P; Kashyap Rajpal S; Taori Girdhar M; Daginawala Hatim F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM). In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients...

  7. Validación de una regla de predicción clínica para diferenciar meningitis bacteriana de meningitis aséptica / Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Agüero; María C., Davenport; María de la P., Del Valle; Paulina, Gallegos; Ana L., Kannemann; Vivian, Bokser; Fernando, Ferrero.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La mayoría de las meningitis en la infancia no son bacterianas, pero la dificultad en descartar tal etiología obliga con frecuencia a utilizar antibióticos inicialmente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar, en nuestro medio, una regla de predicción clínica para diferenciar la etiol [...] ogía de las meningitis en niños a su ingreso al hospital. Método. Estudio prospectivo que incluyó pacientes Abstract in english Introduction. Despite most meningitis are not bacterial, antibiotics are usually administered on admission because bacterial meningitis is difficult to be rule-out. Distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis on admission could avoid inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization. We aimed to [...] validate a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children, on arriving to the emergency room. Methods. This prospective study included patients aged

  8. Globicatella sanguinis meningitis associated with human carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Doloy, Alexandra; Ansart, Séverine; Le Lay, Geneviève; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Seizeur, Romuald; Garré, Michel; Payan, Christopher; Bouvet, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis. PMID:20147641

  9. Globicatella sanguinis Meningitis Associated with Human Carriage?

    OpenAIRE

    He?ry-arnaud, Genevie?ve; Doloy, Alexandra; Ansart, Se?verine; Le Lay, Genevie?ve; Le Fle?che-mate?os, Anne; Seizeur, Romuald; Garre?, Michel; Payan, Christopher; Bouvet, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis.

  10. Globicatella sanguinis Meningitis Associated with Human Carriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Doloy, Alexandra; Ansart, Séverine; Le Lay, Geneviève; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Seizeur, Romuald; Garré, Michel; Payan, Christopher; Bouvet, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis. PMID:20147641

  11. Meningism following Salmonella virchow food poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six patients were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella virchow infection during an outbreak of food poisoning in Essex in 1984. Out of 12 patients with evidence of bloodstream invasion, one third presented primarily with meningism and attention is drawn to this unusual clinical picture.

  12. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  13. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  14. New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, William R; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F; Graybill, John R

    2007-08-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy. PMID:17562797

  15. Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, V.; Khalil, A.; Suri, V.

    1995-01-01

    A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal meningitis is reported. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and the results of electrophysiological studies. The patient recovered spontaneously. Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal infection has not to our knowledge been reported previously.

  16. Hearing assessment after meningitis and meningococcal disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Riordan, A.; Thomson, A.; Hodgson, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method to increase audiology referral after meningitis or meningococcal disease was audited in 89 children. A standardised proforma increased referrals from 78% to 96% over a two year period. However, only 73% of children had a hearing test. The major reason for hearing not being tested changed from non-referral to non-attendance.

  17. Intrasacral meningeal cyst demonstrated by sacral epidurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosen, N.; Vyve, M. van; Moor, J. de

    1985-03-01

    A case of intrasacral meningeal cyst is reported in which radiculography and computed tomography were not conclusive in diagnosing the lesion. Sacral epidurography delineated the cyst very clearly and is proposed as a complementary imaging technique in lesions of the sacral canal.

  18. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction. PMID:23671802

  19. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mook-Kanamori Barry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- ? were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1? and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  20. Spatial Dynamics of Meningococcal Meningitis in Niger: observed patterns in comparison with measles

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, N.; Broutin, H.; Grais, Rf; Ferrari, Mj; Djibo, A.; Tatem, Aj; Grenfell, Bt

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the African meningitis belt, meningococcal meningitis outbreaks occur only during the dry season. Measles in Niger exhibits similar seasonality, where increased population density during the dry season likely escalates measles transmission. Because meningococcal meningitis and measles are both directly transmitted, we propose that host aggregation also impacts the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. Although climate affects broad meningococcal meningitis seasonality, we focus...

  1. Treatment for meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty breast cancer patients with meningeal carcinomatosis were treated with a combined program of whole brain irradiation therapy with intrathecal and intraventricular methotrexate and citrovorum factor rescue. Responses were seen in 26 patients (65%); 13 patients (35%) failed to respond. The median survival time for the responding patients was six months, and for the nonresponders, one month. Factors affecting response and survival included pretreatment spinal fluid glucose, protein, and duration of CNS-related symptomatology prior to onset of therapy. In contrast, pretreatment CSF tumor cell count, CEA and initial CNS functional status did not appear to have prognostic significance. The authors conclude that following intensive therapy there can be much improvement in the quality of life and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients with meningeal carcinomatosis

  2. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, K S; Brouwer, M C; van de Beek, D

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with high mortality and disability rates, despite availability of antibiotics and adjunctive therapy with dexamethasone. Several risk factors and predisposing conditions have been identified that increase susceptibility for bacterial meningitis. Such risk factors can consist of medical conditions resulting in immunodeficiency, host genetic factors or anatomical defects of the natural barriers of the central nervous system. These factors can increase the risk of meningitis in general or result in a specific risk of meningococcal or pneumococcal meningitis, the two most important causes of bacterial meningitis, which are characterised by distinct host-pathogen interactions. In this review we describe several risk factors for communityacquired bacterial meningitis in adults and discuss what preventive measurements can be taken in these populations. PMID:25753069

  3. Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, D.; Brouwer, Mc; Thwaites, GE; Tunkel, Ar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis kills or maims about a fifth of people with the disease. Early antibiotic treatment improves outcomes, but the effectiveness of widely available antibiotics is threatened by global emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. New antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, could have a role in these circumstances, but clinical data to support this notion are scarce. Additionally, whether or not adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies (eg, dexamethasone) improve outcomes in patien...

  4. Pathogenesis and Immune Response in Tuberculous Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel, Bini Estela; Rogelio, Herna?ndez Pando

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral tuberculosis is the most severe type of extrapulmonary disease that is in developing countries highly predominant in children. Meningeal tuberculosis is the most common form and usually begins with respiratory infection followed by early haematogenous dissemination to extrapulmonary sites involving the brain. In comparison with the lung, Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a very different immune response when infect the central nervous system. Herein, we review several aspects of the...

  5. Intrathecal chemotherapy with ACNU for meningeal gliomatosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, T. K.; Beuls, E.; Shimizu, K.; Koulousakis, A.; Sturm, V.

    1992-01-01

    ACNU [1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride], one of the chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs), is believed to be effective against malignant glioma when intravenously or intrathecally administered. A rat model with meningeal gliomatosis (MG) induced by an intracisternal inoculation of rat C6 or 9L glioma cells was intrathecally and intravenously treated with ACNU in order to test the feasibility of intrathecal chemotherapy with ACNU in the treatmen...

  6. [Pneumococcal meningitis in a pregnant woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharek, Petra; Jekkel, Csilla; Budai, József; Szilasi, Zsuzsanna; Helferich, Frigyes; Arva, Ilona; Váradi, András; Létay, Erzsébet; Katona, Katalin; Rókusz, László

    2014-01-30

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease. The incidence of meningitis is about 2.6-6 cases per 100.000 adults per year in developed countries. The most common causative microorganisms are Sreptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. A 33-year-old multigravida, at 24 week of gestation was admitted to the hospital because of ear pain, haedache, fever and confusion. Lumbal puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed signs of bacterial meningitis. Latex agglutination test was positive for S. pneumoniae, Gram-positive diplococci have seen under microscope and later cultivation verified S. pneumoniae as the causative agent. After ceftriaxon, dexamethasone administration and treatment in intensive care unit, left side mastoidectomy was performed since cranial computed tomography showed acut exacerbation of chronic mastoiditis on the left side. After extubation, mobilisation and 14 days antibiotic treatment the patient, who had residual hearing loss on the left side, was discharged from the hospital. During the treatment the foetal parameters were normal. The patient at 39 week of gestation gave birth to a healthy infant. Forty-eight case reports have been published in this topic around the world until April, 2012. The most common causative agents were S. pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes. Because of the little amount of data, it is hard to appreciate the actual incidence and prognosis of this life-threatening illness both for mother and infant. As far as we know this is the first published case report of meningitis during pregnancy in Hungary. By this article we would like to draw attention to the importance of teamwork, of prevention of brain abscess formation and of the removal of the infection's focus. PMID:24654448

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in tubercular meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha, K.; Rao, Ashalatha V.; Rao, S. N.; Rao, Anjali

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Therefore, in the present study, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, percentage hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, vitamins A,E and C have been determined in 19 patients with tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 50 normals. Six patients who were treated with antibiotics were considered for the follow up...

  8. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in previously healthy adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Hearmon, C. J.; Ghosh, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of four sporadic cases of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis is reported. Contrary to the conventional epidemiology these patients were adults who were not immuno-compromised. Although all four cases produced positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures, in three, listeria was not microscopically identified. Protein and glucose contents of cerebrospinal fluids were variable and all samples showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. All four had neutrophil leucocytosis in peripheral blood. ...

  9. The Role of Vancomycin on Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Shatat and P.I.C.U team

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: After the previous discussion of the results obtained from this study, the researchers concluded that most of the cases diagnosed meningitis was aseptic and there was no need for antibiotics. Also in those who diagnosed as bacterial vancomycin was not essential in all cases, this confirmed by the absence of any differences in the outcome. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 501-511

  10. Unusual cause of fatal anthrax meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet; Atli, Seval Bilgiç

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in the province of Mu? located in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The organism isolated from cerebrospinal fluid was identified as Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with crystallized penicillin G (24 MU/day IV) and ciprofloxacin (2?×?400/day IV), but died 5 days after hospitalization. Although it is a rare case, we consider that the patients who have skin, respiratory and neurological systems might also have hemorrhagic meningitis. PMID:24678752

  11. Cutaneous manifestations in acute meningococcal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty N; Verma A; Singh G

    1991-01-01

    Twenty three army recruits with acute meningococcal meningitis were admitted to a military hospital during February-March 1986. Of the 23 patients 11 developed cutaneous lesions, 3 had associated herpes simplex, 6 had arthritis/artharalgia and 3 got conjunctivitis. Maculopapular lesions were the commonest cutaneous manifestation although pinkish macules, purpura and cutaneous vasculitis were also seen. All the patients were treated with intravenous pencillin and other supportive measures.

  12. Cutaneous manifestations in acute meningococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarty N

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three army recruits with acute meningococcal meningitis were admitted to a military hospital during February-March 1986. Of the 23 patients 11 developed cutaneous lesions, 3 had associated herpes simplex, 6 had arthritis/artharalgia and 3 got conjunctivitis. Maculopapular lesions were the commonest cutaneous manifestation although pinkish macules, purpura and cutaneous vasculitis were also seen. All the patients were treated with intravenous pencillin and other supportive measures.

  13. An unusual complication of Tuberculous Meningitis: Tuberculous Radiculomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun UNAL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous radiculomyelitis (TBRM is known to be a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM and has been reported rarely in the literature. Subacute radiculomyelopathy progressing over 3 months due to spinal cord compression was the presenting symptom of tuberculous meningitis in our patient with no radiological evidence of spinal tuberculosis. The obstructive myelopathy was the result of proliferative granulomatous meningitis. Early suspicion and antituberculosis treatment with steroids may prevent irreversible neurological deficit in this unusual presentation of central nervous system tuberculosis.

  14. Bacteriological Profile of Pyogenic Meningitis in Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Gaurav B.; Patel, Komal D.; Soni, Sumeeta T.; Patel, Kanu J.; Mangukiya, Jayasukh D.; Jain, Pooja S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of mortality and long term neurological sequelae worldwide. The purpose of present study was to identify the pathogen in pyogenic meningitis and to determine its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Material and Methods: Present study was undertaken from July 2010 to December 2011 included 1470 CSF samples of clinically suspected pyogenic meningitis cases in all age groups. The samples were subjected to macroscopic examination, microscopic examin...

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV negative patient with systemic sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, R. J.; Wessels, E.

    1999-01-01

    A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is described in an HIV negative patient with undiagnosed systemic sarcoidosis. The patient presented with signs of meningitis together with generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed on lumbar puncture. She was treated with intravenous amphotericin B but died within two weeks of admission. Necropsy revealed lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, small intestine, and bone marrow consistent wi...

  16. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries: presence and localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(ca)) are crucial for the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone and might be involved in cerebral vasodilation relevant to migraine and stroke. We studied the differential gene expression of mRNA transcript levels and protein expression of the BK(Ca) channel in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Distribution patterns were investigated using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detected the expression of the BK(Ca) channel mRNA transcript in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries, with the transcript being expressed more abundantly in rat basilar arteries than in middle cerebral and middle meningeal arteries. Western blotting detected the BK(Ca) channel protein in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that the BK(Ca) channel mRNA and protein expression was localized to smooth muscle cells in all three intracranial arteries. The data thus suggest the presence and localization of both mRNA and protein expression of the BK(Ca) channel in the smooth muscle cell layer in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries.

  17. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries : presence and localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2008-01-01

      Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(ca)) are crucial for the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone and might be involved in cerebral vasodilation relevant to migraine and stroke. We studied the differential gene expression of mRNA transcript levels and protein expression of the BK(Ca) channel in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Distribution patterns were investigated using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detected the expression of the BK(Ca) channel mRNA transcript in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries, with the transcript being expressed more abundantly in rat basilar arteries than in middle cerebral and middle meningeal arteries. Western blotting detected the BK(Ca) channel protein in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that the BK(Ca) channel mRNA and protein expression was localized to smooth muscle cells in all three intracranial arteries. The data thus suggest the presence and localization of both mRNA and protein expression of the BK(Ca) channel in the smooth muscle cell layer in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries.

  18. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P; Mostrou Glyceria J; Pangalis Anastasia M; Atsali Erato E; Vasilopoulou Vasiliki A; Theodoridou Maria N; Hadjichristodoulou Christos S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it...

  19. The incidence of postoperative meningitis in neurosurgery: An institutional experience

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    Srinivas Dwarakanath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Meningitis is the most dreaded cause of morbidity and mortality in neurosurgical patients. The reported incidence of postoperative meningitis is quite varied 0.5-8%. Material and Methods : The study cohort included all the patients who underwent neurosurgery at the department of neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences, Bangalore, India over a period of seven years (2001 - 2007. Patients with culture positive meningitis were included for analysis. The incidence of postoperative meningitis was analyzed depending on the type of surgery performed and the microbiological profile of the organisms, and their sensitivity pattern. Results : Of the 18,092 patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures during the study period, 415 patients developed infection. The overall incidence of meningitis was 2.2%. The incidence of meningitis was high (7.7% in patients who had a pre-existing infection like post-pyogenic meningitis or tuberculosis hydrocephalus. The procedure mainly performed in this subgroup was shunt. The most common organisms causing meningitis were non-lactose fermenting Gram-negative bacillus followed by Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated in 2.6% of the patients. Ninety-one strains were multi-drug resistant, among which four strains were resistant to all antibiotics tested. The overall mortality in patients with meningitis was 5%. Conclusion : Meningitis remains one of the most dreaded complications of neurosurgical procedures and is common in patients with preexisting infection. Gram-negative organisms are the most common causative pathogens of postoperative meningitis.

  20. Selective angiography of the external carotid artery and branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective angiography of the external cartoid artery and superselective angiography of single branches can be used for demonstration of blood supply of dural tumors, tumors of the skull, skull base and of facial parts o the skull. Especially malformations of vessels and their blood supply can be shown. Improvements in X-ray technique and apparatus enable movement angiography, which can be very helpful for the diagnosis of special changes. In special kinds of headache influences from outside to the external carotid artery, to the maxillary artery, to the ascending pharyngeal artery, to the posterior auricular artery, to the occipital artery and the meningeal branches can be of higher importance than was assumed before. Selective angiographies of the external carotid artery and radiographic investigations of the anatomical situation are giving the basis for planning of embolisations. For diagnosis of intra- and extracranial changes the neuroradiologist is the connecting person between all specialists for skull and brain. (orig.)

  1. Meningitis Agudas en Córdoba,Colombia 2002 - 2004 Acute meningitis in Córdoba, Colombia (2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneza Tique

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Establecer las características epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de las meningitis agudas del departamento de Córdoba. Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de vigilancia epidemiológica en el Hospital San Jerónimo de Montería. Se tomaron todos los casos de meningitis, presentados (junio 2002 - junio 2004, las pruebas de laboratorio incluyeron: citoquímico, prueba de látex, tinción de Gram y cultivo. Resultados Se analizaron 503 muestras de liquido cefalorraquídeo, confirmados por cultivo 57 (11,3 % casos y 85 (16,8 % casos probables. Se presentaron 63 aislamientos distribuidos así: 17 bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores (26,9 %, 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %, 7 Enterobacterias (1 %, 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 %, 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotipo B (6,3 %, 3 S. viridans (4,8 %, 2 Streptococcus grupo B (3,2 %, 2 Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (3,2 %, 2 S. aureus (3,2 %, 2 Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos (3,2 %, 2 Enterococcus (3,2 % y 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %. Los serotipos de S. Pneumoniae fueron: 5 (n=4, 23F (n=3, 14 (n=2, 18C (n=2, 18A (n=1, 17F (n=1, 1 (n=1. Conclusión El estudio permitió determinar los aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos hasta ahora desconocidos de las meningitis agudas en el departamento de Córdoba. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4% fue el principal agente causal de meningitis, los aspectos epidemiológicos establecidos confirman la necesidad de fortalecer e implantar medidas para el control y vigilancia de las meningitis en Córdoba.meningitis in the Córdoba department. Methodology A descriptive epidemiological study was carried out between June 2002 and June 2004 at the Hospital San Jerónimo in Montería. All suspicious cases of meningitis were included; laboratory tests included cytological smear, biochemistry, latex, Gram stain and culture. Results 57 (11,3 % and 85 (16,8 % of the 503 samples of cerebrum spinal fluid (CSF were confirmed by culture as being probable cases. There were 6 cases of polymicrobial infection, making a total of 63 isolates: 17 non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (26,9 %, 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %, 7 Enterobacteriaceae (11 %, 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 % 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotype B (6,3 %, 3 S. viridans (4,8 %, 2 Streptococcus group B (3,2 %, 2 Haemophilus influenzae type B (3,2 %, 2 Staphylococcus negative coagulase (3,2 %, 2 S. aureus (3,2 %, 2 Enterococcus (3,2 % and 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %. The S. Pneumoniae serotypes found were: 5 (n=4, 23F (n=3, 14 (n=2, 18C (n=2, 18A (n=1, 17F (n=1, 1 (n=1. Conclusions The study led to determining epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute meningitis in the Córdoba department which had been unknown up to now. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 % was the main aetiological agent of meningitis; the epidemiologic aspects so established confirmed the need for strengthening and implementing measures for controlling meningitis in Córdoba and its surveillance there.

  2. Meningitis Agudas en Córdoba,Colombia 2002 - 2004 / Acute meningitis in Córdoba, Colombia (2002-2004)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vaneza, Tique; Nelson, Alvis; Renata, Parodi; Alvaro, Bustos; Salim, Mattar.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Establecer las características epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de las meningitis agudas del departamento de Córdoba. Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de vigilancia epidemiológica en el Hospital San Jerónimo de Montería. Se tomaron todos los casos de meningitis, presentados (junio [...] 2002 - junio 2004), las pruebas de laboratorio incluyeron: citoquímico, prueba de látex, tinción de Gram y cultivo. Resultados Se analizaron 503 muestras de liquido cefalorraquídeo, confirmados por cultivo 57 (11,3 %) casos y 85 (16,8 %) casos probables. Se presentaron 63 aislamientos distribuidos así: 17 bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores (26,9 %), 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %), 7 Enterobacterias (1 %), 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 %), 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotipo B (6,3 %), 3 S. viridans (4,8 %), 2 Streptococcus grupo B (3,2 %), 2 Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (3,2 %), 2 S. aureus (3,2 %), 2 Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos (3,2 %), 2 Enterococcus (3,2 %) y 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %). Los serotipos de S. Pneumoniae fueron: 5 (n=4), 23F (n=3), 14 (n=2), 18C (n=2), 18A (n=1), 17F (n=1), 1 (n=1). Conclusión El estudio permitió determinar los aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos hasta ahora desconocidos de las meningitis agudas en el departamento de Córdoba. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4%) fue el principal agente causal de meningitis, los aspectos epidemiológicos establecidos confirman la necesidad de fortalecer e implantar medidas para el control y vigilancia de las meningitis en Córdoba. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Establishing characteristic epidemiologic and microbiologic features of acute meningitis in the Córdoba department. Methodology A descriptive epidemiological study was carried out between June 2002 and June 2004 at the Hospital San Jerónimo in Montería. All suspicious cases of meningitis [...] were included; laboratory tests included cytological smear, biochemistry, latex, Gram stain and culture. Results 57 (11,3 %) and 85 (16,8 %) of the 503 samples of cerebrum spinal fluid (CSF) were confirmed by culture as being probable cases. There were 6 cases of polymicrobial infection, making a total of 63 isolates: 17 non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (26,9 %), 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %), 7 Enterobacteriaceae (11 %), 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 %) 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotype B (6,3 %), 3 S. viridans (4,8 %), 2 Streptococcus group B (3,2 %), 2 Haemophilus influenzae type B (3,2 %), 2 Staphylococcus negative coagulase (3,2 %), 2 S. aureus (3,2 %), 2 Enterococcus (3,2 %) and 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %). The S. Pneumoniae serotypes found were: 5 (n=4), 23F (n=3), 14 (n=2), 18C (n=2), 18A (n=1), 17F (n=1), 1 (n=1). Conclusions The study led to determining epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute meningitis in the Córdoba department which had been unknown up to now. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %) was the main aetiological agent of meningitis; the epidemiologic aspects so established confirmed the need for strengthening and implementing measures for controlling meningitis in Córdoba and its surveillance there.

  3. Purulent meningitis with unusual diffusion-weighted MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe unusual findings obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with acute purulent meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Along cerebral convexities and the Sylvian fissure, multiple small intense lesions showed high signal intensity in these sequences. This may be the first report of diffusion-weighted in purulent meningitis

  4. Non-small cell lung carcinoma presenting as carcinomatous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramez A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal carcinomatosis is a diffuse infiltration of leptomeninges and sub arachnoid space by malignant cells metastasizing from systemic cancer. Primary bronchogenic carcinoma presenting as carcinomatous meningitis is a very rare occurrence in clinical practice, often occurring during the treatment course of the underlying malignancy. We present this rare presentation in a young non-smoker male.

  5. Aseptic meningitis caused by human parvovirus B19.

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, A.; Ichikawa, T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on aseptic meningitis caused by human parvovirus B19 are extremely rare. A case of aseptic meningitis is described in which human parvovirus B19 DNA was detected in the acute phase in cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction.

  6. Quantitative proteomics for identifying biomarkers for tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ghantasala S Sameer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tuberculous meningitis is a frequent extrapulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is associated with high mortality rates and severe neurological sequelae. In an earlier study employing DNA microarrays, we had identified genes that were differentially expressed at the transcript level in human brain tissue from cases of tuberculous meningitis. In the current study, we used a quantitative proteomics approach to discover protein biomarkers for tuberculous meningitis. Methods To compare brain tissues from confirmed cased of tuberculous meningitis with uninfected brain tissue, we carried out quantitative protein expression profiling using iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis of SCX fractionated peptides on Agilent’s accurate mass QTOF mass spectrometer. Results and conclusions Through this approach, we identified both known and novel differentially regulated molecules. Those described previously included signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA and protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6 (PDIA6, which have been shown to be overexpressed at the mRNA level in tuberculous meningitis. The novel overexpressed proteins identified in our study included amphiphysin (AMPH and neurofascin (NFASC while ferritin light chain (FTL was found to be downregulated in TBM. We validated amphiphysin, neurofascin and ferritin light chain using immunohistochemistry which confirmed their differential expression in tuberculous meningitis. Overall, our data provides insights into the host response in tuberculous meningitis at the molecular level in addition to providing candidate diagnostic biomarkers for tuberculous meningitis.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Moxifloxacin in an Infant with Mycoplasma hominis Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Kevin M.; Massaro, Matthew M.; Smith, Brian; Cohen-wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Laughon, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in infants is limited by a lack of consensus regarding therapy and limited pharmacokinetic data for agents to which M. hominis is susceptible. We report the successful treatment of a premature infant with M. hominis meningitis with doxycycline and moxifloxacin and provide a pharmacokinetic profile of moxifloxacin.

  8. First epidemic of echovirus 16 meningitis in Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, L.; Mas, P.; Goyenechea, A.; Palomera, R.; Morier, L.; Capo?, V.; Quintana, I.; Santin, M.

    2001-01-01

    From April to September 2000, an epidemic of aseptic meningitis spread throughout Cuba, with 16,943 reported cases. Virologic studies identified echovirus 16 as the cause of this epidemic. This is the first reported isolate of echovirus 16 from patients with viral meningitis in Cuba.

  9. Meningococcal meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed. PMID:25657960

  10. PERSISTENT VISUAL LOSS AS A COMPLICATION OF MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mankhambo, Limangeni A.; Makwana, Nick V.; Carrol, Enitan D.; Beare, Nick A.; Taylor, Terrie; Kampondeni, Sam; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Cerebral infarction complicating meningococcal meningitis is recognized but uncommon. We describe a 3-year-old boy with parieto-occipital infarction secondary to meningococcal meningitis, resulting in permanent visual loss as the sole neurologic sequelae and, consequently, major implications for his subsequent development.

  11. Serogroup W135 Meningococcal Meningitis, Northern Cameroon, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Massenet, Denis; Inrombe, Jermias; Mevoula, Dave-etienne; Nicolas, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed results of recent microbiologic surveillance of meningitis in northern Cameroon. During the 2007 and 2008 meningitis seasons, all 57 identified meningococcal isolates were serogroup W135. This situation might indicate that the area is experiencing a period between epidemic waves due to 2 different clones of serogroup A meningococci.

  12. Meningococcal meningitis presenting with bilateral deafness and ataxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandyk, R.; Brennan, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with bilateral deafness and ataxia of sudden onset and without constitutional symptoms or signs of meningeal irritation. He was subsequently proved to have meningococcal meningitis, and the deafness and ataxia resolved following appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  13. [A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekata, K; Omori, H; Kanazawa, Y; Miyazaki, S; Fukushima, H; Kamata, K

    1979-12-01

    A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm was reported. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of headache, nausea, vomiting and conciousness disturbance. Lumbar puncture showed bloody CSF. Right carotid angiogram revealed saccular aneurysm of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery and accessory middle cerebral artery originating from the horizontal portion of the right anterior cerebral artery. No other vascular lesion was observed on other angiograms. Operation was performed 2 days after admission. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped. Postoperative aseptic meningitis was cured by frequent lumbar punctures, and her course was uneventful. The etiological hypothesis of these cerebral vascular anomalies was briefly discussed. PMID:530368

  14. Evaluation of Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?efika Elmas Bozdemir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tuberculous meningitis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis which has the highest mortality and morbidity rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical signs and treatment regimens of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Material and Methods: Epidemiological properties, clinical signs, treatment regimens and prognosis of 11 patients with tuberculous meningitis in the Uludag University Medical Faculty Pediatric Infectious Disease Department between 2005-2010 were evaluated. Results: Of the patients, 81.8% were boys with a mean age of 5.15±1.69 years (2 months-15 years. The patients 15 mm enduration in 45.5%. BCG scarring was present in 72.7% of patients. Acid-alcohol-resistant bacillus (AARB was seen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 18.2% patients and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in cultures. Average cell count in CSF was 130±54.4, 75% lymphocyte in giemza staining. Average CSF protein 173.3±23.5 mg/dL, CSF chlorine 109.3±4.1mEq/L, CSF LDH 390.2±331.1 IU/L were found. Of the patients, 9.1% were in stage 1, 45.5% in stage 2 and 45.5% in stage 3 on admission. Cranial MRI revealed hydrocephaly + leptomeningeal staining in 45.5%, tuberculoma+leptomeningeal staining in 18.2%, leptomeningeal staining in 27.3% and hydrocephaly in 9.1%. Of the patients, 81.8% were treated with izoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamid and streptomycine or ethambutole for two months initially, with izoniazid, rifampicin during the following 10 months. Prednisolone at 2 mg/kg/day was given to patients. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed in 36.4% of patients for hydrocephalus. Neurological sequelae developed in 72.7% of patients. Of all the patients, 36.4% had mental-motor retardation, 27.3% learning difficulties and 9.1% hearing loss. One patient (9.1% died.Conclusion: Because tuberculous meningitis is an infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity rates in childhood, rapid diagnosis and treatment is necessary for reducing complications.

  15. Ventriculoatrial shunt in tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwati, S N

    1971-09-01

    Raised intracranial tension affects the course of tuberculous meningitis adversely. The development of hydrocephalus may account for the raised intracranial pressure. Insertion of a ventriculoatrial shunt significantly alters the course of the disease. The results in seven cases have been detailed and discussed. The levels of consciousness improved, hemiplegia and aphasia practically cleared up, and vision returned even in children who were blind for 4 to 6 weeks. Operation could be performed even in an active stage of the disease without much fear of miliary dissemination. PMID:22046643

  16. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the ...

  17. [Meningitis-retention syndrome. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier R, Luis; Hansen B, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The Meningitis-Retention Syndrome associates aseptic meningitis and neurogenic bladder, with a vesical dysfunction that outlasts meningitis widely. Urodynamic assessment shows a detrusor palsy with normal function of the external sphincter. We report a 24-year-old male admitted for headache, fever, myalgias and acute urinary retention, which was diagnosed as a urinary tract infection. Worsening of symptoms and slight meningeal signs prompted for a lumbar puncture that yielded a cerebrospinal fluid with 94 lymphocytes, in which etiological evaluation was inconclusive. Meningeal syndrome and myalgia subsided by the fifth day, while urinary retention persisted. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord done at the fifth day, showed high intensity signals in basal ganglia and central spinal cord, not altered by contrast. These images disappeared in the imaging control performed two months later. Bladder dysfunction lasted at least until the second month of follow up. PMID:25693444

  18. The infant rat as a model of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, E R; Glode, M P; Sutton, A; Robbins, J B

    1977-08-01

    The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis was studied in infant rats. Intranasal intoculation of greater than 10(3) Haemophilus influenzae type b resulted in an incidence of bacteremia that was directly related to the size of hte challenge inoculum. The temporal and quantitative relationship of bacteremia to meningitis indicated that bacteria spread to the meninges by the hematogenous route and that the magnitude of bacteremia was a primary determinant in the development of meningitis. In a sparate series of experiments, infant rats that were fed Escherichia coli strain C94 (O7:K1:H-) became colonized and developed bacteremia and meningitis, but invasive disease was rare when rats were fed E. Coli strain Easter (O75:K100:H5). A comparison of intranasal vs. oral challenge indicated that the nasopharynx was the most effective route for inducing H. influenzae bacteremia, whereas the gastrointestinal route was the more effective challenge route for the E. coli K1 serotype. PMID:330777

  19. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively thningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis

  20. Stages of tuberculous meningitis: a clinicoradiologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequencies and percentages of various clinicoradiologic variables of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with reference to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of the disease. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October 2010 to September 2011. Methodology: The study included 93 adult patients with the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) at the study place. Patients were divided in three groups according to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of TBM. Different clinical and radiological findings were analyzed at different stages of the disease. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 11.0. Results: A majority of patients were found to be in stage-II disease at the time of admission. History of illness at the time of admission was more than 2 weeks in 50% of stage-I patients but around 80% in stage-II and stage-III patients. Neck stiffness was the most commonly reported finding in all stages. Cranial nerve palsies were higher in stage-III (75%) than in stage-II (43%) and in stage-I (24%) patients. Hydrocephalus and basal enhancement was the most frequently reported radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: Duration of illness and cranial nerve palsies are important variables in the diagnosis of TBM stages and if TBM is suspected, empiric treatment should be started immediately without bacteriologic proof to prevent morbidity and mortality. (author)

  1. Post Traumatic Meningitis in Neurosurgery Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Malekpour-Afshar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Post-Traumatic Meningitis (PTM is a serious complication followed trauma. It sounds to have different pattern and characteristics. The aim of the current study was to determine the characteristics and outcome of PTM in referral neurosurgery department in Iran. Approach: During 5 years period-2003-2008, all records from meningitis patients in neurosurgery department in the unique referral trauma center in Kerman, Iran were evaluated by researchers, retrospectively. The PTM cases were selected and their data registered in the data collection form. The outcome of the disease as live or death considered, too. Analysis was conducted based on outcome and multivariable ANOVA was done to determine factor associated with death in PTM cases. Results: The incidence of PTM in head trauma patients estimated 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5-3.9%. The most frequent cases were male 89.7%. Average of age was 28.4±17.2 years. Klebsiella was the most common organism in CSF culture. Hospital staying time average in these patients was 25.7±15.8 days. Surgery was done for 52 (66.6% cases. The fatality rate was 24.4%, (95% CI = 15.4-35.4. All death had undergone operation. Multivariable ANAOVA declared that blood sugar and CSF protein differed statistically between two groups, died and survived. Conclusion: PTM is an important phenomenon that has great mortality. Certainly, it needs antibiotic prophylaxis and immediate intervention and preventive services to reduce its morbidity and mortality rate.

  2. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite bacteraemia is present in the majority of patients with pneumococcal, little is known about the influence of the systemic infection on the meningeal inflammatory response. METHODS: To explore the role of systemic infection on the meningeal inflammation, experimental meningitis was induced by intracisternal injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3, and the 26 rabbits were either provided with approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU S. pneumoniae intravenously at 0 hour ("bacteraemic" rabbits, n = 9), immunized with paraformaldehyde-killed S. pneumoniae for 5 weeks prior to the experiment ("immunized" rabbits", n = 8), or not treated further ("control" rabbits, n = 9). WBC and bacterial concentrations were determined in CSF and blood every second hour during a 16 hours study period together with CSF IL-8 and protein levels. We also studied CSF and blood WBC levels in 153 pneumococcal meningitis patients with and without presence of bacteraemia. RESULTS: As designed, blood bacterial concentrations were significantly different among three experimental groups during the 16 hours study period (Kruskal Wallis test, P 0.05). Blood WBC decreased in bacteraemic rabbits between approximately 10-16 hours after the bacterial inoculation in contrast to an increase for both the immunized rabbits and controls (P < 0.05). The CSF pleocytosis was attenuated in bacteraemic rabbits as compared to the two other groups between 12-16 hours from time of infection (P < 0.017), despite accelerated CSF IL-8 levels in bacteraemic rabbits. In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, no significant difference in CSF WBC was observed between patients with or without bacteraemia at admission (n = 103, 1740 cells/microL (123-4032) vs. n = 50, 1961 cells/microL (673-5182), respectively, P = 0.18), but there was a significant correlation between CSF and blood WBC (n = 127, Spearman rho = 0.234, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a decrease in peripheral WBC induced by enhanced bacteraemia in pneumococcal meningitis results in an attenuated CSF pleocytosis.

  3. Epidemiology of Meningitis in an HIV-Infected Ugandan Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Radha; Rhein, Joshua; Klammer, Kate; Musubire, Abdu; Nabeta, Henry; Akampurira, Andrew; Mossel, Eric C; Williams, Darlisha A; Boxrud, Dave J; Crabtree, Mary B; Miller, Barry R; Rolfes, Melissa A; Tengsupakul, Supatida; Andama, Alfred O; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-02-01

    There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains needed, and implementation of cryptococcal diagnostics is critical. PMID:25385864

  4. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant rise of IR in period C. The Case Fatality Rate (CFR from all causes was 3.8%, while higher CFR were estimated for Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.5%, RR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.7 and Neisseria meningitidis (4.8%, RR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.5 compared to other pathogens. Moreover, overall CFR varied significantly among the three time periods (p = 0.0015, and was estimated to be higher in period C. Conclusion By using the MR we were able to delineate long-term changes in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. Thus the MR proved to be a useful tool in the study and the prevention of communicable diseases in correlation with prevention strategies, such as vaccinations.

  5. Meningitis Agudas en Córdoba,Colombia 2002 - 2004 / Acute meningitis in Córdoba, Colombia (2002-2004)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vaneza, Tique; Nelson, Alvis; Renata, Parodi; Alvaro, Bustos; Salim, Mattar.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Establecer las características epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de las meningitis agudas del departamento de Córdoba. Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de vigilancia epidemiológica en el Hospital San Jerónimo de Montería. Se tomaron todos los casos de meningitis, presentados (junio [...] 2002 - junio 2004), las pruebas de laboratorio incluyeron: citoquímico, prueba de látex, tinción de Gram y cultivo. Resultados Se analizaron 503 muestras de liquido cefalorraquídeo, confirmados por cultivo 57 (11,3 %) casos y 85 (16,8 %) casos probables. Se presentaron 63 aislamientos distribuidos así: 17 bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores (26,9 %), 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %), 7 Enterobacterias (1 %), 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 %), 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotipo B (6,3 %), 3 S. viridans (4,8 %), 2 Streptococcus grupo B (3,2 %), 2 Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (3,2 %), 2 S. aureus (3,2 %), 2 Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos (3,2 %), 2 Enterococcus (3,2 %) y 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %). Los serotipos de S. Pneumoniae fueron: 5 (n=4), 23F (n=3), 14 (n=2), 18C (n=2), 18A (n=1), 17F (n=1), 1 (n=1). Conclusión El estudio permitió determinar los aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos hasta ahora desconocidos de las meningitis agudas en el departamento de Córdoba. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4%) fue el principal agente causal de meningitis, los aspectos epidemiológicos establecidos confirman la necesidad de fortalecer e implantar medidas para el control y vigilancia de las meningitis en Córdoba. Abstract in english [...] s were included; laboratory tests included cytological smear, biochemistry, latex, Gram stain and culture. Results 57 (11,3 %) and 85 (16,8 %) of the 503 samples of cerebrum spinal fluid (CSF) were confirmed by culture as being probable cases. There were 6 cases of polymicrobial infection, making a total of 63 isolates: 17 non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (26,9 %), 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %), 7 Enterobacteriaceae (11 %), 5 Criptococcus neoformans (8 %) 4 Neisseria meningitidis serotype B (6,3 %), 3 S. viridans (4,8 %), 2 Streptococcus group B (3,2 %), 2 Haemophilus influenzae type B (3,2 %), 2 Staphylococcus negative coagulase (3,2 %), 2 S. aureus (3,2 %), 2 Enterococcus (3,2 %) and 1 Candida albicans (1,6 %). The S. Pneumoniae serotypes found were: 5 (n=4), 23F (n=3), 14 (n=2), 18C (n=2), 18A (n=1), 17F (n=1), 1 (n=1). Conclusions The study led to determining epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute meningitis in the Córdoba department which had been unknown up to now. Streptococcus pneumoniae (25,4 %) was the main aetiological agent of meningitis; the epidemiologic aspects so established confirmed the need for strengthening and implementing measures for controlling meningitis in Córdoba and its surveillance there.

  6. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana, Barichello; Glauco D., Fagundes; Jaqueline S., Generoso; Caroline S., Dagostin; Lutiana R., Simões; Márcia C., Vilela; Clarissa M., Comim; Fabricia, Petronilho; João, Quevedo; Antonio L., Teixeira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE) on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificia [...] l cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood). EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  7. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente / Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Nagel; V., Manias; N., Busquets; S., Sniadowsky; J., Anzardi; E. De Los A., Méndez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La iden [...] tificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identi [...] fied by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

  8. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    OpenAIRE

    Emami Naeini, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to...

  9. Meningitis de etiología poco habitual en niños

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Ávila; Daniela, Lezerovich; Verónica, Sabio Paz; Miriam, Lenz; Cecilia, Chede; Juan, Varón; Elizabet, Bogdanowicz; Adrián, Saporiti.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meningitis por Listeria monocytogenes es una enfermedad infrecuente en la población pediátrica y más aún en pacientes inmunocompetentes. Presentamos un niño de cuatro años, previamente sano, que se internó con diagnóstico de síndrome meníngeo con líquido cefalorraquídeo patológico. Inicialmente s [...] e trató con cefotaxima y dexametasona, pero al persistir la fiebre, a las 48 horas se agregó vancomicina y aciclovir al tratamiento anterior. A las 72 horas se recibió el informe del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) que mostró bacilos grampositivos, el cultivo informó Listeria monocytogenes, por lo cual se inició tratamiento con ampicilina y se suspendieron los antibióticos indicados previamente. Como complicaciones presentó estado epiléptico por hiponatremia con osmolaridad plasmática normal, a los 20 días evolucionó a una hidrocefalia aguda que requirió colocación de un sistema de derivación ventriculoperitoneal. Ponemos énfasis en la importancia de la tinción de Gram del LCR para orientar el tratamiento empírico inicial y en la observación del equilibrio hidroelectrolítico para disminuir la morbimortalidad en esta enfermedad grave. Abstract in english Meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon disease in children and even more uncommon in immuno-competent patients. We report a previously healthy 4-years old patient, who was admitted with a diagnosis of meningeal syndrome with an abnormal spinal fluid. He was initially treated with [...] cefotaxime and dexametasone, but, as fever persisted after 48 hours, vancomycin and acyclovir were added to the previous therapy. After 72 hours, the report of the spinal fluid was received showing gram-positive rods. The culture grew Listeria monocytogenes, and therapy with ampicillin was initiated; previously prescribed antibiotic agents were withdrawn. Complications included an epileptic status caused by hyponatremia with normal plasma osmolarity; after 20 days the patient suffered an acute hydrocephalia which required a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. We emphasize in the importance of spinal fluid Gram stain in order to orientate the empirical initial therapy, and the hydroelectrolytical balance in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this severe disease.

  10. Cranial Nerve Palsy as a Factor to Differentiate Tuberculous Meningitis from Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM cause substantial mortality and morbidity in both children and adults. Identification of poor prognostic factors at patient’s admission could prepare physicians for more aggressive monitoring of patients with meningitis. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of neurological features to differentiate ABM and TBM. A retrospective study was conducted between patients affected with ABM or TBM admitted to three teaching hospitals during the last 14 years in Zahedan the central city of Sistan and Balouchestan province (Iran. The neurological features include seizure, level of consciousness, stroke, focal neurologic deficit and cranial nerve palsy at the time of admission. Mean age for patients with TBM and ABM were 41 ± 22.4 and 24 ± 18.5 years respectively. In univariate analysis, all measured variables revealed significant difference between ABM and TBM patients except for seizure episodes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed positive predictive effect of cranial nerve palsy (AOR=1.980, CI 95%: 1.161-3.376 on the diagnosis of TBM. In our study cranial nerve palsies was the most important neurological predictor factor to differentiate TBM from ABM

  11. Paradoxical reaction in HIV negative tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-05-15

    This review focusses on paradoxical reactions occurring during the treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in human immunodeficiency virus-negative cases. A paradoxical reaction is defined as the worsening of a pre-existing lesion or the appearance of new lesion in a patient whose clinical symptoms initially improved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. A number of different paradoxical reactions have been reported in patients with TBM including expansion of existing cerebral tuberculomas, and appearance of new tuberculomas, hydrocephalus, and optochiasmatic and spinal arachnoiditis. While the exact mechanism of paradoxical reactions is uncertain, an exaggerated immune reaction against Mycobacterium tuberculosis-associated antigens is currently the most accepted theory for tuberculous paradoxical reaction. Corticosteroids are considered to have a beneficial effect in the management of paradoxical reactions. Immuno-modulatory drugs, including tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists, thalidomide and interferon-? have been used in isolated cases with more severe forms of paradoxical reactions. PMID:24680563

  12. MR myelography of sacral meningeal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J. [Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the findings of sacral meningeal cysts (SMCs) on MR myelography and assess its value for the diagnosis of SMCs. Material and Methods: We evaluated the MR images and MR myelograms obtained from 10 patients with SMC. MR myelograms were obtained using a 2D or 3D single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In 5 patients, X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images were compared with the MR myelograms. Results: A total of 33 SMCs were diagnosed within the spinal canal and/or sacral foramen. MR myelograms clearly revealed each cyst as a well-defined mass showing hyperintensity (10 cysts) or isointensity (23 cysts) compared to cerebrospinal fluid. MR myelograms demonstrated SMCs better than X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images in 3 of the 5 patients. Conclusion: MR myelography can be an adjunct to conventional imaging techniques when surgical treatment is indicated, because it can precisely delineate the extent of SMCs. (orig.)

  13. [Congenital skull base defect causing recurrent bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Elihay; Bar Meir, Maskit; Megged, Orli

    2012-08-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life threatening disease. Most patients will experience only one episode throughout life. Children who experience bacterial meningitis more than once, require further immunologic or anatomic evaluation. We report a 9 year old child with five episodes of bacterial meningitis due to a congenital defect of the skull base. A two and a half year old boy first presented to our medical center with pneumococcal meningitis. He was treated with antibiotics and fully recovered. Two months later he presented again with a similar clinical picture. Streptococcus pneumoniae grew in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. CT scan and later MRI of the brain revealed a defect in the anterior middle fossa floor, with protrusion of brain tissue into the sphenoidal sinus. Corrective surgery was recommended but the parents refused. Three months later, a third episode of pneumococcal meningitis occurred. The child again recovered with antibiotics and this time corrective surgery was performed. Five years later, the boy presented once again with clinical signs and symptoms consistent with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture was positive, but the final identification of the bacteria was conducted by broad spectrum 16S ribosomal RNA PCR (16S rRNA PCR) which revealed a sequence of Neisseria lactamica. CT and MRI showed recurrence of the skull base defect with encephalocele in the sphenoid sinus. The parents again refused neurosurgical intervention. A year later the patient presented with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture obtained after initiation of antibiotics was negative, but actinobacillus was identified in the CSF by 16S rRNA PCR. The patient is scheduled for neurosurgical intervention. In patients with recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by organisms colonizing the oropharynx or nasopharynx, an anatomical defect should be carefully sought and surgically repaired. PMID:23350293

  14. Isolated Torticollis May Present as an Atypical Presentation of Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Chirurgi; Samrina Kahlon

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis is infrequently missed if the patient presents with the classic symptoms of fever, headache, rash, nuchal rigidity, or Kernig or Brudzinski sign. However, it may be less obvious in neonates, elderly, or immunocompromised patients. Meningitis which presents as isolated torticollis, without any other signs or symptoms, is exceedingly rare. Objective. To identify an ab...

  15. Toscana vírus meningitis in Portugal: 2002-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, L.; Simo?es, J.; Costa, R.; Martins, S.; Lecour, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    Toscana virus infection is endemic in Italy, but has also been documented in other Mediterranean countries. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of Portugal. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription PCR. Those samples that proved negative for ...

  16. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  17. Ambulant neuropsykologisk opfølgning af patienter indlagt med aseptisk meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard Gunst, Jesper; Klostergaard, Kirsten Rose

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with mild symptoms, and the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that these patients may experience cognitive sequelae. A neuropsychologist was affiliated to the Department of Infectious Diseases, and neuropsychological findings in patients with aseptic meningitis were assessed. In conclusion, at twelve months of follow-up cognitive dysfunction persist among the majority of patients; 75% had mental fatigue and 45% had changed their work status.

  18. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  19. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.; André Land Curi; Adriana da Silva Pinto; Estevão Portela Nunes; Maria de Lourdes Benamor Teixeira; Tatiana Rozental; Alexsandra Rodrigues Favacho; Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos; Márcio Neves Bóia

    2008-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebros...

  20. Epidemic group C meningococcal meningitis in Upper Volta, 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Broome, Claire V.; Rugh, Michael A.; Yada, Adamou A.; LeVan Giat; Giat, Hien; Zeltner, Jean Marie; Sanborn, Warren R.; Fraser, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Group C meningococci were isolated during an epidemic of meningococcal meningitis which occurred between January and May 1979 in eastern Upper Volta, an area previously associated with endemic and epidemic group A disease. A total of 539 cases of meningitis, 55 of which were fatal, were reported, giving an attack rate of 517 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Attack rates were higher for children under 15 years of age. Clinical and bacteriological data suggested that the group C meningococci were...

  1. Hospital-based surveillance of meningococcal meningitis in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Soraia M.; Neves, Alan B.; Ribeiro, Ca?ssio T.; Petersen, Maya L.; Gouveia, Edilane L.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Lo?bo, Tatiana S.; Reis, Joice N.; Salgado, Ka?tia M.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological features of meningococcal meningitis in Salvador, Brazil. Between February 1996 and January 2001, a hospital-based surveillance prospectively identified cases of culture-positive meningococcal meningitis. Demographic and clinical data were collected through interview and medical chart review. Antisera and monoclonal antibodies were used to determine the serogroup and serotype:serosubtype of the isolates, respective...

  2. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Herna?ndez, R.; Mun?oz, O.; Guiscafre, H.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid from patients with tuberculous, pyogenic, and viral meningitis, as well as from appropriate control individuals, were assayed for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody activity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BCG linked covalently to plastic disks served as the antigen in a classical indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significant difference was found between the tuberculous meningitis group and the nontuberculous meni...

  3. Neonatal meningitis in Harare, Zimbabwe: a 2-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, K J; Pazvakavamba, I; Chidede, O S; Chirisa, C

    1991-01-01

    A 2-year review of neonatal meningitis was undertaken at a referral hospital in Zimbabwe to determine the pattern of bacterial isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid, the clinical presentation and the immediate outcome. During the study period, 94 cases were identified and the overall mortality was 41%. Group B Streptococcus was the predominant organism isolated (61%) and was associated with 42% mortality. Low-birthweight babies and babies with Gram-negative meningitis had mortality rates of 71 and 62%, respectively. PMID:1714689

  4. The use of magnetic resonance and MR angiography in the detection of cerebral infarction: A complication of pediatric bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoši?-Opin?al Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Association of both cerebral infarction and acute bacterial meningitis is more common in younger patients than in the elderly. The rate of mortality and the frequency of sequel are very high inspite of the use of modern antibiotic therapy. In more than 30% of the cases of childhood bacterial meningitis, both arterial and venous infarctions can occur. The aim of this study was to present the role of the use of magnetic resonance (MRI, and MR angiography (MRA in the detection of bacterial meningitis in children complicated with cerebral infarctions. Method. In the Centre for MR, the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 25 patients with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, of which 9 children with cerebral infarction whose clinical conditon deteriorated acutely, despite the antibiotic therapy, underwent MRI and MR angiography examination on a 1T scanner. Examination included the conventional spin-echo techniques with T1-weighted saggital and coronal, and T2- weighted axial and coronal images. Coronal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR and the postcontrast T1-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were also used. The use MR angiography was accomplished by the three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF technique. Results. The findings included: multiple hemorrhagic infarction in 4 patients, multiple infarctions in 3 patients, focal infarction in 1 patient and diffuse infarction (1 patient. Common sites of involvement were: the frontal lobes, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The majority of infarctions were bilateral. In 3 of the patients empyema was found, and in 1 patient bitemporal abscess was detected. In 8 of the patients MR angiography confirmed inflammatory vasculitis. Conclusion. Infarction is the most common sequel of severe meningitis in children. Since the complication of cerebral infarction influences the prognosis of meningitis, repetitive MRI examinations are very significant for the evaluation of the time course of vascular involvement. The use of MRI, especially FLAIR imaging, confirmed its value in the detection and determination of the site and the extent of cerebral infarction. Non-invasive technique of examination, 3D TOF MR angiography clearly should show the presence of inflammatory vasculitis.

  5. Paediatric Meningitis and Hearing Loss in a Developing Country: Exploring the Current Protocols Regarding Audiological Management Following Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Katijah, Khoza-shangase; Emma, Rifkind Romi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish audiology referral protocols for post meningitis paediatric populations in two academic hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa. Specific objectives of this study included determining if audiological assessment referrals were made following infection; determining the time of referral post meningitis diagnosis; establishing what audiological assessments were conducted on this population, as well as determining any correlations between signs and symptoms of...

  6. Criteria indicating morbidity in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To work out a criterion that may indicate morbidity in tuberculous meningitis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Medical Unit of the Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, and included cases related to a period between January 2006 and June 2011. Record of 50 patients were evaluated for clinical features, chest radiograph, Mantoux test, sputum for acid fast bacilli, routine investigations, cerebrospinal fluid studies, computerised tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging of head. All the patients in the study had been treated with conventional approach. The severity of the condition was classified in stages, I, II and III. Clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging reports were analysed through SPSS 10 to find out the criteria indicating morbidity. Mean, median, standard deviation were calculated. Student t-test was applied on variables. Results: Of the 50 patients, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Their ages ranged from 12 to 70 years. Mean age was 37.72 +-19.65 years. Median age was 35.54 years. Of the total, 17 (34%) patients recovered completely without any complications. Their mean age was 24+-8.98 years and their mean time interval from onset of illness to presentation in the hospital was 21.75+-9.75 days. Besides, 30 (60%) patients persisted with neurological sequelae, including cranial nerve palsies, hemiplegia, and hydrocephalus. Patients with neurological sequelae had mean age of 48h neurological sequelae had mean age of 48+-17.48 years and their mean time interval from onset of illness to presentation in the hospital was 41.33+-14.14 days. Hydrocephalus was seen in 10 (20%) patients. Three (6%) patients expired. Clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging reports analysis showed that the criteria indicating morbidity were increasing age of the patient (p=0.037), late diagnosis (p=0.044), advancing stage of disease, and development of hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Increasing age of the patient, late diagnosis, advancing stage of the disease and the development of hydrocephalus indicate morbidity in tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  7. Meningite neofatal: aspectos associados Neonatal meningitis: related features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo C. Haussen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar fatores relacionados à meningite neonatal. MÉTODO: Em estudo de caso-controle, foram examinados neonatos com meningite no período de agosto/2002 a dezembro/2003 na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal (UTIN e alocados recém-nascidos hígidos como grupo controle (GC. Foram relatados dados referentes à gestação, ao parto e ao neonato. Os resultados foram considerados significativos quando p (alfaOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify and to analyze the features related to the occurrence of neonatal meningitis. METHOD: In a case-control study we examined all newborns presenting meningitis between August/2002 and December/2003 in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Healthy newborns were enrolled as a Control Group (CG. Data related to pregnancy, labor and the neonate itself were collected. The results with p<0,05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 42 newborns with meningitis were compared to 42 controls. The meningitis group (MG presented a lower number of medical visits during the prenatal care. The most common abnormalities detected in both groups were: drug addiction, congenital infections, preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and urinary tract infections. Fetal respiratory distress and the use of respiratory support were related to the occurrence of meningitis. The average weight and the APGAR scores were lower in the MG. The prevalence of premature and small for the gestational age infants was significantly higher in the MG. The neurological examination detected abnormalities in 35.7% of the meningitis cases. CONCLUSION: The association of risk factors related to pregnancy, labor and the newborn itself to the neonatal meningitis outcome in our setting is similar to the described in the literature.

  8. Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purohit Hemant J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM. In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients. The purpose of this study was to develop an assay that can discriminate between TBM and PTPM. Methods We developed a cell enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (Cell ELISA to quantitatively measure production of antibodies against the 30-kD protein in B cells from CSF of TBM and PTPM patients. Results The cell ELISA yielded 92% (11/12 sensitivity and 92% (11/12 specificity for the differential diagnosis of TBM from PTPM. Conclusion When induced with the 30-kD protein antigen, B cells derived from CSF of TBM patients respond to IgG production within 24 h while those derived from PTPM patients do not respond.

  9. Validation of thwaites' diagnostic scoring system for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-liang; Lin, Su; Shao, Ling-yun; Zhang, Wen-hong; Weng, Xin-hua

    2014-01-01

    To compare the clinical features of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and bacterial meningitis (BM) and to validate Thwaites' diagnostic scoring system for the differential diagnosis of TBM and BM, a retrospective review of 211 patients with TBM or BM who were admitted to Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from 2007 to 2012 was conducted. The clinical characteristics and laboratory data were compared, and Thwaites' diagnostic scores were assessed at the time of admission for the differential diagnosis of TBM and BM. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in general information, clinical features, and cerebrospinal fluid characteristics. The sensitivity and specificity of Thwaites' diagnostic scoring system for the differential diagnosis of TBM and BM were found to be 98.2% and 43.6%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values being 65.9% and 95.8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis of TBM and initially treated BM were 98.2% and 82.9%, respectively, but were only 98.2% and 24.2% for that of TBM and partially treated BM, respectively. Thus, Thwaites' diagnostic scoring system was found to be highly effective for the differential diagnosis of TBM and initially treated BM but was found to be less effective for that of TBM and partially treated BM. PMID:25410556

  10. [Intrathecal infusion of the antineoplastic agents for meningeal dissemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodozuka, Akira; Hayashi, Yoshimitu; Annei, Ryougo; Hiroshima, Satoshi; Saito, Masato; Orimoto, Ryousuke; Sato, Masao; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2008-06-01

    One of the specific forms of progression of malignant tumors of the central nervous system is meningeal dissemination. Meningeal dissemination is a condition in which tumor cells migrate to the brain surface and sub arachnoid space via cerebrospinal fluid and then infiltrate there. This condition can arise from both primary and metastatic brain tumors, with reported incidences of 4.2% for primary tumors and 5.1% for metastatic tumors. Meningeal dissemination frequently arises from germinoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma and glioblastoma in cases of primary brain tumors and frequently arises from breast cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancer in cases of metastatic brain tumors, known as meningeal carcinomatosis. The prognosis of meningeal dissemination is poor, and conventional treatments such as systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy are ineffective. Intrathecal infusion of anti neoplastic agents is one of the options for treatment of meningeal dissemination. The advantage of intrathecal chemotherapy is that the anti neoplastic agent is rapidly diffused in the sub arachnoid space, and its duration of activity is long due to its slow clearance and metabolism. Routes of administration include infusion into the lateral ventricle by puncture of the Ommaya reservoir, infusion into the sub arachnoid space by lumbar puncture, or both of these procedures performed alternately or simultaneously, and methods of infusion include bolus injection and ventriculo lumbar perfusion. Commonly used drugs include methotrexate (MTX), cytarabine (Ara-C), and 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)- 1-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), and some new drugs have also begun to be used clinically. Although there are differences depending on the histological type of the tumor, the anti neoplastic agent administered and the method of administration, the response rate is about 40-80% and mean survival time is about 4-25 months. Although side effects of the anti neoplastic agents are not as severe as with agents used for systemic chemotherapy, specific side effects include nonspecific drug-induced meningitis or ventriculitis, transient or permanent paralysis and leukoencephalopathy. These side effects can be alleviated by reducing the dose or discontinuing the anti neoplastic agents, and a small dose of an adrenocorticosteroid is sometimes administered simultaneously. Bacterial meningitis is another complication and requires discontinuation of anti neoplastic agents, removal of the Ommaya reservoir, or systemic or intrathecal administration of antibiotic agents. Although meningeal dissemination is a rare metastatic condition with a poor prognosis, there have been some reports of successful treatment using this method, which is expected to be widely used in the future. PMID:18633217

  11. Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16?years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3?months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants <3?months of age, distinguished between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay. PMID:25256088

  12. Contrast enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid on MRI in two cases of spirochaetal meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, C.D.; Jaeger, H.R. [Lysholm Radiological Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    We report two patients with meningitis due to spirochaetal infection, both of whom showed diffusely enhancing meninges around the brain and spinal cord. In addition, there was enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of suspected meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, A; el-Shirbiny, A; Killander, J; Ragheb, A; el Heit, S A

    1986-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein (CSF-CRP) was studied in 183 consecutive infants and children with suspected meningitis, using a nephelometric technique. Cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein was above an empirically chosen level of 1 mg/1 in seven of 19 children with culture-proven bacterial meningitis, in only one of 15 children with viral meningitis, and three of 139 children with no meningitis. All 10 children with partially treated meningitis had CSF-CRP levels below 1 mg/1. There was good correlation between CSF-CRP and total protein levels in children with bacterial meningitis (R value 0.4999 P less than 0.05). The test was not sensitive enough for early differentiation between bacterial and viral meningitis. The test also did not add extra information regarding aetiology in partially treated meningitis. PMID:2428290

  14. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Peripheral Arterial Disease Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection Venous Disorders Lymphatic Disorders Topics in Peripheral Arterial Disease Overview of Peripheral Arterial Disease Occlusive Peripheral Arterial ...

  15. Meningitis mortality in Neurology Ward of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Jofizal Jannis; Firman Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Mortality rate of meningitis is not decreased even though there is decreasing meningitis rate and advanced development of antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to find out meningitis mortality pattern and to evaluate factors related to meningitis mortality in hospitalized patients. Study was done using retrospective data from medical records of the patients administered in the Neurology ward of Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital from January 1997 – December 2005. Data were reported descriptive...

  16. Meningococcal meningitis: unprecedented incidence of serogroup X-related cases in 2006 in Niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisier, Pascal; Nicolas, Pierre; Djibo, Saacou; Taha, Muhamed-kheir; Jeanne, Isabelle; Mai?nassara, Halima Boubacar; Tenebray, Bernard; Kairo, Kiari Kaka; Giorgini, Dario; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This is, to our knowledge, the first report of such a high incidence of NmX meningitis, although an unusually high incidence of NmX meningitis was also observed in the 1990s in Niamey. The increasing incidence of NmX meningitis is worrisome, because no vaccine has been developed against this serogroup. Countries in the African meningitis belt must prepare to face this potential new challenge.

  17. Epidemiological changes in meningococcal meningitis in Niger from 2008 to 2011 and the impact of vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Jean-marc; Issaka, Bassira; Zaneidou, Maman; Hugonnet, Ste?phane; Nicolas, Pierre; Taha, Muhamed-kheir; Greenwood, Brian; Jusot, Jean-franc?ois

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' changes periodically. In order to design an effective vaccination strategy, we have examined the epidemiological and microbiological patterns of bacterial meningitis, and especially that of meningococcal meningitis, in Niger during the period 2008-2011. During this period a mass vaccination campaign with the newly developed meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac(R)) was undertaken. METHOD: Cerebrospin...

  18. Development of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent meningitis in Africa caused by meningococcal serogroup X.

    OpenAIRE

    Micoli, F.; Romano MR; Tontini, M.; Cappelletti, E.; Gavini, M.; Proietti, D.; Rondini, S.; Swennen, E.; Santini, L.; Filippini, S.; Balocchi, C.; Adamo, R.; Pluschke, G.; Norheim, G.; Pollard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide, especially in the African meningitis belt, and has a high associated mortality. The meningococcal serogroups A, W, and X have been responsible for epidemics and almost all cases of meningococcal meningitis in the meningitis belt over the past 12 y. Currently no vaccine is available against meningococcal X (MenX). Because the development of a new vaccine through to licensure takes many years, this leaves Africa vulnerab...

  19. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Wanis H.; Elalamy, Osama R.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.; Mobyaed, Hassan; Darweesh, Adham

    2010-01-01

    Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.

  20. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia Kioko Hasimoto e, Souza; Carolina Rodrigues, Costa; Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa, Fernandes; Fernando Yano, Abrao; Thaisa Cristina, Silva; Carolina Martins, Tremea; Maria do Rosario Rodrigues, Silva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction In this study, the clinical features, underlying diseases and clinical outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis were investigated. In addition, a molecular analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolated from these patients was performed. Methods A prospective study [...] of 62 cases of patients with cryptococcal infection was conducted at the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiás Dr. Anuar Auad from 2009-2010. Cryptococcal meningitis cases were diagnosed by direct examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample culture. The profiling of these patients was assessed. The CSF samples were submitted to India ink preparation and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. neoformans was identified by the production of urease, a positive phenoloxidase test and assimilation of carbohydrates. C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates were distinguished by growth on L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium, and molecular analysis was conducted via PCR fingerprinting reactions using M13 and (GACA)4 primers. Results From the 62 patients with cryptococcosis, 71 isolates of CSF were obtained; 67 (94.4%) isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii/VNI, and 4 (5.6%) were identified as C. gattii/VGII. Of these patients, 53 had an HIV diagnosis. The incidence of cryptococcosis was higher among patients 20-40 years of age, with 74.2% of the cases reported in males. Cryptococcus-related mortality was noted in 48.4% of the patients, and the symptoms were altered sensorium, headache, fever and stiff neck. Conclusions The high morbidity and mortality observed among patients with cryptococcosis demonstrate the importance of obtaining information regarding the epidemiological profile and clinical course of the disease in the State of Goiás, Brazil.

  1. [Eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K P; Chen, E R; Chen, T S

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a disease commonly seen in Taiwan, especially in children during the summer rainy season. Most of the cases reported in other countries were adults and their clinical manifestations were different from children. Studies on special clinical characteristics among 87 children in Taiwan were performed. Thirty-eight (43.7%) were male and 49 (56.3%) females, and 88.5% could be traced to a history of contact with the intermediate host, the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, which plays a major role in transmission. The incubation period (average: 13.0 days) was shorter in children than in adults (average: 16.5 days). Near thirty percent (28.7%) of the total cases, the clinical form was meningoencephalitis, which was higher than in adult cases seen in Thailand (5%). The most common clinical symptom was fever (92.0%), followed by vomiting and headache. The percentages of sixth and seventh cranial neuropathy associated with the disease were 17.2% and 11.5% respectively. Ophthalmologic fundoscopy showed that 23.0% with papilledema which was significantly higher than seen in adults (12%) in Thailand. Most of the cases in this study had peripheral leukocytosis (above 10,000/mm3) and eosinophilia (above 10%); the percentages were 83.9% and 85.1%, respectively. The worm recovery rate from cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture of 87 cases was 43.7%; 141 worms were collected from one female patient using a pumping method. In the recent 3 years, levamisole was used clinically with good result. PMID:8184688

  2. Pathogenesis of neonatal Escherichia coli meningitis: induction of bacteremia and meningitis in infant rats fed E. coli K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glode, M P; Sutton, A; Moxon, E R; Robbins, J B

    1977-04-01

    Escherichia coli K1 strains, isolated from human newborns with meningitis, were fed to pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley infant rats by an oral gastric tube. Feeding of 10(3) to 10(11) organisms colonized the intestine of approximately 70% of the animals. At 5 days postfeeding of 3- to 5-day-old rats, bacteremia was detected in 60%, and meningitis occurred in 15% of bacteremic animals. Colonization and bacteremia were age-related. Rats 15 days old had only 19 colonization and 10% bacteremia, and those 30 days old were almost completely resistant to colonization and bacteremia. The intranasal route was less effective in inducing colonization and bacteremia. Intralitter transmission from E. coli K1-fed rats occurred, with 52% of water-fed controls becoming colonized and 15% become bacteremic. Colonization of mothers from their fed infants occurred, but none of five tested developed bacteremia. Other E. coli capsular polysaccharide types were studied. A K92 strain isolated from a newborn with meningitis induced a 77% colonization rate, and 8% of these developed bacteremia without detectable meningitis. An E. coli K100 strain showed a 32% colonization rate, and 2% developed bacteremia. The age relation, relatively high virulence of K1 compared with other capsular types, spontaneous appearance of colonization, bacteremia, and meningitis, and intralitter transmission of colonization and disease in newborn rats closely parellel E. coli epidemiology in human neonates. PMID:326679

  3. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Laerte, Pinto Jr.; André Land, Curi; Adriana da Silva, Pinto; Estevão Portela, Nunes; Maria de Lourdes Benamor, Teixeira; Tatiana, Rozental; Alexsandra Rodrigues, Favacho; Elba Regina Sampaio de, Lemos; Márcio Neves, Bóia.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. [...] We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  4. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliarello, V J; Scheld, W M

    1986-11-01

    Bacterial meningitis continues to account for worldwide morbidity and mortality despite the advent of effective bactericidal antibiotic therapy. Recent advances over the past 10 years in the development of experimental animal models as well as basic investigation into critical bacterial surface virulence factors have begun to clarify a conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of meningitis development in humans. Basic observations regarding competing host defenses and bacterial virulence factors have supported a pathogenetic sequence of mucosal colonization with a meningeal pathogen; systemic host invasion with intravascular replication; blood brain barrier penetration and unimpeded CSF proliferation amid the impaired host defenses in the CSF milieu; and pathophysiologic sequelae including vasogenic, cytotoxic, and interstitial brain edema (and other processes) accounting for irreversible neuronal injury and death. Only through continued basic investigation into each of these pathogenetic steps will significant reductions in morbidity and mortality ensue. PMID:3535498

  5. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in screening for meningism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D R; Skikne, B S; Cook, J D

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the potential diagnostic value of the ferritin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measurements were performed with an immunoradiometric assay in 23 control patients and in 65 patients with various neurologic disorders. The geometric mean ferritin level of 3.5 micrograms/L in controls was approximately 10% of the level in normal serum with an upper cutoff level of 10 micrograms/L. Only modest elevations in CSF ferritin concentration were observed in patients with viral meningitis and in those with various non-infectious neurologic disorders. On the other hand, marked elevations ranging between 27 and 322 micrograms/L (geometric mean, 90 micrograms/L) were observed in patients with bacterial or fungal meningitis. Results of the study indicate that CSF ferritin levels are a valuable adjunct in the early evaluation of patients presenting with meningism. PMID:3778261

  7. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  8. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases. (orig.)

  9. Morbidity and mortality of bacterial meningitis in Arab children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, A A; Auger, L T; Awadallah, N B; Hijazi, Z; Johny, M; Hajj, K E; Kandil, H

    1989-12-01

    Between September 1981 and March 1987, 92 episodes of bacterial meningitis in 90 children were treated in three major hospitals in Kuwait. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 80 (87%). Haemophilus influenzae was the most common aetiological organism and accounted for 42 episodes (45.6%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 21 (22.8%) and Neisseria meningitidis in only three (3.3%). Bacterial meningitis occurred in 53 children (57.6%) below the age of 1 year and in 81 (88%) below 5 years. The overall case fatality rate was 5.4% and ten children (9%) had severe neurological sequelae of their disease. Sequelae were more common following pneumococcal meningitis (28%) than after Haemophilus (7%). All 12 children with unknown pathogen recovered completely. PMID:2607574

  10. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Jr, Vitor Laerte; Curi, André Land; Pinto, Adriana da Silva; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes Benamor; Rozental, Tatiana; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues; Castro, Elba Lemos de; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-04-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact. PMID:18641856

  11. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  12. Meningitis Due to Cryptococcus gattii in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajesh T; Sangwan, Jyoti; Juyal, Deepak; Lathwal, Sumit

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of cryptococcal infection is high in developing countries such as India. Cryptococcus gattii, formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii, is an encapsulated yeast that causes disease in both immunocompetent and immunosupressed individuals. The organism enters via respiratory tract and causes a spectrum of illness ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness, including pneumonia and disseminated infection involving multiple sites, including the central nervous system, eyes and skin. Cryptococcal meningitis is generally considered as rare in immunocompetent patients; therefore, specific treatment is not implemented until the organism is identified or a cryptococcal antigen is detected. We describe the case of a 30-years-old man without prior medical history who presented with meningitis and was treated successfully. This case illustrates the importance of considering infectious causes such as C.gattii in the differential diagnosis of meningitis, regardless of the patient's immune status. PMID:24298497

  13. Candida tropicalis as an emerging pathogen in Candida meningitis: case report and review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano Z, Goldani; Rodrigo P, Santos.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are an uncommon cause of meninigitis. Given the rarity of this infection, the epidemiology, prognosis, and optimal therapy for Candida meningitis are poorly defined. The authors report on a paraplegic patient due to spinal cord injury who developed C. tropicalis meningitis. In additi [...] on, we review and discuss other reported cases of C. tropicalis meningitis in the medical literature

  14. Gadolinium enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid in a patient with meningeal fibrosis and cryptococcal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the case of a 52-year-old man, with cryptococcal meningitis and meningeal fibrosis who had undergone ventricular shunting. Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted MRI revealed diffuse meningeal enhancement. Remarkably, there was enhancement of the pia mater and posterior fossa subarachnoid space. (orig.). With 3 figs

  15. Hearing loss diagnosis followed by meningitis in Danish children, 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parner, Erik T; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2007-01-01

    A higher risk of meningitis associated with cochlear implants may be explained in part by a generally higher risk of meningitis in children with severe to profound hearing loss. We investigated whether children with hearing loss have an increased risk of meningitis.

  16. De Novo Meningitis Caused by Propionibacterium acnes in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Jason P.; Thomas, Benjamin S.; Trevino, Sergio E.; Mcelvania Tekippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-ann D.; Kuhlmann, F. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a known cause of postneurosurgical meningitis; however, it is rarely implicated in de novo meningitis. Herein we report a case of a 49-year-old male with de novo meningitis caused by P. acnes with metastatic melanoma as the only identified risk factor for his infection.

  17. The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein and neonatal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Khosravi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, newborns with septic meningitis had higher cerebrospinal fluid CRP level than newborns with aseptic meningitis, and CSF-CRP can be used in rapid diagnosis of septic and aseptic meningitis. Although this result has been seen in many studies, but more research is needed.

  18. Meningitis tuberculosa en adultos: Análisis de 53 casos / Tuberculous meningitis in adults: review of 53 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita, Enberg G; M. De la Luz, Quezada B; Carolina, de Toro V; Luzmaría, Fuenzalida L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meningitis tuberculosa (MTBC) es la forma más grave de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. El amplio espectro del cuadro clínico y su poca especificidad difícultan su diagnóstico precoz, relacionándose directamente con mayor letalidad. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características clínicas [...] de los pacientes con diagnóstico de MTBC en el Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Lucio Córdova, de Santiago, Chile, entre 1995 y 2002. Se estudiaron 53 casos de MTBC en adultos, con una edad mediana de 39 años. Al ingreso 66% de los pacientes presentaba algún grado de compromiso de conciencia, pero sólo 30% la tríada sintomática clásica. El LCR mostró aumento de proteínas, glucosa baja y linfocitosis, en la mayoría de los casos. Treinta por ciento de los pacientes presentó co-infección con VIH; la letalidad en este grupo de pacientes fue mayor, 31 vs 17% del total de la muestra. La MTBC continúa siendo una enfermedad vigente. El diagnóstico de certeza precoz de esta patología no es posible con los métodos actuales, por lo que la sospecha clínica es importante Abstract in english Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical spectrum is broad and may be non-specific making early diagnosis difficult. This increases the incidence of mortality. We decribe the clinical characteristics of patients with TBM in the Dr. Lucio Córdo [...] va´s Infectious Disease Hospital in Santiago, Chile, between 1995 and 2002. We review 53 adult cases of TBM, with a median age of 39 years. At admission 66% of the patients had some mental status deterioration, and the classic triad of symptoms of meningeal irritation was present only in 30%. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed increased protein level, low glucose level and lymphocytic pleocytosis in most. Thirty percent of the patients were coinfected with HIV. The mortality in the later group was greater than in the TBM population as a whole (31 vs 17%). TBM is still a present diagnostic problem, in spite of the new diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion is required in order to make an early diagnosis

  19. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hyperglycemia in bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanjaard Lodewijk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia has been associated with unfavorable outcome in several disorders, but few data are available in bacterial meningitis. We assessed the incidence and significance of hyperglycemia in adults with bacterial meningitis. Methods We collected data prospectively between October 1998 and April 2002, on 696 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis, confirmed by culture of CSF in patients >16 years. Patients were dichotomized according to blood glucose level on admission. A cutoff random non-fasting blood glucose level of 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL was used to define hyperglycemia, and a cutoff random non-fasting blood glucose level of 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL was used to define severe hyperglycemia. Unfavorable outcome was defined on the Glasgow outcome scale as a score Results 69% of patients were hyperglycemic and 25% severely hyperglycemic on admission. Compared with non-hyperglycemic patients, hyperglycemia was related with advanced age (median, 55 yrs vs. 44 yrs, P vs. 3%, P = 0.005, and distant focus of infection (37% vs. 28%, P = 0.02. They were more often admitted in coma (16% vs. 8%; P = 0.004 and with pneumococcal meningitis (55% vs. 42%, P = 0.007. These differences remained significant after exclusion of patients with known diabetes. Hyperglycemia was related with unfavorable outcome in a univariate analysis but this relation did not remain robust in a multivariate analysis. Factors predictive for neurologic compromise were related with higher blood glucose levels, whereas factors predictive for systemic compromise were related with lower blood glucose levels. Only a minority of severely hyperglycemic patients were known diabetics (19%. The vast majority of these known diabetic patients had meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (67% or Listeria monocytogenes (13% and they were at high risk for unfavorable outcome (52%. Conclusion The majority of patients with bacterial meningitis have hyperglycemic blood glucose levels on admission. Hyperglycemia can be explained by a physical stress reaction, the central nervous system insult leading to disturbed blood-glucose regulation mechanisms, and preponderance of diabetics for pneumococcal meningitis. Patients with diabetes and bacterial meningitis are at high risk for unfavorable outcome.

  1. Outbreak of meningitis due to Serratia marcescens after spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, G; Uguz, M; Aslan, G; Horasan, E S; Kaya, A

    2014-06-01

    This article describes an outbreak of meningitis caused by Serratia marcescens in patients who had undergone spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 12 of the 46 patients who underwent a caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in a 75-bed private hospital between 6(th) and 14(th) March 2011. S. marcescens was isolated from samples taken from four prefilled syringes and one bag containing 5% dextrose with norepinephrine, suggesting that medications used in spinal anaesthesia were contaminated extrinsically. Strategies for prevention of anaesthesia-associated infections in operating theatres are discussed. PMID:24814159

  2. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/?L, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n?=?13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n?=?9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

  3. Meningeal involvement in Behcet`s disease: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guma, A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Llobregat (Spain); Aguilera, C.; Pons, L. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Centre de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain); Acebes, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain); Arruga, J. [Department of Ophthalmology, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain)

    1998-08-01

    Behcet`s disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.) With 4 figs., 11 refs.

  4. Chondroma located in cerebral parenchyma without meningeal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yichao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Ge, Jianwei; Zhang, Shilei; Liu, Qiang; Qiu, Yongming

    2012-11-01

    Intracranial chondromas are rare benign tumors, which usually originate from skull base synchondrosis. In rarer cases, intracranial chondromas originate from the cerebral parenchyma without meningeal attachment, which is defined as intracerebral chondroma. In this paper, an 18-year-old male patient with intracerebral chondroma is presented. There are only 5 cases of intracerebral chondromas without meningeal attachment published in the literature. According to the clinical data, the intracerebral chondromas are hard hyaline cartilage, irregular lobulated grayish-white mass macroscopically and consist of mature hyaline chondrocyte microscopically. Total removal is the best treatment method for intracerebral chondroma. PMID:23172440

  5. Meningitis bacteriana por Lactococcus lactis cremoris Bacterial meningitis caused by Lactococcus lactis cremoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danais Vidal Rosell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Lactococcus lactis cremoris es una bacteria perteneciente a la familia Streptococcaceae que normalmente puede aislarse como parte de la microbiota transitoria o residente del tracto gastrointestinal en el ser humano. Se considera esencial en la industria alimenticia donde se emplea en la fermentación de la leche para la obtención de productos derivados como el queso, yogur, mantequilla, entre otros. OBJETIVOS: este caso constituye el primer reporte de un paciente adulto sin evidencias anteriores de inmunodepresión con una meningitis bacteriana por L. lactis. MÉTODOS: se estudió la evolución del caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad, que llegó al cuerpo de guardia del hospital con un cuadro clínico sobreagudo dado por trastornos de la conducta como irritabilidad con inmediata evolución a estado de obnubilación y desorientación. Se realizó el diagnóstico microbiológico utilizando las técnicas convencionales de identificación y los estudios de sensibilidad antimicrobiana. RESULTADOS: se diagnosticó una meningitis bacteriana por L. lactis, bacteria asociada a procesos infecciosos fundamentalmente en pacientes pediátricos e inmunodeprimidos. CONCLUSIONES: el modo de transmisión de la infección es indirecto por vía oral. No se determinó el foco primario de infección a partir del cual se produjo la diseminación dentro del organismo, la cual se considera fue por vía hematógena según la localización anatómica de los sitios donde se encontraron signos de sepsis. En los datos referidos en la historia clínica de la paciente no se encontró ningún antecedente de compromiso de su inmunidad antes del cuadro clínico que motivó el ingreso.BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis cremoris is a bacteria from Streptococcaceae family that may usually be isolated as part of transient or residing microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is considered essential element in the food industry where it is used as milk fermenter to obtain byproducts such as cheese, yoghurt, butter and others. OBJECTIVES: this is the first report of an adult patient with bacterial meningitis by L. lactis, without a previous history of immunosuppresion. METHODS: the evolution of a 73 years-old female patient, who came to the Emergency Department with a very acute clinical picture of behavioural disorders like irritability, immediately evolving into obnulation condition and lack of proper orientation. The conventional identification techniques together with the antimicrobial sensitivity studies allowed making the microbiological diagnosis. RESULTS: bacterial meningitis caused by L. lactis was diagnosed. This bacterium is linked to infectious processes mainly in pediatric and inmmunosuppresed patients. CONCLUSIONS: the mode of transmission is indirect and orally. The primary focus of infection from which the virus disseminated inside the body was not found. It was considered then that it occurred according to the anatomical location of the sites where sepsis signs were found. According to the data provided by the patient´s medical history, not a single antecedent of compromised immunity was found before appearing the above-mentioned clinical picture.

  6. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico [Dept. of Surgical and Oncological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina [Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio [Villa Santa Teresa, Diagnostica per Immagini, Palermo (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint.

  7. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to the number cases of meningitis in the Sahel. Using currently available forecast models contributed through the WMO Thorpex-Tigge project, and applying quantile regression to enhance their accuracy, we can forecast the average weekly relative humidity to two weeks in advance which allows us to anticipate the end of an epidemic in a region of the Sahel up to four weeks in advance. This would allow public health officials to deploy vaccines to areas in which the epidemics are likely to persist due to continued dryness and avoid vaccinating in areas where the epidemics will end with higher humidity. Our presentation will conclude by introducing the relative humidity decision-information tool developed for use by public-health officials. We will also summarize the results of a weekly meningitis forecast exercise held during the 2011-2012 dry season with public health decision makers from several African countries and the World Health Organization. Finally, we highlight some results of concurrent socio-economic research that suggests other interventions for managing meningitis and helps quantify the economic impact of the disease in Ghana. Overall, while our research has demonstrated an actionable relationship between weather and disease, this relationship is only one factor in a complex and coupled human-natural system which merits continued investigation.

  8. A case of recurrent benign lymphocytic (Mollaret's) meningitis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, P J; Sergi, E E; Margaritis, A S; Kioumourtzis, A G; Kanellopoulos, G D; Mallios, P K; Dimitrakis, D J; Poulikakos, D J; Aspiotis, A A; Deliousis, A D; Flevaris, C P; Zacharof, A K

    2010-12-01

    Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of benign recurrent aseptic meningitis first described in 1944. We report a case of Mollaret's meningitis due to Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV2), diagnosed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) implementation in the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patient and treated successfully with acyclovir. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Mollaret's meningitis reported in Greece. We reviewed the literature since PCR has become widely available. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 has been the most commonly identified causative agent of Mollaret's meningitis. PMID:21126724

  9. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations

  10. [A case of the acinous form of meningeal cysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, M B; Znamierowska-Kozik, M

    1984-01-01

    A case of chronic cerebrospinal meningitis is described which caused considerable diagnostic difficulties. Postmortem examination demonstrated parasitic character of the disease. Although all cysts were sterile, the authors suggest in the discussion that in the case the cause was infestation with the larval from of the canine tapeworm Taenia multiceps. PMID:6483082

  11. Chronic Aspergillus sp. meningitis successfully treated with fluconazole: case report

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUSHI WAGNER MUNEMORI; ARRUDA WALTER OLESCHKO; TSUBOUCHI MÁRIO HENRIQUE; RAMINA RICARDO

    1999-01-01

    We a case of chronic Aspergillus sp. meningitis in a healthy 43-year-old woman successfully treated with fluconazole given orally (300 ms/day). The diagnosis was made by detection of anti-aspergillus antibodies and positive culture to Aspergillus sp. in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  12. Toscana virus meningitis in Portugal, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L; Simões, J; Costa, R; Martins, S; Lecour, H

    2007-06-01

    Toscana virus infection is endemic in Italy, but has also been documented in other Mediterranean countries. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of Portugal. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription PCR. Those samples that proved negative for enterovirus and herpesvirus were tested for Toscana virus with a commercial reverse transcription nested PCR assay. In total, we investigated 106 samples, collected between May and September during the four-year period between 2002 and 2005 from patients younger than 30 years old. Toscana virus was the cause of meningitis in six (5.6%) of the cases, three children and three young adults. All had a benign course and self-limited disease. Since a first case report of TOSV infection 1985 and another in 1996, both in foreign tourists, these six cases of Toscana virus meningitis are, to our knowledge, the first diagnosed in Portuguese inhabitants, and they underline the need for more studies on the prevalence of this virus in Portugal. PMID:17991401

  13. Meningeal carcinomatosis in small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the lung is extremely sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We describe the case of a patient who had a complete response to such treatment but relapsed with meningeal carcinomatosis. We propose that prophylactic therapy to the spinal cord as well as the brain should be considered in the treatment of patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung

  14. Prognostic indicators in bacterial meningitis: a case-control study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima Magalhães Acioly, Mendizabal; Phelipe Cunha, Bezerra; Diego Lins, Guedes; Diogo Buarque Cordeiro, Cabral; Demócrito de Barros, Miranda-Filho.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This was a case-control study to identify prognostic indicators of bacterial meningitis in a reference hospital in Pernambuco/Brazil. The data were collected from charts of 294 patients with bacterial meningitis between January 2000 and December 2004. Variables were grouped in biological, clinical, [...] laboratory and etiologic agent/treatment. Variables selected in each step were grouped and adjusted for age. Two models were created: one containing clinical variables (clinical model) and other containing laboratory variables (laboratory model). In the clinical model the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were dyspnea (p = 0.006), evidence of shock (p = 0.051), evidence of altered mental state (p = 0.000), absence of headache (p = 0.008), absence of vomiting (p = 0.052), and age >40 years old (p = 0.013). In the laboratory model, the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were positive blood cultures (p = 0.073) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.019). Identification of prognostic indicators soon after admission may allow early specific measures, like admission of patients with higher risk of death to Intensive Care Units.

  15. TRAIL limits excessive host immune responses in bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Olaf; Priller, Josef; Prozorovski, Timour; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf; Baeva, Nevena; Lunemann, Jan D.; Aktas, Orhan; Mahrhofer, Cordula; Stricker, Sarah; Zipp, Frauke; Weber, Joerg R.

    2007-01-01

    Apart from potential roles in anti-tumor surveillance, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has important regulatory functions in the host immune response. We studied antiinflammatory effects of endogenous and recombinant TRAIL (rTRAIL) in experimental meningitis. Following intrathecal application of pneumococcal cell wall, a TLR2 ligand, we found prolonged inflammation, augmented clinical impairment, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of TRAIL–/– mice. Administration of rTRAIL into the subarachnoid space of TRAIL–/– mice or reconstitution of hematopoiesis with wild-type bone marrow cells reversed these effects, suggesting an autoregulatory role of TRAIL within the infiltrating leukocyte population. Importantly, intrathecal application of rTRAIL in wild-type mice with meningitis also decreased inflammation and apoptosis. Moreover, patients suffering from bacterial meningitis showed increased intrathecal synthesis of TRAIL. Our findings provide what we believe is the first evidence that TRAIL may act as a negative regulator of acute CNS inflammation. The ability of TRAIL to modify inflammatory responses and to reduce neuronal cell death in meningitis suggests that it may be used as a novel antiinflammatory agent in invasive infections. PMID:17571163

  16. Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculous Meningitis, United States, 1993–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnard, Christopher; Winston, Carla A.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Macgregor, Rob Roy; Bisson, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient characteristics associated with isoniazid resistance in cases of tuberculous meningitis, we conducted a cross-sectional study by using data from the US National Tuberculosis Surveillance System during 1993–2005. Foreign-born patients were more likely to be infected with an isoniazid-resistant strain.

  17. One Family's Crusade To Inform the Public about Meningococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Linda and Carl

    2001-01-01

    Describes meningococcal meningitis, which strikes over 100 college students yearly. Living in dormitories puts students at risk for contracting the disease. The current vaccine protects against the four main types of the infection, though it is not perfect protection. Some states have adopted legislation requiring all incoming college freshmen and…

  18. Culture- and antigen-negative meningitis in Guatemalan children / Meningitis negativa a pruebas antigénicas y de cultivo en niños guatemaltecos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erica L., Dueger; Edwin J., Asturias; Neal A., Halsey.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar los casos infantiles de meningitis bacteriana confirmada (MBC) y meningitis negativa a pruebas de látex y de cultivo (MNLC). MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron los niños de 1 a 59 meses de edad ingresados en tres grandes hospitales de referencia de la Ciudad de Guatemala entre el 1 de octubre [...] de 1996 y el 31 de diciembre de 2005 con signos clínicos de infección bacteriana. Se realizaron cultivos bacterianos y pruebas de aglutinación antigénica con látex en muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR). RESULTADOS: La tasa de letalidad fue significativamente mayor en los 493 niños con MBC que en los 528 niños con MNLC (27,6% y 14,9%, respectivamente; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare children with confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM) and those with culture- and latex-negative meningitis (CLN). METHODS: Children 1 to 59 months of age admitted to three major referral hospitals in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were eva [...] luated prospectively between 1 October 1996 and 31 December 2005. Bacterial cultures and latex agglutination antigen testing were performed on samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). RESULTS: The case-fatality rate was significantly higher in the 493 children with CBM than in the 528 children with CLN (27.6% and 14.9%, respectively; P

  19. Recurrent meningitis in the adult: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge Meningitis recurrente en el adulto: un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Zuluaga Quintero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon condition with the capability of causing important midand long-term sequelae. Its clinical presentation depends on the etiologic agent, although most patients exhibit at least one of the classical symptoms of acute meningitis (intense headache, fever and neck stiffness. Due to the clinical variability of the disease, a high level of suspicion and an adequate use of laboratory tests are required in order to establish a timely diagnosis. This article contains a literature review regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of recurrent meningitis.

    La meningitis recurrente no es una entidad común pero tiene el potencial de generar secuelas importantes a mediano y largo plazo. Su cuadro clínico depende del agente causal aunque en la mayoría de los pacientes se conserva al menos uno de los síntomas clásicos de la meningitis aguda (cefalea intensa, fiebre y rigidez de nuca. Debido a su variabilidad clínica se requieren un alto nivel de sospecha y usar bien las pruebas de laboratorio para llegar oportunamente al diagnóstico. El presente artículo contiene una revisión de la literatura sobre la epidemiología, la etiología, el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

  20. Arterial embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or leg (pallor) Weakness of an arm or leg Later symptoms: Blisters of the skin fed by the affected artery Shedding (sloughing) of skin Skin erosion ( ulcer ) Tissue death (necrosis; skin is dark and damaged) ...

  1. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected or applied before the needle is inserted. Blood flows into a special collecting syringe. The needle is ... to breathing problems or problems with the body's metabolism. Sometimes arterial sticks are done to get blood culture or blood chemistry samples.

  2. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Louise; Steyl, Johan; Loggenberg, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA) anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides) was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA) was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA) variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA) with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches), and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches) that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye. PMID:25558432

  3. Meningite neofatal: aspectos associados / Neonatal meningitis: related features

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diogo C., Haussen; Lívia N., Brandalise; Fabiane A., Praetzel; André S., Malysz; Renate, Mohrdieck; Marco A.F., Reichelt; Célia B., Magalhães; Sérgio P., Grossi; Ana, Guardiola.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e analisar fatores relacionados à meningite neonatal. MÉTODO: Em estudo de caso-controle, foram examinados neonatos com meningite no período de agosto/2002 a dezembro/2003 na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal (UTIN) e alocados recém-nascidos [...] hígidos como grupo controle (GC). Foram relatados dados referentes à gestação, ao parto e ao neonato. Os resultados foram considerados significativos quando p (alfa) Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify and to analyze the features related to the occurrence of neonatal meningitis. METHOD: In a case-control study we examined all newborns presenting meningitis between August/2002 and December/2003 in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Healthy newborns w [...] ere enrolled as a Control Group (CG). Data related to pregnancy, labor and the neonate itself were collected. The results with p

  4. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., López; P., Sanchez-Rubio; A., Betrán; R., Terré.

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We p [...] resent a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline.

  5. Tuberculoma and Meningitis in a Young Girl: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Ahssan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of difficulty in early diagnosis and severe consequences of delay in diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis meningitis is a serious problem for clinicians. Therefore recognizing rare cases of tuberculosis can improve clinician practice and save the patient's life in countries with a high burden of disease. An 18-year-old girl suffered from fever, headache, illness, arthralgia, myalgia, constipation and weight loss for several weeks. On clinical exam, lethargy, Strabismus, neck stiffness, papilledema, bilateral cranial nerve VI palsy and left facial nerve palsy were observed. Pleocytosis in CSF and multiple small nodular enhancements was detected within the cerebellum. The anti-tuberculosis plus corticosteroid were prescribed. Conclusion/Recommendations: In TB high burden regions such as Iran and Middle East, clinical diagnosis is an important tool for making decisions about such cases. Though using corticosteroids in tuberculosis meningitis are still controversial, we recommend it strongly.

  6. Streptomycin and sulfisoxazole for treatment of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R H

    1978-01-23

    The increasing number of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae recoveries have required a change in the treatment of meningitis due to this organism. Chloramphenicol has been recommended and is an effective though toxic substitute. Streptomycin combined with sulfisoxazole has been as effective as ampicillin in treating H influenzae meningitis. The results of treating 61 children with ampicillin were compared with results of those given streptomycin intramuscularly, in three intrathecal doses with sulfisoxazole intravenously, and by mouth to 50 children. Permanent neurological sequelae, including deafness, mental retardation, and persisting seizures, developed in the six given ampicillin; communic-ting hydrocephalus occurred in one who had been treated with streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. There was no phlebitis, buttocks abscess, or drug eruptions, and treatment was better tolerated in the streptomycin and sulfisoxazole group. This combination is suggested as an effective alternative to ampicillin. PMID:244331

  7. Neisseria meningitidis endogenous endophthalmitis with meningitis in an immunocompetent child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Imran H; Sipkova, Zuzana; Patel, Sejal; Benjamin, Larry

    2014-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We describe an exceptional case of an immunocompetent 15-month-old child presenting with a unilateral anterior uveitis, hypopyon, and sepsis. Anterior chamber aspirate demonstrated gram-negative cocci before Neisseria meningitidis was identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Meningococcal endophthalmitis presents variably with sepsis, meningitis, or isolated ocular symptoms. Diagnosis is a clinical challenge, requiring diagnostic sampling and treatment from both pediatricians and ophthalmologists. Delayed or incorrect treatment risks blindness, disability, or death. Simultaneous invasion of meningococcus across intact blood-brain and blood-ocular barriers in this child suggests antigenic correlates between meningeal and ocular endothelial interfaces. Meningococcus is an exclusively human pathogen; research is hampered by the lack of animal models. This clinical observation suggests the potential of a novel in vitro experimental approach of using ocular tissue from eye banks to further elucidate the meningococcal-endothelial interaction that underpins meningococcal disease. PMID:24295045

  8. An unusual case of neonatal meningococcal meningitis complicated by subdural empyema and hydrocephalus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Ramsamy; P, Mahabeer; M, Archary; R A, Bobat; Y M, Coovadia.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of pyogenic meningitis worldwide, as well as causing large epidemics in parts of Africa. With the dramatic decline in cases of Haemophilus influenzae B, N. meningitidis has emerged as one of the most common causes of acute bacterial meningitis in children an [...] d adults in South Africa. However, it remains an uncommon cause of meningitis in the neonatal period. Subdural empyema together with hydrocephalus has been infrequently described as a complication of meningococcal meningitis. We report a rare case of neonatal meningococcal meningitis, complicated by subdural empyema and hydrocephalus. To the best of our knowledge only a few cases of neonatal meningococcal meningitis have been reported from South Africa, with none of these cases having the complication of subdural empyema.

  9. Septicaemia and meningitis caused by dysgonic fermenter-2 (DF-2).

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P. C.; Fonseca, K.

    1986-01-01

    A patient developed dysgonic fermenter-2 (DF-2) septicaemia and meningitis after having been bitten by a dog. The pathogenic organism was isolated from the oral cavity of the dog, which, it is believed, is the first time that this has been done. The growth characteristics of the organism and the immunological response of the patient were studied. The isolation of the infecting agent from the dog confirms that the oropharyngeal flora of dogs is a reservoir of the organism: the fastidiousness a...

  10. Neonatal Meningitis: Clinical and Bacteriologic Findings in 120 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sh, Behjati

    2000-01-01

    In this retrospective study, clinical signs and bacteriological findings in 120 neonates (82 males, 38 female) with meningitis have been evaluated. 60 were premature and 60 full term infants. Clinical signs consisted of weak neonatal reflexes in 86 neonates (70%), poor feeding 62 (41%), jaundice 41 (34%), fever 29 (24%), apnea 19 (16%), restlessness 18 (15%), respiratory distress 14 (11%), vomiting 10 (8%) and abdominal distension 8 (7%). The signs of central nervous system involvement were o...

  11. Meningitis by Toxocara canis after Ingestion of Raw Ostrich Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-kyun; Oh, Jung-hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antig...

  12. Cryptococcus neoformans Gene Expression during Experimental Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, B. R.; Zuyderduyn, S.; Toffaletti, D. L.; Marra, M.; Jones, S. J. M.; Perfect, J. R.; Kronstad, J.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated basidiomycete fungus of medical importance, is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and causing meningitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into the adaptation of the fungus to the host central nervous system (CNS), serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to characterize the gene expression profile of C. neoformans cells recovered from the CNS of infected rabbits. A SAGE library was constructe...

  13. Primary Granulocytic Sarcoma of Meninges and Mediastinum as Diagnostic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Mohanty, Kirti Ranjan; Roopesh, K.; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare hematological neoplasm which is often misdiagnosed. We report two patients of primary granulocytic sarcoma, one at meninges who was diagnosed radiologically as meningioma and on histopathology as langerhans cell histiocytosis. The second patient presented with an ulcerated chest wall swelling, who on histopathology revealed malignant round cell tumour. Both the patients subsequently proved as primary granulocytic sarcoma on immunohistochemistry. These two cases ...

  14. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of meninges and mediastinum as diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Mohanty, Kirti Ranjan; Roopesh, K; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2013-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare hematological neoplasm which is often misdiagnosed. We report two patients of primary granulocytic sarcoma, one at meninges who was diagnosed radiologically as meningioma and on histopathology as langerhans cell histiocytosis. The second patient presented with an ulcerated chest wall swelling, who on histopathology revealed malignant round cell tumour. Both the patients subsequently proved as primary granulocytic sarcoma on immunohistochemistry. These two cases are reported here due to their rarity. PMID:24426349

  15. Modeling tuberculous meningitis in zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; Kuip, Martijn; Youssef, Sameh A.; Bruin, Alain; Bitter, Wilbert; Furth, A. Marceline; Sar, Astrid M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most severe extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis, with a high morbidity and mortality. Characteristic pathological features of TBM are Rich foci, i.e. brain- and spinal-cord-specific granulomas formed after hematogenous spread of pulmonary tuberculosis. Little is known about the early pathogenesis of TBM and the role of Rich foci. We have adapted the zebrafish model of Mycobacterium marinum infection (zebrafish–M. marinum model) to study T...

  16. Health related quality of life in survivors of pneumococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legood, R.; Coen, Pg; Knox, K.; Viner, Rm; El Bashir, H.; Christie, D.; Patel, Bc; Booy, R.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the overall long-term health related quality of life implications of an episode of pneumococcal meningitis in childhood. METHOD: Cases were identified through two regional UK surveillance studies and traced via their general practitioners (GPs) or local hospital paediatrician. Siblings were used as controls where available. Health related quality of life was assessed using the health utilities index (HUI). Mean utility scores were compared between cases and controls and univa...

  17. Molecular Detection of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sadighian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical diagnosis of meningitis is crucial, particularly in children. The early diagnosis and empiric an­tibi­otic treatments have led to a reduction in morbidity and mortality rates. PCR and the enzymatic digestion of 16SrDNA frag­ment which is produced by universal primers led up fast and sensitive determination. The purpose of this study was to investi­gate a rapid method for detection of common bacterial pathogens causing meningitis."nMethods: According to the gene encoding 16SrDNA found in all bacteria, a pair of primers was designed. Then the univer­sal PCR was performed for bacterial agents of meningitis (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influ­enzae, etc. by employing broad- range DNA extraction method. The ob­tained uni­versal PCR products were digested with restriction enzymes (HaeIII, AluI and MnlI to identify bacterial species. "nResults: By the enzymatic digestion of the universal products of each standard strain of the above bacteria, specific patterns were achieved. These specific patterns may be used for comparison in CSF examination. The analytical sensitivity of the as­say was approximately 1.5´102 CFU/ml of CSF even in samples with high amount of proteins. Conclusion: The universal PCR coupled with enzymatic digestion can be used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens in clini­cal specimens rapidly and accurately. Molecular diagnostic of bacterial meningitis, though expensive and labor-inten­sive, but is valuable and critical in patient management.

  18. Meningitis due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia after a Neurosurgical Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Smita; Vaid, Vivek Kumar; Bhartiya, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, glucose non- fermentative, gram negative bacillus, which is being increasingly recognized as a cause of serious infections such as bacteraemia, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, meningitis and ocular infections in hospitalized patients. The treatment of invasive S. maltophilia infections is difficult, as this pathogen shows high levels of intrinsic or acquired resistance to differe...

  19. Management of Paradoxical Response in Pediatric Tubercular Meningitis with Methylprednisolone

    OpenAIRE

    Nema, Nitin; Verma, Abha; Singh, Kuldeep; Mehar, Virendra

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical response to anti-tubercular drugs remains a diagnostic dilemma. In India where tuberculosis is quite prevalent, paradoxical response to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) is either misdiagnosed or under-diagnosed. We report two cases of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis due to paradoxical response in children suffering from tuberculous meningitis. Visual acuity was recorded as no light perception in all eyes of both patients while they were taking 4-drug ATT (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazi...

  20. Tuberculoma and Meningitis in a Young Girl: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Behroz Ahssan; Shahla Afrasiabian

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Because of difficulty in early diagnosis and severe consequences of delay in diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis meningitis is a serious problem for clinicians. Therefore recognizing rare cases of tuberculosis can improve clinician practice and save the patient's life in countries with a high burden of disease. An 18-year-old girl suffered from fever, headache, illness, arthralgia, myalgia, constipation and weight loss for several weeks. On clinical exam, lethargy, St...

  1. Polyserositis and Meningitis Associated with Escherichia coli Infection of Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkie, I. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two piglets which had a history of anorexia and weakness were examined pre and postmortem. Other piglets in the same herd had died within 24 hours of the onset of similar signs. The two piglets examined had a fibrinous polyserositis. Grossly, the pleura, peritoneum and joints were affected and an acute meningitis was noted on microscopic examination of the brains. Pure cultures of Escherichia coli were recovered from all but one of the organs and exudates cultured.

  2. Meningite brucelótica: registro de caso Brucella meningitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Diniz Rosa; João Batista Arruda Vieira

    1985-01-01

    É relatado o caso de paciente com meningite brucelótica genuína, enfatizando-se fatores endêmicos e epidemiológicos em nosso país, bem como controvérsias sobre os testes imunológicos na vigência do quadro na fase aguda e em grupos etários de baixa idade.The authors report a case of genuine brucellar meningitis etiology. Emphasis was given on endemic and epidemiologic factors in our country as well as on contradictory clinical and complementary immunological tests in lower age groups...

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban Lamyaa; Siam Rania

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meni...

  4. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS IN PEDIATRICS: EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVALUATION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fahimzad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study aimed at investigating seasonal variation, clinical symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF changes in patients with aseptic meningitis admitted in Mofid hospital between 1995 and 1996.Materials & MethodsA total of 63 children with aseptic meningitis were enrolled in the study. Their age, gender, season of the disease, etiology, clinical symptoms, CSF changes, and treatment were evaluated and documented. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.ResultsThe male to female ratio of the patients was 2.5 to 1, mean age being 6.5 years. The disease occurrence was most common in spring and summer, and the most common symptoms observed were fever (92.6%, followed by nausea and vomiting (88.88% and 68.25%, neck stiffness, neck stiffness (54%, seizure (19%, kernig sign (14.28%, Brudzinski's sign (11.11%, and 1.58% of the patients had history of head injury. Mean white blood cell count for CSF was 165/mm3 (range, 6 to 850/mm3, the common cells being mononuclear cells; mean red blood cell count was 538 (range, 0 to 8100/mm3; protein and glucose levels were within the normal ranges. Blood and CSF culture and CSF smear were negative. Prognosis was excellent and mean duration of recovery was 5 days (range, 2 to 18 days.ConclusionAlthough the clinical symptoms of aseptic meningitis are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, its prognosis is excellent. The CSF features can be used to diagnose the disease.

  5. Meningeal sarcoidosis, pseudo-meningioma, and pachymeningitis of the convexity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranoux, D.; Devaux, B.; Lamy, C.; Mear, J. Y.; Roux, F. X.; Mas, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of meningeal sarcoidosis with unusual and misleading presentations are reported. In the first case, CT scan, angiographic, and MRI findings were indistinguishable from those of meningioma. CSF pleiocytosis may help in diagnosing sarcoid pseudo-meningioma. The second patient had transient focal deficits and pachymeningitis of the convexity. The transient deficits were probably of epileptic origin based on their response to antiepileptic treatment. The diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis wa...

  6. Auditing and improving notification and chemoprophylaxis in bacterial meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, I.; Kaul, S.; Peters, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to audit, against agreed standards, the control of bacterial meningitis, in particular completeness of notification and appropriateness of distribution of chemoprophylaxis to contacts; and to implement appropriate changes and monitor their impact. DESIGN--The first phase involved determination, for the years 1983 and 1984, of completeness of notification by comparison with a comprehensive case register. Information about chemoprophylaxis was obtained from case not...

  7. Climate Drives the Meningitis Epidemics Onset in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Every year West African countries within the Sahelo-Sudanian band are afflicted with major meningococcal meningitis (MCM disease outbreaks, which affect up to 200,000 people, mainly young children, in one of the world's poorest regions. The timing of the epidemic year, which starts in February and ends in late May, and the spatial distribution of disease cases throughout the "Meningitis Belt" strongly indicate a close linkage between the life cycle of the causative agent of MCM and climate variability. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly identified. Methods and Findings By comparing the information on cases and deaths of MCM from World Health Organization weekly reports with atmospheric datasets, we quantified the relationship between the seasonal occurrence of MCM in Mali, a West African country, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Regional atmospheric indexes based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and climate: the onset of epidemics and the winter maximum defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean week (sixth week of the year; standard deviation, 2 wk and are highly correlated. Conclusions This study is the first that provides a clear, quantitative demonstration of the connections that exist between MCM epidemics and regional climate variability in Africa. Moreover, this statistically robust explanation of the MCM dynamics enables the development of an Early Warning Index for meningitis epidemic onset in West Africa. The development of such an index will undoubtedly help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control MCM disease within the so-called westward-eastward pan-African Meningitis Belt.

  8. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma treated with surgery and radiation therapy -case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Oh, Yoon Kyeong [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an uncommon dura-based tumor and can recur not only locally but also distantly in the neural axis or extraneural sites. We report our experience of radiation therapy, one preoperative and one elective postoperative, in two patients with meningeal HPC and reviewed the role of radiation therapy. A 41-year-old man (Case 1) presented with a 3-month history of headache and right hemiparesis. The mass was nearly unresectable at the first and second operation and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Preoperative radiation therapy was given with a total dose of 55.8 Gy/31 fractions to the large residual mass of left frontoparietal area. Follow-up computerized tomography (CT) showed marked regression of tumor after radiation therapy. The third operation was performed to remove the residual tumor at 6 months after the radiation therapy and a 2 x 2 cm sized tumor was encountered. The mass was totally removed. The serial follow-up CT showed no evidence of recurrence and he is alive without distant metastasis for 4 years and 10 months after the first operation. A 45-year-old woman (Case 2) presented with suddenly developed headache and visual impairment. Tumor mass occupying right frontal lobe was removed with the preoperative diagnosis of meningioma. It was totally removed with attached sagittal sinus and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Elective postoperative radiation therapy was performed to reduce local recurrence with a total dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions to the involved area of right frontal lobe. She is alive for 5 years maintaining normal activity without local recurrence and distant metastasis.

  9. Vaccination against meningitis B: is it worth it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: when a new vaccine is licensed having passed the tests for efficacy and safety, governments who have to pay for it to be used, as in the UK, will carry out a careful economic appraisal before making it generally available. In this challenging article, Dr Peter English discusses whether or not a new vaccine for meningitis that has just been licensed and that could save lives is actually worth it.

  10. Cribriform plate: a sanctuary site for meningeal leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.V.

    1987-05-01

    Cranial irradiation is an effective prophylactic treatment for subclinical meningeal infiltration in lymphoblastic leukaemia, but, central nervous system (CNS) relapse still occurs in 6-10% of cases overall and as many as 30% of cases with a poor prognosis in some series. These recurrences may be due in part to inadvertent underdosage of the cribriform plate, centrally situated between the orbits and projected over their upper third in a lateral view. The dose to the adjacent meninges may thus be reduced by shielding of the radiosensitive lenses. This problem is exacerbated if conventional lateral fields centred on the mid-skull are used, because the eyes will not then project over one another. If the field centre is moved to the edge of the orbit, this problem of beam divergence can be overcome. Central axis beam blocking of both lenses is possible, in some patients the cribriform plate can be adequately irradiated. In most children the geometry of the orbit is such that it is necessary to add an anterior electron beam to ensure homogeneous dosage. These refinements in technique might prevent meningeal relapse with a lower whole-brain dose and, hence, fewer neurophyschological sequelae.

  11. The cribriform plate: a sanctuary site for meningeal leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial irradiation is an effective prophylactic treatment for subclinical meningeal infiltration in lymphoblastic leukaemia, but, central nervous system (CNS) relapse still occurs in 6-10% of cases overall and as many as 30% of cases with a poor prognosis in some series. These recurrences may be due in part to inadvertent underdosage of the cribriform plate, centrally situated between the orbits and projected over their upper third in a lateral view. The dose to the adjacent meninges may thus be reduced by shielding of the radiosensitive lenses. This problem is exacerbated if conventional lateral fields centred on the mid-skull are used, because the eyes will not then project over one another. If the field centre is moved to the edge of the orbit, this problem of beam divergence can be overcome. Central axis beam blocking of both lenses is possible, in some patients the cribriform plate can be adequately irradiated. In most children the geometry of the orbit is such that it is necessary to add an anterior electron beam to ensure homogeneous dosage. These refinements in technique might prevent meningeal relapse with a lower whole-brain dose and, hence, fewer neurophyschological sequelae. (author)

  12. The cribriform plate: a sanctuary site for meningeal leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M V

    1987-05-01

    Cranial irradiation is an effective prophylactic treatment for subclinical meningeal infiltration in lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, central nervous system (CNS) relapse still occurs in 6-10% of cases overall and in as many as 30% of cases with a poor prognosis in some series. These recurrences may be due in part to inadvertent underdosage of the cribriform plate, which is centrally situated between the orbits and is projected over their upper third in a lateral view. The dose to the adjacent meninges may thus be reduced by shielding of the radiosensitive lenses. This problem is exacerbated if conventional lateral fields centred on the mid-skull are used, because the eyes will not then project over one another. If the field centre is moved to the edge of the orbit, this problem of beam divergence can be overcome. Central axis beam blocking of both lenses is then possible, and in some patients the cribriform plate can be adequately irradiated. However, in most children the geometry of the orbit is such that it is necessary to add an anterior electron beam to ensure homogeneous dosage. These refinements in irradiation technique might prevent meningeal relapse with a lower whole-brain dose and, hence, fewer neuropsychological sequelae. This hypothesis could be tested in a clinical trial. PMID:3472622

  13. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma and hydrocephalus and intracranial superficial siderosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal melanocytomas are uncommon tumours of the central nervous system; fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English literature. We review the unique clinical presentation, radiological appearance and histological features of a rare case of meningeal melanocytoma. The patient was a 50-year-old man with a history of hypertension who presented with complaints of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and blurry vision for 2 days. Clinical examination revealed no hyperpigmentation marks and he had no history of regressed skin melanocytic lesions. Apart from mild terminal neck stiffness, his general medical examination was unremarkable. On funduscopic examination he had marked bilateral papilloedema and the blind spots were enlarged bilaterally. His neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. A magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus. On the precontrast T2-weighted images, there was hyperintensity of the meninges with little change after administration of gadolinium, which was suggestive of blood. On the T2-weighted sequences, there was evidence of hypo-i intensity on the surface of the pons and medulla, which was indicative of superficial siderosis

  14. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Aparecida Borges, Laval; Fabiana Cristina, Pimenta; João Guimarães de, Andrade; Soraya S., Andrade; Ana Lucia S. S. de, Andrade.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conju [...] gate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib), and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect) and of their carriage status (indirect effect). We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  15. Clinical characteristics of aseptic meningitis induced by intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Kawasaki disease

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura Hiroyuki; Nakayama Tomotaka; Kemmotsu Yasushi; Saji Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Aseptic meningitis is a serious adverse reaction to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. We studied the clinical characteristics of patients with acute Kawasaki disease (KD) who developed IVIG-induced aseptic meningitis. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients with KD who developed aseptic meningitis after IVIG treatment was performed. Results During the 10-year period from 2000 through 2009, among a total of 384 patients with Kawasaki dis...

  16. Relative Frequency of Enteroviruses in Children With Aseptic Meningitis Referred to Aboozar Hospital in Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Rasti; Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh; Manoochehr Makvandi; Ahmad Shamsi-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human Enteroviruses are members of the Picornaviridae family, they are nonenveloped,with icosahedral symmetry, positive RNA viruses and causes aseptic meningitis in both infants and adults.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Enteroviral meningitis among children referred to Ahvaz Aboozar hospital.Patients and Methods: 57 Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis and White Blood Cell (WBC) count of more...

  17. Meningococcal Meningitis Control in Iran: Five Year Comparative Study 2000-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabi Tavana, A.; Ataee, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and death rate of meningococcal meningitis among military and non military population in Iran from 2000 to 2004. All patients with clinical sign and symptoms of meningitis and para clinical findings were entered to the study from 21st March 2000 to 21st March 2004. Meningococcal meningitis was diagnosed on the basis isolation of the Neisseria meningitidis in culture. CSF samples were provided at admission before commencing antibiotic th...

  18. Levels of antibody to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculous meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramuki, A.; Bothamley, G. H.; Brennan, P. J.; Ivanyi, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an antibody immunoassay for tuberculous meningitis with a sensitivity greater than that of the initial bacterial smear while maintaining a 100% specificity. Antibody titers to five purified antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Seventy-four patients with tuberculous meningitis (26 culture positive) were compared with 26 patients with purulent meningitis, 69 patien...

  19. Burden of bacterial meningitis: a retrospective review on laboratory parameters and factors associated with death in meningitis, kelantan malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Rehana; Zueter, Abdel Rahman; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Norsa'adah, Bachok; Hasan, Siti Asma; Hasan, Habsah; Ahmad, Fadzilah

    2015-02-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and the risk factors associated with mortality in patients with meningitis. This is a retrospective review of patients diagnosed to have meningitis with positive culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. All cases aged 19 > years who were admitted to Hospital USM between January 2004 and December 2011 were included in the study. The CSF results database were obtained from the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Hospital USM, Kelantan. A checklist was used to record the clinical characteristics. A total of 125 cases met the inclusion criteria. The age of patients ranged between newborn and 19 years old (Mean±SD, 74.5±80.6 months). The majority of them were males (65.6%). Fever was the most common presentation (73.6%) followed by poor oral intake (48.0%), seizure (36.0%) and headache (24.8%). The mortality rate was 31.2%. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most frequent pathogens isolated (21.6%), followed by Acinetobacter spp. (17.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.6%), Streptococcus spp. (11.2%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%). There were significant association of in-hospital death with age (p=0.020) and conscious level (p=0.001). Infectious meningitis is a big health concern, especially among children. We found that coagulase negative staphylococcus, Acinetobacter species, S. aureus, Streptococcus spp and K. pneumoniae were prevalent in our hospital. These microorganisms were hospital associated pathogens. The 31% mortality linked to hospital acquired meningitis specifies the need for focused physician attention especially among younger aged patients. PMID:25797971

  20. BURDEN OF BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW ON LABORATORY PARAMETERS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH IN MENINGITIS, KELANTAN MALAYSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASRI, REHANA; ZUETER, ABDEL RAHMAN; MOHAMED, ZEEHAIDA; ALAM, MOHAMMAD KHURSHEED; NORSA’ADAH, BACHOK; HASAN, SITI ASMA; HASAN, HABSAH; AHMAD, FADZILAH

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To describe the clinical characteristics and the risk factors associated with mortality in patients with meningitis. This is a retrospective review of patients diagnosed to have meningitis with positive culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. All cases aged 19 > years who were admitted to Hospital USM between January 2004 and December 2011 were included in the study. The CSF results database were obtained from the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Hospital USM, Kelantan. A checklist was used to record the clinical characteristics. A total of 125 cases met the inclusion criteria. The age of patients ranged between newborn and 19 years old (Mean±SD, 74.5±80.6 months). The majority of them were males (65.6%). Fever was the most common presentation (73.6%) followed by poor oral intake (48.0%), seizure (36.0%) and headache (24.8%). The mortality rate was 31.2%. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most frequent pathogens isolated (21.6%), followed by Acinetobacter spp. (17.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.6%), Streptococcus spp. (11.2%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%). There were significant association of in-hospital death with age (p=0.020) and conscious level (p=0.001). Infectious meningitis is a big health concern, especially among children. We found that coagulase negative staphylococcus, Acinetobacter species, S. aureus, Streptococcus spp and K. pneumoniae were prevalent in our hospital. These microorganisms were hospital associated pathogens. The 31% mortality linked to hospital acquired meningitis specifies the need for focused physician attention especially among younger aged patients. PMID:25797971

  1. Meningitis simultánea por candida y tuberculosis como debut de sida / Simultaneous meningitis caused by candida and tuberculosis as AIDS manifestation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Arias Gómez; I., Requena Caballero; C., Lema Devesa; J., Suárez Dono; J., Llovo Martínez; V., Martino.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las meningoencefalitis por gérmenes oportunistas ocupan un lugar importante dentro de la patología neurológica del sida. Treponema pallidum y Mycobacterium tuberculosis dentro de las baceterias, Crytptococcus neoformans dentro de los hongos, Toxoplasma gondii dentro de los protozoos y el Papovavirus [...] JC dentro de los virus, son los gérmenes más frecuentes dentro de cada grupo. Con cierta frecuencia las infecciones son mixtas, tal como ocurrió en el caso que se presenta de meningitis simultánea por Candida albicans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis, que cursó con pleocitosis neutrófila y normoglucorraquia, constituyendo la primera manifestación de un sida. El estudio secuencial del LCR es clave para el diagnóstico de estos casos, que, pese a su gravedad, pueden tener un tratamiento efectivo, tal como ocurrió en el que se describe. Es el primer caso descrito de meningitis simultánea candidiásica y tuberculosa en paciente portador de VIH. Abstract in english Opportunistic germs meningoencephalitis plays an important role within neurologic pathology in aids. Treponema pallidum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among bacteries, Cryptococcus neoformans in fungus group, Toxoplasma gondii in protozoos group and Papovavirus JC in virus one are the most frequentl [...] y implicated germs. Sometimes infections are mixed. We present a simultaneous meningitis case produced by Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that coursed with neutrophilic pleocytosis in CSF and normal glucose CSF levels, consisting the clinical debut of aids. Repeated CSF examinations are the diagnostic clue owing, as in our case, instauration of early treatment. Present case of simultaneous tuberculous and candidiasic meningitis is the first one described in a HIV positive patient.

  2. Arterial Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to better monitor blood pressure and/or blood gases. ? Blood clots— If blood clots form on the tips of arterial catheters, the clots can block blood flow. If another blood vessel does not carry blood to the area beyond the clot, this can cause the loss ...

  3. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Fida A.

    2004-01-01

    Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Ente...

  4. Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoni, Mariana V.; Berezin, Eitan N.; Sa?fadi, Marco A. P.; Almeida, Fla?via J.; Lopes, Cla?udia R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana V. Arnoni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

  6. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new. (orig.)

  7. Syringomyelia following tuberculous meningitis. Report of three cases diagnosed by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Takeshita, Koji; Makita, Kozo; Furui, Shigeru; Takenaka, Eiichi

    1988-11-01

    We present three cases with syringomyelia after tuberculous meningitis. The MR findings suggested the syrinx was formed by blockage of the CSF flow at the outlets of the fourth ventricle. We consider this complication is not a rare condition following tuberculous meningitis.

  8. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination. PMID:25340259

  9. Tuberculous meningitis with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis: A clinicoradiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalita J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims at evaluating the clinical and radiological outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM patients with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, CT scan or MRI and CSF criteria, and that of miliary tuberculosis on chest radiograph. Detailed clinical evaluation was done in all. Severity of meningitis was graded into Grades I, II and III. Complete hemogram, serum chemistry and Montaux tests were performed. The recovery was defined on the basis of 6 months Barthel index score as poor, partial or complete. RESULTS: 20 out of 165 patients with TBM had pulmonary miliary tuberculosis. Their mean age was 30 years; there was one child and 13 patients were females. The mean duration of symptoms was 6.3 months. Montoux test was negative in 9 patients. Six patients were in stage I, 3 in stage II, and 11 in stage III meningitis. Hemoglobin was below 12 gm% in 13 and liver dysfunction and hypocalcaemia was present in 8 and 18 patients respectively. CT scan was abnormal in 16 patients and revealed hydrocephalus (10, granuloma (7, exudates (3 and infarction (1. MRI was abnormal in 7 out of 8 patients and 3 of these patients had normal CT scan. MRI revealed multiple granuloma in 7 patients and exudates in 2. At 6 months, 2 patients died, 10 had complete, 2 had partial and 4 had poor recovery. CONCLUSION: TBM with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis was commoner amongst females who were anemic and hypocalcaemic. MRI revealed multiple granuloma and the majority of the patients improved.

  10. IL-6 and IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with aseptic meningitis and bacterial meningitis: their potential role as a marker for differential diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Laerte Laerte, Pinto Junior; Maria Cristina, Rebelo; Rachel Novaes, Gomes; Edson Fernandes de, Assis; Hugo C, Castro-Faria-Neto; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cytokines are molecules that act as mediators of immune response; cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 is found in all meningeal inflammatory diseases, but IL-8 is associated with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). A case control study was done to ascertain the discriminatory power of these cytokines in [...] differentiating ABM from aseptic meningitis (AM); IL-6 and IL-8 CSF concentrations were tested through ELISA in samples collected from patients who underwent investigation for meningitis. Sixty patients, 18 with AM, nine with bacteriologic confirmed ABM and 33 controls, assisted in 2005 (MA and controls) and 2007 (ABM) were included. Differently from controls, IL-6 concentrations were increased both in MA and ABM patients (p

  11. Salmonella berta meningitis in a term neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, A C; Fischer, M; Waggoner-Fountain, L A; Heinan, K C; Goodkin, H P; Zanelli, S A

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 37-week male infant born via spontaneous vaginal delivery who developed Salmonella berta sepsis and meningitis. The infant was born to a mother with active diarrhea and stool cultures growing S. berta. On day 3, the infant developed poor feeding, lethargy, apnea and bradycardia prompting a sepsis evaluation. Blood, stool and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for S. berta. An electroencephalogram performed for posturing revealed neonatal status epilepticus. Extensive bilateral periventricular venous hemorrhagic infarctions with multiple herniations were seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The infant's condition continued to deteriorate despite maximal support and care was redirected towards comfort measures. PMID:25263727

  12. Acute meningitis as an initial manifestation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Nam Yong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacillus which is found worldwide. Although bloodstream infections caused by E. rhusiopathiae are not common, there is a strong association between bacteremia and the development of infective endocarditis. The risk of human infection with Erysipelothrix is closely related to the opportunity for exposure to the organisms. We report a case of community-acquired meningitis as an initial manifestation of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis in a 56-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to animals. PMID:21409531

  13. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  14. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, T. [Department of Neurology, CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India); Kochar, D.K. [Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  15. Oral Wooden Stick Injury Complicated by Meningitis and Brain Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jung Chang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is rarely seen following oral injury. We describe a 3-year-old boy developingmeningitis and brain abscess following a penetrating oral wooden stick injury. Therewas no cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea noted. A cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded viridansstreptococcus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed amultiloculated ring-enhancing mass. This patient underwent surgical drainage and completed8-week antibiotic therapy. The patient demonstrated a late and dismal complication of apenetrating oral injury. At 2-year follow-up the patient was in good condition. A penetratingoral wooden stick inury should be regarded as potentially serious.

  16. Moxifloxacin in the Therapy of Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H.; Dalhoff, A.; Stuertz, K.; Trostdorf, F.; Chen, V.; Schneider, O.; Kohlsdorfer, C.; Bru?ck, W.; Nau, R.

    1998-01-01

    The activity of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) against a Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 strain (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] of moxifloxacin, 0.06 and 0.25 ?g/ml, respectively; MIC and MBC of ceftriaxone, 0.03 and 0.06 ?g/ml, respectively) was determined in vitro and in a rabbit model of meningitis. Despite comparable bactericidal activity, 10 ?g of moxifloxacin per ml released lipoteichoic and teichoic acids less rapidly than 10 ?g of ceftriaxone per ml in vitro. Against...

  17. Effect of contrast media and chymopapain on the spinal meninges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cases of paralysis following diskography and chemonucleolysis have been reported. The relationship between paralysis and the procedure has not been explained in previous experimental investigations. Therefore, we tested chymopapain and renografin in an experimental animal model used extensively for studying the toxic effect of drugs on the meninges. In four cynomolgus monkeys, renografin was injected into the epidural space, and in four other monkeys, chymopapain was used. The animals were killed 12 weeks later, and the dural sac was removed for histologic examination. The severity of arachnoid and dural fibrosis in the two groups was compared. Vascular thrombosis, foreign body reaction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were assessed

  18. Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma of Brain: Role of Radiation Therapy

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    Paramjeet Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon vascular tumour. Complete surgical resection is treatment of choice. However, late local recurrences and distant extraneural metastases ranging from 12% to 57% are reported in literature after complete removal. Post operative radiotherapy is indicated in unresectable or incompletely excised tumour. We present a case of meningeal hemangiopericytoma in a 60 years old female patient treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no evidence of disease at primary site and no sign or symptoms of metastatic disease in the patient after three years.

  19. Caso clínico de una meningitis por reactivación del virus varicela zóster en un paciente inmunocompetente / Case report of an inmunocompetent patient with reactivation of varicela zoster as meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Vial U; Sofía, González T-K; Mirta Javiera, López G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este reporte presentamos el caso de un niño de 15 años sin antecedentes mórbidos, que consulta por un cuadro de cefalea febril, erupción cutánea de características herpéticas en tórax, en quien finalmente se confirma el diagnóstico de meningitis por varicela zóster. La literatura nos muestra que [...] la reactivación del virus varicela zóster en forma de meningitis es rara y en general afecta a la población inmunocomprometida, sin embargo, existen algunos reportes de casos similares al que se presenta, por lo que se debiese considerar como germen causal de meningitis, en la población inmunocompetente. Abstract in english This is a case report about a 15-year-old boy with no other previous medical history than chicken pox. His symptoms were headache, fever and a rash with vesicles in the dermatome that corresponds to T8. He was diagnosed with meningitis by the varicella-zoster virus. The information in the literature [...] is scarce and shows that reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus as meningitis is rare and generally affects immunodeficient patients; however, there are some case reports similar to this case in which the varicella-zoster virus is the agent involved, so it should also be considered in immunocompetent patients diagnosed with meningitis.

  20. Neuro-Behçet: differential diagnosis of recurrent meningitis / Presentación de enfermedad de Behçet como meningitis recurrente: Informe de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreya, Fonseca Cardoso; Pedro Augusto, Rocha-Filho; Ana Rosa, Melo Correa-Lima.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La enfermedad de Behçet is una perivasculitis sistémica inflamatoria caracterizada por episodios recurrentes de úlceras orales y genitales asociadas a lesiones cutáneas y oculares. El 5 a 10% de los casos tiene compromiso neurológico y el compromiso meníngeo aislado es muy poco común. Presentamos un [...] hombre de 21 años con enfermedad de Behçet y una historia de síndrome meníngeo en dos crisis previas y meningoencefalitis en tres otras. El paciente tenía una historia de conjuntivitis y úlceras orales y genitales. Al examen se encontraron lesiones aftosas, edema macular, compromiso de nervios craneanos, signos piramidales e irritación meníngea. El recuento celular del líquido cefalorraquídeo fue de 1.800 células/ml con predominancia polimorfonuclear. La resonancia magnética mostró lesiones en los ganglios basales y tronco encefálico. El paciente mejoró dramáticamente con el uso de corticoides endovenosos. Abstract in english Behçet disease is a systemic inflammatory perivasculitis characterized by recurrent episodes oforal and genital ulcers associated with skin and ocular lesions. Neurological involvement occurs in 5 to 10% of the cases, and isolated meningeal involvement is very uncommon. We report a 21 years old man [...] with a Behçet disease and a history of acute meningeal syndrome in two previous crises and meningoencephalitis in three others. He reported a history of conjunctivitis and oral and genital ulcers. On examination, he presented oral aphthoid lesions, macular edema, involvement of cranial nerves, pyramidal signs and meningeal irritation. The cell count in cerebrospinal fluid was 1800 cells/mm³, with polymorphonuclear predominance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions in basal ganglia and the brainstem. The patient improved dramatically after intravenous steroid therapy.

  1. Neuroimmunological findings of Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis in ecuadorian patients / Hallazgos neuroinmunologicos en meningitis por Angiostrongylus cantonesis en pacientes ecuatorianos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto J., Dorta-Contreras; Barbara, Padilla-Docal; Juan M., Moreira; Luiggi Martini, Robles; Jenny Muzzio, Aroca; Fernando, Alarcón; Raisa, Bu-Coifiu- Fanego.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish La meningitis provocada por Angiostrongylus cantonensis ha sido reportada recientemente en pacientes procedentes de los primeros brotes reportados en regiones subtropicales de Ecuador. MÉTODO: Ocho adultos jóvenes procedentes de dos brotes fueron estudiados. Se cuantificó IgA, IgM, IgG y albúmina en [...] suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo y fueron colocados en los gráficos de las razones líquido cefalorraquídeo/suero (reibergramas). La anamnesia incluía ingestión de caracoles crudos, los síntomas y los daños provocados. RESULTADOS: Una eosinofílica promedio de 7,5 y 26% en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo fue observada al igual que un moderado incremento en las proteínas totales. El patrón de síntesis intratecal predominante fue de tres clases de inmunoglobulinas. La síntesis intratecal de IgM se observó en todos los casos a las dos semanas después del inicio de los síntomas. CONCLUSIÓN: El patrón de síntesis intratecal de la meningitis eosinofílica por Angiostrongylus cantonensis facilitado por el análisis del líquido cefalorraquídeo fue similar a los casos previos reportados fuera del país. Abstract in english Meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis has recently been reported in patients resulting from the first outbreaks in subtropical regions of Ecuador. METHOD: Eight young adult patients from the two outbreaks were studied. IgA, IgM, IgG and albumin in cerebrospinal fluid and serum were quanti [...] fied and plotted in cerebrospinal fluid/serum quotient diagrams (Reibergrams). The anamnesis on the patients included asking about any consumption of raw snails, symptoms and harm caused. RESULTS: Mean eosinophilia of 7.5% and 26% in serum and cerebrospinal fluid respectively was observed, as well as a moderate increase in total proteins. The most frequent pattern of intrathecal synthesis was observed in three classes of immunoglobulins. Intrathecal synthesis of IgM was observed in all cases two weeks after the first symptoms appeared. CONCLUSION: The intrathecal synthesis patterns of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis, facilitated by cerebrospinal fluid analysis, were similar to those of previous cases from abroad.

  2. A child case of meningitis tuberculosa showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-year-old boy is presented in whom plain CT failed to reveal specific findings suggesting inflammation, but enhanced CT revealed noticeably abnormal enhancement along the right middle cerebral artery and linear enhancement at the periphery of the artery. The cause of specific enhancement and its clinical value are discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Unusual Tonsillar Herniation in Meningeal Melanocytoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Samimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a primary melanocytic neoplasm with certain MR and immunohistochemical characteristics worthy to note. In a 38-year-old man with a complaint of headache for a couple of years and recently added nausea, vomiting, diplopia, progressive visual blurring and hearing loss, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was remarkable for T1 shortening of leptomeninges and certain nodules in precontrast study. Subsequent contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain and spine revealed enhancement in the basal cisterns extending throughout the spinal canal. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed diffuse enhancement in the basal cisterns extending throughout the spinal canal. Immunohistochemical analysis on one of the intraspinal nodules proposed leptomeningeal melanocytoma. The characteristic shortening of T1 and T2 relaxation times in MRI as a result of the paramagnetic stable free radicals that exist within melanin, often suggests a diagnosis of a melanocytic leptomeningeal process. Moreover, there are unique immunohistochemical characteristics for this varied lesions.In appropriate clinical settings, certain radiologic findings, especially both T1 and T2 shortening in nodular CNS lesions should propose meningeal melanocytoma.

  4. A Case with Pituitary Abscess Presented with Acute Purulent Meningitis

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    ?lkay Çak?r

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease. Misdiagnosis is extremely frequent, until the drainage of purulent material during surgery because of the non-spesific clinical signs and laboratory findings. The diagnosis can be made preoperatively with awareness of the disease and careful assessment of radiological investigations, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We report a 43-year-old man who presented with acute purulent meningitis. Control MRI scans, performed because of the deterioration in patient’s general status during follow-up, revealed a pituitary abscess. We preferred a conservative approach initially, but abscess drainage later became essential, since there was no response to antibiotic therapy. The lesion disappeared after transsphenoidal drainage. The general health status of the patient, receiving a replacement therapy for anterior pituitary deficiency, was good 2 months after discharge. Pituitary abscess should be kept in mind in patients with acute meningitis whose clinical picture deteriorates despite the appropriate treatment. This case illustrates that the preoperative diagnosis is possible with careful evaluation, and with the treatment of this life-threatening condition, satisfactory results might be achieved. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 63-6

  5. Meningococcal Meningitis: Monitoring the Use of Appropriate Antibiotic Prophylaxis

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    Baris B

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of recommended antibiotic prophylaxis in reported cases of meningococcal meningitis. Method: All cases of meningococcal meningitis reported to the public health authority of the Puy-de- Dôme (Direction départementale des affaires sanitaires et sociales during 1999 and 2000 were studied. Each report included the date of infection and the number of individuals exposed. This information was compared to data on rifampicin prescriptions during the same period obtained from the specific drug-codes contained in French national health insurance’s computer database. Results: We selected those treatments which were likely to represent prophylactic rifampicin use and, by using a correction coefficient, identified a theoretic number of prophylactic prescriptions. This number was considered to be the high threshold for prophylactic prescriptions. Using these two indicators, we quantified the disparity between recommendations and the actual implementation of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Finally, we propose an efficiency indicator by determining how soon after exposure prophylactic rifampicin was prescribed. Conclusion: The specific drug-codes can provide us with indicators for quantifying the implementation of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.

  6. The diagnosis and medical management of tuberculous meningitis in adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Marais; R J, Wilkinson.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a medical emergency for which tuberculosis (TB) treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis. Owing to the low diagnostic yields of confirmatory tests, TBM is often diagnosed based on suggestive clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings, evidence [...] for TB outside the central nervous system (CNS), typical brain imaging features and exclusion of other causes of meningitis. TB drug regimens used in TBM may be suboptimal as they are informed by studies of TB outside the CNS, rather than being based on randomised controlled trials in TBM. TBM has a high mortality and the management of HIV-co-infected patients is further complicated by neurological TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which frequently occurs after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) during TBM treatment and contributes to the poor outcome in HIV-associated TBM. HIV-infected TBM patients due to start ART should be counselled about the risk of developing neurological TB-IRIS, typical symptoms that could be expected and need to return to hospital should any of these develop. Currently, the only evidence-based treatment for TB-IRIS is with corticosteroids, which should be considered in all cases of neurological TB-IRIS.

  7. Coronary artery disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  8. Hardening of the arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardening of the arteries, also called atherosclerosis, occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in ... the arteries and cause problems throughout the body. Hardening of the arteries is a common disorder.

  9. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  10. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fida A., Khan.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier seco [...] ndary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  11. Endovascular therapy of a craniocervical pial AVF fed by the anterior spinal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshekhlee, Amer; Edgell, Randall C; Kale, Sushant P; Kitchener, Jacob; Vora, Nirav

    2013-01-01

    Though pial arteriovenous fistulae (PAVF) are an uncommon cerebrovascular disorder, their presentation with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not rare. PAVF near the craniocervical junction are rare and may have a worse outcome. These fistulae are often fed from either the carotid and/or the vertebrobasilar systems, but are rarely fed by the anterior spinal artery. We report the case of a young man presenting with SAH. Cerebral angiography revealed 2 AVF, a symptomatic PAVF located at the craniocervical junction and fed from the anterior spinal artery and incidental dural AVF (DAVF) originate from the left occipital and middle meningeal arteries. These fistulae were treated with different endovascular techniques, including Onyx and platinum coil embolization into the feeding arteries of the DAVF and PAVF, respectively. PMID:21223434

  12. Protective effects of cisternal irrigation on leptomeningeal and cortical structures in meningitis: An experimental study

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    Aydin Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meningitis, termed as foreign material collection in the subarachnoid space, leads to various meningeal, cerebral and spinal cord pathologies. Meningitis still remains a problematic disease with severe complications in spite of advanced medical technology. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of cisternal irrigation in the prevention of meningitis complications. SETTING AND STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study was done in the Social Security Hospital of Erzurum. Histopathological specimens were evaluated in the Pathology Department in the Ataturk University Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on twelve lambs. Experimental meningitis was achieved with streptococcus pneumonia. Two animals were not treated. Ten animals were given CefotaximeR (4x1 g/day for 20 days, and additionally half of these animals underwent cisternal irrigation. Then, all animals were sacrificed and brains were observed histopathologically. RESULTS: Massive purulent CSF formation, hemorrhagic cortical lesions, vascular congestion, leptomeningeal and cortical adhesions and brain edema were observed in the non-irrigated group, but these findings were observed slightly or absent in the irrigated group. CONCLUSION: Meningitis can affect all central neural tissues, consequently serious central nervous system lesions may develop. The irrigation procedure may decrease the percentage and severity of meningitis complications by way of the excretion of inflammed purulent collection from the subarachnoid spaces.

  13. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p?0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p?=?0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001). Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  14. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma only diagnosed at the time of late bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satayasoontorn, Kantang; Righi, Alberto; Gambarotti, Marco; Merlino, Biagio; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Vanel, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is a rare neoplasm. Primary meningeal hemangiopericytomas account for 1 to 7% of all meningeal tumors. In the literature, meningeal hemangiopericytomas are mainly case reports, which confirm an aggressive behavior with a high rate of local recurrence and extracranial metastasis. Metastasis can be seen many years after initial surgical excision of the primary tumor, and the most common sites include the bone, liver and lung. We present a pathological study of four meningeal hemangiopericytomas with bone metastases. All patients are male with a mean age of 46.5 years. Metastases only involved bone. Three out of four lesions were initially misdiagnosed as meningiomas. Only one case was initially correctly diagnosed as meningeal hemangiopericytoma. All patients underwent surgery with complete resection. Only the patient immediately diagnosed with meningeal hemangiopericytoma received postoperative radiation therapy. Three patients had bone metastases without local recurrence including the one who received radiation therapy. One patient recurred locally after 7 years, and bone metastasis was found at the same time. Our cases confirm that meningeal hemangiopericytomas are a separate entity and have a high recurrence rate despite complete surgical resection, with extracranial metastases, mainly to bone, even after long intervals. PMID:24934329

  15. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gans Jan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis, confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid, which occurred in patients aged >16 years. The diagnosis of arthritis was based upon the judgment of the treating physician. To identify differences between groups Fisher exact statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results Arthritis was recorded in 48 of 696 (7% episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. Joint-fluid aspirations were performed in 23 of 48 patients (48% and joint-fluid cultures yielded bacteria in 6 of 23 patients (26%. Arthritis occurred most frequently in patients with meningococcal meningitis (12%. Of the 48 patients with bacterial meningitis and coexisting arthritis, four died (8% and 10 (23% had residual joint symptoms. Conclusion Arthritis is a common manifestation in patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Functional outcome of arthritis in bacterial meningitis is generally good because meningococcal arthritis is usually immune-mediated, and pneumococcal arthritis is generally less deforming than staphylococcal arthritis. Nevertheless, additional therapeutic measures should be considered if clinical course is complicated by arthritis. In patients with infectious arthritis prolonged antibiotic therapy is mandatory.

  16. Epidemiological analysis on two decades of hospitalisations for meningitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, P; Carnovale, C; Perrone, V; Salvati, D; Gentili, M; Brusadelli, T; Antoniazzi, S; Pozzi, M; Radice, S; Clementi, E

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an important source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Data exist on specific vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis indicating that they reduce the incidence of meningitis, yet comprehensive information on the trend of bacterial meningitis is still lacking. We analysed the Kids' Inpatient Database and the National Inpatient Database considering all bacterial meningitides in the United States, excluding cases of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. We analysed the trend of meningitis incidence from 1993 to 2011 and in specific age groups before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV-7) and the meningococcal conjugate vaccine 4 (MCV-4). Moreover, we analysed the prevalence of aetiological agents to assess their changes. We estimated 295,706 cases of meningitis having occurred in the United States and a reduction of the discharge rate of 21 %. We observed a significant reduction in cases of meningitis in children and elderly patients following the introduction of the PCV-7. We also found a reduction in subjects aged 10-14 years, an age span consistent with the introduction of MCV-4, although further analyses based on serotypes data are required to confirm this observation. By contrast, we observed an increased prevalence of cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal meningitides. The introduction of PCV-7 has reduced the incidence and changed significantly the aetiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States during the last two decades. PMID:24756210

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected: Experience from a North Indian tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Susheel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is a common opportunistic infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected individuals. There is little information specifically addressing cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients from North India. Aims: To determine clinical presentation, hospital course, response to treatment, complications developed, in-hospital mortality, any recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis and reasons of recurrence during follow-up. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study undertaken in a large tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Patient?s demographic data, presenting clinical symptomatology, physical findings, laboratory parameters, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination findings, side-effects of treatment, development of any complications and hospital outcome were analyzed. During follow-up any recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis, possible reasons of recurrence, type of treatment received, complications developed and outcome was recorded as well. Results: Forty patients diagnosed to have cryptococcal meningitis were analyzed. Twenty-two (55% patients had acute/ subacute presentation. Thirty-six (90% patients presented with headache and 18 (45% had altered sensorium. Twenty (50% patients had no cells in the CSF. Hypoglycorrhchia was seen in 30 (75% patients. Cryptococcal meningitis was the first acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining illness in 30 (75% patients. Thirty-five patients developed some adverse effects to amphotericin-B. Thirty-three patients improved with treatment while three patients died. Four patients had recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis within six months of first episode. Non-compliance of fluconazole therapy was the reason for recurrence in all of these patients. Conclusions: Cryptococcal meningitis is a common initial AIDS-defining illness. Acute and/or subacute presentation of cryptococcal meningitis is not uncommon in HIV-infected individuals. An early diagnosis of HIV infection might reduce the incidence of this infection.

  18. YKL-40 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with purulent meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, C; Johansen, JS

    2002-01-01

    YKL-40, a member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is secreted by activated neutrophils and macrophages. It is a growth factor for connective tissue cells and a potent migration factor for endothelial cells and may function in inflammation and tissue remodeling. YKL-40 was determined in 134 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken on admission from patients suspected of having meningitis (48 with purulent meningitis, 49 with lymphocytic meningitis, 5 with encephalitis, and 32 without evidence of meningitis). YKL-40 levels in CSF were significantly higher in patients with purulent meningitis (median, 663 microg/liter [range, 20 to 8,960]) and encephalitis (5,430 microg/liter [620 to 11,600]) than in patients with lymphocytic meningitis (137 microg/liter [41 to 1,865]) or patients without meningitis (167 microg/liter [24 to 630]) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison tests, P < 0.001). CSF YKL-40 levels were also determined for 26 patients with purulent meningitis having a repuncture, and patients whodied (n = 5) had significantly higher YKL-40 levels than patients who survived (n = 21) (2,100 microg/liter [1,160 to 7,050] versus 885 microg/liter [192 to 15,400], respectively; Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.018). YKL-40 was most likely locally produced, since patients with infections of the central nervous system had CSF YKL-40 levels that were at least 10-fold higher than the corresponding levels in serum (2,033 microg/liter [470 to 11,600] versus 80 microg/liter [19 to 195]). The CSF neopterin level was the biochemical parameter in CSF and blood that correlated best with CSF YKL-40 levels, indicating that YKL-40 may be produced by activated macrophages within the central nervous system. In conclusion, high levels of YKL-40 in CSF are found in patients with purulent meningitis.

  19. [Arterial stenosis after radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedbois, P; Becquemin, J P; Pierquin, B; Blanc, I; Mazeron, J J; Pavlovitch, J M; Otmezguine, Y; Calitchi, E; Brun, B; Feuilhade, F

    1990-01-01

    Published reports of arterial stenosis following radiotherapy are reviewed. In oncological practice, this complication is rare but experimental studies have demonstrated the role of irradiation in producing arterial lesions. The histological specificity and the mechanisms of radiation and related arterial lesions are discussed. Atherosclerosis risk factors and chemotherapy could have a synergic role on artery stenosis. Cases reported of arterial stenosis after radiotherapy include subclavicular artery after breast cancer, carotid artery after head and neck cancer, coronary artery and abdominal aorta or its trunks after pelvic and abdominal irradiation. The radiotherapy parameters described are not unusual. Therapeutical modalities and their indications are presented. PMID:8703540

  20. Arterial stenosis following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published reports of arterial stenosis following radiotherapy are reviewed. In oncological practice, this complication is rare but experimental studies have demonstrated the role of irradiation in producing arterial lesions. The histological specificity and the mechanisms of radiation and related arterial lesions are discussed. Atherosclerosis risk factors and chemotherapy could have a synergic role on artery stenosis. Cases reported of arterial stenosis after radiotherapy include subclavicular artery after breast cancer, carotid artery after head and neck cancer, coronary artery and abdominal aorta or its trunks after pelvic and abdominal irradiation. The radiotherapy parameters described are not unusual. Therapeutical modalities and their indications are presented

  1. Tuberculous Meningitis: A Comparison of Scoring Systems for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Kurien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a major clinical and public health problem, both for diagnosis and management. We compare two established scoring systems, Thwaites and the Lancet consensus scoring system for the diagnosis of TB and compare the clinical outcome in a tertiary care setting.Methods: We analyzed 306 patients with central nervous system (CNS infection over a 5-year period and classified them based on the unit’s diagnosis, the Thwaites classification as well as the newer Lancet consensus scoring system. Patients with discordant results-reasons for discordance as well as differences in outcome were also analyzed.Results: Among the 306 patients, the final diagnosis of the treating physician was TBM in 84.6% (260/306, acute CNS infections in 9.5% (29/306, pyogenic meningitis in 4.2% (13/306 and aseptic meningitis in 1.3% (4/306. Among these 306 patients, 284 (92.8% were classified as "TBM" by the Thwaites" score and the rest as "Pyogenic". The Lancet score on these patients classified 29 cases (9.5% as 'Definite-TBM', 43 cases (14.1% as "Probable-TBM", 186 cases (60.8% as "Possible-TBM" and the rest as "Non TBM". There was moderate agreement between the unit diagnosis and Thwaites classification (Kappa statistic = 0.53, as well as the Lancet scoring systems. There is only moderate agreement between the Thwaites classification as well as the Lancet scoring systems. It was noted that 32/ 284 (11% of patients who were classified as TBM by the Thwaites system were classified as "Non TBM" by the Lancet score and 6/258 (2% of those who were diagnosed as possible, probable or definite TB were classified as Non TB by the Thwaites score. However, patients who had discordant results between these scores were not different from those who had concordant results when treatment was initiated based on expert clinical evaluation in the tertiary care setting.Conclusion: There was only moderate agreement between the Thwaites' score and the Lancet consensus scoring systems. There is need to prospectively evaluate the cost effectiveness of simple but more effective rapid diagnostic alogrithm in the diagnosis of TB, particularly in a setting without CT and MRI facilities.

  2. Clavicular and meningeal alveolar soft part sarcoma: An unusual case and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aaron W.; Chang, Le; Levine, Benjamin; Dry, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) commonly arises in the soft tissue of the lower extremities. Primary bone involvement is rare. Methods/Results We report a 23-year-old male who presented with pathologic fracture of the clavicle, and diagnosis of clavicular ASPS. Workup demonstrated a lumbar meningeal mass, also involving the vertebral bodies. Conclusions Few cases of primary bone ASPS have been identified. Most common primary bone involvement includes the fibula, ilium and tibia. Likewise, meningeal involvement is quite rare. In summary, primary bone ASPS is rare and may involve the clavicle. Meningeal involvement is likewise rare, and presumably represents metastatic spread. PMID:24719534

  3. Incidence, seasonality, age distribution, and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Yves; Tameklo, Tsidi Agbeko; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Lourd, Mathilde; Yaro, Seydou; Niamba, Dominique; Drabo, Aly; Mueller, Judith E; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Gessner, Bradford D

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a substantial proportion of meningitis cases in the African meningitis belt; however, few reports exist to quantify its burden and characteristics. We conducted population-based and sentinel hospital surveillance of acute bacterial meningitis among persons of all ages in Burkina Faso and Togo in 2002-2006. S. pneumoniae and other organisms were identified by culture, polymerase chain reaction, or detection of antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information was collected on 2843 patients with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. CSF specimens were collected from 2689 (95%) of the patients; of these 2689, 463 (17%) had S. pneumoniae identified, 234 (9%) had Haemophilus influenzae type b identified, and 400 (15%) had Neisseria meningitidis identified. Of the 463 cases of S. pneumoniae meningitis, 99 (21%) were aged or=15 years (age was unknown for 9 [2%]). In Burkina Faso, the annual incidence rate of pneumococcal meningitis was 14 cases per 100,000 persons, with annual incidence rates of 77, 33, 10, and 11 cases per 100,000 persons aged or=15 years, respectively. The case-fatality ratio for S. pneumoniae meningitis was 47% (range for age groups, 44%-52%), and 53% of deaths occurred among those aged >5 years. S. pneumoniae meningitis had an epidemic pattern similar to that of N. meningitidis meningitis. Of 48 isolates tested for serotype, 18 were from children aged serotypes 1, 2, and 5, and 5 isolates (28%) were serotype 6A. The 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines would cover 6%, 39%, and 67% of serotypes identified among children aged serotypes identified for patients aged >or=5 years, 18 (60%) were serotype 1, whereas no other serotype constituted >10%. The 7-, 10-, and 13-valent vaccines would cover 7%, 70%, and 77% of serotypes. Epidemic pneumococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt countries of Burkina Faso and Togo is common, affects all age groups, and is highly lethal. On the basis of a modest number of isolates from a limited area that includes only meningitis cases, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine might have only a limited and short-term role. By contrast, the proposed 10- and 13-valent vaccines would cover most of the identified serotypes. To better inform vaccine policy, continued and expanded surveillance is essential to document serotypes associated with pneumonia, changes in serotype distribution across time, and the impact of vaccine after vaccine introduction. PMID:19191614

  4. A country-wide field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test for meningococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteau, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    We comment on a unique country-wide scale field evaluation of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for meningococcal meningitis in Niger. The authors reported the good sensitivity and specificity of the test, and the reliability of results obtained in the field by non-specialized health staff. This finding allows us to consider RDT as a good candidate laboratory tool to be used for the case-based surveillance system, post introduction of the new conjugate A vaccine (MenAfriVac) in the African meningitis belt countries. In addition, RDT is also a potential point of care test to improve the management of meningitis patients. PMID:24627423

  5. CT of the base of the skull in bacterial meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations of 42 cases of bacterial meningitis revealed in 38.1% of the cases relevant inflammatory processes at the base of the skull which were of significant importance for a transmitted infection. Such infections were: Sinusitis frontalis, ethmoidalis, maxillaris and sphenoidalis, mastoiditis or petrositis, suppurating mucocele, impression fracture, and an intracranially penetrated foreign body. Excepting the identification of fine fractures, conventional X-ray films were diagnostically superior. Hence, especially in the acute stages, special projections can be omitted, if CT is effected in the region of the osseous base of the skull. CT performed in inflammatory diseases of the brain must include the base of the skull, since this will yield reliable pointers to original focus of the inflammation requiring appropriate treatment and elimination. (orig.)

  6. Neonatal Meningitis: Clinical and Bacteriologic Findings in 120 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Behjati

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study, clinical signs and bacteriological findings in 120 neonates (82 males, 38 female with meningitis have been evaluated. 60 were premature and 60 full term infants. Clinical signs consisted of weak neonatal reflexes in 86 neonates (70%, poor feeding 62 (41%, jaundice 41 (34%, fever 29 (24%, apnea 19 (16%, restlessness 18 (15%, respiratory distress 14 (11%, vomiting 10 (8% and abdominal distension 8 (7%. The signs of central nervous system involvement were observed as follows: Convulsions in 45 patients (37%, bulged fontanel 17 (14%, opisthotonous 5 (4% and coma 17 (14%. Blood culture was in only 28 cases positive. CSF culture was positive in 56 cases and the isolated microorganisms consisted of salmonella spp in 22 cases (39%, klebsiella 15 (27%, e coli 10 (18%, pneumococcus 2 (3.5%, staph aureus 2 (3.5%. 64 (53% neonates survived, of whom 31 (48% showed sequelae, hydrocephalus being the most frequently encountered one.

  7. [A case of meningeal carcinomatosis presenting with bilateral hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoko; Sugiyama, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Toru

    2007-12-01

    We report the case of a 63-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive bilateral deafness. Two months later he became stuporous, and was transferred to our hospital. The patient's MRI demonstrated bilateral hypertrophic VII-VIII cranial nerve roots that were well enhanced. Gradually, the patient's condition worsened, and he died on the 12th day after admission. Autopsy revealed meningeal carcinomatosis with poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. White firm masses of the bilateral seventh and eighth bilateral cranial nerve roots were found at autopsy, which were found to be metastases of the gastric cancer cells as well. Metastatic tumors can be take into consideration as a differential diagnosis for bilateral-enhanced eighth cranial nerve root masses. PMID:18095490

  8. Abordaje de la meningitis tuberculosa en el adulto inmunocompetente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C\\u00E9sar Jasso Olivares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis tuberculosa es causada por la rotura de un tubérculo en el espacio subaracnoideo; su presentación clínica suele ser subaguda o crónica y afecta fundamentalmente la base encefálica. Desde el punto de vista clínico, se acompaña de cefalea, fiebre intermitente, parálisis de pares craneales (especialmente de los oculomotores, confusión, hemiparesia, letargia, signos meníngeos y convulsiones. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 23 años de edad que ingresó al servicio de medicina interna debido a irritación meníngea, fiebre y alteraciones del comportamiento. Con protocolo de estudio (examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo, clínica y falla a tratamiento convencional se integró el diagnóstico de tuberculoma. Se destaca que el tratamiento antifímico temprano, prescrito de forma empírica, y el antiinflamatorio con esteroides evitan el surgimiento de cepas farmacorresistentes y pueden mejorar el pronóstico del paciente.

  9. CT of the base of the skull in bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.

    1981-12-01

    CT examinations of 42 cases of bacterial meningitis revealed in 38.1% of the cases relevant inflammatory processes at the base of the skull which were of significant importance for a transmitted infection. Such infections were: Sinusitis frontalis, ethmoidalis, maxillaris and sphenoidalis, mastoiditis or petrositis, suppurating mucocele, impression fracture, and an intracranially penetrated foreign body. Excepting the identification of fine fractures, conventional X-ray films were diagnostically superior. Hence, especially in the acute stages, special projections can be omitted, if CT is effected in the region of the osseous base of the skull. CT performed in inflammatory diseases of the brain must include the base of the skull, since this will yield reliable pointers to original focus of the inflammation requiring appropriate treatment and elimination.

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YaLi; Sang, Junjun; Pan, Weihua; Du, Lin; Liao, Wanqing; Chen, Jianghan; Zhu, Yuanjie

    2014-08-01

    To summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of AIHA complicated with CM, we evaluated five cases of CM in patients with AIHA treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2013 and eight related foreign cases. All of the clinical isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and grouped into the VNI genotype and serotype A. The clinical features exhibit significant features. Headache, nausea, and fever are common symptoms of AIHA complicated with CM. The early clinical manifestations lack specificity, which may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Long-term use of prednisone (?15 mg day(-1)), poor control of anemia, and splenectomy are risk factors for AIHA complicated with cryptococcal infection. The combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral 5-fluorocytosine remains the preferred treatment for AIHA complicated with CM. PMID:24952011

  11. Radiotherapy of bone metastases of a spinal meningeal hemangiopericytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, K. [Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology]|[Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Aoki, Y.; Tago, M.; Karasawa, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Hasezawa, K.; Muta, N.; Terahara, A.; Onogi, Y.; Sasaki, Y. [Tokyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Hareyama, M. [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-04-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is a rare tumor arising from pericapillary cells or pericytes of Zimmerman, and can occur anywhere capillaries are found. We describe a patient with a meningeal hemangiopericytoma who was treated with primary surgical resection and experienced multiple bone metastases 20 years after the first treatment. This patient with multiple bone metastases was treated with multiple courses of irradiation and good palliation was achieved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Haemangioperizytom ist ein seltener Tumor, der seinen Ausgang von perikapillaeren Zellen oder Zimmermannschen Perizyten nimmt. Es kann ueberall dort entstehen, wo sich Kapillaren befinden. Wir berichten ueber einen Patienten mit meningealem Haemangioperizytom, der zunaechst radikal operiert wurde und 20 Jahre nach der Primaerbehandlung multiple Knochenmetastasen entwickelte. Der Patient wurde mit gutem palliativen Ergebnis mehrfach bestrahlt. (orig.)

  12. Quinolone antibiotics in therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, R; Schmidt, T; Kaye, K; Froula, J L; Täuber, M G

    1995-03-01

    Using a rabbit model of pneumococcal meningitis, we compared the pharmacokinetics and bactericidal activities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of older (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin) and newer (levofloxacin, temafloxacin, CP-116,517, and Win 57273) quinolones with those of the beta-lactam ceftriaxone. All quinolones penetrated into the inflamed CSF better than ceftriaxone, and the speed of entry into CSF was closely related to their degrees of lipophilicity. At a dose of 10 mg/kg.h, which in the case of the quinolones already in use in clinical practice produced concentrations attainable in the sera and CSF of humans, ciprofloxacin had no antipneumococcal activity (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, +0.20 +/- 0.14). Ofloxacin (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.13 +/- 0.12), temafloxacin (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.19 +/- 0.18), and levofloxacin (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.24 +/- 0.16) showed slow bactericidal activity (not significantly different from each other), while CP-116,517 (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.59 +/- 0.21) and Win 57273 (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.72 +/- 0.20) showed increased bactericidal activities in CSF that was comparable to that of ceftriaxone at 10 mg/kg.h (delta log10 CFU/ml.h, -0.80 +/- 0.17). These improved in vivo activities of the newer quinolones reflected their increased in vitro activities. All quinolones and ceftriaxone showed positive correlations between bactericidal rates in CSF and concentrations in CSF relative to their MBCs. Only when this ratio exceeded 10 did the antibiotics exhibit rapid bactericidal activities in CSF. In conclusion, in experimental pneumococcal meningitis the activities of new quinolones with improved antipneumococcal activities were comparable to that of ceftriaxone. PMID:7793857

  13. Fatal outcome of group-G streptococcal meningitis (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan P

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult woman developed meningitis caused by Group-G streptococci. The organism was successfully isolated both from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the patient. The woman succumbed to infection despite an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  14. Fatal outcome of group-G streptococcal meningitis (a case report).

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan P; Shanmugam J; Nair A; Tharakan J

    1989-01-01

    An adult woman developed meningitis caused by Group-G streptococci. The organism was successfully isolated both from blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the patient. The woman succumbed to infection despite an appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  15. MRI demonstration of unsuspected intraventricular rupture of pyogenic cerebral abscesses in patients being treated for meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report three patients with pyogenic meningitis who showed a partial response to medical treatment. MRI demonstrated an unsuspected brain abscess with intraventricular rupture, a possible cause of the partial response to treatment. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous adult Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in Soweto, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Teckie

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A disproportionate burden of GNB meningitis fell on the HIV-infected, among whom absent or low CSF white cells was common. Management was complicated by high rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  17. MRI demonstration of unsuspected intraventricular rupture of pyogenic cerebral abscesses in patients being treated for meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamra, P.; Venkatesh, S.K.; Gupta, R.K. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Uttar Pradesh (India); Vatsal, D.K.; Husain, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, KG Medical College, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, S. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2002-02-01

    We report three patients with pyogenic meningitis who showed a partial response to medical treatment. MRI demonstrated an unsuspected brain abscess with intraventricular rupture, a possible cause of the partial response to treatment. (orig.)

  18. Awareness of meningococcal disease among travelers from the United Kingdom to the meningitis belt in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna L; Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Halbert, Jay; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2014-08-01

    Meningococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and has a high case-fatality rate. In the United Kingdom, the meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine is recommended for travelers visiting the meningitis belt of Africa. We analyzed 302 responses to a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 of travelers who had visited the meningitis belt recently or were shortly due to travel there. Using the results of an online questionnaire, we assessed knowledge and understanding of meningococcal disease and likelihood of uptake of meningococcal immunization before travel. Meningococcal vaccine uptake was 30.1%. Although global scores in the questionnaire did not correlate with vaccine uptake, knowledge of the meningitis belt and knowledge of certain key symptoms or signs were statistically associated with high vaccine uptake. We conclude that improved education of travelers may improve vaccine uptake before travel to the meningitis belt in Africa. PMID:24891461

  19. Meningoccocal meningitis complicated with subdural effusion: a report of two infant cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Perez-Pico,1 Eduardo Llausas-Magana,1 Angel Leon-Ramirez,1 Giordano Perez-Gaxiola,2 and Nidia Leon-Sicairos.3

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children of all ages. Children less than 1 year of age are at greater risk of invasive disease than older children. In endemic countries, the invasive meningococcal infections are a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in older children and adults but it is particularly rare in newborns and infants less than 1 year old. Besides meningitis, hemorrhagic skin findings have been described as part of the typical case scenario. In this report, we present two cases of meningococcal meningitis occurring in children under the age of 3 months in a non-endemic setting. Both patients did not manifest any skin lesions but had subdural effusion, an unusual complication for meningococcal meningitis.

  20. Computational modeling of tuberculous meningitis reveals an important role for tumor necrosis factor-?

    OpenAIRE

    El-kebir, M.; Kuip, M.; Furth, A. M.; Kirschner, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a global health issue with annually about 1.5 million deaths and 2 billion infected people worldwide. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis comprises 13% of all cases of which tuberculous meningitis is the most severe. It has a high mortality and is often diagnosed once irreversible neurological damage has already occurred. Development of diagnostic and treatment strategies requires a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis. This disease is characterized by...

  1. Mobile laboratory to improve response to meningitis epidemics, Burkina Faso epidemic season 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, R. T.; -m Njanpop-lafourcade, B.; Jaillard, P.; Traore?, Y.; Mueller, J. E.; -f Aguilera, J.; Dabal, M.; Tiendre?be?ogo, S. R.; Goehde, W.; Da Silva, A.; Gessner, B. D.; Stoecke, P.

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Laboratory was developed for use primarily during the epidemic meningitis season in Burkina Faso. This report describes the Mobile Laboratory characteristics, its use to date, problems encountered and their resolution, and future directions. During 2004, the mobile laboratory intervention in three remote Burkina Faso districts experiencing meningitis epidemics led to more speci?c case management and led directly to vaccination of one district. However, in a second district, the int...

  2. D-mannitol in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Megson, G. M.; Stevens, D. A.; Hamilton, J. R.; Denning, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with raised intracranial pressure which is linked with serious neurological sequelae. Cryptococcus neoformans produces D-mannitol in vitro and in experimental meningitis in rabbits. Mannitol present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CM patients could exacerbate raised intracranial pressure and contribute to neurological damage. To link CSF mannitol to cryptococcal infection, levels of mannitol in the CSF of AIDS patients with CM were measured by ga...

  3. [Clonal expansion of Neisseria meningitidis W135. Epidemiological implications for the African meningitis belt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Châtelet, I Parent; Alonso, J M; Taha, M K

    2002-12-01

    Meningococcal meningitis occur as large epidemics in the "African meningitis belt" described by L. Lapeyssonnie. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, clone III-I, was involved in recent epidemics and immunization with A and C vaccine was therefore adequate. However, we report here the emergence of a new clone of N. meningitidis of serogroup W135 during the 2001 epidemics in Niger and in Burkina Faso and discuss the implications of this new epidemiological feature for future surveillance and vaccine strategies. PMID:12696368

  4. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Associated with Aseptic Meningitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sumer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease is usually a rare, self limiting, benign disease causing fever, neutropenia and cervical lymphadenopathy. It is especially seen in young Asian women, rarely in children. A case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease in a female Bangladeshian child with aseptic meningitis is presented from Turkey. She was admitted with fever but had no pathological lymphadenopathies. Her complicated aseptic meningitis was treated successfully with short term steroid therapy.

  5. Relative Frequency of Echovirus 30 in Patients Suffering From Enterovirus Meningitis in Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Samarbaf-Zadeh; Mojtaba Rasti; Manoochehr Makvandi; Niloofar Neisi; Ahmad Shamsizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human enteroviruses are members of Picornaviridae family; they are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with positive RNA as genome. Echovirus 30 is an important member of enteroviruses that is recognized in outbreaks of enterovirus meningitis..Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine relative frequency of echovirus 30 as an important agent of aseptic meningitis among children referred to Aboozar hospital, Ahvaz, Iran..Patients and Methods: 34 cerebrospinal fluid samples f...

  6. Globicatella sanguinis meningitis in a post head trauma patient: first case report from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neetu; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare isolate in clinical samples. We present a case of meningitis in a 70-year-old male patient after a head injury operation. Three consecutive cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from the patient identified Globicatella sanguinis based on morphology, biochemical profile, and Vitek-2 identification. The patient recovered after antibiotic treatment with vancomycin. This is the first case report of Globicatella sanguinis from Asia from a case of meningitis.  PMID:22842948

  7. Nosocomial outbreak of neonatal Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis meningitis in a rural hospital in northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Vaagland, Hogne; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kru?ger, Carsten; Naman, Naftali; Jureen, Roland; Langeland, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinicians at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, a rural hospital in northern Tanzania noted an unusually high case-fatality rate of pediatric meningitis and suspected an outbreak of an unknown agent or an organism resistant to the empirical therapy. Methods: We established a provisional microbiology laboratory to investigate the suspected outbreak. Blood and spinal fluid specimens were taken from children below the age of seven years with suspected meningitis. The blood and...

  8. Late meningeal changes after Dimer-X-myelography in the absence of surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelography with Amipaque was carried out in a group of 28 patients who had had previous Dimer-X-myelography, but no surgery. In 12 cases there was radiological evidence of a meningeal reaction. In all these cases there were chronic changes in the lumbar subarachnoid space. The original myelograms showed no evidence of adhesive changes in the root pouches. It was not possible to correlate the radiological findings of the meningeal changes with the serverity or type of neurological diseases. (orig.)

  9. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WorsØe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  10. Non-Polio Enteroviruses Aseptic Meningitis:Embaba Fever Hospital Admissions 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Raafat A Abdel-twab¹, Kouka S. Abdel-wahab Ahmed O. El-kafrawi

    2013-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (EV) cause a wide spectrum of both common and uncommon illnesses among all age groups. Enterically transmitted. The objective of this study was to identify non-poliovirus EV as a cause of viral aseptic meningitis (VAM) by two methods (cell culture and Real time PCR). From October 2010 to August 2011 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 85 patients Embaba fever hospital admitted with symptoms of aseptic meningitis of any age and both sexes. The 85 CSF sampl...

  11. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, C; Oelschlaeger, T. A.; Merkert, H.; Korhonen, T. K.; Hacker, J.

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns are able to invade the circulation and subsequently cross the blood-brain barrier. One mechanism for traversing the blood-brain barrier might involve transcytosis through the endothelial cells. The ability of the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034, of serotype 018:K1:H7, to invade epithelial (T24) and endothelial (EA-hy926) cells was investigated by the standard gentamicin survival assay and by electron microscopy. Human bladder epit...

  12. Dexamethasone and Long-Term Outcome of Tuberculous Meningitis in Vietnamese Adults and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    To?ro?k, Me; Nguyen, Db; Nguyen, Tb; Thwaites, GE; Hoang, Tq; Nguyen, Hd; Tran, Th; Nguyen, Tc; Hoang, Ht; Wolbers, M.; Farrar, Jj

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis but the long-term outcome of the disease is unknown. METHODS: Vietnamese adults and adolescents with tuberculous meningitis recruited to a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive dexamethasone were followed-up at five years, to determine the effect of dexamethasone on long-term survival and neurological disability. RESULTS: 545 patients were randomised to receive eithe...

  13. VAKSIN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE type b (Hib UNTUK PENCEGAHAN MENINGITIS DAN PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rendahnya insiden pada anak yang lebih tua umurnya dan orang dewasa disebabkan karena adanya antibodi bakterisidal terhadap capsul polisakarida Haemophilus influenzae tipe b dalam serumnya.Di negara maju maupun negara berkembang bakteri merupakan penyebab utama non epidemik meningitis pada kelompok umur tersebut. Beberapa bukti menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas meningitis pada kelompok bayi muda lebih tinggi di negara berkembang dari pada di negara industri. 

  14. Community acquired bacterial meningitis in Cuba: a follow up of a decade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Misladys; Dickinson Félix O.; Pérez Antonio E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Community acquired Bacterial Meningitis (BM) remains a serious threat to global health. Cuban surveillance system for BM allowed to characterize the main epidemiological features of this group of diseases, as well as to assess the association of some variables with mortality. Results of the BM surveillance in Cuba are presented in this paper. Methods A follow up of BM cases reported to the Institute "Pedro Kourí" by the National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance System fr...

  15. Cystic solitary fibrous tumor arising from the left occipital meninges: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Bae Geun; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Han Seung [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of a spindle-cell origin, and it usually involves the pleura. It's occurrence in various organs of the body has recently been described. Meningeal SFT is very rare. Radiologically, it is a strongly enhancing solid mass and is undistinguishable from fibrous meningioma and hemangiopericytoma. Yet we report here on a case of SFT with massive cystic degeneration that arose from the meninges of the left occipital region.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Bacterial Meningitis in the Paediatric Population: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tacon, Catherine L.; Oliver Flower

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency which, despite advances in medical management, still has a significant morbidity and mortality. Over recent decades new vaccines have led to a change in epidemiology of the disease; however, it remains a condition that requires a high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early management in the emergency department. New laboratory techniques and clinical tools are aiding the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, yet some controvers...

  17. Evidence for intrathecal synthesis of alternative pathway complement activation proteins in experimental meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stahel, P. F.; Frei, K.; Fontana, A.; Eugster, H. P.; Ault, B. H.; Barnum, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    Complement has been shown to contribute to intrathecal inflammation in bacterial meningitis. However, the cellular source of complement in the infected central nervous system has not been determined. In this study, we analyzed protein and mRNA expression of two alternative pathway complement activation proteins, C3 and factor B, in the brains of mice with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis. Complement protein levels were found elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of infected mice, compared with...

  18. Maternal and perinatal factors associated with subsequent meningococcal, Haemophilus or enteroviral meningitis in children: database study.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldacre, Mj; Wotton, Cj; Maisonneuve, Jj

    2014-01-01

    We used a database of 248 659 births, with follow-up to subsequent disease, in the Oxford record linkage archive (1979-1999) to study the influence of family, maternal, and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for meningococcal, Haemophilus, and enteroviral meningitis in the children. In this summary, we report key findings that were significant in multivariate analysis. Meningococcal meningitis was significantly associated with maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2·1, 95% confid...

  19. Purulent Meningitis as an Unusual Presentation of Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Vullo; Amp Ettorre, Gabriella D.; Giancarlo Ceccarelli

    2011-01-01

    On presentation of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, unusual manifestations may represent the main clinical features of the disease. Isolated bacterial meningitis as the first manifestation of endocarditis is considered to be an unusual neurological complication. Here, we describe a case S. aureus endocarditis presenting as isolated meningitis and mimicking meningococcal septicaemia. Because of the high mortality rate of the disease, the prompt recognition of this infectious syndrome is of ...

  20. Meningococcal meningitis epidemic. A new role for single-dose oily chloramphenicol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Asim A.; Abdel Rahman, Salah I.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the orthodox use of 5 days crystalline penicillin and an alternate regime of single intramuscular injection of long acting oily chloramphenicol during the 1999 cerebrospinal meningitis epidemic that occurred in Abu Jubeha, South Kordofan, Sudan. METHODS All 793 patients with meningococcal meningitis admitted to Abu Jubeha hospital in the eastern parts of South Kordofan State, were investigated. Through a quasi-experimental design some 140 patients were treated w...

  1. Meningoccocal meningitis complicated with subdural effusion: a report of two infant cases

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Perez-pico, Eduardo Llausas-magana

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children of all ages. Children less than 1 year of age are at greater risk of invasive disease than older children. In endemic countries, the invasive meningococcal infections are a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in older children and adults but it is particularly rare in newborns and infants less than 1 year old. Besides meningitis, hemorrhagic skin findings have been described as part of the typical case scena...

  2. Evaluation of a Rapid PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Meningococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, David C.; Louie, Lisa; Louie, Marie; Simor, Andrew E.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the results of Gram staining and culture of cerebrospinal fluid to results obtained with a rapid PCR assay for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis in 281 cases of suspected bacterial meningitis. PCR had a sensitivity of 97% compared to a sensitivity of 55% for culture, and the PCR specificity was 99.6%. PCR results were available within 2 h of the start of the assay.

  3. Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Doglietto Francesco; Colosimo Cesare; Lauriola Libero; Balducci Mario; De Bonis Pasquale; Montano Nicola; Zadeh Gelareh; Maira Giulio; Pallini Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Melanocytic meningeal tumours are rare extra-axial neoplasms of the nervous system, with only three reported cases in the cavernous sinus. Herein we describe for the first time the association of ocular melanosis and multiple intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours, with the presenting lesion being in the cavernous sinus. The importance of this association is discussed together with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of the case. Case presentation A 20-year-old m...

  4. A Rare Coexistence: Drug Induced Hepatitis and Meningitis in Association With Ibuprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Kavuturu, Shilpa; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta; Dev, Anil; Kumbum, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    Ibuprofen, a commonly used NSAID is reported to be associated with drug induced liver injury. Ibuprofen is also known to be associated with drug-induced meningitis especially in patients with connective tissue disorders. However presentation of hepatitis and meningitis in association with Ibuprofen use in the same individual has never been reported. We present a case of young woman who developed abnormal liver chemistries and neurological symptoms while on Ibuprofen. Her liver biopsy findings...

  5. Bilateral pericallosal arterial ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Y.; Nakata, H.; Soejima, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Araki, R.

    1985-05-01

    We report a rare case of ectasia of both pericallosal arteries in a non-hypertensive 37-year-old female, whose internal carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar arteries were normal. The computed tomography (CT) showed irregular calcifications in the midline in the frontal region extending to the corpus callosum, which became partially enhanced along the course of the pericallosal artery following intravenous contrast administration. The diagnosis of arterial ectasia was established by angiography.

  6. Basilar artery dissection.

    OpenAIRE

    Berkovic, S. F.; Spokes, R. L.; Anderson, R. M.; Bladin, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    Dissection of the basilar artery caused sudden coma and death in a 40-year-old man. Atypical clinical features were explained at necropsy. A ventral dissection of the artery within its outer layers resulted in destruction of the pontine tegmentum with sparing of the basis pontis. An unsuspected defect in the internal elastic lamina in the left internal carotid artery was also found suggesting a more generalised disorder of arterial walls. Basilar artery dissection should be considered in the ...

  7. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term mortality, the causes of death and the incidence of cancer in listeria meningitis patients. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cohort study including all adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis from 1977 to 2006 and alive 1 year after diagnosis, and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for listeria meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50 years of age had a 2-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with cancer, thereafter the risks declined to that of the background population. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term mortality in adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis was increased the first 5 years of follow-up, mainly due to death from cancer, thereafter the mortality did not differ from the background population. To improve survival this patient population should be meticulously screened for predisposing conditions, mainly underlying malignant diseases.

  8. Increased cell-mediated immune responses in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Röhl, Elisabeth; Schepis, Danika; Lagrelius, Maria; Franck, Kristina; Jones, Petra; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Bergström, Tomas; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Kärre, Klas; Berg, Louise; Gaines, Hans

    2011-04-01

    The clinical picture of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection includes genital blisters and less frequently meningitis, and some individuals suffer from recurrent episodes of these manifestations. We hypothesized that adaptive and/or innate immune functional deficiencies may be a major contributing factor in susceptibility to recurrent HSV-2 meningitis. Ten patients with recurrent HSV-2 meningitis were studied during clinical remission. For comparison, 10 patients with recurrent genital HSV infections as well as 21 HSV-seropositive and 19 HSV-seronegative healthy blood donors were included. HSV-specific T cell blasting and cytokine secretion were evaluated in whole blood cultures. HSV-2-induced NK cell gamma interferon production, dendritic cell Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, and TLR agonist-induced alpha interferon secretion were analyzed. Patients with recurrent HSV-2 meningitis had elevated T cell blasting and Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in response to HSV antigens compared to those of patients with recurrent genital infections. A somewhat increased NK cell response, increased dendritic cell expression of TLR3 and -9, and increased TLR-induced alpha interferon responses were also noted. Contrary to our expectation, recurrent HSV-2 meningitis patients have increased HSV-specific adaptive and innate immune responses, raising the possibility of immune-mediated pathology in the development of recurrent HSV2 meningitis. PMID:21325490

  9. Tuberculous meningitis-induced unilateral sensorineural hearing loss: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chen-Chieh; Kaga, Kimitaka; Tsuzuku, Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between meningitis and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has long been studied. Many histopathological studies of animal models and human temporal bones with respect to bacterial meningitis have been carried out. However, the relationship between SNHL and tuberculous meningitis was seldom addressed and the pathophysiology remains unclear. We carried out temporal bone studies on material from a 22-year-old patient who developed a right unilateral SNHL before dying from tuberculous meningitis. The histopathological findings for the right temporal bone were as follows: (1) inflammation mainly appeared in the internal auditory canal, modiolus and Rosenthal's canal and extended to the osseous spiral ligament, whereas the perilymphatic spaces were less involved; (2) the organ of Corti, cochlear nerve fibres and spiral ganglion cells were severely degenerated, particularly in the basal and middle turns; (3) the contralateral side (for which the patient had no complaints) showed an inner space free from inflammation, but some granulomatous formations were observed in the middle ear cavity. We conclude that the modiolus and cochlear aqueduct are the main routes for the spread of infection from the meninges to the inner ear. The progression of hearing loss resembles that of bacterial meningitis and shares attributes of retrocochlear SNHL. PMID:17453485

  10. The changing epidemiology of pediatric aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, Korea from 1987 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mi-Hee

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic meningitis is a relatively frequent childhood disease and virologic data suggest that enteroviruses are the commonest etiologic agents. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, South Korea from 1987 to 2003. Methods 2201 medical records of children with aseptic meningitis admitted to The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St Mary's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Outbreaks of aseptic meningitis were observed in 1990, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001 and 2002. The age distribution of cases was relatively uniform, with a higher incidence in those aged P = 0.001. Neurologic sequelae were observed in 0.7% of the patients. Conclusion Aseptic meningitis, rare before the 1980s in Korea, has since become a common clinical entity. Since 1990, outbreaks of aseptic meningitis have occurred every 1 to 3 years in Daejeon in keeping with Korea-wide epidemics. The frequency of disease affecting children less than one year of age may reflect herd immunity to the epidemic strain.

  11. Colagenopatía y meningitis aséptica recurrente en una paciente de 88 años Colagenopathy and recurrent aseptic meningitis in an 88 year old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. VAzquez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis aséptica recurrente (MAR en ancianos es rara y generalmente es secundaria a drogas. Su asociación a colagenopatías en ancianos ha sido raramente informada. El Síndrome de Sjögren (SS en ocasiones afecta el sistema nervioso central, pero la MAR asociada a SS es rara en este grupo etario. Se presenta una paciente de 88 años, autoválida, con antecedentes de xerostomía, xeroftalmos, Raynaud, disfagia y agrandamiento parotídeo recurrente autolimitado. En el año 2001 cursó una meningitis linfocítica y evolucionó con recuperación completa. Un año después volvió a presentar una meningitis linfocítica aséptica. Se descartaron causas infecciosas. Se demostró FAN 1/160 con patrón nucleolar moteado, Ac anti Ro y anti RNP positivos y anticoagulante lúpico positivo. Se confirmó sequedad ocular y la biopsia de labio fue compatible con SS. Evolucionó con resolución completa en 10 días sin tratamiento. Se interpretó como una enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo (EMTC con síntomas predominantemente de SS, que cursó una MAR en su forma pura. La EMTC y el SS deberían ser considerados entre los diagnósticos diferenciales de la MAR, inclusive en ancianos.Recurrent aseptic meningitis (RAM infrequent in elderly patients and generally secondary to drugs. Its association with rheumatologic diseases is also seldom reported in the elderly. Sjögren Syndrome (SS sometimes affects the central nevous system, but the association between recurrent meningitis and SS is rare, specially in this age-group. We present an 88 year-old autovalid patient, with a history of xerostomia, xerophthalmia, Raynaud, dysphagia, and recurrent parotid enlargement. In 2001 she developed a lymphocytic meningitis with a complete remission. A year later, she developed again an aseptic lymphocytic meningitis. We ruled out infeccious causes. We found a FAN titer 1/160 with a nucleolar-mottled pattern, positive anti Ro and anti RNP antibodies and a positive lupus anticoagulant. We confirmed the ocular dryness and the lip biopsy was compatible with the diagnosis of SS. She had a good outcome with a complete remission without treatment in 10 days. We believe that this is a case of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD with predominant symptoms of SS, that developed a recurrent meningitis in its pure form. MCTD and SS should be considered in the differential diagnoses of RAM, also in the elderly.

  12. Colagenopatía y meningitis aséptica recurrente en una paciente de 88 años / Colagenopathy and recurrent aseptic meningitis in an 88 year old patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando J., VAzquez; Yuqueri, BeguelIn; Natalia, Schutz; Luis M., Mayorga.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meningitis aséptica recurrente (MAR) en ancianos es rara y generalmente es secundaria a drogas. Su asociación a colagenopatías en ancianos ha sido raramente informada. El Síndrome de Sjögren (SS) en ocasiones afecta el sistema nervioso central, pero la MAR asociada a SS es rara en este grupo etar [...] io. Se presenta una paciente de 88 años, autoválida, con antecedentes de xerostomía, xeroftalmos, Raynaud, disfagia y agrandamiento parotídeo recurrente autolimitado. En el año 2001 cursó una meningitis linfocítica y evolucionó con recuperación completa. Un año después volvió a presentar una meningitis linfocítica aséptica. Se descartaron causas infecciosas. Se demostró FAN 1/160 con patrón nucleolar moteado, Ac anti Ro y anti RNP positivos y anticoagulante lúpico positivo. Se confirmó sequedad ocular y la biopsia de labio fue compatible con SS. Evolucionó con resolución completa en 10 días sin tratamiento. Se interpretó como una enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo (EMTC) con síntomas predominantemente de SS, que cursó una MAR en su forma pura. La EMTC y el SS deberían ser considerados entre los diagnósticos diferenciales de la MAR, inclusive en ancianos. Abstract in english Recurrent aseptic meningitis (RAM) infrequent in elderly patients and generally secondary to drugs. Its association with rheumatologic diseases is also seldom reported in the elderly. Sjögren Syndrome (SS) sometimes affects the central nevous system, but the association between recurrent meningitis [...] and SS is rare, specially in this age-group. We present an 88 year-old autovalid patient, with a history of xerostomia, xerophthalmia, Raynaud, dysphagia, and recurrent parotid enlargement. In 2001 she developed a lymphocytic meningitis with a complete remission. A year later, she developed again an aseptic lymphocytic meningitis. We ruled out infeccious causes. We found a FAN titer 1/160 with a nucleolar-mottled pattern, positive anti Ro and anti RNP antibodies and a positive lupus anticoagulant. We confirmed the ocular dryness and the lip biopsy was compatible with the diagnosis of SS. She had a good outcome with a complete remission without treatment in 10 days. We believe that this is a case of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) with predominant symptoms of SS, that developed a recurrent meningitis in its pure form. MCTD and SS should be considered in the differential diagnoses of RAM, also in the elderly.

  13. Coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah-Tirani, Heidar; Salari, Arsalan; Shafighnia, Shora; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Naghdipoor, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: Coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Echocardiography • angiography • surgical intervention Specialty: Cardiology • Cardiac Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: A coronary artery fistula is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and one of the cardiac chambers or a great vessel, so bypassing the myocardial capillary network. They are usually discovered incidentally upon coronary angiography. Clinical manifestations are variable depending on the type of fistula, the severity of shunt, site of shunt, and presence of other cardiac condition. Case Report: We report a 69-year-old man without any previous medical history, who was admitted to our hospital with chest pain. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a sinus rhythm with ST depression in V2 to V6 precordial leads. Coronary angiography revealed a coronary artery fistula from left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to the main pulmonary artery, right coronary artery blockage and significant stenoses on the LAD and left circumflex artery (LCX). Conclusions: Surgical treatment was chosen because of the total occlusion of the right coronary artery and to relieve of pain to improve quality of life. PMID:24298301

  14. Iatrogenic meningitis in an obstetric patient after combined spinal-epidural analgesia: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkovsky, Uriel; Mihu, Mircea Radu; Adeyeye, Adebisi; De Forest, Pamela M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2009-03-01

    Iatrogenic meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We report a case of meningitis after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and review previous reports of meningitis subsequent to spinal, combined spinal-epidural and epidural analgesia or anesthesia. Streptococci remain the most commonly identified agent, although cultures are frequently negative. Droplet contamination or needle contamination from incompletely sterilized skin are the major routes for infection. Strict aseptic technique and infection control measures should be employed when accessing the epidural space. PMID:19204609

  15. Development of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent meningitis in Africa caused by meningococcal serogroup X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, Francesca; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Tontini, Marta; Cappelletti, Emilia; Gavini, Massimiliano; Proietti, Daniela; Rondini, Simona; Swennen, Erwin; Santini, Laura; Filippini, Sara; Balocchi, Cristiana; Adamo, Roberto; Pluschke, Gerd; Norheim, Gunnstein; Pollard, Andrew; Saul, Allan; Rappuoli, Rino; MacLennan, Calman A.; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide, especially in the African meningitis belt, and has a high associated mortality. The meningococcal serogroups A, W, and X have been responsible for epidemics and almost all cases of meningococcal meningitis in the meningitis belt over the past 12 y. Currently no vaccine is available against meningococcal X (MenX). Because the development of a new vaccine through to licensure takes many years, this leaves Africa vulnerable to new epidemics of MenX meningitis at a time when the epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis on the continent is changing rapidly, following the recent introduction of a glycoconjugate vaccine against serogroup A. Here, we report the development of candidate glycoconjugate vaccines against MenX and preclinical data from their use in animal studies. Following optimization of growth conditions of our seed MenX strain for polysaccharide (PS) production, a scalable purification process was developed yielding high amounts of pure MenX PS. Different glycoconjugates were synthesized by coupling MenX oligosaccharides of varying chain length to CRM197 as carrier protein. Analytical methods were developed for in-process control and determination of purity and consistency of the vaccines. All conjugates induced high anti-MenX PS IgG titers in mice. Antibodies were strongly bactericidal against African MenX isolates. These findings support the further development of glycoconjugate vaccines against MenX and their assessment in clinical trials to produce a vaccine against the one cause of epidemic meningococcal meningitis that currently cannot be prevented by available vaccines. PMID:24191022

  16. Meningeal defects alter the tangential migration of cortical interneurons in Foxc1hith/hith mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbalis Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tangential migration presents the primary mode of migration of cortical interneurons translocating into the cerebral cortex from subpallial domains. This migration takes place in multiple streams with the most superficial one located in the cortical marginal zone. While a number of forebrain-expressed molecules regulating this process have emerged, it remains unclear to what extent structures outside the brain, like the forebrain meninges, are involved. Results We studied a unique Foxc1 hypomorph mouse model (Foxc1hith/hith with meningeal defects and impaired tangential migration of cortical interneurons. We identified a territorial correlation between meningeal defects and disruption of interneuron migration along the adjacent marginal zone in these animals, suggesting that impaired meningeal integrity might be the primary cause for the observed migration defects. Moreover, we postulate that the meningeal factor regulating tangential migration that is affected in homozygote mutants is the chemokine Cxcl12. In addition, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we provide evidence that the Cxcl12 gene is a direct transcriptional target of Foxc1 in the meninges. Further, we observe migration defects of a lesser degree in Cajal-Retzius cells migrating within the cortical marginal zone, indicating a less important role for Cxcl12 in their migration. Finally, the developmental migration defects observed in Foxc1hith/hith mutants do not lead to obvious differences in interneuron distribution in the adult if compared to control animals. Conclusions Our results suggest a critical role for the forebrain meninges to promote during development the tangential migration of cortical interneurons along the cortical marginal zone and Cxcl12 as the factor responsible for this property.

  17. Mast cell activation and neutrophil recruitment promotes early and robust inflammation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Alison L; Walker, Margaret E; Hessner, Martin J; Brown, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    The meninges are often considered inert tissues that house the CSF and provide protection for the brain and spinal cord. Yet emerging data demonstrates that they are also active sites of immune responses. Furthermore, the blood-CSF barrier surrounding meningeal blood vessels, together with the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is postulated to serve as a gateway for the pathological infiltration of immune cells into the CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous studies using mast cell-deficient (Kit(W/Wv)) mice demonstrated that mast cells resident in the dura mater and pia mater exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, by facilitating CNS inflammatory cell influx. Here we examined the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects. We demonstrate that there are dramatic alterations in immune associated gene expression in the meninges in pre-clinical disease, including those associated with mast cell and neutrophil function. Meningeal mast cells are activated within 24 h of disease induction, but do not directly compromise CNS vascular integrity. Rather, through production of TNF, mast cells elicit an early influx of neutrophils, cells known to alter vascular permeability, into the meninges. These data add to the growing evidence that inflammation in the meninges precedes CNS immune cell infiltration and establish that mast cells are among the earliest participants in these disease-initiating events. We hypothesize that mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment and activation in the meninges promotes early breakdown of the local BBB and CSF-blood barrier allowing initial immune cell access to the CNS. PMID:23267561

  18. Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases

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    Meintjes Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1 normal CSF (neutrophils ? 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ? 5 × 106/L, protein ? 0.5 g/dL, glucose ?1.5 mmol/L, 2 minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49 or 3 markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%. Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514 of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227, bacterial meningitis for 8% (68. Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59% had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81 patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12 with TB and 4% (3 with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs.

  19. Meteorological influences on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence in northwest Nigeria.

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    Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    Northwest Nigeria is a region with high risk of bacterial meningitis. Since the first documented epidemic of meningitis in Nigeria in 1905, the disease has been endemic in the northern part of the country, with epidemics occurring regularly. In this study we examine the influence of climate on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence and epidemics. Monthly aggregate counts of clinically confirmed hospital-reported cases of meningitis were collected in northwest Nigeria for the 22-year period spanning 1990-2011. Several generalized linear statistical models were fit to the monthly meningitis counts, including generalized additive models. Explanatory variables included monthly records of temperatures, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, sunshine and dustiness from weather stations nearest to the hospitals, and a time series of polysaccharide vaccination efficacy. The effects of other confounding factors -- i.e., mainly non-climatic factors for which records were not available -- were estimated as a smooth, monthly-varying function of time in the generalized additive models. Results reveal that the most important explanatory climatic variables are mean maximum monthly temperature, relative humidity and dustiness. Accounting for confounding factors (e.g., social processes) in the generalized additive models explains more of the year-to-year variation of meningococcal disease compared to those generalized linear models that do not account for such factors. Promising results from several models that included only explanatory variables that preceded the meningitis case data by 1-month suggest there may be potential for prediction of meningitis in northwest Nigeria to aid decision makers on this time scale.

  20. PENGGUNAAN KERTAS SARING UNTUK PEMERIKSAAN TITER ANTIBODI MENINGITIS MENINGOKOKUS SEROGRUP A DAN C PADA JAMAAH HAJI

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    Sarwo Handayani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases often cause outbreak especially for Haj pilgrims who returned from Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood usually taken from meningococcal cases and the people surrounding them (their  contact to confirm that the disease are caused by meningococcal meningitis. Immunization with serogroup A-C meningococcal meningitis vaccine was already given to haj pilgrims to prevent meningococcal disease since 1988. and it was replaced by serogroup A­ C- Y-W135 vaccine since 2002. after the founding of serogroup WI 35 meningococcal carriers. The obstacles  of  sample collection  are the sending of the blood spesimen because of long distance to laboratory and unavailable of cold chain. The alternative way to collect the blood is by using the filter paper due to less volume of blood and no cold  temperature  for keeping  this specimen. The objectives study is to compare antibody titre of meningococcal meningitis serogrup A and C between filter paper, and blood tube as standard procedure for blood collecting. Sample weres haj pilgrims who returned.from Saudi Arabia. Antibody titre was determined by ELISA. The result shows no significant difference of antibody titre for meningococcal meningitis serogroup A between filter paper and blood tube. The different titre for meningococcal meningitis serogroup C is due to unstability of this bacteria and no standard procedure to measure it yet. It could be· concluded that filter paper is the alternative way to collect the blood for menignococal meningitis antibody testing is suggested to develop standard procedure for meningococcal meningitis serogroup C antibody and the other groups.

  1. Serial computed tomographies in subdural effusions following purulent meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subdral effusion complicating acute purulent meningitis were visualized in seven children by means of cranial computed tomography (CCT). All these children were infants less than two years old; four were male, and three were female. The etiologic organisms could be cultured in three cases: Group B Streptococcus, Diplococcus pneumoniae, and Hemophilus influenza. The others could not be cultured. The subdural effusion could be detected by CCT on the 5th day after the onset in the earliest case and on the 30th day in the latest case. Four cases of them were resolved by chemotherapy and subdural taps, two cases were resolved spontaneously by chemotherapy only, and one case was resolved by means of a subdural-peritoneal shunt operation. The subdural taps through the anterior fontanelle were done in five cases. The fluids obtained by the subdural taps showed a bloody fluid in one case, a blood-tinged fluid in two cases, and a yellowish or brown-coloured fluid not including red cells in two cases. These fluids had a higher protein content than the CSF. These children were followed-up after the discharge. Their psychomotor development was good and they showed no epileptic complications. (author)

  2. Management of hydrocephalus in patients with tuberculous meningitis

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    Rajshekhar Vedantam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM occurring in up to 85% of children with the disease. It is more severe in children than in adults. It could be either of the communicating type or the obstructive type with the former being more frequently seen. The Vellore grading system for clinical grading of patients with TBM and hydrocephalus with grade I being the best grade and grade IV being the worst grade has been validated by several authors. The management of hydrocephalus can include medical therapy with dehydrating agents and steroids for patients in good grades and those with communicating hydrocephalus. However, surgery is required for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus and those in poor grades. Surgery can involve either a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV. Complications of shunt surgery in patients with TBM and hydrocephalus are high with frequent shunt obstructions and shunt infections requiring repeated revisions. ETV has variable success in these patients and is generally not advisable in patients in the acute stages of the disease. Mortality on long-term follow up has been reported to vary from 10.5% to 57.1% in those with altered sensorium prior to surgery and 0 to 12.5% in patients with normal sensorium. Surgery for patients in Vellore grade IV is usually associated with a poor outcome and high mortality and therefore, its utility in these patients is debatable

  3. Tuberkulosis Perinatal Bermanifestasi sebagai Tuberkulosis Milier dan Meningitis

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    Heda Melinda D. Nataprawira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal tuberculosis (TB is rarely reported, because the clinical manifestations are not specific and there is a problem in its laboratory and radiology examination which caused undiagnosed. Perinatal TB is the preferred description that encompasses TB acquired either intra uterine, during or post delivery in early newborn period. A-3- month old baby was transferred to Pediatric Emergency Hasan Sadikin Hospital because of prolong fever and unable to breastfeed. There was no problem with delivery. Lethargic, fever, tachypnea, and hepatosphlenomegali were found on physical examination. Ziehl Neelsen smear of gastric lavage yielded positive acid fast bacilli. Tuberculine test was non reactive, chest x-ray showed a miliary pattern, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis gave tuberculous meningitis interpretation. By active finding, his father and grandfather were detected as a source of TB transmission. In additon to oral antituberculosis regimen, antibiotics and prednison were also given. Septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation were occurred during his illness and the baby died. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was identified from blood culture. In conclusion, although there were no problems during labor, active investigation of perinatal TB possibility is required on the family with a source of TB. Caution on TB in pregnant women is necessary at developing country with high rates of TB.

  4. Serratia marcescens meningitis associated with a contaminated benzalkonium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, R L; Mattman, L H; Legaspi, R C

    1984-05-01

    Serratia marcescens is recognized as an important and potentially hazardous nosocomial pathogen. The organism has been implicated here as the first reported case of S. marcescens meningitis associated with skin disinfection. A quaternary ammonium compound ( QAC --Benzalkonium Chloride), was used to sterilize the skin prior to injection in a physician's office. Epidemiological studies were initiated. Six spray bottles containing disinfectant, the opened stock bottle of QAC , and an unopened bottle of disinfectant were all cultured. S. marcescens was noted growing in the spray bottles as well as in the opened stock bottle. Antibiograms of the patient and epidemiological isolates are essentially the same. It is our contention as well as that of the Centers for Disease Control that an appropriate skin disinfectant such as Tincture of Chlorhexidine, Iodophors , or Tincture of Iodine should be used, and that physicians performing surgical techniques in the office be aware of the potential hazard of contamination. The consequences of nosocomial infection with resistant organisms warrant every precaution by health care professionals. PMID:6373646

  5. Clinical factors predictive of functional outcomes in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Deesomsak, Morakod; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2014-09-01

    Reasons for poor outcomes in tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which accounts for 2.3% of all tuberculosis cases in Thailand, are still being debated. Here, we studied factors associated with functional outcomes of TBM patients in Thailand where tuberculosis is endemic. We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with TBM at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between January 2002 and December 2008. Twenty-five patients met the study criteria; 11 of these (44.0%) had good or distinctly improved status at discharge. Duration of TBM symptoms for more than 14 days was significantly negatively associated with good discharge status (aOR 0.068; 95% CI: 0.005-0.945). Long-term functional status, assessed using the modified Rankin scale, was also significantly higher in those who had good discharge status compared with those who had poor discharge status (p=0.005). In conclusion, shorter duration of TBM symptoms was correlated with good outcomes with respect to both short- and long-term functional status. PMID:25507241

  6. Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculous Meningitis in Pediatric Age Group

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    Bibek Talukdar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Past decade has seen increase in cases of tuberculous meningitis (TBM and multidrug resistance in such cases. The mortality rate for a mismanaged TBM is very high which increases manifold in presence of associated complicating factors. The present study was thus planned to evaluate the prevalence of MDR-TBM and look for associated complicating factors and carry out drug sensitivity pattern in all culture positive isolates. Methods: One hundred cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF samples from children clinically suspected of having TBM were collected and processed for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by conventional methods like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining, Lowenstein- Jensen (LJ culture and newer method like BACTEC 460 TB culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on all culture positive isolates by BACTEC 460 TB system. Findings: Twenty two cases could be diagnosed as definitive TBM based on BACTEC culture. Of these 22 cases, six cases (27.3% were positive by ZN staining and/or LJ culture. Of all isolates tested for drug sensitivity 18 were sensitive to all four drugs whereas 4 isolates were resistant to more than one drug. Conclusion: Since the prevalence of MDR-TBM is very high we conclude that all CSF samples should be subjected to sensitivity testing to diagnose it at an early time and determine its sensitivity pattern in view of its very high mortality.

  7. Clinical analysis of 26 cases with cryptococcal meningitis

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    Wei-wei HU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features of cryptococcal meningitis (CM and summarize its clinical manifestations, laboratory data, differential diagnosis and treatment, so as to discuss the treatment progress of CM.  Methods Clinical data of 26 cases with CM were retrospectively analyzed, and the treatment experiences were summarized.  Results All patients had headache and fever, and were positive for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF latex agglutination test. Twenty-one patients' CSF smear were found Cryptococcus neoformans. Almost 76.92% (20/26 of patients were cured or became better after receiving combined treatment of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole. The symptoms and signs of 4 patients who received combined treatment of amphotericin B and voriconazole were greatly improved.  Conclusions CM can prone to be misdiagnosed at early stage. CSF smear and fungi culture are beneficial to the diagnosis. Latex agglutination test is a quick and easy examination to reduce the misdiagnosis rate of CM. The combination of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole is effective for the treatment of CM. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.009

  8. Reacción paradojal en meningitis tuberculosa: presentación de un caso / Paradoxical reaction in tuberculous meningitis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma E, González; Silvia, Álvarez Ponte.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La afectación del sistema nervioso central es una de las localizaciones extrapulmonares de la tuberculosis con peor pronóstico. El retraso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento es uno de los factores relacionados con mayor tasa de mortalidad y secuelas. Se describe la "reacción paradojal" como un deterior [...] o sintomático de grado variable, durante el tratamiento efectivo de la tuberculosis. El aumento de la resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos observado en los últimos años genera mayor preocupación ante la aparición de una reacción paradojal durante el tratamiento. Se presenta el caso de un niño con meningitis tuberculosa que, luego de un mes de tratamiento, presentó empeoramiento clínico y nuevas lesiones en la tomografía y resonancia magnética nuclear de cerebro. Se excluyeron patologías asociadas, se verificó que la toma de medicamentos haya sido supervisada, y la sensibilidad del bacilo a fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea fue confirmada. El paciente no requirió cambios en el esquema de tratamiento antituberculoso y se administraron esteroides para el alivio sintomático. La reacción paradojal durante el tratamiento antituberculoso es infrecuente y debida a una reacción de hipersensibilidad entre el huésped y el bacilo tuberculoso. Cuando aparece, se debe asegurar la efectividad y el cumplimiento del tratamiento administrado. Abstract in english The central nervous system is one of the locations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with worse prognosis. The delay in diagnosis and treatment is one of the factors associated with higher mortality and sequelae. The "paradoxical reaction" is described as a variable degree of symptomatic deterioration [...] during the effective treatment of tuberculosis. The increased resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drugs observed in recent years generates greater concern about the emergence of a paradoxical reaction during treatment. The case of a child with tuberculous meningitis that after one month of treatment presented clinical worsening and new lesions in CT and MRI images of the brain is presented. Comorbidities were excluded, it was verified that taking drugs has been monitored, and the sensitivity of the bacillus to first-line antituberculosis drugs was confirmed. The patient required no change in the pattern of tuberculosis treatment and steroids were administered for symptomatic relief. The paradoxical reaction during antituberculosis treatment is rare and due to a hypersensitivity reaction between the host and the tuberculous bacillus. When it appears you must ensure the effectiveness and compliance of the treatment.

  9. Meningitis aséptica concurrente con infección del tracto urinario en recién nacidos Aseptic meningitis concomitant with urinary tract infection in newborns

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Trabajos publicados recientemente han destacado el hallazgo de meningitis aséptica (MA en lactantes pequeños, concomitante con infección del tracto urinario (ITU. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de tal presentación. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo que incluyó a 626 recién nacidos con ITU, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre de 2008, y a quienes se les realizó una punción lumbar. Se comparó la frecuencia de MA e ITU con los informes documentados en la literatura médica. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de MA concomitante con ITU fue del 7,0 % (IC 95 %: 4,9-9,1 %. Los resultados promedio del examen citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo mostraron que la pleocitosis fue el indicador más notable entre los que comúnmente se miden. La frecuencia encontrada fue similar a la de los informes internacionales. CONCLUSIONES. Es llamativa la incidencia de MA concomitante con ITU en los recién nacidos y en concordancia con lo reportado internacionalmente. La concomitancia de MA e ITU puede ser multifactorial, y es posible que se presenten factores causales en algunos pacientes, o casuales en otros casos.INTRODUCTION. Papers recently published have emphasized the finding of the aseptic meningitis (AM in small infants, concomitant with a urinary tract infection (UTI. The aim of present research was to determine the frequency of this type of presentation. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted including 626 newborns presenting with UTI, admitted in the "Juan Manuel Márquez" University Children Hospital between February, 1992 and December, 2008 who underwent a lumbar puncture. The AM and UTI frequency was compared with informed reports in medical literature. RESULTS. The frequency of AM concomitant with UTI was of 7.0% (95% CI. 4,9-9,1%. The mean results of cytochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed that pleocytosis was the more remarkable indicator among those usually measured. The frequency found was similar to that of international reports. CONCLUSIONS. It is interesting the incidence of AM concomitant with UTI in newborns and in concordance with that reported at international level. The AM and UTI concomitant feature may be multifactor, and it is possible the presence of causal factors in some patients or casual in other cases.

  10. Meningitis aséptica concurrente con infección del tracto urinario en recién nacidos / Aseptic meningitis concomitant with urinary tract infection in newborns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Díaz Álvarez; Luena, Cárdenas González.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. Trabajos publicados recientemente han destacado el hallazgo de meningitis aséptica (MA) en lactantes pequeños, concomitante con infección del tracto urinario (ITU). El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de tal presentación. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descri [...] ptivo, retrospectivo que incluyó a 626 recién nacidos con ITU, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre de 2008, y a quienes se les realizó una punción lumbar. Se comparó la frecuencia de MA e ITU con los informes documentados en la literatura médica. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de MA concomitante con ITU fue del 7,0 % (IC 95 %: 4,9-9,1 %). Los resultados promedio del examen citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo mostraron que la pleocitosis fue el indicador más notable entre los que comúnmente se miden. La frecuencia encontrada fue similar a la de los informes internacionales. CONCLUSIONES. Es llamativa la incidencia de MA concomitante con ITU en los recién nacidos y en concordancia con lo reportado internacionalmente. La concomitancia de MA e ITU puede ser multifactorial, y es posible que se presenten factores causales en algunos pacientes, o casuales en otros casos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. Papers recently published have emphasized the finding of the aseptic meningitis (AM) in small infants, concomitant with a urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of present research was to determine the frequency of this type of presentation. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive stu [...] dy was conducted including 626 newborns presenting with UTI, admitted in the "Juan Manuel Márquez" University Children Hospital between February, 1992 and December, 2008 who underwent a lumbar puncture. The AM and UTI frequency was compared with informed reports in medical literature. RESULTS. The frequency of AM concomitant with UTI was of 7.0% (95% CI. 4,9-9,1%). The mean results of cytochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed that pleocytosis was the more remarkable indicator among those usually measured. The frequency found was similar to that of international reports. CONCLUSIONS. It is interesting the incidence of AM concomitant with UTI in newborns and in concordance with that reported at international level. The AM and UTI concomitant feature may be multifactor, and it is possible the presence of causal factors in some patients or casual in other cases.

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart ...

  12. Supporting meningitis diagnosis amongst infants and children through the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping

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    Mago Vijay K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningitis is characterized by an inflammation of the meninges, or the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for a positive outcome, yet identifying meningitis is a complex process involving an array of signs and symptoms and multiple causal factors which require novel solutions to support clinical decision-making. In this work, we explore the potential of fuzzy cognitive map to assist in the modeling of meningitis, as a support tool for physicians in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Methods Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM is a method for analysing and depicting human perception of a given system. FCM facilitates the development of a conceptual model which is not limited by exact values and measurements and thus is well suited to representing relatively unstructured knowledge and associations expressed in imprecise terms. A team of doctors (physicians, comprising four paediatricians, was formed to define the multifarious signs and symptoms associated with meningitis and to identify risk factors integral to its causality, as indicators used by clinicians to identify the presence or absence of meningitis in patients. The FCM model, consisting of 20 concept nodes, has been designed by the team of paediatricians in collaborative dialogue with the research team. Results The paediatricians were supplied with a form containing various input parameters to be completed at the time of diagnosing meningitis among infants and children. The paediatricians provided information on a total of 56 patient cases amongst children whose age ranged from 2 months to 7 years. The physicians’ decision to diagnose meningitis was available for each individual case which was used as the outcome measure for evaluating the model. The FCM was trained using 40 cases with an accuracy of 95%, and later 16 test cases were used to analyze the accuracy and reliability of the model. The system produced the results with sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80%. Conclusions This work suggests that the application and development of a knowledge based system, using the formalization of FCMs for understanding the symptoms and causes of meningitis in children and infants, can provide a reliable front-end decision-making tool to better assist physicians.

  13. Adhesion molecule levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in children with bacterial meningitis and sepsis

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    Jaber Soad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adhesion molecules play a role in leukocyte recruitment during central nervous system (CNS inflammation. Aim: This study was designed to compare serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of adhesion molecules in children with meningitis and sepsis, and to evaluate their sources. Setting : This study was carried out at Pediatric Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2007 to June 2008. Design: Serum and CSF samples were collected on admission from meningitis (n = 40, sepsis (n = 20 patients, and sera from controls (n = 20. Materials and Methods : Endothelial (E, leukocyte (L, platelet (P selectins intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1 were measured using ELISA. Statistics : ANOVA and Spearman?s correlations were used. Adhesion molecules with albumin concentration were estimated in CSF/serum to calculate concentration quotients. Results : In meningitis, serum sE-, sL-, sP-selectins sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 levels were higher than controls. Compared to sepsis, serum sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sVCAM-1, CSF-sL-selectin, CSF-sVCAM-1, VCAM-1 ratio and index were higher, while serum sP-selectin was lower than meningitis. sE-selectin ratio, CSF sICAM-1 were higher in meningitis with positive than negative culture. The sE-selectin index was higher in meningitis with neurological complication than those without it. In meningitis, correlation was found between CSF protein and CSF white blood cell counts (WBCs, CSF sICAM-1, CSF sVCAM-1 and between CSF sE-selectin and CSF sICAM-1. Conclusions : This study supports the role of adhesion molecules especially sL-selectin, sVCAM-1 in meningitis and suggests further research to determine their use as biomarkers for meningitis and use of their antagonists as therapeutic for CNS inflammation. The presence of discrepancy of CSF/serum ratios for molecules of same molecular weight suggest intrathecal shedding in addition to diffusion through the blood-CSF barrier.

  14. Gastroepiploic artery aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 61-year-old man was referred to our radiology department for abdominal Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) evaluation because of undefined abdominal discomfort. MIP and curved MPR scans revealed that, the mass is a true sacculary aneurysm at the midportion of the right gastroepiploic artery. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysms are the least common of all the splanchnic artery aneurysms. We appreciated the case as a right gastroepiploic artery aneurysm. We couldn't find any similar case in the literature

  15. Relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and the Clinical Phenotype of Pulmonary and Meningeal Tuberculosis ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Guy; Caws, Maxine; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; D'Sa, Anthony; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Huyen, Mai Nguyet Thu; Gagneux, Sebastien; Anh, Phan Thi Hoang; Tho, Dau Quang; Torok, Estee; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Duyen, Nguyen Thi Hong; Duy, Phan Minh; Richenberg, Jonathan; Simmons, Cameron; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    We used large sequence polymorphisms to determine the genotypes of 397 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Vietnamese adults with pulmonary (n = 235) or meningeal (n = 162) tuberculosis. We compared the pretreatment radiographic appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis and the presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of tuberculous meningitis between the genotypes. Multivariate analysis identified variables independently associated with genotype and outcome. A higher proportion of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by the Euro-American genotype had consolidation on chest X-ray than was the case with disease caused by other genotypes (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that meningitis caused by the East Asian/Beijing genotype was independently associated with a shorter duration of illness before presentation and fewer cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes. Older age, fewer CSF leukocytes, and the presence of hemiplegia (but not strain lineage) were independently associated with death or severe disability, although the East Asian/Beijing genotype was strongly associated with drug-resistant tuberculosis. The genotype of M. tuberculosis influenced the presenting features of pulmonary and meningeal tuberculosis. The association between the East Asian/Beijing lineage and disease progression and CSF leukocyte count suggests the lineage may alter the presentation of meningitis by influencing the intracerebral inflammatory response. In addition, increased drug resistance among bacteria of the East Asian/Beijing lineage might influence the response to treatment. This study suggests the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis has important clinical consequences. PMID:18287322

  16. Oxidative stress and S-100B protein in children with bacterial meningitis

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    Hamed Enas A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis is often associated with cerebral compromise which may be responsible for neurological sequelae in nearly half of the survivors. Little is known about the mechanisms of CNS involvement in bacterial meningitis. Several studies have provided substantial evidence for the key role of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species in the complex pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. Methods In the present study, serum and CSF levels of NO, lipid peroxide (LPO (mediators for oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation; total thiol, superoxide dismutase (SOD (antioxidant mediators and S-100B protein (mediator of astrocytes activation and injury, were investigated in children with bacterial meningitis (n = 40. Albumin ratio (CSF/serum is a marker of blood-CSF barriers integrity, while mediator index (mediator ratio/albumin ratio is indicative of intrathecal synthesis. Results Compared to normal children (n = 20, patients had lower serum albumin but higher NO, LPO, total thiol, SOD and S-100B. The ratios and indices of NO and LPO indicate blood-CSF barriers dysfunction, while the ratio of S-100B indicates intrathecal synthesis. Changes were marked among patients with positive culture and those with neurological complications. Positive correlation was found between NO index with CSF WBCs (r = 0.319, p Conclusion This study suggests that loss of integrity of brain-CSF barriers, oxidative stress and S-100B may contribute to the severity and neurological complications of bacterial meningitis.

  17. Genomic pneumococcal load and CSF cytokines are not related to outcome in Malawian adults with meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma C.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; Scarborough, Matthew; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine M.B.; Mukaka, Mavuto; Corless, Caroline; Lalloo, David G.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is often associated with HIV co-infection and mortality rates are double those seen in better resourced settings. Methods To investigate the cause of this excessive mortality we quantified the pneumococcal DNA load and six common pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Malawian adults with culture proven pneumococcal meningitis and correlated the results to clinical parameters and outcome. There are currently no published data relating bacterial load to outcome in adults with pneumococcal meningitis. Results The mean age of patients was 32 years, 82% were HIV infected and 49% had died by day 40. CSF bacterial loads were high (median 6.5 × 105 copies/ml CSF) and there was no significant variation in bacterial load between survivors and non-survivors. All pro-inflammatory CSF cytokines were elevated in the CSF, with no clinically important differences between survivors and non-survivors. HIV status did not affect the CSF bacterial load or cytokine response. Conclusion Mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is not related to pneumococcal bacterial load. More research is needed to understand the very high mortality from meningitis in this region. PMID:24975177

  18. Genome-wide identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes essential for bacterial replication during experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molzen, T E; Burghout, P

    2010-01-01

    Meningitis is the most serious of invasive infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines protect only against a limited number of serotypes, and evolving bacterial resistance to antimicrobials impedes treatment. Further insight into the molecular pathogenesis of invasive pneumococcal disease is required in order to enable the development of new or adjunctive treatments and/or pneumococcal vaccines that are efficient across serotypes. We applied genomic array footprinting (GAF) in the search for S. pneumoniae genes that are essential during experimental meningitis. A total of 6,000 independent TIGR4 marinerT7 transposon mutants distributed over four libraries were injected intracisternally into rabbits, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected after 3, 9, and 15 h. Microarray analysis of mutant-specific probes from CSF samples and inocula identified 82 and 11 genes mutants of which had become attenuated or enriched, respectively, during infection. The results point to essential roles for capsular polysaccharides, nutrient uptake, and amino acid biosynthesis in bacterial replication during experimental meningitis. The GAF phenotype of a subset of identified targets was followed up by detailed studies of directed mutants in competitive and noncompetitive infection models of experimental rat meningitis. It appeared that adenylosuccinate synthetase, flavodoxin, and LivJ, the substrate binding protein of a branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter, are relevant as targets for future therapy and prevention of pneumococcal meningitis, since their mutants were attenuated in both models of infection as well as in competitive growth in human cerebrospinal fluid in vitro.

  19. Group-A-streptococcal meningitis in a 7-year-old child – a rare pathogen in a non-immune compromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Zitteren, Leonarda Maria; Arents, Niek La; Halbertsma, Feico

    2011-01-01

    A case is presented of meningitis in a 7-year-old female child caused by Group A streptococcus (GAS), a rare bacterial cause of meningitis, with a high rate of morbidity (46%) and mortality (10%). GAS is susceptible for empiric antibiotic therapy aimed at the most prevalent pathogens of meningitis. As GAS meningitis is typically associated with ear-nose-throat (ENT) infections, specific search for a reservoir is advised. Bacterial typification often demonstrates M-protein gene sequence type (...

  20. Categorías de riesgo de meningitis bacteriana y tratamiento con antibióticos en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo / Categories of bacterial meningitis risk and antibiotic treatment for neonates with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Díaz Álvarez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: recientemente se desarrolló y validó el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo cual provee de una herramienta efectiva en la toma de decisiones médicas para la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetiv [...] o: conocer cómo se procedió retrospectivamente con la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico en neonatos con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, antes de desarrollar el modelo mencionado, y fortalecer y fundamentar una estrategia del tratamiento antibiótico, basados en nuestro Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y aplicado, que incluyó 290 neonatos evaluados por probable infección, 44 con meningitis bacteriana y 246 con meningitis aséptica, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", entre febrero/1992 y diciembre/2009. Se verificó la efectividad del Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal, lo que permitió clasificar los pacientes en alto o bajo riesgo de meningitis bacteriana. Se determinó retrospectivamente la indicación y los motivos de tratamiento antibiótico ante un neonato con pleocitosis del líquido cefalorraquídeo, así como análisis de asociación para distintas circunstancias clínicas, entre ellas, la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Resultados: se precisó que el Modelo de Predicción de Meningitis Bacteriana Neonatal tuvo una sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo de 100 % para meningitis bacteriana. Hubo concordancia estadísticamente significativa entre la predicción por el modelo y la clasificación de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Se comprobó un uso racional del tratamiento antibiótico, pues se utilizó de inmediato al diagnóstico de meningitis bacteriana en 100 % de los casos, y solo en una cuarta parte de los neonatos con meningitis aséptica, identificando como causas principales de indicación en estos casos con meningitis aséptica, tener resultados del examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo sospechosos de meningitis bacteriana sin calificar como positivos por el modelo, y hallazgos positivos para alto riesgo por los criterios de riesgo de infección bacteriana severa. Conclusiones: la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico ha sido bastante racional, pero en algunos casos innecesario. El modelo propuesto facilita y fundamenta la indicación de tratamiento antibiótico solo cuando existe un alto riesgo de meningitis bacteriana, y también limitar con confianza su uso cuando la predicción es de bajo riesgo de meningitis bacteriana, aunque puede haber situaciones clínicas excepcionales que lo justifiquen de manera transitoria. Abstract in english Introduction: recently, the neonatal bacterial meningitis predicting model was developed and validated, which provides an effective tool in medical decision-making to prescribe antibiotic treatment to neonates with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Objective: to find out retrospectively the procedure [...] to indicate the antibiotic treatment for neonates with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis prior to the development of the stated model, and to strengthen and substantiate an antibiotic treatment strategy, based on our neonatal bacterial meningitis prediction model of a newborn with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Methods: retrospective and implemented study of 290 neonates with probable infection; 44 had bacterial meningitis and 246 aseptic meningitis. They were all admitted to the neonatology service of "Juan Manuel Marquez" pediatric hospital from February 1992 to December 2009. The effectiveness of the neonatal bacterial meningitis prediction model was verified, which allowed classifying the patients into high or low bacterial meningitis risk. The indication and the reasons for antibiotic treatment of a neonate with cerebrospinal fluid pl

  1. Meningeal carcinomatosis in solid tumors / Carcinomatose meníngea em tumores sólidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandro José, Martins; Carla Rameri Alexandre Silva de, Azevedo; Ludmilla Thomé Domingos, Chinen; Marcelo Rocha Sousa, Cruz; Marcos Aurélio, Peterlevitz; Daniel Luiz, Gimenes.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O acometimento leptomeníngeo por metástases tumorais pode ocorrer em tumores sólidos, sendo chamado de carcinomatose meníngea (CM), e também em doenças linfoproliferativas. Tumores de mama, pulmão e melanoma são os principais responsáveis pelos casos, e adenocarcinoma é a histologia mais frequenteme [...] nte encontrada. A CM é um evento tardio na evolução da doença e caracteriza-se por sinais e sintomas neurológicos multifocais. O diagnóstico se faz pela avaliação conjunta do quadro clínico, neuroimagem e estudo do líquido cefalorraquidiano. O maior controle da doença sistêmica obtido com as novas modalidades terapêuticas e a baixa penetração de drogas no sistema nervoso central, aliados ao desenvolvimento nos métodos de neuroimagem observado nas últimas décadas, são fatores que respondem por um aumento na incidência desta apresentação. A quimioterapia intratecal é o tratamento de escolha, porém, frequentemente paliativo. O prognóstico é reservado, sendo que o melhor performance status pode selecionar um subgrupo de pacientes com melhor evolução. Abstract in english The involvement of the leptomeninges by metastatic tumors can be observed in solid tumors, in which case it is termed meningeal carcinomatosis (MC), and in lymphoproliferative malignant disease. It is more common in breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma, with adenocarcinoma being the most freq [...] uent histological type. MC is usually a late event, with disseminated and progressive disease already present and, it is characterized by multifocal neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging studies. The better systemic disease control is observed with new therapeutic agents, and the development of neuroimaging methods is responsible for the increasing incidence of such metastatic evolution. Intrathecal chemotherapy is generally the treatment of choice, although frequently palliative. Prognosis is guarded, although a higher performance status may indicate a subgroup of patients with a more favorable outcome.

  2. Meningeal carcinomatosis in solid tumors Carcinomatose meníngea em tumores sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the leptomeninges by metastatic tumors can be observed in solid tumors, in which case it is termed meningeal carcinomatosis (MC, and in lymphoproliferative malignant disease. It is more common in breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma, with adenocarcinoma being the most frequent histological type. MC is usually a late event, with disseminated and progressive disease already present and, it is characterized by multifocal neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging studies. The better systemic disease control is observed with new therapeutic agents, and the development of neuroimaging methods is responsible for the increasing incidence of such metastatic evolution. Intrathecal chemotherapy is generally the treatment of choice, although frequently palliative. Prognosis is guarded, although a higher performance status may indicate a subgroup of patients with a more favorable outcome.O acometimento leptomeníngeo por metástases tumorais pode ocorrer em tumores sólidos, sendo chamado de carcinomatose meníngea (CM, e também em doenças linfoproliferativas. Tumores de mama, pulmão e melanoma são os principais responsáveis pelos casos, e adenocarcinoma é a histologia mais frequentemente encontrada. A CM é um evento tardio na evolução da doença e caracteriza-se por sinais e sintomas neurológicos multifocais. O diagnóstico se faz pela avaliação conjunta do quadro clínico, neuroimagem e estudo do líquido cefalorraquidiano. O maior controle da doença sistêmica obtido com as novas modalidades terapêuticas e a baixa penetração de drogas no sistema nervoso central, aliados ao desenvolvimento nos métodos de neuroimagem observado nas últimas décadas, são fatores que respondem por um aumento na incidência desta apresentação. A quimioterapia intratecal é o tratamento de escolha, porém, frequentemente paliativo. O prognóstico é reservado, sendo que o melhor performance status pode selecionar um subgrupo de pacientes com melhor evolução.

  3. Characteristics of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hristea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM has a substantial mortality even with anti-tuberculous treatment, in HIV-non-infected patients. Purpose of the study. The objectives were to describe clinical and laboratory differences of TBM in HIV-infected versus HIV non-infected patients and to assess risk factors of death in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to four infectious diseases hospitals in Romania, between 2001 and 2011, with TBM. Patients were defined as having TBM according to a consensus definition published by Marais et al. [1] and further divided into three categories of TBM (definite, probable and possible. Results: We identified 162 patients with TBM of which 47 (29% tested positive for HIV infection. Sixty-six patients had definite, 53 probable and 43 possible TBM. Out of the 47 HIV-infected patients 25 had definite, 17 probable and 5 possible TBM. TBM in HIV-infected patients vs. HIV non-infected patients was significantly associated in multivariable analysis with younger age (p=0.01, in-hospital mortality (p<0.001, absence of meningean syndrome (p=0.021, and absence of cranial nerve palsy (p=0.036. HIV-infected patients who died had a median CD4 count of 61 cells/mm3 (IQR 21-132 vs. 135 cells/mm3 (IQR 61–255 in patients who survived (p=0.014. HIV infection was diagnosed before TBM episode in 35 (75% patients. Twenty-four (51% HIV-infected patients had concomitant extra-central nervous system tuberculosis. Conclusions: HIV infection is associated with increased mortality in patients with TBM. Most of our patients with TBM were late presenters. Death in HIV infected patients was associated with a lower median CD4 count.

  4. Clinical outcome of pneumococcal meningitis during the emergence of pencillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia Edilane L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of generic third-generation cephalosporins, penicillins were widely used for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis in developing countries despite concerns about rising levels of penicillin resistance among pneumococcal isolates. We examined the impact of penicillin resistance on outcomes of pneumococcal meningitis over a ten year period in an infectious diseases hospital in Brazil. Methods Clinical presentation, antimicrobial therapy and outcomes were reviewed for 548 patients with culture-confirmed pneumococcal meningitis from December, 1995, to November, 2005. Pneumococcal isolates from meningitis patients were defined as penicillin-resistant if Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for penicillin were greater than 0.06 ?g/ml. Proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for fatal outcomes. Results During the ten-year period, ceftriaxone replaced ampicillin as first-line therapy for suspected bacterial meningitis. In hospital case-fatality for pneumococcal meningitis was 37%. Of 548 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis cases, 92 (17% were resistant to penicillin. After controlling for age and severity of disease at admission, penicillin resistance was associated with higher case-fatality (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.62; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.08-2.43. Penicillin-resistance remained associated with higher case-fatality when initial therapy included ceftriaxone (HR, 1.68; 95% CI 1.02-2.76. Conclusions Findings support the use of third generation cephalosporin antibiotics for treatment of suspected pneumococcal meningitis even at low prevalence of pneumococcal resistance to penicillins.

  5. Mixed Bacterial Meningitis Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis in an 18-Month-Old Child

    OpenAIRE

    Marchandin, H.; Ventura, V.; Alonso, J. -m; Perre, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of culture-proven pneumococcal and meningococcal mixed meningitis in an 18-month-old girl. The patient responded well to antimicrobial therapy and recovered completely without sequelae. No underlying condition could be demonstrated except a rhinitis of unknown etiology 2 days before the onset of the symptoms suggesting meningitis.

  6. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is an uncommon cause of intermittent claudication in young athletic persons. A 32 years old soldier presented with 14 months history of intermittent claudication. On the basis of history, physical examination and angiographic findings a diagnosis of popliteal artery entrapment was made. Exploration revealed a fibrous band tightly compressing popliteal artery and irreversibly damaged popliteal artery. Short saphenous vein graft was used to bypass the occluded segment of popliteal artery. This led to complete resolution of symptoms and continuation of active service. (author)

  7. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  8. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komagamine Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kikuchi Fujimoto disease (KFD, or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis, is a benign and self-limiting condition characterised by primarily affecting the cervical lymph nodes. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with KFD is extremely rare and remains a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation We report a 28-year-old man who presented 7 episodes of aseptic meningitis associated with KFD over the course of 7 years. Histopathological findings of enlarged lymph nodes led to the diagnosis of KFD. The patient’s headache and lymphadenopathy spontaneously resolved without any sequelae. Conclusions A diagnosis of KFD should be considered when enlarged cervical lymph nodes are observed in patients with recurrent aseptic meningitis. A long-term prognosis remains uncertain, and careful follow-up is preferred.

  9. Which clinical parameters predict a CSF diagnosis of meningitis in a population with high HIV prevalence?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W, Loughborough; M, Abouyannis; L, Jones; S, Garach.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic has changed the aetiology of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, and frontline clinicians are faced with a variety of meningitic presentations. Doctors working in resource-limited settings have the challenge of appropriately selecting patients for lumbar puncture (LP), a p [...] otentially risky procedure that requires laboratory analysis. METHODS: In a rural South African hospital, the practice of performing LPs was audited against local guidelines. Data were collected retrospectively between February and June 2013. Symptoms and signs of meningitis, HIV status, investigations performed prior to LP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results were recorded. With the aim of determining statistically significant clinical predictors of meningitis, parameters were explored using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were included, of whom 43% had an abnormal CSF result. The majority (76%) of patients were HIV-positive (CD4+ cell count

  10. Incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cíntia Helena, de Souza; Ayaka, Yamane; Jeison Cleiton, Pandini; Luciane Bisognin, Ceretta; Fabiane, Ferraz; Glauco Duarte, da Luz; Priscyla Waleska, Simões.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, during the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods Ecological, temporal, and descriptive methods were employed using data obtained from the Information System on Diseas [...] e Notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação). Results One hundred sixteen reported cases of tuberculous meningitis occurred from 2001 to 2010, corresponding to 1.2% (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants) of all meningitis cases reported in SC. There was a predominance of new cases in males, corresponding to 56.9% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; males vs. females; p=0.374), in patients aged 20-39 years, corresponding to 52.6% of new cases (0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 20-39 years versus others; p

  11. Radioactive bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tubercular meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive 82bromide (0.64 ?Ci/kg) was administered orally to 52 children in the age group of 0-12 yr, 41 patients with suspected tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 11 with non-tubercular meningitis. The bromide activity in the serum and CSF were obtained at 48 h. A serum to CSF bromide partition ratio (BPR) of 1.9 and below was highly specific for TBM, and was seen in 38 of 41 patients, this included the 11 patients where the diagnosis of tuberculosis was proved by AFB isolation and/or histopathology. In the non-tubercular group BPR was above 1.9 in all the patients with no false positivity. The present study re-affirms the value of bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tubercular meningitis. (author)

  12. The role of an Ommaya reservoir in the management of children with cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Fang; Yu, Hui-Min; Zhou, Bo-Lin; Gao, Feng; Shen, Si-Xiang; Xia, Zhe-Zhi; Shui, Quan-Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common life-threatening fungal infection and is associated with high mortality in children. Amphotericin B plus flucytosine and fluconazole is the optimal current therapy. Implantation of an Ommaya reservoir for intraventricular infusion of medication and aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the treatment of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) has been reported. Intraventricular injection of amphotericin B through an Ommaya reservoir in children with cryptococcal meningitis has not been reported previously. We report two children who had cryptococcal meningitis and associated increased intracranial pressure, and were treated with an Ommaya reservoir. Both patients experienced rapid reversal of symptoms. At the time of discharge both patients had recovered and have remained asymptomatic. PMID:19910108

  13. Varicella-zoster meningitis with a late-onset of skin eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguankeo, Anawin; Upala, Sikarin; Sornprom, Suthanya; Thamcharoen, Natanong

    2015-01-01

    Viral meningitis caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an uncommon neurological complication of herpes zoster. It may occur before or after the onset of the vesicular rash along the dermatomal distribution, which is the classic presentation of herpes zoster. We describe a case of a 51-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian man who presented with neck and severe right-sided facial pain. Eight days later, he had photophobia and papular rash on his forehead. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination confirmed aseptic meningitis and CSF PCR detected the presence of VZV DNA. Neurological complications of VZV infection, such as aseptic meningitis, may be difficult to diagnose and can cause delay in treatment, especially in cases with late onset of dermatological manifestations of herpes zoster. Definite diagnosis requires evidence of acute VZV infection in blood or cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25691578

  14. [The importance of immune deficiency for the prognosis of purulent meningitis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippl, G; Eibl, M; Harasek, G; Kucera, H; Unger, F

    1976-12-01

    Morbidity and mortality of suppurative bacterial meningitis show a very constant behavior over many decades. The introduction of antibiotics certainly lowered the lethality considerably, but since then it has remained fairly unchanged at about 15-20%. However, in the principal groups of pathogens--meningococci, pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae--antibiotic resistence plays no special role. The significance of disorders of defense against infections for the course of the disease has not yet been investigated. Of 92 children examined with purulent meningitis, 49 showed a selective antibody deficiency syndrome against bacterial antigens, 38 of 48 children investigated showed further disorders of bactericidal activity. The proportion of these disorders is particularly high in children with defective healing of a meningitis. PMID:826806

  15. Management of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: Experience from western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Atul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining infections with high mortality. Amphotericin B is the preferred drug for induction therapy. Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV treatment, Antiretroviral Treatment (ART roll-out programs and availability of amphotericin B, cryptococcal meningitis remains an important cause of mortality in the African and other developing countries. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective observational study to determine the treatment response rate, tolerability and outcome of patients with cryptococcal meningitis in HIV treated with amphotericin B. Descriptive statistic was used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 27 patients were diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis during the study period. Headache (96.29% was the single most common presenting symptom of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients, followed by vomiting (77.77% and fever (66.66%. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF routine and microscopic examination was within normal limits in six patients. CSF became sterile on the 12th day of Amphotericin B in 55.55% of the patients while 33.33% had positive CSF cultures. Patients were started with ART after achieving sterile CSF and tolerated at least 2 weeks of fluconazole consolidation treatment and were free from symptoms. Median time for antiretroviral treatment initiation was 35 (14-90 days after completion of Amphotericin B treatment. One patient developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS after ART. Conclusions: We found that the recommended 2 weeks induction treatment with Amphotericin B monotherapy for HIV patients with cryptococcal meningitis in resource-limited settings may be suboptimal for at least one-third of the patients. Extending the therapy to 3 weeks is likely to result in sterilization of the CSF in a majority of these patients. This finding requires confirmation by a larger sample size in appropriately powered studies. Delaying ART initiation by at least 2 weeks after amphotericin B treatment may decrease the incidence of IRIS.

  16. Non-Polio Enteroviruses Aseptic Meningitis:Embaba Fever Hospital Admissions 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat A. Abdel-Twab¹, Kouka S. Abdel-Wahab2. Ahmed O. El-Kafrawi3, Moustafa A. Aly3, Laila A. EL-Bassiony4, May EL-Maamoun4, Caroline Fayez5

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human enteroviruses (EV cause a wide spectrum of both common and uncommon illnesses among all age groups. Enterically transmitted. The objective of this study was to identify non-poliovirus EV as a cause of viral aseptic meningitis (VAM by two methods (cell culture and Real time PCR. From October 2010 to August 2011 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were collected from 85 patients Embaba fever hospital admitted with symptoms of aseptic meningitis of any age and both sexes. The 85 CSF samples were inoculated into RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line in three blind passages to amplify isolates producing EV-like CPE. A total of 14 (16.5% out of 85 CSF samples showed EV-like CPE. By Real time PCR 11 out of the 14 culture positive samples and 5 out of the 14 source of virus isolation original CSF were non polio EV positive. The frequency of non-polio EV meningitis hospital admissions was in the summer season (50%, spring (25%, late autumn (16.6% and least frequency in winter (8.4%. non-polio EV meningitis was detected in 6 out of 41 male patients (14.5% and in 6 out of 44 female patients (13.5%. Also non-polio EV meningitis was detected in all ages with marked increase of incidence in young children (41.6% and old age (50% and less in adult (8.4%. . In conclusionOur data showed that the non-polioviruses EV was associated with the majority of VAM during 2010 – 2011 at the Embaba fever hospital which serves Embaba, Shoubra Elkheema, Qualyba and neighbors localities in Egypt. Rapid detection of non-polio EV meningitis is essential for making decisions about patient management and treatment

  17. Epidemics of viral meningitis caused by echovirus 6 and 30 in Korea in 2008

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    Kim Hye-Jin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteroviruses (EVs are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis, which is the most frequent central nervous system infection worldwide. We aimed to characterize the EVs involved in an aseptic meningitis outbreak in Korea in 2008. In Korea, Echovirus type 30 (E30 and E6 have been associated with outbreaks and frequent meningitis. Methods During 2008, through nationwide surveillance, we collected specimens from 758 patients with aseptic meningitis-related clinical manifestations. The detection of EVs from specimens was subjected to a diagnostic real-time RT-PCR in the 5' NCR. A semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify sequences from the VP1 region and sequence comparison with reference strains registered in Genbank was performed for the genotype determination. Results Most patients (98% in this outbreak were children 3. We detected EVs from 513 patients (67.68% and identified the EV genotype in 287 patients. E30 (n = 155, 50.4% and E6 (n = 95, 33.1% were the predominant genotypes. E9, E1, E7, E16, coxsackievirus A3, 4, 6, coxsackievirus B1, 3, and 10 were also identified. According to phylogenetic analysis, E30 belonged to subgroup 4b, and E6, to the C4 subgroup. Conclusions Conclusively, aseptic meningitis was the most common manifestation in children with either echovirus 30 or 6 infection. Identification of E6 and E30 as the prominent EVs in the 2008 outbreak in South Korea shows the potential of EVs to cause a serious disease in an unpredictable (fashion. Our findings provide new insights into the clinical and virological features of the aseptic meningitis outbreak caused by E30 and E6.

  18. Attenuated cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and sepsis in adults with pneumococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitsma Johannes B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF white-blood cell count (WBC has been identified as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis. Whereas a low CSF WBC indicates the presence of sepsis with early meningitis in patients with meningococcal infections, the relation between CSF WBC and outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis is not understood. Methods We examined the relation between CSF WBC, bacteraemia and sepsis in a prospective cohort study that included 352 episodes of pneumococcal meningitis, confirmed by CSF culture, occurring in patients aged >16 years. Results CSF WBC was recorded in 320 of 352 episodes (91%. Median CSF WBC was 2530 per mm3 (interquartile range 531–6983 per mm3 and 104 patients (33% had a CSF WBC 3. Patients with a CSF WBC 3 were more likely to have an unfavourable outcome (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1–4 than those with a higher WBC (74 of 104 [71%] vs. 87 of 216 [43%]; P 3 more often had a positive blood culture (72 of 84 [86%] vs. 138 of 196 [70%]; P = 0.01 and more often developed systemic complications (cardiorespiratory failure, sepsis than those with a higher WBC (53 of 104 [51%] vs. 69 of 216 [32%]; P = 0.001. In a multivariate analysis, advanced age (Odds ratio per 10-year increments 1.22, 95%CI 1.02–1.45, a positive blood culture (Odds ratio 2.46, 95%CI 1.17–5.14, and a low thrombocyte count on admission (Odds ratio per 100,000/mm3 increments 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.97 were associated with a CSF WBC 3. Conclusion A low CSF WBC in adults with pneumococcal meningitis is related to the presence of signs of sepsis and systemic complications. Invasive pneumococcal infections should possibly be regarded as a continuum from meningitis to sepsis.

  19. Definition and characterization of localised meningitis epidemics in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal retrospective study

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    Tall Haoua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop a definition for localised epidemics to be used in real-time surveillance based on weekly case reports at the health centre level. Methods We used national routine surveillance data on suspected meningitis from January 2004 to December 2008 in six health districts in western and central Burkina Faso. We evaluated eight thresholds composed of weekly incidence rates at health centre level for their performance in predicting annual incidences of 0.4%and 0.8% in health centre areas. The eventually chosen definition was used to describe the spatiotemporal epidemiology and size of localised meningitis epidemics during the included district years. Results Among eight weekly thresholds evaluated, a weekly incidence rate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during at least two consecutive weeks with at least 5 cases per week had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for predicting an annual incidence of at least 0.8% in health centres. Using this definition, localised epidemics were identified in all but one years during 2004-2008, concerned less than 10% of the districts' population and often were geographically dispersed. Where sufficient laboratory data were available, localised epidemics were exclusively due to meningococci. Conclusions This definition of localised epidemics a the health centre level will be useful for risk factor and modelling studies to understand the meningitis belt phenomenon and help documenting vaccine impact against epidemic meningitis where no widespread laboratory surveillance exists for quantifying disease reduction after vaccination.

  20. Case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid: value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.

    1986-11-06

    The author reports a case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid in which extensive bacteriologic investigations were negative making the etiologic diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Initiation of empiric antituberculous therapy was rapidly followed by clinical and biological improvement, without complications, and by resolution of abnormal findings on computed tomography of the brain. On these grounds, meningitis secondary to a tuberculoma in the temporal lobe was diagnosed. The author points out that tuberculous meningitis is still a severe, potentially fatal condition; this, together with the fact that tubercle bacilli are often very scarce or absent, requires that tuberculous meningitis be routinely considered in every patient with clear cerebrospinal fluid meningitis whose condition deteriorates. Computed tomography of the brain is essential to ensure rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy. Lastly, the author points out that nowadays herpes simplex virus encephalopathy should also be considered.

  1. [Cerebellum abscess: first demonstration of undiagnosed infective endocarditis in an adult with corrected transposition arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudghiri, N; Faroudy, M; Mosadik, A; Sbihi, S; Ababou, A; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications occur in approximately 30% of all patients with infective endocarditis and represent a major factor associated with an increased mortality rate. Third of these complications is represented by cerebral embolism, followed by mycotic aneurysm, meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Brain abscesses are rare; their localization to the cerebellum is exceptional. A case of cerebellum abscess occurring in a 34-year-old patient with non-operated corrected transposition of the great arteries is reported. Occurrence of this abscess was the first demonstration of undiagnosed infective endocarditis. PMID:16271445

  2. Bacterial meningitis Meningitis bacateriana aguda en niños: estudio clínico y bacteriológico en el Hospital Infantil de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hoyos

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Between aprl13, 1984 and march 31,1986,95  children with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM were admitted to Hospital lnfantil, Medellín, Colombia. 68 (71.6% were under two years old. Haemophifus influenza  type B was the predominant microorganism (41%, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.4%, enterobacteriaceae (15.8%, Neisseria meningitidis (4.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% and betahemolytlc streptococci (2.1%. One case produced by Streptococcus agalactiae was the first one in our Hospital and another one due to Shigella was the first one in Colombia. Bacterial origin was confirmed in 93.7% of the cases, employing direct examination, cultures and counter immuno electrophoresis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were: fever, vomit, irritability, meningeai irritation and seizures; the younger the patient the most severe the clinical picture. Those with persistent focal seizures showed cerebral infarction, subdural effusion, ventricular dilatation or a combination of them. Mortality was 19%; sequelae were observed in 26% (seizure, motor deficit and deafness; Haemophilus influenzae resistance to ampicilin was observed for the first time in this institution. We suggest modifications in the initial therapeutic approach and recommend the suppression of the routine pre-discharge lumbar puncture.

    Entre abril 3 de 1984 y marzo 31 de 1986, se estudiaron 95 niños que ingresaron al Hospital Infantil de Medellín con el diagnóstico de meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA; 68 de ellos fueron menores de 2 años (71.6%; el HaemophiIus influenzae tipo e fue el germen predominante (41.0%; le siguieron el Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.4%, las enterobacterias (15.8%, la Neisseriameningitidis (4.2%, el Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% y estreptococos beta hemoifticos (2.1%; uno de éstos fue Streptococcus agalactiae y correspondió al primer caso de MBA descrito en Medellín por tal microorganismo; igualmente, se halló el primer caso colombiano de MBA por Shigella La fiebre, el vómito, la irritabilidad, los signos de irritación meníngea y las convulsiones, fueron las manifestaciones más frecuentes; en general el cuadro clínico fue más severo y mayores las complicaciones mientras menor fuera el paciente; los pacientes con convulsiones persistentes de predominio focal tenían, por lo general, infarto cerebral, derrame subdural, dilatación ventricular o una combinación de los mismos. El origen bacteriano del padecimiento se pudo comprobar en 89 pacientes (93.7% mediante una combinación de exámenes directos, cultivos y contra inmunoelectroforesis. La mortalidad general fue de 19.0%; de otro lado el 26.0% de los pacientes quedó con secuelas tales como convulsiones, déficit motor y sordera. Por primera vez se comprobó en este Hospital resistencia del H. influenza a la ampicilina (3 de las 26 cepas estudiadas. Con base en éste y los demás hallazgos se recomiendan modificaciones al esquema terapéutico Inicial de la MBA y la supresión de la punción lumbar final rutinaria.

  3. Meningitis tuberculosa: claves para su diagnóstico y propuestas terapéuticas Tuberculous meningitis: tips for diagnosis and proposals for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lasso B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de la meningitis tuberculosa (MTBC es siempre un desafío. Debemos dar importancia a las manifestaciones clínicas y su duración. El análisis citoquímico del LCR tiene características propias y debe ser controlado varias veces durante el tratamiento. La adenosin deami-nasa con punto de corte > 15 UI/mL y la RPC para M. tuberculosis en LCR son las pruebas más relevantes. Las imágenes aportan elementos valiosos pero no establecen el diagnóstico por si solas. A futuro se puede estructurar un puntaje con todos estos elementos para apoyar al clínico en el proceso diagnóstico. El tratamiento de la MTBC, dada su alta morbilidad y mortalidad, necesariamente debe ser más intensivo y prolongado, y debemos seleccionar fármacos con buena penetración en el SNC. Se propone un esquema de 12 meses. La fase diaria debería durar tres meses e incluir isoniacida, rifampicina, pirazinamida y etambutol o moxifloxacina. Estreptomicina no debería ser incluida dada su mala penetración en el SNC y reconocida toxicidad. La fase de mantención debería ser trisemanal e incluir isoniacida, rifampicina y pirazinamida. Dexa-metasona debe administrarse durante las primeras seis semanas de tratamiento. En el caso de pacientes con infección por VIH que requieran iniciar TARV ésta debe ser aplazada para después de la fase diaria y no debería incluir inhibidores de proteasa e integrasa.Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM is always a challenge. We must give importance for duration of clinical manifestations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has own characteristic and it have to be control several times during the treatment. Adenosin deaminase with cut off more than 15 UI/mL and M. tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction in CSF are the most relevant diagnostic tests. Radiologic test gives diagnostic clues but do not confirm the diagnosis. In the future we can structure a score with all these elements to support the clinician in the diagnostic process. The treatment of TBM because of its high morbidity and high mortality has to be necessarily more intensive and prolonged and we must select drugs with a good penetration into the central nervous system (SNC. A therapeutic scheme with duration of 12 months with two phases is proposed, the diary phase during the first three months of treatment includes isoniacid, rifampicin, pirazinamid and ethambutol or moxifloxacin. Streptomycin must not be included due to own erratic SNC penetration and its known toxicity. The second twice a week phase has to be changed by a three times per week phase during 9 months and it must include isoniacid, rifampicin and pirazinamide. Dexamethasone is added during the first 6 weeks of treatment. Patients with HIV infection than required treatment with antiretroviral drugs have to start ART treatment when diary phase has finished and must not include protease or integrase inhibitors.

  4. Chronic meningitis by histoplasmosis: report of a child with acute myeloid leukemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.H., Pereira; S.S., Pádua; M.V.F., Park; R.P., Muller; R.M.A., Passos; Y., Menezes.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is a common evolution in progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children, and is asymptomatic in many cases. In leukemia, the impaired of the T cells function can predispose to the disseminated form. The attributed mortality rate in this case is 20%-40% and the relapse rate is as high [...] as 50%; therefore, prolonged treatment may be emphasized. We have described a child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), that developed skin lesions and asymptomatic chronic meningitis, with a good evolution after prolonged treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole.

  5. Chronic meningitis by histoplasmosis: report of a child with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is a common evolution in progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children, and is asymptomatic in many cases. In leukemia, the impaired of the T cells function can predispose to the disseminated form. The attributed mortality rate in this case is 20%-40% and the relapse rate is as high as 50%; therefore, prolonged treatment may be emphasized. We have described a child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, that developed skin lesions and asymptomatic chronic meningitis, with a good evolution after prolonged treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole.

  6. Bacteriological study of pyogenic meningitis with special reference to C-reactive protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five clinically, biochemically and microscopically diagnosed cases of pyogenic meningitis including 28 adults and 47 paediatric patients were studied. Gram positive isolates in adults and gram negative bacilli in paediatric age group were the predominant organisms. Estimation of C-reactive protein (CRP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum was done in all cases as an early marker for rapid diagnosis of pyogenic meningitis. Simultaneous estimation of CRP levels in serum and CSF was found to have a significant diagnostic utility as compared to culture.

  7. [Treatment of patients with sequelae of meningitis at a balneologic health resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadiomova, M A; Shipitsyna, L M; Goriachkina, M V; Gendel's, B S; Babina, L M

    1983-01-01

    The results of balneotherapy in patients with cerebroasthenic and hypertensive syndromes are described. Twenty-four children were examined electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically before and after sanatorium treatment. Massage, exercises, drug therapy, radon and carbon dioxide and sulfurated hydrogen baths were used. Sanatorium treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the general condition, of bioelectrical cerebral activity, of brain hemo- and CSF-dynamics as well as in the recovery of cortical functional activity. The most effective and stable results were obtained in patients with a favourable premorbid period of meningitis. Children with meningitis which occurred after an aggravated premorbid period needed repeated treatment courses. PMID:6222572

  8. Prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, Vasant; Mathur, M; De, A; Kumar, S; Rathi, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 573 HIV seropositive and clinically suspected cases of Cryptococcal meningitis were included in the study, from January 2006 to January 2007. CSF samples were processed by negative staining with 10% Nigrosin, cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar, biochemical tests, such as urease test and brownish growth in Niger seed agar. The prevalence of Cryptococcal meningitis was found to be 2.79%. The most common signs and symptoms were: fever (100%), headache (100%), altered sensorium (100%), and neck stiffness (90%). All the patients responded to intravenous Amphotericin B treatment. PMID:21938109

  9. Repeat Lumbar Puncture: CSF Lactic Acid Levels are Predictive of Cure with Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A common clinical problem concerns the utility of repeat lumbar puncture (LP in adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM, e.g., pneumococcal meningitis [1]. An LP is initially done for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected ABM, i.e., diagnostic lumbar puncture (DLP. A repeat LP (RLP may be done 1–3 days after the initial DLP, if the patient shows no improvement. If a patient with ABM is not doing well after three days, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy is the main concern. Other reasons for RLP is to detect possible intracranial complications of ABM unrelated to adequacy of therapy [1–2].

  10. Dust and epidemic meningitis in the Sahel: A public health and operational research perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M C [International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Palisades, NY (United States); Jeanne, I [CERMES/Reseau International des Instituts Pasteur, BP 10 887 Niamey (Niger); Djingarey, M [WHO-Multi-Disease Surveillance Centre, Ougadougou (Burkina Faso)], E-mail: mthomson@iri.columbia.edu

    2009-03-01

    Now that the health communities attention is increasingly focused on climate-health interactions, it has become essential for health decision makers to better understand the role that climate plays in driving disease burdens and health outcomes (both now and in the future) and the opportunity for integrating climate knowledge and information into health decision-making processes to mitigate the negative and strengthen the positive of climate-health interactions. Here we explore the potential climatic indicators and the climate information needs of relevance to the meningitis prevention and control community engaged in the African 'meningitis belt'.

  11. Dust and epidemic meningitis in the Sahel: A public health and operational research perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Now that the health communities attention is increasingly focused on climate-health interactions, it has become essential for health decision makers to better understand the role that climate plays in driving disease burdens and health outcomes (both now and in the future) and the opportunity for integrating climate knowledge and information into health decision-making processes to mitigate the negative and strengthen the positive of climate-health interactions. Here we explore the potential climatic indicators and the climate information needs of relevance to the meningitis prevention and control community engaged in the African 'meningitis belt'.

  12. Cerebral distribution of immunoconjugate after treatment for neoplastic meningitis using an intrathecal radiolabeled monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed autopsy and autoradiographic study was performed after the death of a patient undergoing intrathecal, antibody-guided irradiation for carcinomatous meningitis. The results demonstrated tumor cells infiltrating the surface meninges and a severe astrocytic reaction associated with oedema in the periventricular and brain stem subpial white matter. This was not seen in cortical or other gray matter structures. Autoradiographic examination correlated well, demonstrating isotope within the oedematous areas of the white matter in addition to the expected concentration in the leptomeningeal layers. These findings are discussed in the context of antibody binding to tumor tissue and the possible benefits conferred in the treatment of infiltrating tumor cells

  13. Fatal Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis and concomitant disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Min-Po

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of death and long-term neurologic sequelae worldwide. We present a case of fatal Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis and concomitant disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in a 72-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus (DM. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae . Due to advanced age, newly recognized DM, K. pneumoniae bacteremia, and DIC, the prognosis of our patient was poor. Eight hours after arrival to the emergency department, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was necessary in this patient, but she died despite an early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  14. Meningitis, a whirlpool of death: literary reflections and Russian cultural beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the central nervous system. The most frequent causes of the disease are viruses and bacteria. In the past, the disease was commonly referred to as "brain fever" or "brain inflammation," and extreme temperatures, sun, rain, mental distress, and other factors were believed to be its potent triggers. By the beginning of the twentieth century, these beliefs faded away in the United States and most western European countries. In contrast, some of these archaic notions persist in Russia, where cold air, draft, wet hair, and failure to cover one's head with a hat during winter are perceived as serious risks for contracting meningitis. These sentiments are reflected in the prose of Solzhenitsyn and other contemporary Russian authors. However, in the fictional literature of the nineteenth century, emotional or intellectual disturbances rather than the wrath of winter were portrayed worldwide as the most frequent cause of brain inflammation. Both physicians and laity blamed nervous breakdown or mental distress for the development of meningitis and the tragic deaths of the eminent Russian writer Gogol, talented poet Nadson, and heir to the Imperial throne Grand Duke Nicholas Romanov. Even in the twentieth century, esteemed Russian artists, including Pasternak, Paustovsky, and Roerich, highlighted this belief. Following the discovery of the infectious nature of meningitis, fictional depictions of the illness changed. While literary accounts of brain inflammation by the realists (e.g., Dostoevsky and Flaubert) were rather imprecise, the descriptions of the course and symptoms of meningitis by the modernists (e.g., Balmont, Hesse, and Huxley) became detailed and recognizable. Typically, the victim of the disease is a boy, and his imminent agony is preceded by immense suffering that devastates his parents. The dreadful experience of seeing children in the merciless clutches of meningitis had a profound personal effect on Maugham, Twain, and Russian philosopher Tikhomirov, changing their spiritual convictions. However, several authors, among them Avseenko, Davydov, Gazdanov, and Shmelyov, created uplifting stories of survival of the affliction. In this chapter, references to meningitis in the medical and fictional literature are explored through a cultural and historical prism, which may help readers to understand how and why this disease has held a special significance in the Russian psyche. PMID:24290475

  15. Recurrent meningitis with upper airway obstruction in a child: frontonasal encephalocele- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Soumya; Kapoor, Rohit; Paul, Premila; Yadav, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele are rare congenital anomalies; these benign masses may be confused with nasal dermoids, hemangiomas, nasal gliomas and anterior skull base masses. These lesions have concomitant defects in the anterior cranial fossa thus this potential communication can cause recurrent episodes of meningitis and/or difficulty in breathing and cosmetic anomalies. We bring a case of a 6-year-old child who presented to the clinic with multiple episodes of meningitis which was associated with nasal discharge. The imaging studies and nasal fluid analysis confirmed it as cerebrospinal fluid; subsequently imaging findings concluded it as frontonasal encephalocele which was later resected and patient showed improvement. PMID:25302244

  16. Compartmentalization of TNF and IL-6 in meningitis and septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Waage; Alfred Halstensen; Terje Espevik; Petter Brandtzæg

    1993-01-01

    We examined the compartmentalization of bioactive tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) to the subarachnoid space and systemic circulation in patients with meningococcal meningitis and septic shock/bacteraemia. In patients with meningitis, median levels of TNF in 31 paired samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were respectively 783 pg/ml and below detection limit (p < 0.001) and median levels of IL-6 were 150 ng/ml and 0.3 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). In patients with septic s...

  17. Acelularidad del líquido cefalorraquídeo como factor pronóstico adverso en meningitis criptocóccica / Acellularity of cerebrospinal fluid as adverse prognostic factor in cryptococcal meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Radamés, Larrea Fabra; Lizet, Sánchez Valdés.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las enfermedades oportunistas, y dentro de ellas la meningitis criptocóccica en pacientes inmunodeprimidos, constituyen causa mayor de letalidad en países en vías de desarrollo. Objetivo: identificar factores de mal pronóstico como la acelularidad del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) para [...] individualizar medidas terapéuticas encaminadas al logro de una mayor supervivencia y calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Métodos: se estudió la celularidad de todos los LCR de los 170 casos de Bojanala, North West, ingresados en el Hospital Provincial de Rustenburg, South África por meningitis criptocóccica desde mayo de 2001 hasta abril de 2004. Se interrelacionó el número de células blancas del LCR con la letalidad intrahospitalaria, seropositividad al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y nivel de linfocitos T4. Resultados: se detectó una asociación altamente significativa entre acelularidad basal del LCR y riesgo a morir, y significativa con progresión lineal de mayor mortalidad en los casos con descenso evolutivo del número de células blancas en sucesivos LCR. Se constató un alto índice de letalidad (36,5 %) por meningitis criptocóccica. No hubo diferencias significativas entre acelularidad y letalidad en pruebas de comparación de grupos acorde al nivel de linfocitos T4 y a la confirmación o no de la seropositividad al VIH. Conclusiones: tanto la acelularidad basal como la progresión descendente evolutiva del número de células blancas del LCR constituyen herramientas útiles para la predicción del riesgo a morir por meningitis criptocóccica. Abstract in english Introduction: opportunistic diseases, and among them, cryptococcal meningitis in immune-compromised patients, are a major cause of lethality in developing countries Objective: to identify mal prognostic factors such as acellularity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to identify therapeutic measures aimed [...] to achieve improved survival and quality of life of these patients. Methods: cellularity was studied in all CSF of the 170 cases in Bojanala, North West, who were admitted to the Rustenburg Provincial Hospital, South Africa for cryptococcal meningitis from May 2001 to April 2004. The number of CSF white cell with hospital mortality, seropositive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and level of T4 lymphocytes were interrelated. Results: a highly significant association was found between baseline CSF acellularity and risk of death, and significant linear progression of increased mortality in patients with developmental decline in the number of white cells in successive CSF. A high fatality rate (36.5 %) for cryptococcal meningitis was also found. No significant differences was found between acellularity and lethality tests comparing groups according to the level of T4 lymphocytes and the confirmation or otherwise of HIV seropositivity. Conclusions: both basal acellularity and evolutionary downward progression of the number of CSF white cells are useful tools for predicting the risk of death for cryptococcal meningitis.

  18. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly: apoplexy mimicking meningitis or meningitis as a cause of apoplexy? / Remissão espontânea da acromegalia: meningite simulando apoplexia ou meningite como causa da apoplexia?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Villar-Taibo; María D., Ballesteros-Pomar; Alfonso, Vidal-Casariego; Rosa M., Álvarez-San Martín; Georgios, Kyriakos; Isidoro, Cano-Rodríguez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A apoplexia é uma síndrome clínica rara, mas potencialmente fatal, caracterizada por infarto isquêmico ou hemorragia em um tumor pituitário. O diagnóstico de apoplexia de tumor pituitário é frequentemente complicado pela natureza inespecífica dos seus sinais e sintomas, que podem simular diferentes [...] processos neurológicos, incluindo a meningite. Vários fatores estão associados com a apoplexia, como o uso de agonistas dopaminérgicos, radioterapia ou trauma da cabeça, mas a meningite foi raramente relatada. Descrevemos o caso de uma mulher de 51 anos de idade com acromegalia por um macroadenoma pituitário. Antes do tratamento cirúrgico, ela foi trazida ao pronto-socorro com febre, náusea, vômitos e meningismo. Os sintomas e análises laboratoriais sugeriram meningite bacteriana e o tratamento com antibióticos foi iniciado, com melhora rápida dos sintomas. Uma tomografia computadorizada (CT) na admissão ao hospital não revelou nenhuma alteração no adenoma pituitário, mas algumas semanas depois uma ressonância magnética (MRI) mostrou informações de apoplexia pituitária, com desaparecimento completo do adenoma. Atualmente, a acromegalia está curada, mas ela desenvolveu hipopituitarismo e diabetes insipidus depois da apoplexia. Questionamo-nos se a paciente realmente apresentou meningite que levou à apoplexia ou se a apoplexia foi mal interpretada como sendo meningite. A relação entre a meningite e a apoplexia pode ser bidirecional. A apoplexia pode simular a meningite viral ou bacteriana, mas a meningite também pode causar apoplexia. Esse fato enfatiza a importância do diagnóstico diferencial ao se avaliar pacientes com adenomas pituitários e sintomas neurológicos. Abstract in english Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by ischemic infarction or hemorrhage into a pituitary tumor. The diagnosis of pituitary tumor apoplexy is frequently complicated because of the nonspecific nature of its signs and symptoms, which can mimic [...] different neurological processes, including meningitis. Several factors have been associated with apoplexy, such as dopamine agonists, radiotherapy, or head trauma, but meningitis is a rarely reported cause. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma. Before surgical treatment, she arrived at Emergency with fever, nausea, vomiting and meningismus. Symptoms and laboratory tests suggested bacterial meningitis, and antibiotic therapy was initiated, with quick improvement. A computerized tomography (CT) scan at admission did not reveal any change in pituitary adenoma, but a few weeks later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed data of pituitary apoplexy with complete disappearance of the adenoma. Currently, her acromegaly is cured, but she developed hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus following apoplexy. We question whether she really experienced meningitis leading to apoplexy or whether apoplexy was misinterpreted as meningitis. In conclusion, the relationship between meningitis and pituitary apoplexy may be bidirectional. Apoplexy can mimic viral or bacterial meningitis, but meningitis might cause apoplexy, as well. This fact highlights the importance of differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with pituitary adenomas and acute neurological symptoms.

  19. Lagochilascariasis leading to severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges Infecção humana por Lagochilascaris minor com envolvimento ocular, auditivo e das meninges

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Renata T. R.; Magliari, Maria E. R.; José Vital Filho; Silva, Maria A. L. G.; Da Conceic?a?o Lima, Carlos A.; Rocha, Antonio J.; Silva, Carlos J.; Rewin, Jonathan A.; Nahas, Tatiana R.; Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    2008-01-01

    A case report of a 31 year-old woman from Paraíba State (North-Eastern Brazil) that presented severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges. Diagnosis was established after enucleation of her left eye, when adult worms were seen in the midst of a granulomatous inflammatory process. Her response to the initial treatment with levamisole and cambendazole was good, but there was a relapse after the fifth month of treatment even with maintenance doses of both medications. She later recei...

  20. Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are similar to neonatal meningitis E. coli strains and are able to cause meningitis in the rat model of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Kelly A; Logue, Catherine M; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jordan, Dianna; Hussein, Ashraf; Li, Ganwu; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nolan, Lisa K

    2010-08-01

    Escherichia coli strains causing avian colibacillosis and human neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, and septicemia are collectively known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Characterization of ExPEC strains using various typing techniques has shown that they harbor many similarities, despite their isolation from different host species, leading to the hypothesis that ExPEC may have zoonotic potential. The present study examined a subset of ExPEC strains: neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) strains and avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains belonging to the O18 serogroup. The study found that they were not easily differentiated on the basis of multilocus sequence typing, phylogenetic typing, or carriage of large virulence plasmids. Among the APEC strains examined, one strain was found to be an outlier, based on the results of these typing methods, and demonstrated reduced virulence in murine and avian pathogenicity models. Some of the APEC strains tested in a rat model of human neonatal meningitis were able to cause meningitis, demonstrating APEC's ability to cause disease in mammals, lending support to the hypothesis that APEC strains have zoonotic potential. In addition, some NMEC strains were able to cause avian colisepticemia, providing further support for this hypothesis. However, not all of the NMEC and APEC strains tested were able to cause disease in avian and murine hosts, despite the apparent similarities in their known virulence attributes. Thus, it appears that a subset of NMEC and APEC strains harbors zoonotic potential, while other strains do not, suggesting that unknown mechanisms underlie host specificity in some ExPEC strains. PMID:20515929

  1. Clinical analysis of carcinomatous meningitis in 63 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and the prognostic factors of carcinomatous meningitis (CM). Methods: 63 patients with CM treated in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from 1998 to 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlations between clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and the prognosis of CM were analyzed. The common primary site was lung cancer (65%) and breast cancer (13%). All the patients were underwent MRI scan and 29 of the patients received lumbar puncture. Fifty-one patients received whole brain radiotherapy, systemic and/or intrathecal chemotherapy. The other 12 patients only received supportive care. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: All patients died by the end of follow-up. The follow-up rate was 95%. The number of patients who undergone 1-, 2 years follow-up were 59 and 56. The median survival time was 2.2 months (range: 0.1-24.4 months) for the entire group. The clinical stage and the control status of the primary disease were strongly correlated with survival (?2=6.68, P=0.036) and (?2=7.04, P=0.008). The median survival time was 3.0 months (range: 1.0-24.4 months) in patients who received ? 30 Gy whole brain irradiation, while only 1.8 months (range: 0.1-14.2 months) in those who did not receive radiotherapy (?2=5.54, P=0.019). The median survival time of radiotherapy ± chemotherapy group, chemotherapy only group and supportive treatment only group were 3.0 months (range: 0.5-24.4 months), 2.2 months (range: 0.3-14.2 months) and 1.2 months (range: 0.1- 4.5 months), respectively (?2=9.32, P=0.009). Conclusions: The prognosis of CM is very poor. The clinical stage before the diagnosis of CM and the control status of primary disease and were significantly correlated with survival. Sufficient whole brain irradiation dose may prolong survival and worth further study in a large sample study. (authors)

  2. The clinical and cerebrospinal fluid cytological features of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xiao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cytological features of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM, to improve early diagnostic accuracy and treatment of TBM. Methods Clinical presentations, etiology and biochemical and cytological features of CSF were analyzed retrospectively among 60 adult cases with TBM hospitalized at Neurology Department of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2005 to May 2011. Results Most patients (58/60, 96.67% had fever and headache at onset. In some patients, disturbance of consciousness (9/60, 15.00%, seizure (5/60, 8.33% occurred in 1 week and focal neurological signs developed during the course. Forty?four patients (73.33% had pulmonary tuberculosis history. In CSF examination, acid?fast bacillus positive was found in 8 patients. Positive acid ? fast myobacterium tuberculous culture was detected in 5 patients and positive myobacterium tuberculosis DNA were seen in 5 patients. The main changes of CSF were intracranial hypertension, increase of protein, and decrease of glucose. CSF presented mixed cellular response with predominace in the increasing of leucocytes. During early stage the mean percentage of neutrophil in CSF was less than 40%. After short term (as long as 2 months of regular antituberculotic therapy no significant changes in total cell count and the proportion of neutrophils were seen. In 60 patients, 44 patients were ameliorated, 11 were not healed or were discharged or transferred to other hospital and 5 were dead. Prognosis of patients treated within 3 weeks after onsets was superiorly to those treated at more than 3 weeks after onset. Conclusion There are no specific clinical features in TBM and it is hard to perform early diagnosis for TBM, particularly, existing of low efficiency in pathogenic detection, but pulmonary tuberculosis is of accessary value to diagnose TBM. Whereas mixed cellular response may complementarily provide the diagnosis of TBM in early stage. Cytologic changes of CSF can be very slow even after therapy. Therefore persistent mixed cellular response in CSF cannot exclude TBM. The time of treatment will determine the therapeutic effectiveness in a great degree.

  3. Meningeal/vascular alterations and loss of extracellular matrix in the neurogenic zone of adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frederic; Cho Kwon, Youngsu; Kodama, Rich

    2011-07-12

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social and communication skills and seem to result from altered neural development. We sought to determine whether the anatomy of the meninges and extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered in an animal model of autism, the BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. This mouse displays white matter tract anatomical defects and exhibits several symptoms of autism. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry for laminin, a major ECM marker, was performed on series of coronal sections of the adult BTBR T+ tf/J brain and the anatomy was analyzed in comparison to B6 wild type mice. Laminin immunoreactivity visualized meninges, blood vessels and the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell-associated ECM structures, which I have named fractones. All BTBR T+ tf/J mice observed showed the same forebrain defects. The lateral ventricle volume was severely reduced, the falx cerebri elongated, the arteries enlarged and the choroid plexus atrophied. Compared to B6 mice, fractone numbers in BTBR T+ tf/J mice were reduced by a factor three in the SVZ of the anterior portion of the lateral ventricle. This represents the primary neurogenic zone during adulthood. Fractones were reduced by a factor 1.5 in posterior portions of the lateral ventricle. Moreover, fractone size was reduced throughout the lateral ventricle SVZ. These results show hitherto unsuspected alterations in connective tissue/vasculature and associated ECM in the adult BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. The drastic changes of the connective tissue and ECM in the neurogenic zone of the lateral ventricle may contribute to incorrect neurogenesis during developmental and adult stages. PMID:21600960

  4. African meningitis belt pneumococcal disease epidemiology indicates a need for an effective serotype 1 containing vaccine, including for older children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Judith E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine strategies in GAVI-eligible countries are focusing on infant immunization but this strategy may not be optimal in all settings. We aimed to collect all available population based data on pneumococcal meningitis throughout life in the African meningitis belt and then to model overall meningitis risk to help inform vaccine policy. Methods After a systematic review of literature published from 1970 through the present, we found robust population-based Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp meningitis data across age strata for four African meningitis belt countries that included 35 surveillance years spanning from 1970 to 2005. Using these data we modeled disease risk for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons followed throughout life. Results Similar to meningococcal meningitis, laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal meningitis was seasonal, occurring primarily in the dry season. The mean annual Sp meningitis incidence rates were 98, 7.8 to 14, and 5.8 to 12 per 100,000 among persons Conclusions In the African meningitis belt, Sp is as important a cause of meningitis as Neisseria meningitidis, particularly among older children and working age adults. The meningitis belt population needs an effective serotype 1 containing vaccine and policy discussions should consider vaccine use outside of early childhood.

  5. Post-surgical enterococcal meningitis: clinical and epidemiological study of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, Rodríguez; Asensi, V; Torres, J M; Pérez, F; Blanco, A; Maradona, J A; Cartón, J A

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcal post-surgical meningitis is an uncommon disease. 20 episodes of nosocomial post-surgical enterococcal meningitis diagnosed between 1994 and 2003 were retrospectively studied. During the period of study 20 cases of post-surgical enterococcal meningitis (60% female, mean age 55+/-18 y, range 16-78 y) were reviewed. The mean time between admission at the hospital and surgery was 26 (SD = 15) d (range 7-61 d). The most frequent underlying diseases were: intracerebral haemorrhage (55%), brain neoplasms (25%), head trauma (15%) and hydrocephalus (5%). 11 patients had previously received antibiotic treatment. The isolates identified were Enterococcus faecalis (n = 18) (90%), E. faecium (1) and E. durans (1). 11 patients had polymicrobial infections. The treatment most frequently used was vancomycin alone or with other antibiotics (11). In 5 patients intrathecal vancomycin (20 mg/d) was also added. The mortality rate was not different in intrathecally treated patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) devices were removed in 8 patients. Four patients died due to the infection. Mortality was significantly associated with lack of removal of the CSF devices (p = 0.04). Enterococcal spp. are a cause of nosocomial meningitis associated with neurosurgical procedures and the presence of neurological devices. PMID:16857599

  6. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H2-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author)

  7. [Wegener's granulomatosis diagnosed by orbital-meningeal presentation: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louati, H; Chebbi, A; Ben Hassen, I; Douira, W; Ben Hassine, L; Lahmar, L; Ayed, S; Bellagha, I

    2012-10-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis with a strong affinity for the upper respiratory tract, lung and kidney. The ophthalmologic manifestation most often presents as inflammatory orbital pseudotumor or scleritis. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with an orbital-meningeal presentation leading to a diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:22975270

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ib as an Agent of Meningitis in Two Adult Nonpregnant Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E. R.; Florindo, C.; Martins, F.; Aldir, I.; Borrego, M. J.; Brum, L.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2007-01-01

    Two temporally and geographically clustered cases of meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae expressing the infrequent Ib serotype are reported. Characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing revealed that the isolates were identical and represented the widely distributed ST10/ST8 lineage associated with serotype Ib. PMID:17881554

  9. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WorsØe, Lise; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including the pneumococcal serotype) for development of hearing loss.

  10. Stroke in community-acquired bacterial meningitis : a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Dalager-Pedersen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a serious complication in community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM), but the incidence, predispositions, and outcome need further clarification; this pertains in particular to the impact of pre-existing atherosclerosis risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to assess these features in a retrospective population-based cohort study.

  11. Radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus type in tuberculous meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide cisternography permits an accurate diagnosis in hydrocephalus, this is an easy procedure, not traumatic nor expensive. Hydrocephalus is one of the most serious complications of tuberculous meningitis, that, without an opportune treatment, leads to severe sequel and death of the patient. The medical records of thirty patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis were reviewed, to whom the Neuro-Pediatric Service of the National Institute of Children Health solicited radionuclide cisternography to evaluate hydrocephalus and to determinate type, between january 1990 and october 1992. The hydrocephalus was demonstrated by radionuclide cisternography in 26/30 patients (86,7%) The most frequent age was in children under five years old 21/26 (80,7%) and pre-students in 65,38%. The most common finding was communicating hydrocephalus, pattern type IV in 20/30 patients (66,7%). It is concluded that the radionuclide cisternography is very useful for the diagnosis of hydrocephalus and its type patients with tuberculous meningitis. This exam is recommended for all patients with diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis, with no satisfactory evolution, in order to obtain an early diagnosis of hydrocephalus and its type, and get an opportune medical or surgical treatment. (author). 35 refs., 3 tab., 8 ills

  12. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors conserve TNF bioactivity in meningitis patient spinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, B; Ellermann-Eriksen, S

    1996-01-01

    The content of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antigen and the bioactivity of soluble TNF receptor type II (sTNF-RII) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 29 patients with meningeal symptoms and fever were examined. Immunoreactive TNF was demonstrated in CSF from 4 of 7 patients with bacterial meningitis. In 3 of 8 patients with aseptic meningitis, CSF also contained TNF, but TNF bioactivity was confined to samples from patients with bacterial meningitis. Bioactive TNF was exclusively in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions containing 30- to 60-kDa proteins. Lipopolysaccharide induced down-regulation, possibly after shedding of granulocyte surface membrane TNF-RII. Consistently, there was a statistically significant correlation between sTNF-RII and CSF leukocyte counts. Bioactive TNF was found only in CSF containing >1 ng of sTNF-RII/mL; samples without TNF bioactivity contained less sTNF-RII. Thus, a stabilizing effect of sTNF-RII on the oligomeric cytokine in vivo is plausible.

  13. Evaluation of fusidic acid in therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian; Yieng-Kow, Runa Vavia

    2003-01-01

    Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties of fusidic acid.

  14. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: A rare but important differential diagnosis of viral meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Berman, Dalia Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKHS) is an inflammatory syndrome affecting melanocyte-containing organs. The clinical onset is often acute with neurological and ophthalmological symptoms and there is considerable risk of sequelae if the condition is not promptly diagnosed and treated. We present a case illustrating that VKHS is a rare but important differential diagnosis of viral meningitis.

  15. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a 10-Year Old Nigerian Boy: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Animasahun, B. Adeola; Gbelee, Olugbenga H.; Solarin, Adaobi; Ikuerowo, Ajibike Oa; Raji, Adeola M.; Ubuane, Peter; Kingsley, Eo; Njokanma, Fidelis O.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is rare, commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminthes. The present case is that of a 10-year-old boy who presented with history of generalized pruritus not associated with skin eruptions, followed by pain and weakness of the extremities and loss of consciousness. Patient did not receive BCG vaccination. Initial clinical evaluatio...

  16. Globicatella sanguinis Is an Etiological Agent of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt-Associated Meningitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Seegmu?ller, I.; Linden, M.; Heeg, C.; Reinert, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a very rare isolate in clinical samples. We present a case of meningitis in a 69-year-old female patient after implantation of an external left ventricular drainage due to a hydrocephalus. She recovered after antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone.

  17. Globicatella sanguinis Is an Etiological Agent of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt-Associated Meningitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmüller, I.; van der Linden, M.; Heeg, C.; Reinert, R. R.

    2007-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a very rare isolate in clinical samples. We present a case of meningitis in a 69-year-old female patient after implantation of an external left ventricular drainage due to a hydrocephalus. She recovered after antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone. PMID:17122015

  18. Globicatella sanguinis is an etiological agent of ventriculoperitoneal shunt-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmüller, I; van der Linden, M; Heeg, C; Reinert, R R

    2007-02-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a very rare isolate in clinical samples. We present a case of meningitis in a 69-year-old female patient after implantation of an external left ventricular drainage due to a hydrocephalus. She recovered after antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone. PMID:17122015

  19. Melanomatose meningea: analise citomorfologica do liquido cefalorraqueano / Meningeal melanomatosis: cytomorphological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. A., Livramento; L. R., Machado; H. A. M., Clemente; A., Tabares-Olives; A., Spina-França.

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Six cases of meningeal melanomatosis are reported. The cytomorphological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid lead to diagnosis in all of them. Emphasis is given to morphological characteristics of the tumor cells and specially to the melanin dark brown pigment, observed in all cases here reported. [...

  20. Frequency and clinical significance of CAT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1974-1980, computerized tomography was carried out on 34 patients with purulent and on 17 patients with lymphocytic meningitis. 25 out of the patients with purulent meningitis resp. meningoencephalitis could be examined in the acute stage. For all patients with already attenuated clinical symptoms normal results were obtained, while for the remainder findings were in part highly pathological consisting, e.g. in dilatations or narviowings of the ventricula system, failure to make the outer liquor cavities roentgenoparens, accumulation of pas in the subarachnoidal and subdur spaces including the interhemispheric clefs, cerebral medulla and periventricular edemas, abscesses and signs of ependymitis. Various findings could only be classified as pathological upon serial examination. Correlation statistics showed that all patients with marked pathological CT findings also suffered from distinct pertubations of consciousness. Out of 14 patients with pathological CT findings, 12 died. No connexions could be established between the level of liquor cell counts and CT alterations. Among 17 patients with a lymphocytic meningitis, CT findings were pathological with a mean dilatation of the ventricular system in only one case of chronic course and predominantly basal localization. The patient decreased. Phathological CT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis point to an unfavourable prognosis. (orig.)

  1. Efficacy of curcumin therapy against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, P C; Lee, H H; Lai, S C; Chen, K M; Jiang, S T; Chen, Y F; Shiow, S J

    2007-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis can invade the central nervous system, leading to human eosinophilic meningitis or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Curcumin is a natural product which has the effects of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-carcinogensis, while the administration of curcumin has been reported to possibly relieve the symptoms of meningitis. The present study tested the potential efficacy of curcumin in A. cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningitis of BALB/c mice. Assay indicators for the therapeutic effect included the larvicidal effect, eosinophil counts and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in angiostrongyliasis. Eosinophils were mildly reduced in treatment groups compared with infected-untreated mice. However, there were no significant differences in larvicidal effects or MMP-9 activity. This study suggests that anti-inflammatory treatment with curcumin alone has low efficacy, but the treatment does not interfere with MMP-9 expression and is not useful for larvicidal effects. The possible reasons include low curcumin across the blood-brain barrier and also those larvae that survive stimulate MMP-9 production, which promotes blood-brain barrier damage, with leukocytes then crossing the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. Further studies will be required to test these possibilities. PMID:17381860

  2. Clinical management of tuberculous meningitis: experiences of 42 cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Ying; Hu, Fei-Shu; Xiang, Dai-Rong; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is common infectious disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment are critical for the cure of the disease. Thwaites standard is widely accepted but not the golden standard. Here, we analyzed 42 cases of TBM patients in local hospital and combined with literature review to provide more information in TBM management. PMID:24362852

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter damage in chronic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Pei-Chin; Wang, Hung-Chen; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Yu-Jih; Lin, Ching-Po; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are two of the most common types of chronic meningitis. This study aimed to assess whether chronic neuro-psychological sequelae are associated with micro-structure white matter (WM) damage in HIV-negative chronic meningitis. Nineteen HIV-negative TBM patients, 13 HIV-negative CM patients, and 32 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were evaluated and compared. The clinical relevance of WM integrity was studied using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) magnetic resonance imaging. All of the participants underwent complete medical and neurologic examinations, and neuro-psychological testing. Differences in DTI indices correlated with the presence of neuro-psychological rating scores and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis during the initial hospitalization. Patients with CM had more severe cognitive deficits than healthy subjects, especially in TBM. There were changes in WM integrity in several limbic regions, including the para-hippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus, and in the WM close to the globus pallidus. A decline in WM integrity close to the globus pallidus and anterior cingulate gyrus was associated with worse CSF analysis profiles. Poorer DTI parameters directly correlated with worse cognitive performance on follow-up. These correlations suggest that WM alterations may be involved in the psychopathology and pathophysiology of co-morbidities. Abnormalities in the limbic system and globus pallidus, with their close relationship to the CSF space, may be specific biomarkers for disease evaluation. PMID:24892826

  4. Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Energy Metabolism in Severe Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Schulz, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity have remained high in bacterial meningitis. Impairment of cerebral energy metabolism probably contributes to unfavorable outcome. Intracerebral microdialysis is routinely used to monitor cerebral energy metabolism, and recent experimental studies indicate that this technique may separate ischemia and non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study is a retrospective interpretation of biochemical data obtained in a series of patients with severe community-acquired meningitis. METHODS: Cerebral energy metabolism was monitored in 15 patients with severe community-acquired meningitis utilizing intracerebral microdialysis and bedside biochemical analysis. According to previous studies, cerebral ischemia was defined as lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio >30 with intracerebral pyruvate level 30 at a normal or increased interstitial concentration of pyruvate (?70 ?mol L(-1)). Patients with LP-ratios<30 were classified as no mitochondrial dysfunction. RESULTS: The biochemical pattern was in 8 patients (10 microdialysis catheters) classified as no mitochondrial dysfunction, in 5 patients classified as non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction, and in 2 patients (3 catheters) classified as ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe community-acquired meningitis, compromised cerebral energy metabolism occurs frequently and was diagnosed in 7 out of 15 cases. A biochemical pattern of non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a more common underlying condition than cerebral ischemia.

  5. Long-term mortality in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed-Petersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population.

  6. Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Lv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis agents. The diagnosis of non-albicans infection was confirmed by fungus culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with a low detectable rate. This case reminds us that the non-albicans candida meningitis had a nonspecific clinical presentations and laboratory data, and was difficult to differentiate from tuberculosis meningitis. Hence, we should highly suspect this disease if central nervous system infections with uncertain pathogens. Test cell counts; protein and fungus culture of CSF should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Once the diagnosis was established, the patients should receive antifungal treatment based on drug sensitivity tests as early as possible.

  7. Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maikel, Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo, Guzmán Cervantes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico [...] , sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during [...] his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

  8. Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico, sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos.The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

  9. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  10. First Report of Sphingomonas koreensis as a human pathogen in a patient with meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Lis H; Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas koreensis is an aerobic Gram-negative rod originally described in 2001 following isolation from natural mineral water in Korea. Here we report a case study with Sphingomonas koreensis as the causative agent of meningitis. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of Sphingomonas koreensis as a human pathogen.

  11. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery; ALCAPA; ALCAPA syndrome; Bland-White-Garland syndrome ... the rest of the body. In children with ALCAPA, the left coronary artery starts at the pulmonary ...

  12. Arterial waveform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

  13. Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Denmark in the post-vaccination era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.I.; Howitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    P>The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 1993 may have influenced the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis (i.e. increasing frequency of other non-vaccine types; presentation in other age groups). Based on nationwide registration, clinical information and laboratory findings were collected from all 65 confirmed cases of H. influenzae meningitis during the period 1994-2005. Twenty-nine patients (45%) were 24 years old [median 62 years (range 25-96)]. Hib accounted for 31% (20/65) of the cases, and significantly more children were infected with Hib compared with adults [53% (16/29) vs. 11% (4/36), respectively, p 0.0003]. Overall, 38% of cases had an otogenic focus and this was thus the most frequent primary focus of infection. Among children infected with Hib, two cases (13%) were identified as true vaccine failures. Six patients (9%) died; one premature infant infected with serotype f and five adults (age 83-96 years) with non-typeable H. influenzae. Hearing loss was reported in 16% of the surviving children and in 10% of the surviving adults. The presence of a lung focus was an independent prognostic factor for an unfavourable outcome (p 0.03). In conclusion, meningitis caused by Hib has been infrequent in Denmark after introduction of the Hib vaccine in the childhood vaccination programme, and no increase in meningitis cases due to non-b type H. influenzae has been observed. Cases with H. influenzae meningitis frequently had an otogenic focus, with low risk of an unfavourable outcome

  14. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Thu, Do Dang Anh; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Loc, Pham Phu; Ha, Dang Thi Minh; Merson, Laura; Thinh, Tran Thi Van; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition. PMID:24197880

  15. Meningeal-like organization of neural tissues in calanoid copepods (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frederic; Weatherby, Tina M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    Meninges, the connective tissue of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), have not been recognized in invertebrates. We describe the ultrastructure of the adult brain, antennules, and cord in five marine copepods: Calanus finmarchicus, Gaussia princeps, Bestiolina similis, Labidocera madurae, and Euchaeta rimana. In all of these locations we identified cell types with characteristics of the typical cells of vertebrate meninges and of their peripheral nervous system (PNS) connective tissue counterpart: fibroblasts, having flattened twisting processes with labyrinthine cavities communicating with the extracellular space, and macrophages, containing prominent lysosomes, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and indented heterochromatin. The vertebrate distinction between electron-dense cells in the most external connective tissues (dura mater and epineurium) versus electron-lucent cells in the more internal connective tissues (pia-arachnoid and endoneurium-perineurium) was also found in the copepod CNS and PNS. Similar to the vertebrate organization, electron-dense cell networks penetrated from the outer layer (subcuticle) to surround inner substructures of the copepod nervous systems, and electron-lucent networks penetrated deeply from the brain and nerve surfaces to form intertwined associations with neural cells. Moreover, the association of these cells with basement membranes, glycocalyx, and fibrils of collagen in copepods conforms to a meningeal organization. The primary deviation from the vertebrate ultrastructural organization was the often tight investment of axons by the meningeal-like cells, with an intercalated basement membrane. Together, these data suggest that the tissues investing the copepod nervous system possess an organization that is analogous in many respects to that of vertebrate meninges. PMID:22740424

  16. Spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement (myeloradiculopathy) in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information about spinal cord and nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis is available in the form of isolated case reports or case series. In this article, we evaluated the incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis.In this prospective study, 71 consecutive patients of newly diagnosed tuberculous meningitis were enrolled. In addition to clinical evaluation, patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and spine. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months.Out of 71 patients, 33 (46.4%) had symptoms/signs of spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement, 22 (30.9%) of whom had symptoms/signs at enrolment. Eleven (15.4%) patients had paradoxical involvement. Paraparesis was present in 22 (31%) patients, which was of upper motor neuron type in 6 (8.4%) patients, lower motor neuron type in 10 (14%) patients, and mixed type in 6 (8.4%) patients. Quadriparesis was present in 3 (4.2%) patients. The most common finding on spinal MRI was meningeal enhancement, seen in 40 (56.3%) patients; in 22 (30.9%), enhancement was present in the lumbosacral region. Other MRI abnormalities included myelitis in 16 (22.5%), tuberculoma in 4 (5.6%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) loculations in 4 (5.6%), cord atrophy in 3 (4.2%), and syrinx in 2 (2.8%) patients. The significant predictor associated with myeloradiculopathy was raised CSF protein (>250?mg/dL). Myeloradiculopathy was significantly associated with poor outcome.In conclusion, spinal cord and spinal nerve root involvement in tuberculous meningitis is common. Markedly raised CSF protein is an important predictor. Patients with myeloradiculopathy have poor outcome. PMID:25621686

  17. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Thu, Do Dang Anh; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Loc, Pham Phu; Ha, Dang Thi Minh; Merson, Laura; Thinh, Tran Thi Van; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition. PMID:24197880

  18. [Continuous occurrence of two cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis caused by different strains in a day nursery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Nakamura, Akira; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Kohno, Yoichi

    2003-08-01

    Two cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis were occurred continuously in a day nursery. Both isolates obtained from cerebrospinal fluids of 2 patients were beta lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid sensitive strains. But biotypes and restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns by SmaI digested pulse-field gel electrophoresis of two isolates were different, respectively. Although it was already reported simultaneous occurrence of two cases of Hib meningitis caused by same strain through the nursery contact, none were reported by different strains. It was considered that two colonized strains had caused meningitis in two patients continuously. PMID:14515758

  19. Daptomycin versus Vancomycin in Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Meningitis in an Experimental Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak-Ozcem, Selin; Turhan, Tuncer; Arda, Bilgin; Pullukcu, Husnu; Yamazhan, Tansu; Isikgoz-Tasbakan, Meltem; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the antibacterial activities of daptomycin and vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis (induced by MRSA strain ATCC 43300) in an experimental rabbit meningitis model. After an 8-h period of treatment, bacterial counts decreased significantly in both treatment groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Our results suggest that the antibacterial activity of daptomycin is similar to vancomycin for treatment in the experimental MRSA meningitis model in rabbits. PMID:23318792

  20. Neuroradiological features of intracranial and intraorbital meningeal haemangiopericytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuroradiological features of six intracranial and one intraorbital haemangiopericytomas (HP) are reviewed. CT was performed before and after IV contrast medium in 5 patients. In 2 patients MRI was performed before and after contrast medium; in another, only unenhanced images were obtained. Five patients were studied by selective external and internal carotid artery angiography. Women constituted 5 of the 7 patients, and the mean age was 50.5 years, thus the sex and age distribution did not differ from that of typical meningiomas. Contrary to previous reports, calcification was present in two of the intracranial HP, and bone erosion was clearly seen in one intracranial HP and the orbital lesion. On MRI the tumours showed no differences from angioblastic meningiomas. All 6 intracranial HP were aggressive; all recurred following treatment and extracerebral metastasis occurred in one case. (orig.)

  1. Doença meningocócica e meningite Meningococcal disease and meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Branco

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura pertinente ao diagnóstico e tratamento de doença meningocócica (DM. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão não-sistemática da literatura médica através de busca na base de dados MEDLINE usando os seguintes termos: meningocócico, choque séptico, diagnóstico, e tratamento. Os artigos foram selecionados de acordo com sua relevância para o objetivo do trabalho e de acordo com a opinião dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A DM é uma das principais causas de morte em crianças, devido à infecção. Ela progride rapidamente e é preciso um alto grau de suspeita para se estabelecer o diagnóstico precocemente. Intervenção precoce com fluidoterapia agressiva e antibioticoterapia podem melhorar significativamente o desfecho. Na unidade de tratamento intensivo pediátrico, uma grande quantidade de volume pode ser necessário durante os primeiros dias e drogas vasoativas são geralmente usadas. Coagulopatia é freqüente, mas não tem tratamento específico. O uso de colóides e esteróides pode ser benéfico, mas outros tratamentos novos tais como insulina e proteína C ativada ainda precisam ser investigados em mais detalhe. O tratamento de resgate com circulação extracorpórea pode ser adequado em casos com complicações causadas pela síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo grave, mas não no caso de choque refratário. A meningite geralmente não é diagnosticada na DM por causa da gravidade da doença e da incapacidade de realização de uma punção lombar com segurança em um paciente com coagulopatia, coma, ou instabilidade hemodinâmica. Quando presentes, edema cerebral e fluxo sangüíneo cerebral anormal são as principais preocupações. O uso de solução hiperosmolar pode ser necessário, mas a principal intervenção terapêutica é garantir pressão sangüínea adequada para que a perfusão cerebral seja adequada. Convulsões e hiponatremia devem ser tratadas agressivamente. Esteróides parecem não afetar o desfecho na meningite meningocócica. CONCLUSÕES: DM é uma infecção com risco de vida que necessita reconhecimento e tratamento precoces. Ressuscitação volumétrica e antibioticoterapia em tempo adequado são as terapias mais efetivas no tratamento da DM. Outras terapias, como uso de esteróides, podem ser úteis em seu tratamento mas ainda necessitam estudos confirmatórios.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature relevant to diagnosis and management of meningococcal disease (MD. SOURCES: Non-systematic review of medical literature through the MEDLINE database using the terms meningococcal, septic shock, diagnosis, and treatment. Articles were selected according to their relevance to the objective of the study and according to the authors’ opinion. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: MD is a leading cause of death due to infection in children. It progresses rapidly and a high level of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis. Early intervention with aggressive fluid resuscitation and antibiotic therapy can significantly improve outcome. In the pediatric intensive care unit, a large amount of fluids may be required during the first few days and vasoactive drug infusions are often needed. Coagulopathy is frequent, but it has no specific treatment. The use of colloids and steroids may be beneficial, but other new therapies such as insulin and activated protein C still need further assessment. Rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be appropriate in cases complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not for refractory shock. Meningitis is often not diagnosed in MD because of the severity of illness and the inability to perform a lumbar puncture safely in a patient with coagulopathy, coma, or hemodynamic instability. When present, cerebral edema and altered cerebral blood flow are the main concerns. The use of osmolar solution may be necessary, but the main therapeutic intervention is to ensure adequate blood pressure for adequate cerebral perfusion. Seizures and hyponatremia should be aggressively treated. Steroids do no

  2. Doença meningocócica e meningite / Meningococcal disease and meningitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo G., Branco; Carolina F., Amoretti; Robert C., Tasker.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura pertinente ao diagnóstico e tratamento de doença meningocócica (DM). FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão não-sistemática da literatura médica através de busca na base de dados MEDLINE usando os seguintes termos: meningocócico, choque séptico, diagnóstico, e tratamento. Os artigo [...] s foram selecionados de acordo com sua relevância para o objetivo do trabalho e de acordo com a opinião dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A DM é uma das principais causas de morte em crianças, devido à infecção. Ela progride rapidamente e é preciso um alto grau de suspeita para se estabelecer o diagnóstico precocemente. Intervenção precoce com fluidoterapia agressiva e antibioticoterapia podem melhorar significativamente o desfecho. Na unidade de tratamento intensivo pediátrico, uma grande quantidade de volume pode ser necessário durante os primeiros dias e drogas vasoativas são geralmente usadas. Coagulopatia é freqüente, mas não tem tratamento específico. O uso de colóides e esteróides pode ser benéfico, mas outros tratamentos novos tais como insulina e proteína C ativada ainda precisam ser investigados em mais detalhe. O tratamento de resgate com circulação extracorpórea pode ser adequado em casos com complicações causadas pela síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo grave, mas não no caso de choque refratário. A meningite geralmente não é diagnosticada na DM por causa da gravidade da doença e da incapacidade de realização de uma punção lombar com segurança em um paciente com coagulopatia, coma, ou instabilidade hemodinâmica. Quando presentes, edema cerebral e fluxo sangüíneo cerebral anormal são as principais preocupações. O uso de solução hiperosmolar pode ser necessário, mas a principal intervenção terapêutica é garantir pressão sangüínea adequada para que a perfusão cerebral seja adequada. Convulsões e hiponatremia devem ser tratadas agressivamente. Esteróides parecem não afetar o desfecho na meningite meningocócica. CONCLUSÕES: DM é uma infecção com risco de vida que necessita reconhecimento e tratamento precoces. Ressuscitação volumétrica e antibioticoterapia em tempo adequado são as terapias mais efetivas no tratamento da DM. Outras terapias, como uso de esteróides, podem ser úteis em seu tratamento mas ainda necessitam estudos confirmatórios. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review the literature relevant to diagnosis and management of meningococcal disease (MD). SOURCES: Non-systematic review of medical literature through the MEDLINE database using the terms meningococcal, septic shock, diagnosis, and treatment. Articles were selected according to their r [...] elevance to the objective of the study and according to the authors’ opinion. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: MD is a leading cause of death due to infection in children. It progresses rapidly and a high level of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis. Early intervention with aggressive fluid resuscitation and antibiotic therapy can significantly improve outcome. In the pediatric intensive care unit, a large amount of fluids may be required during the first few days and vasoactive drug infusions are often needed. Coagulopathy is frequent, but it has no specific treatment. The use of colloids and steroids may be beneficial, but other new therapies such as insulin and activated protein C still need further assessment. Rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be appropriate in cases complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not for refractory shock. Meningitis is often not diagnosed in MD because of the severity of illness and the inability to perform a lumbar puncture safely in a patient with coagulopathy, coma, or hemodynamic instability. When present, cerebral edema and altered cerebral blood flow are the main concerns. The use of osmolar solution may be necessary, but the main therapeutic intervention is to ensure adequate blood pressure for adequate cerebral perfusion. Seizures and hyponatremia should be agg

  3. Definitive neuroradiological diagnostic features of tuberculous meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although CT scanning is used widely for making the diagnosis and detecting the complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children, the radiological features are considered non-specific. CT is particularly suggestive of the diagnosis when there is a combination of basal enhancement, hydrocephalus and infarction, and even then the diagnosis may be in doubt. In this paper we introduce a new CT feature for making the diagnosis of TBM, namely, hyperdensity in the basal cisterns on non-contrast scans, and we assess which of the recognized CT features is most sensitive and specific. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the presence of high-density exudates in the basal cisterns (on non-contrast CT) and basal enhancement (on contrast-enhanced CT) for the diagnosis of TBM in children, and to correlate these with the complications of infarction and hydrocephalus. Retrospective review of CT scans with readers blinded to the diagnosis, which was based on a definitive culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for TBM or other bacteria. Computer-aided conversion of hard-copy film density to Hounsfield units was employed as well as a density threshold technique for determining abnormally high densities. The most specific feature for TBM is hyperdensity in the basal cisterns prior to IV contrast medium administration (100%). The most sensitive feature of TBM is basal enhancement (89%). A combination of features (hydrocephalus, infarction and basal enhancement) is as specfarction and basal enhancement) is as specific as pre-contrast hyperdensity, but has a lower sensitivity (41%). There were statistically significant differences in the presence of hydrocephalus (p=0.0016), infarcts (P=0.0014), basal enhancement (P<0.0001) and pre-contrast density (P<0.0001) between the negative and positive TBM patient groups. The presence of granulomas was not statistically significant between the two groups (P=0.44). The presence of high density within the basal cisterns on non-contrast CT scans is a very specific sign for TBM in children. This will enhance diagnostic confidence, allow early institution of therapy and could reduce expenditure on contrast medium, scan time and radiation exposure. With the use of threshold techniques we believe that the pre-contrast hyperdensity may be detectable by a computer program that will facilitate diagnosis, and may also be modified to detect abnormal enhancement. Basal enhancement is a sensitive sign for the diagnosis of TBM and should be sought after contrast medium administration when no hyperdensity is seen in the basal cisterns or when this finding needs to be confirmed. The CT scan feature of hyperdense exudates on pre-contrast scans should be added to the inclusion criteria for the diagnosis of TBM in children. (orig.)

  4. Splanchnic artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidovi? Lazar B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Splanchnic artery aneurysms are uncommon but important vascular entity because nearly 25% of all cases present as surgical emergency. Objective. The purpose of our study was to present nine patients operated on at the Institute of cardiovascular diseases, as well as literature review of clinical presentation of the disease. Method. There were three splenic artery aneurysms, two celiac trunk aneurysms, and one aneurysm of the hepatic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric and gastroduodenal artery. All patients were males, mean aged 67.5 years (60-73. In four patients, splanchnic artery aneurysm was discovered accidentally during routine ultrasonographic and angiographic examinations of the abdominal aorta. At that time, arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed in a patient No 1; it was formed after rupture of the splenic artery aneurysm into the splenic vein. Three aneurysms were manifested by abdominal pain and palpable pulsating abdominal mass. Two patients were admitted as urgent cases in the state of hemorrhagic shock and signs of intraabdominal bleeding due to rupture of the splenic and hepatic arteries. In 7 cases, diagnosis was made preoperatively by means of ultrasonography and angiography; in two patients, accurate diagnosis was confirmed during surgery. Results. Proximal and distal ligation of the artery was performed in a patient with rupture of the splenic aneurysm into the splenic vein that caused arteriovenous fistula. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm was treated by trans-aneurysmatic ligation of its "entering" and "exiting" branches. Aneurysms of distal part of the superior mesenteric and splenic artery were resected without further reconstruction. Partial resection of the aneurysm and endoaneurysmorrhaphy was carried out in one case of celiac trunk aneurysm, and in another, after aneurysm resection, the restoration of blood flow through the hepatic and lienal artery was achieved by Dacron grafts. In a patient with the inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm, the resection of aneurysm was followed by reimplantation of medial part of the artery into bifurcated Dacron graft which replaced abdominal aorta. In 5 patients, some of additional surgical procedures were performed. There were 4 reconstructive procedures of abdominal aorta and one splenectomy. The patient with ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm died during surgery due to uncontrolled hemorrhage. In other patients, there was neither morbidity nor mortality in the early postoperative period (first 30 days after surgery. Mean follow up was 1 to 5 years (mean 3.4 years. One patient died after 5 years due to myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION Although the introduction of precise diagnostic procedures (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, spiral scan make diagnosis easier, the splanchnic artery aneurysms are still difficult to detect due to their uncommon clinical presentations.

  5. Inflammation in arterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Federico; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of some inflammatory arterial diseases (such as vasculitis, atherogenesis and aneurysms) has been widely investigated in the last decades. Among different soluble molecules, proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-6) were shown to trigger critical pathways regulating these arterial diseases. Together with these cytokines, chemokines were also associated with endothelial dysfunction and intima injury in arterial diseases. Recently, autoantibodies have been also described to pathophysiologically influence not only autoimmune vasculitis but also atherogenesis and more in general vascular inflammation. These soluble mediators actively trigger inflammatory functions of leukocytes and vascular cells. For instance, B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils were shown to actively participate in inflammatory processes within the arterial wall in vasculitis, atherogenesis and aneurysms. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology and treatments targeting arterial inflammation in these diseases. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 67(1):18-28, 2015. PMID:25631520

  6. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect neoplastic meningitis: Limited use in leukemia and lymphoma but convincing results in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: An early diagnosis of meningitis is important to improve patients’ survival. Data about a direct comparison of cerebrospinal fluid cytology (CSF-cytology) and MRI are very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare these two diagnostic modalities in diagnosing meningitis in patients with hematopoietic and solid malignancies. Methods: In 68 patients suspicious for neoplastic meningitis, cytology and MRI (1.5 T) was performed. The meningeal, pial or intraparenchymal hyperintense signal or contrast enhancement was correlated to the final CNS diagnosis and to cytology. Results: 44 patients (64.7%) had neoplastic meningitis, 21 patients (30.9%) had non-neoplastic meningitis. The sensitivity to diagnose meningeal disease was 49.2% for MRI and 95.4% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with neoplastic meningitis, sensitivity was 45.5% for MRI and 93.2% for cytology (p < 0.001). In patients with infectious meningitis, sensitivity was 57.1% for MRI and 100% for cytology (p = 0.0013). In patients with solid tumors, the sensitivity was 84.6% for both diagnostic methods. The sensitivity for MRI was low in patients with leukemia (20.0%) and lymphoma (37.5%). The positive predictive value (PPV) for MRI to differentiate infectious from neoplastic meningitis was high in patients with infectious meningitis (75.0%), in patients with lymphoma (83.3%), and in patients with solid tumors (72.7%). Ppv was low in patients with leukemia (33.3%). Conclusion: Diagnoith leukemia (33.3%). Conclusion: Diagnostic value of MRI for diagnosing meningitis is especially limited in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. MRI better detected leptomeningeal involvement caused by solid tumors than by leukemia or lymphoma. The ppv to specify neoplastic meningitis depends on tumor subtype.

  7. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an immunocompetent 18-year old patient as a possible diagnostic and therapeutical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbi? Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Listeria monocytogenes is the third most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. It commonly affects persons with defective cell-mediated immunity or advanced age, and only a few patients with no underlying predisposition have been reported. Case report. We presented an previously healthy, 18-year-old man with typical clinical features of meningitis. On the account of earlier treatment with ceftriaxone and cerebrospinal fluid finding, an assumption of partially treated bacterial meningitis was made. The initial treatment with vancomycin and ceftriaxone, substituted on day 4 with meropenem, did not produce any clinical effect. On day 6 Listeria monocytogenes was isolated and, even as late as that, the administration of ampicillin was followed by complete recovery of the patient. Conclusion. In younger, immunocompetent individuals, in spite of the existent diagnostic and therapeutic problems, the subacute course of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis provides enough time for appropriate treatment and favorable disease outcome.

  8. Clear and present danger: in childhood meningitis. The importance of Hib immunisation in infancy and high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Lamont, Lilias Susan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease has declined significantly in the United Kingdom since the introduction of routine Hib immunisation. However life-threatening Hib infections such as meningitis and epiglottitis may still occur, especially in the unimmunised and immigrant children. A case of Hib meningitis is a reminder that the threat of invasive Hib disease has not been totally eliminated. Early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis (including Hib meningitis) is essential to prevent death and serious neurological sequelae. Health visitors play a vital role in encouraging parents to have their children immunised without any avoidable delays and in providing reliable information as necessary to back up this advice. Enquiring about immunisation status of all children new to a practice and addressing any omissions, should be routine; immigrant children (and their parents) may be particularly vulnerable and more likely to be inadequately immunised. PMID:22685975

  9. Clonal Waves of Neisseria Colonisation and Disease in the African Meningitis Belt: Eight- Year Longitudinal Study in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Leimkugel, Julia; Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abudulai Adams; Pflu?ger, Valentin; Dangy, Jean-pierre; Smith, Tom; Achtman, Mark; Gagneux, Se?bastien; Pluschke, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of pharyngeal carriage of meningococci in one district of Ghana examined the features of the isolates that might contribute to the susceptibility to meningococcal epidemics in the African meningitis belt.

  10. LTA4H Genotype Is Associated with Susceptibility to Bacterial Meningitis but Is Not a Critical Determinant of Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Sarah J; Tram, Trinh Thi Bich; Thwaites, Guy E; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Adjunctive dexamethasone saves lives in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis but this response is influenced by the patient's LTA4H genotype. Despite less certain benefit, adjunctive dexamethasone is also frequently used in the treatment of pyogenic bacterial meningitis, but the influence of LTA4H genotype on outcomes has not been previously investigated. We genotyped the LTA4H promoter region SNP (rs17525495) in 390 bacterial meningitis patients and 751 population controls. rs17525495 was associated with susceptibility to bacteriologically confirmed bacterial meningitis (P = 0.01, OR 1.27 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.54) but did not influence clinical presentation, disease severity or survival following dexamethasone treatment. PMID:25799317

  11. Three-year multicenter surveillance of community-acquired listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grill-Díaz Fabio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is the third most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis. The aim of this study is to know the incidence and risk factors associated with development of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adult patients and to evaluate the clinical features, management, and outcome in this prospective case series. Methods A descriptive, prospective, and multicentric study carried out in 9 hospitals in the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI over a 39-month period. All adults patients admitted to the participating hospitals with the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (Ac-ABM were included in this study. All these cases were diagnosed on the basis of a compatible clinical picture and a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture or blood culture. The patients were followed up until death or discharge from hospital. Results Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with Ac-ABM were included. Forty-six episodes of Lm meningitis were identified in 46 adult patients. In the multivariate analysis only age (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.042, immunosupression (OR 2.520; 95% CI 1.05-6.00; p = 0.037, and CSF/blood glucose ratio (OR 39.42; 95% CI 4.01-387.50; p = 0.002 were independently associated with a Lm meningitis. The classic triad of fever, neck stiffness and altered mental status was present in 21 (49% patients, 32% had focal neurological findings at presentation, 12% presented cerebellum dysfunction, and 9% had seizures. Twenty-nine (68% patients were immunocompromised. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was intravenous ampicillin for 34 (79% of 43 patients, in 11 (32% of them associated to aminoglycosides. Definitive ampicillin plus gentamicin therapy was significantly associated with unfavourable outcome (67% vs 28%; p = 0.024 and a higher mortality (67% vs 32%; p = 0.040.The mortality rate was 28% (12 of 43 patients and 5 of 31 (16.1% surviving patients developed adverse clinical outcome. Conclusions Elderly or immunocompromised patients, and a higher CSF/blood glucose ratio in patients with Ac-ABM must alert clinicians about Lm aetiology. Furthermore, we observed a high incidence of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adults and the addition of aminoglycosides to treatment should be avoid in order to improve the patients' outcome. Nevertheless, despite developments in intensive care and antimicrobial therapy, this entity is still a serious disease that carries high morbidity and mortality rates.

  12. "Bacterial Meningitis in children and adolescents: an observational study based on the national surveillance system"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Félix O

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis is a group of life threatening infections that mostly affect children and adolescents, and may be the cause of severe neurological sequelae. Cuba has implemented massive vaccination programmes against both Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in 1979 and B in 1987, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (1999, two of the main causal pathogens. We described and discussed some epidemiological aspects of the current status of bacterial meningitis to learn from the Cuban experience. Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from 1998 to 2003, estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. The association between disease and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools was estimated by using relative risk (Chi-squared test and Fisher Exact Test. Results The overall number of cases was 1023; the incidence ranged from 3.4 to 8.5 per 100 000 population, with the higher figures in children 1–5 years old (16.8 per 100 000 population. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B were the main identified agents. The average case-fatality rate was 10.5% and the most lethal agents were Streptococcus pneumoniae (27% and Haemophilus influenzae type b (10.7%. Overall percentage of cases who slept in overcrowded dormitories was 15%, reaching 30.6% in adolescents. Seasonality was only evident among meningococcal meningitis cases between September–October. The attendance to boarding high school showed an association with disease only in 1998 and 1999 (RR = 2.1; p > 0.05. Conclusion The highest incidence of bacterial meningitis was observed among children from 1–5 years old. Pneumococcus was both the leading causal and the most lethal agent. Sleeping in overcrowded dormitories was more frequent among adolescents. No strong association was observed between the bacterial meningitis and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Cuba is declining after massive vaccination programmes against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and C and Haemophilus influenzae type b through a national immunisation program.

  13. Neonatal Listeria-meningitis in San Luis, Argentina: a three-case report / Meningitis neonatal por Listeria monocytogenes en San Luis, Argentina: análisis de tres casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Analía L., Laciar; María L., Vaca Ruiz; Alban, Le Monnier.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente estudio se describen tres casos de infección neonatal por Listeria monocytogenes, dos de inicio temprano y uno tardío, diagnosticados en San Luis, Argentina, entre noviembre de 1996 y diciembre de 2006. En uno de los pacientes afectados por listeriosis temprana, la meningitis condujo [...] a la hidrocefalia secundaria. En los otros recién nacidos, la evolución clínica fue favorable después de la administración de un rápido y adecuado tratamiento. Los aislamientos de L. monocytogenes de dos pacientes pertenecieron al grupo IVb (serovar 4b) y el del tercer paciente al grupo IIB (serovar 1/2b) según la técnica de PCR. La listeriosis es, por razones que se desconocen, una enfermedad rara en Argentina, especialmente la presentación materno-fetal. Los resultados presentados aquí podrán ser utilizados en un futuro con fines epidemiológicos. Abstract in english Between November 1996 and December 2006, two cases of early-onset and one case of late-onset neonatal listeriosis were reported in San Luis, Argentina. This article describes clinical and laboratory findings as well as treatment and outcome for newborns treated for Listeria monocytogenes meningitis [...] or septicaemia. In one of the newborns with early-onset listeriosis, meningitis led to important complications including hydrocephalus. The two other newborns showed complete recovery following adequate treatment. The L. monocytogenes isolates from two patients belonged to PCR group IVb (including serovar 4b strains) and to PCR group IIb (including serovar 1/2b strains) in the third patient. Listeriosis, especially the maternal-fetal presentation, is still rare in Argentina for unknown reasons. Our data can be used in the future as an epidemiological survey.

  14. Primer caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en el noroeste de Argentina / First case of meningitis by Streptococcus suis in the norwest area of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan M, Núñez; Mariana, Marcotullio; Andrea, Rojas; Luis, Acuña; Mariel, Cáceres; Silvana, Mochi.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Streptococcus suis puede causar meningitis, bacteriemia, endocarditis, endoftalmitis, artritis y shock tóxico, tanto en el ser humano como en cerdos. La incidencia de esta zoonosis está aumentando en el mundo. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 54 años de edad, trabajador rural prov [...] eniente de la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina, que consultó por cefalea, vómitos y fotofobia de dos días de evolución, constatándose una sepsis de foco meníngeo. Tanto en el cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo como en el hemocultivo se aisló S. suis. Se trató con ceftriaxona con buena evolución y sin secuelas. Es el primer caso de S. suis en el noroeste argentino y el tercero en Latinoamérica. Se resalta la importancia del antecedente de exposición laboral a cerdos para la sospecha inicial de este microorganismo. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis causes meningitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, artrithis and toxic shock in both pigs and human beings. The incidence of this pathogen is increasing worldwide. A case of 54 years old men from a rural zone of Tucumán, Argentina with two days of headache, vomit and ph [...] otophobia was admitted septic, with purulent meningitis. Streptococcus suis was growth from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture. The patient was treated with ceftriaxona and had a good evolution without sequels. This is the first case of S. suis described in the northwest of Argentina and the third of Latin America, and it is emphasized that the occupational contact with pigs is an important background for the initial suspect of this pathogen.

  15. Antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b outer membrane proteins in children with epiglottitis or meningitis and in healthy controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, P. D.; Macinnes, S. J.; Gilbert, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    The two most common manifestations of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection in Western communities are meningitis and epiglottitis. The role of antibodies against outer membrane proteins (OMP) in the pathogenesis of these diseases was investigated by Western blotting (immunoblotting) with an OMP antigen prepared from a local Hib strain. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 25 children with epiglottitis and 20 with meningitis and single serum samples from 19 control childre...

  16. Pulmonary and Meningeal Cryptococcosis after Corticosteroid Therapy for Autoimmune Hepatitis: Coexistence of Cryptococci within Pulmonary Cancer Nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Airo Tsubura; Yuichi Kinoshita; Katsuhiko Yoshizawa; Yuko Emoto; Ayako Kimura; Takashi Yuri

    2013-01-01

    A case of autoimmune hepatitis complicated with pulmonary and meningeal cryptococcosis during long-term treatment with corticosteroid is reported. An 84-year-old woman who received long-term corticosteroid therapy (40?mg/day prednisolone for two years) for autoimmune hepatitis developed a headache, slight fever, and anorexia and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis two months prior to hospital admission. Due to deterioration of her condition, the patient was transferred to our univers...

  17. Spatio-Temporal Factors Associated with Meningococcal Meningitis Annual Incidence at the Health Centre Level in Niger, 2004–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Paireau, Juliette; Mai?nassara, Halima B.; Jusot, Jean-franc?ois; Collard, Jean-marc; Idi, Issa; Moulia-pelat, Jean-paul; Mueller, Judith E.; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis (MM) is a severe infection of the meninges caused by a bacterium transmitted through respiratory droplets. During January–May, epidemics of MM recurrently strike sub-Saharan countries, including Niger. Understanding why epidemics occur in a particular place at a particular time would help public health authorities to develop more efficient prevention strategies. To date, factors that govern the occurrence of localized outbreaks are still poorly understood and epidem...

  18. Daptomycin versus Vancomycin in Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Meningitis in an Experimental Rabbit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bardak-ozcem, Selin; Turhan, Tuncer; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Arda, Bilgin; Pullukcu, Husnu; Yamazhan, Tansu; Isikgoz-tasbakan, Meltem; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the antibacterial activities of daptomycin and vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis (induced by MRSA strain ATCC 43300) in an experimental rabbit meningitis model. After an 8-h period of treatment, bacterial counts decreased significantly in both treatment groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Our results sug...

  19. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN SERUM AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN RAPID AND EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CHILDHOOD MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    F. Jadali MD,; MM. Sharifi PhD,; A. Jarollahi PhD,; Nahidi Md, S.

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveBacterial meningitis is still a life threatening epidemiological problem especiallyin many developing countries; considering its dire consequences, its promptand accurate diagnosis has become a priority for clinicians. Because of thevarious limitations of conventionally used laboratory techniques, we evaluatedand compared the diagnostic utility of C-reactive protein(CRP) and lactatedehydrogenase (LDH)in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)in the diagnosisof bacterial meningitis and it...

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced FLAIR Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosis of Meningitis Correlated with CSF Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vaswani, Aneel Kumar; Nizamani, Waseem Mehmood; Ali, Muhammad; Aneel, Geeta; Shahani, Bhesham Kumar; Hussain, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced FLAIR sequence of MRI brain in the diagnosis of meningitis. Subjects and Methods. A prospective study of 57 patients with signs and symptoms of meningitis, referred to the radiology department for MRI examination. Out of these, there were 30 males and 27 females. They underwent MRI brain with contrast including postcontrast T1W and FLAIR sequences. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis obtained by lumbar puncture after MRI was co...