WorldWideScience

Sample records for meningeal arteries

  1. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P; Cunha e Sá, M; Polak, J M; Mortensen, A; Jørgensen, Linda; Jansen-Olesen, I

    1998-01-01

    The majority of nerve fibers in the middle meningeal artery and branching arterioles are sympathetic, storing norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). A sparse supply of fibers contain acetylcholinesterase activity and immunoreactivity toward vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptidine histidine...... methionine (PHM), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Only few substance P and neuropeptide K immunoreactive fibers are noted. Electronmicroscopy shows axons and terminals at the adventitial medial border of the human middle meningeal artery, with a fairly large distance to the smooth muscle cells...

  2. Meningitis

    ... around. Even more protection is given by the meninges (say: muh-NIN-jeez), which are the membranes ... disease involving inflammation (swelling), or irritation, of the meninges. There are different kinds of meningitis, but most ...

  3. Homologies of the meningeal-orbital arteries of humans: a reappraisal.

    Diamond, M K

    1991-01-01

    Two arteries connect the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery to the lacrimal artery. One vessel, the sphenoidal artery, passes through the superior orbital fissure. The other vessel, the meningolacrimal artery, passes through the cranio-orbital foramen. An analysis of data derived from embryology, comparative anatomy, and patterns of adult variation indicates that the meningolacrimal artery is homologous with the ramus superior of the stapedial artery, an embryologically and phylog...

  4. Meningitis

    ... very serious. They may result in death or brain damage, even if treated. Meningitis may also be caused ... prompt treatment, meningitis may result in the following: Brain damage Buildup of fluid between the skull and brain ( ...

  5. Meningitis

    ... bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis in teens are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis . People can spread them through throat and respiratory secretions — for example, by coughing or ...

  6. Meningitis

    2012-10-24

    This podcast gives a general overview of meningitis, including what it is, the five types, and the causes.  Created: 10/24/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/24/2012.

  7. Comparison of the vasodilator responses of isolated human and rat middle meningeal arteries to migraine related compounds

    Grände, Gustaf; Labruijere, Sieneke; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine attacks occur spontaneously in those who suffer from the condition, but migraine-like attacks can also be induced artificially by a number of substances. Previously published evidence makes the meninges a likely source of migraine related pain. This article investigates the effect of several vasodilators on meningeal arteries in order to find a connection between the effect of a substance on a meningeal vessel and its ability to artificially induce migraine. Methods A myog...

  8. Infarto maligno de la arteria cerebral media en una paciente con meningitis bacteriana Malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarct in one patient with bacterial meningitis

    Mirta López G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of acute bacterial meningitis (BM has remained stable in the last decades in spite of the use of new antibiotics, probably due to vascular complications. We report a 68-year-old woman with BM who had a malignant infarction of left middle cerebral artery territory 72 hours after admission to the hospital. The patient experienced a bad evolution and died four days after admission. The arterial involvement in patients with BM is explained by vasospasm of large arteries and vasculitis of small arteries. The medical treatment of a malignant middle cerebral artery infarct has a high mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 1217-20

  9. Hyperdense large artery sign in meningitis: A marker of ominous thrombogenic potential of pneumococcus?

    Mojumder, Deb Kumar; Toledo, John De

    2014-04-01

    Hyperdensity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or posterior cerebral artery (PCA) on non-contrast head CT, suggests the presence of a thrombus inside these vessels, often referred to as the "MCA sign" or "PCA sign" respectively. These two signs are classically associated with strokes secondary to cardiovascular etiologies and are only infrequently reported with other types of stroke. Whereas stroke is a recognized complication of pneumococcal meningitis hyperdense large vessel sign (in this case a combination of MCA and PCA) has not been previously reported. We report a case of rapidly progressive pneumococcal meningitis that presented as acute stroke involving large vessels in the vicinity of the circle of Willis in a patient with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in remission for 6 years. This patient had received a week of high dose steroids before admission. Head CT scan on admission showed the presence of hyperdense MCA and PCA signs. The patient rapidly deteriorated and a follow-up head CT revealed diffuse brain edema and increased density in the basal cisterns without evidence of sub arachnoid hemorrhage. Tc99m exametazime brain flow scan showed no intracerebral blood flow both supra and infratentorially. Steptococcus pneumoniae, NHL cells and high-dose steroid use can upregulate tissue factor synthesis and may have led to a hypercoagulable state via activation of the extrinsic pathway in the large intracerbral arteries. PMID:24966558

  10. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery: immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, and role of endothelium for vasomotility.

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P; Cunha e S, M; Polak, J M; Mortensen, A; Jrgensen, L; Jansen-Olesen, I

    1998-01-01

    The majority of nerve fibers in the middle meningeal artery and branching arterioles are sympathetic, storing norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). A sparse supply of fibers contain acetylcholinesterase activity and immunoreactivity toward vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptidine histidine methionine (PHM), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Only few substance P and neuropeptide K immunoreactive fibers are noted. Electronmicroscopy shows axons and terminals at the adventitial medial border of the human middle meningeal artery, with a fairly large distance to the smooth muscle cells (>500 nM). Several axon profiles contain vesicles of different types, including putative sensory profiles. The perivascularly stored signal substances, norepinephrine and NPY induced vasoconstrictor. Relaxations were induced by acetylcholine and substance P, and these were significantly reduced in arteries without endothelium, while the responses to norepinephrine, NPY, VIP, PHM, and CGRP were not changed by endothelium removal. Blockade experiments showed that the vasomotor responses to norepinephrine were blocked by prazosin, to NPY by BIBP 3226, acetylcholine by atropin, substance P by RP 67580, and the human alpha-CGRP response by human alpha-CGRP(8-37). PMID:9786171

  11. Hyperdense large artery sign in meningitis: A marker of ominous thrombogenic potential of pneumococcus?

    Deb Kumar Mojumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperdensity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA or posterior cerebral artery (PCA on non-contrast head CT, suggests the presence of a thrombus inside these vessels, often referred to as the "MCA sign" or "PCA sign" respectively. These two signs are classically associated with strokes secondary to cardiovascular etiologies and are only infrequently reported with other types of stroke. Whereas stroke is a recognized complication of pneumococcal meningitis hyperdense large vessel sign (in this case a combination of MCA and PCA has not been previously reported. We report a case of rapidly progressive pneumococcal meningitis that presented as acute stroke involving large vessels in the vicinity of the circle of Willis in a patient with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in remission for 6 years. This patient had received a week of high dose steroids before admission. Head CT scan on admission showed the presence of hyperdense MCA and PCA signs. The patient rapidly deteriorated and a follow-up head CT revealed diffuse brain edema and increased density in the basal cisterns without evidence of sub arachnoid hemorrhage.Tc99m exametazime brain flow scan showed no intracerebral blood flow both supra and infratentorially. Steptococcus pneumoniae, NHL cells and high-dose steroid use can upregulate tissue factor synthesis and may have led to a hypercoagulable state via activation of the extrinsic pathway in the large intracerbral arteries.

  12. The measure for problematic case with middle meningeal artery origin ophthalmic artery in front-temporal craniotomy and a part of DSA. Preservation of visual function

    Because of the recent development of high-performance 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and the consideration of the risk of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), DSA is not always necessary in performing surgery for cerebral aneurysms. However, DSA was necessary in patients in whom the ophthalmic artery from the internal carotid artery (IC) was not visualized on 3D-CTA or MRA, in order to predict the risk of blindness after front-temporal craniotomy. In this study, we investigated the preoperative evaluation and the surgical procedure for 330 cases of front-temporal craniotomy for surgery of aneurysm over the past 4.5 years. There were 5 cases without ophthalmic artery from IC in DSA or 3D-CTA, 4 cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from the middle meningeal artery and 1 case with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from unknown origin. Microsurgical procedure is needed to preserve the middle meningeal artery in front-temporal craniotomy in these cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from the middle meningeal artery, because this anomaly places the ophthalmic artery at risk during procedures in which the dura is elevated from the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid or when the sphenoid ridge is removed in front-temporal craniotomy. Front-temporal craniotomy is difficult in cases with an anomalous ophthalmic artery arising from an unknown origin. (author)

  13. PACAP-38 infusion causes sustained vasodilation of the middle meningeal artery in the rat

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Gupta, Saurabh; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy human volunteers and in migraineurs, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) infusion caused sustained vasodilation of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and an immediate as well as a delayed headache. All the study subjects experienced facial flushing....... Mast cells (MCs) might have a role in the long-lasting effect of PACAP-38 infusion. We hypothesized that in mast cell-depleted (MCD) rats the vascular responses to PACAP-38 would be lesser than in control rats because of a lack of vasodilatory products released during MC degranulation. METHODS: MCs...... were depleted by chronic treatment with compound 48/80. The effect of 20 minutes' intravenous (i.v.) infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), PACAP-38, PACAP(6-38) (PAC-1 receptor antagonist) and PACAP-27 on the diameter of the MMA and on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in control and...

  14. Central projections of the sensory innervation of the rat middle meningeal artery

    Liu, Yi; Broman, Jonas; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Headaches, especially migraine, involve not only pain but also aspects such as vasodilation of cranial vessels and sensitization of nerve endings, processes dependent on and connected to the central nervous system. To understand pathogenic mechanisms of headache, it is important to elucidate the...... central projections of sensory nerves that innervate cranial vessels, of which the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest artery supplying the dura mater. In this study, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-HRP) was applied on the adventitia of....... Labeled nerve terminations were found ipsilaterally in the lateral part of the spinal dorsal horn of segments C1-C3 and in the caudal and interpolar parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. WGA-HRP labeled terminations were mainly located in laminae I and II, whereas CTb labeled terminations located in...

  15. Dilation by CGRP of middle meningeal artery and reversal by sumatriptan in normal volunteers

    Asghar, M S; Hansen, A E; Kapijimpanga, T; van der Geest, R J; van der Koning, P; Larsson, H B W; Ashina, M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of neurovascular headaches. CGRP infusion causes headache and dilation of cranial vessels. However, it is unknown to what extent CGRP-induced vasodilation contributes to immediate head pain and...... whether the migraine-specific abortive drug sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D agonist, inhibits CGRP-induced immediate vasodilation and headache. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 18 healthy volunteers. We recorded circumference changes of the...... middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance angiography before and after infusion (20 minutes) of 1.5 µg/min human aCGRP or placebo (isotonic saline) as well as after a 6-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CGRP caused...

  16. Dilation by CGRP of middle meningeal artery and reversal by sumatriptan in normal volunteers

    Asghar, M S; Hansen, A E; Kapijimpanga, T; van der Geest, R J; van der Koning, P; Larsson, H B W; Ashina, M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of neurovascular headaches. CGRP infusion causes headache and dilation of cranial vessels. However, it is unknown to what extent CGRP-induced vasodilation contributes to immediate head pain and...... whether the migraine-specific abortive drug sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D agonist, inhibits CGRP-induced immediate vasodilation and headache. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 18 healthy volunteers. We recorded circumference changes of the...... middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance angiography before and after infusion (20 minutes) of 1.5 μg/min human αCGRP or placebo (isotonic saline) as well as after a 6-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CGRP caused...

  17. Aneurysm of the Posterior Meningeal Artery Embedded Within a Dorsal Exophytic Medullary Hemangioblastoma: Surgical Management and Review of Literature

    Raygor, Kunal P.; Rowland, Nathan C.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Solomon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas are World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I neoplasms of the hindbrain and spinal cord, whose management can be complicated by preoperative hemorrhage. We report on a case of a young female in extremis with posterior fossa hemorrhage following rupture of a fusiform posterior meningeal artery aneurysm embedded within a medullary hemangioblastoma. We discuss management options, including operative staging and embolization, and review similar cases of hemangioblastoma associated with aneurysm. PMID:25340034

  18. The preservation of middle meningeal artery in surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease

    We present the preservation of middle meningeal artery (MMA) in surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease. We examined 10 patients with moyamoya disease and performed surgical revascularization. The mean age of the patients was 27.8 years. We presurgically evaluated the three-dimensional (3-D) relationships of MMA and cranial sutures in the pterion by volumetric imaging of 3-D contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). The 3-D anatomies were visualized by adjusting the window width, window level, and opacity level of the specific CT value for each structure, and the relationship of the MMA and the suture. This visualization was crucial for drilling to perform craniotomies. The MMA from bone to dura is exposed for drilling around the pterion. The preservation of the MMA with this method was achieved in all patients with moyamoya disease. Presurgical evaluation using volumetric imaging of 3-D CT is a convenient and valuable method for obtaining the anatomic information. The usefulness of the drilling distal to the pterion in patients with moyamoya disease to preserve MMA was confirmed. (author)

  19. Variability of the Middle Meningeal Artery Subject to the Shape of Skull.

    Kornieieva, Maryna; Hadidy, Azmy; Zhuravlova, Iuliia

    2015-12-01

    Objectives?Endovascular embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is currently considered one of the basic methods to treat acute bleeding and a posttraumatic aneurysm. The present research correlates the morphological characteristics of the MMA with individual skull shape. Design?A prospective cohort study. Setting?Hospital of University of Jordan (Amman, Jordan) from 2012 to 2013. Participants?A total of 50 patients without known vascular pathology in the carotid system underwent routine magnetic resonance angiography examination of the head and neck. Main Outcome Measures?The length and outer diameter of extracranial, intraosseous, and intracranial segments of the MMA were measured in patients with dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, and brachycephalic types of skulls. Results?The brachycephalic patients have the most inauspicious anatomical precondition for endovascular intervention of the MMA due to the narrowest lumen of the vessel, high probability of a tortuous extracranial part, and pronounced inflexion at the transmission of the intraosseous segment to the intracranial one. Conclusions?The morphological characteristics of the MMA have a close correlation with individual skull shape. PMID:26682123

  20. Comparison of the vasodilator responses of isolated human and rat middle meningeal arteries to migraine related compounds

    Grände, Gustaf; Labruijere, Sieneke; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    nitroprusside (SNP), sildenafil, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP-38), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and NaCl buffer on meningeal arteries from human and rat. An unpaired t-test was used to statistically compare the mean Emax(%) at the highest...... concentration of each substance to the Emax(%) of NaCl buffer. RESULTS: In the human experiments, all substances except PACAP-38 had an Emax (%) higher than the NaCl buffer, but the difference was only significant for SNP and CGRP. For the human samples, clinically tested antimigraine compounds (sumatriptan...... the ability to artificially induce migraine or the mechanism of action. Vasodilatation could be an essential trigger, but only in conjunction with other unknown factors. The vasculature of the meninges likely contributes to the propagation of the migrainal cascade of symptoms, but more research is...

  1. Direct access to the middle meningeal artery for embolization of complex dural arteriovenous fistula: a hybrid treatment approach.

    Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Mokin, Maxim; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-07-01

    Endovascular embolization has become increasingly favored over microsurgical resection for treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, endovascular treatment can be restricted by tortuous transarterial access and a transvenous approach is not always feasible. We present a Borden III DAVF treated by direct access to the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and Onyx embolization performed in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite. A middle-aged patient with pulsatile headaches was found to have left transverse sinus occlusion and DAVF with retrograde cortical venous drainage fed by multiple external carotid artery (ECA) feeders. Endovascular attempts via conventional transvenous and transarterial routes were unsuccessful, and the major MMA feeder was accessed directly after temporal craniotomy was performed under neuronavigation. Onyx embolization was performed; complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved. Three-month follow-up angiography showed no residual filling; the patient remains complication-free. A combined surgical-endovascular technique in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite can be an effective treatment for DAVFs complicated by inaccessible arterial and transvenous approaches. PMID:24916414

  2. Klebsiella meningitis. A case report.

    Medhi, N; Goswami, P; Sarma, P; Barkataky, R K; Duarah, R; Saikia, R

    2008-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis is a severe CNS infection occurring mostly in infants and older children. Bacterial meningitis caused by gram-negative bacteria is usually fatal. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an uncommon gram-negative bacteria causing meningitis with a poor outcome. Though the commonest presentation of bacterial meningitis is fever, patients usually seek medical attention for uncontrolled seizure and features of raised ICP. The commonest complications of gram-negative bacterial meningitis including Klebsiella meningitis are subdural hygroma / empyema, hydrocephalus, infarcts (both arterial and venous) and cortical blindness due to hypoxic ischaemic insult. MRI is the best modality for evaluating these patients for early diagnosis. Early institution of treatment significantly reduces the mortality and morbidity. We describe a case of acute bacterial meningitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with MR evidence of sinus thrombosis, venous infarcts and subdural hygroma. PMID:24256900

  3. K-ATP channel expression and pharmacological in vivo and in vitro studies of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A in rat middle meningeal arteries

    Ploug, K.B.; Boni, L.J.; Baun, M.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Olesen, J.; Jansen-Olesen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dilatation of cerebral and dural arteries causes a throbbing, migraine-like pain, indicating that these structures are involved in migraine. Clinical trials suggest that adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive K+ (K-ATP) channel opening may cause migraine by dilatating...... intracranial arteries, including the middle meningeal artery (MMA). We studied the K-ATP channel expression profile in rat MMA and examined the potential inhibitory effects of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A on K-ATP channel opener-induced relaxation of the rat MMA, using the three K-ATP channel openers...... levcromakalim, pinacidil and P-1075. Experimental approach: mRNA and protein expression of K-ATP channel subunits in the rat MMA were studied by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro effects of the K-ATP channel drugs on rat MMA were studied in the genuine...

  4. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la meningitis bacteriana se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en lo que a vigilancia epidemiológica se refiere, en los últimos meses se ha dado un aumento en la atención pública de este tema, debido a este fenómeno se hace necesario realizar una revisión del tema. La meningitis es una inflamación de las leptomeninges y colonización del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR debido a diferentes agentes, lo cual produce síntomas meníngeos (Ej., cefalea, rigidez nucal, fotofobia y pleocitosis a nivel de LCR. Dependiendo de las variables se pueden agrupar en diferentes clasificaciones, tomando en cuenta el tiempo de evolución se pueden dividir en agudas o crónicas, a las primeras con pocas horas o días de inicio de la sintomatología, mientras que la crónica presenta un curso mas larvado de la enfermedad de aproximadamente 4 semanas de instauración. Existe también diferencia según su etiología, pueden ser infecciosas y no infecciosas. Causas no infecciosas incluyen: drogas antiinflamatorias, antibióticos y carcinomatosis. A su vez existe una clasificación según el agente causal. La meningitis bacteriana aguda remarca el origen bacteriano de este síndrome, el cual se caracteriza por el inicio agudo de sus síntomas y pleocitosis de predominio neutrofílico. Cada uno de los agentes bacterianos, parasíticos o fúngicos terminan por categorizar las diferentes presentaciones de este cuadro clínico (Ej., meningitis meningocóccica, meningitis criptocóccica. Es en este grupo en específico de etiología en el cual se basara el siguiente artículo. Por último pero no menos importante tenemos la meningitis aséptica, denominada de esta forma debido a una respuesta celular no pirógena causada por muchos tipos de agentes. Los pacientes muestran un inicio agudo de síntomas meníngeos, fiebre y pleocitosis pero de predominio linfocítico. Después de análisis especializados, se da pro concluido que la mayoría de los agentes causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After specialized analyses, concluded that majority cause is different viral agents. Also in certain cases it can be caused by fungi, bacteria, mycobacterium and parasites

  5. Meningitis - cryptococcal

    Most cryptococcal meningitis is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . This fungus is found in soil around the world. Another type of Cryptococcus can also cause meningitis, but it will not ...

  6. Treating Meningitis

    ... their study, Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with pla- cebo. ...

  7. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    ... of bacteria is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. It is the second most common ... Messonnier NE, et al. Emerging Infections Programs Network. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. N Engl ...

  8. Cryptococcal Meningitis

    ... the spinal cord and brain. It can cause coma and death. Cryptococcus can also infect the skin, ... A study in 2011 showed that starting HIV therapy while treating cryptococcal meningitis increased the risk of ...

  9. Fungal Meningitis

    ... meningitis for people with weak immune systems is Cryptococcus . This disease is one of the most common ... types of fungus are transmitted in several ways. Cryptococcus is thought to be acquired through inhaling soil ...

  10. Parasitic Meningitis

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Parasitic Meningitis Recommend on ... Related Page Naegleria fowleri Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease File Formats Help: How ...

  11. Meningitis - tuberculous

    ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 251. Swartz MN. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... more questions, still too few answers. Lancet Neurol . ...

  12. Meningitis (For Parents)

    ... About Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal ... tract can spread by the bloodstream to the meninges through cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that circulates in ...

  13. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma

    Guang-zhi YANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features of meningeal hemangiopericytoma.  Methods One case of meningeal hemangiopericytoma was reported, and the relevant literatures were also reviewed.  Results A 40-year-old male had caught a headache for about 3 months with muscle weakness in the left limb, and became progressively serious for 2 weeks. Brain MRI displayed a space-occupying lesion in the right temporal lobe with equal signals in T1WI, mixed signals in T2WI and obvious enhancements. In surgery, the tumor was found to be located in the cranial fossa, and was completely removed. The tumor was large, with rich blood supply, and had no capsule. In histology, the neoplasm was composed of dense spindle cells with mild atypia. The boundary of the tumor cells was unclear. The nuclei were circular, oval or spindle with obvious mitoses (4/10 HPF. There were plenty of thick-wall blood vessels and blood sinuses with characteristic "staghorn" shape. In immunohistochemistry, CD34 and vimentin (Vim were positive, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA was focally positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 17%-20%. Postoperative radiotherapy was adopted and no relapse was found during the 20-month follow-up period. Conclusions The meningeal hemangiopericytoma is easy to be misdiagnosed as meningioma, however, the prognosis of meningeal hemangiopericytoma is quite worse, thus the differential diagnosis is very important. A clear diagnosis often depends on pathological examination. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.011

  14. Meningitis aguda

    Saavedra Estupiñán, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    La meningitis aguda es la infección más comúndel sistema nervioso central, es una emergenciamédica, asociada con altos índices de morbilidady mortalidad. El pronóstico mejora con un tratamientoeficaz determinado por la capacidad enreconocer el síndrome, sus característicasepidemiológicas, identificar los diagnósticos diferenciales,y suministrar una rápida acción terapéuticasobre el agente causal y las complicacionesasociadas.

  15. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    ... Meningitis y Encefalitis Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is meningitis? What is encephalitis? ... an infected tick, mosquito, or other blood-sucking insect. Lyme disease, a bacterial infection spread by tick ...

  16. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    ... vaccine, H. influenzae was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5. Since the vaccine ... Messonnier NE, et al. Emerging Infections Programs Network. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. N Engl ...

  17. Medicininduceret aseptisk meningitis

    Farr, Katherina Podlekareva; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a rare adverse effect of some drugs. We report a patient with four episodes of meningitis caused by ibuprofen. In all episodes the patient had taken ibuprofen for pain, and subsequently developed fever and cerebrovascular symptoms. Drug-induced meningitis cannot...

  18. Primary Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma

    Ha, Dong Ho [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Primary meningeal melanocytic neoplasms are rare lesions that originate from leptomeningeal melanocytes. An intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine is less common than a malignant melanoma, which is its malignant counterpart. We report a case of a histopathologically confirmed primary intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine along with a literature.

  19. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  20. Meninges in cancer imaging

    Mahendru, G.; Chong, V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Primary malignant tumours arising from the meninges are distinctly uncommon, and when they occur, they are usually sarcomas. In contrast, metastatic meningeal involvement is increasingly seen as advances in cancer therapy have changed the natural history of malignant disease and prolonged the life span of cancer patients. The meninges can either be infiltrated by contiguous extension of primary tumours of the central nervous system, paranasal sinuses and skull base origin or can be d...

  1. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  2. Bacterial meningitis in children. MR findings

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Onuma, Takehide [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    We analyzed MRI findings for 17 children with bacterial meningitis. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed meningeal enhancement at the basal cistern and/or the convex surface of the brain in 15 cases. Cerebral infarcts were found in the distribution of perforating and/or medullary arteries in four cases. In one neonatal case, venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation was evident. Communicating hydrocephalus was noted in three cases, subdural effusion in two, subdural empyema in one, and encephalitis in one. In one neonatal case ventriculitis was found. We conclude that MRI is useful for the evaluation of the active inflammatory process of the meninges and the identification of the focal lesions in central nervous system complications. (author)

  3. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  4. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  5. Syringomyelia following tuberculous meningitis

    We present three cases with syringomyelia after tuberculous meningitis. The MR findings suggested the syrinx was formed by blockage of the CSF flow at the outlets of the fourth ventricle. We consider this complication is not a rare condition following tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  6. Meningitis retention syndrome

    Abhishek Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of meningitis preceded by a 3 day history of flu-like symptoms and progressive difficulty with urination. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis. She was found to have a significant urinary retention secondary to atonic bladder. MRI of the brain and spine were normal and CSF-PCR (polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-2. Urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS. MRS is a rare but important complication of meningitis most commonly associated with HSV-2. Involvement of central pathways may have a role in the pathogenesis of MRS but this is poorly documented. MRS is different from Elsberg syndrome wherein patients display features of lumbosacral polyradiculitis or radiculomyelitis. Early treatment with antiviral therapy was associated with a favorable outcome in our patient.

  7. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Srgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  8. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis

    The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the 'TB zone' supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the 'IS zone' supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS, 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TBM (71%) but rare with IS (5%). (orig.)

  9. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    Syphilitic aseptic meningitis is a complication of untreated syphilis. It involves inflammation of the tissues covering the ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete bacteria Treponema pallidum . Syphilis has three main ...

  10. Meningitis - gram-negative

    ... but a large number of people have permanent brain damage or die from this type of meningitis. Young ... Brain damage Buildup of fluid between the skull and brain ( subdural effusion ) Hearing loss Hydrocephalus Seizures

  11. MR imaging and angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    MRI was performed on 26 patients with tuberculous meningitis, with particular reference to document the cranial nerve abnormalities. MR angiography (MRA) was performed in 20 of the patients. Meningeal enhancement in the basal cisterns or over the convexity of brain was seen in all patients; two show ependymal enhancement. Tuberculomas, single (3), multiple (12) or military (2) were detected in 17 patients. Of the 9 patients with cranial nerve palsies, 7 showed contrast enhancement with or without thickening of the involved nerve. Abnormality signal intensity of the involved nerve was seen on proton density and T2-weighted images in one of these patients. MRA revealed focal arterial narrowing in 10 patients, the vessels commonly affected being the terminal segment of the internal carotid artery and the proximal segments of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. One patient also had a small aneurysm of the proximal middle cerebral artery. Infarcts, haemorrhagic (8) or bland (6), were detected in 14 patients; most were the basal ganglia and internal capsules, large middle or anterior cerebral arterial territory infarcts being seen in only two cases. (orig.)

  12. Meningitis del adulto

    Vergara G., Ignacio; Saravia G., Jaime; Toro G., Gabriel; Romn C., Gustavo; Navarro C., Lydia Isabel

    2012-01-01

    En Colombia, el problema de las meningitis ha sido estudiado nicamente en la poblacin infantil. No hemos encontrado en la literatura mdica colombiana ninguna publicacin sobre la Meningitis del Adulto; y a pesar de su frecuencia relativamente alta en nuestros medios hospitalarios, no tenamos datos nacionales acerca de sus caractersticas epidemiolgicas, clnicas y bacteriolgicas, por lo cual decidimos realizar el presente trabajo, que hemos dividido en dos fases: Retrospectiva y Prospec...

  13. Fibrosarcoma of the meninges

    Ishwar Chand Premsagar; Minakshi Bhardwaj; Ruchi Chopra

    2010-01-01

    Meningeal fibrosarcomas are rare tumors. Only 41 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Primary central nervous system fibrosarcomas are very aggressive neoplasms and have a poor prognosis. Hence they need to be correctly diagnosed. This is a case of a 13-year old boy with intracranial space occupying lesion. The mass was completely removed and histological examination was characteristic of meningeal fibrosarcoma. The pathological diagnosis is usually made on routine light micros...

  14. Meningitis bacteriana aguda Acute bacterial meningitis

    Marcela Castro R

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas, evolución y complicaciones de la meningitis bacteriana aguda. Pacientes y método: en una encuesta retrospectiva a 14 unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos se registraron 358 pacientes que reunión los criterios de diagnostico de meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA durante 1996. Resultados: en 36,6% la etiologia fue Neisseria meilngifidis, Streptococcus pneumonioe en 19,8% y Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en  6%. En 21% no se aisló el agente. La letalidad fue 3,5% para N meningitidis-, 14% para S. pneumonioe y 3% para H. influenzae tipo b. De los 358 pacientes, 21% se hospitalizaron en sola común durante toda su evolución. Las complicaciones mas frecuentes fueron falla circulatoria o cheque (35%, convulsiones (22% e hipertensión intracraneala (18%. Se uso asistencia respiratoria mecánica en 31% de los pacientes, variando su empleo de 9 o 71% Según centre. Fallecieron 23 pacientes 16,3%, 40% antes de 24 h desde el ingresa, 60,8% por hipertensión intracraneana y enclavamiento encefálico, 30,8% por falla circulatoria. Conclusión: los niños con meningitis bacteriana aguda deben ingresar a unidades de cuidados intensivos en las primeras 24 horas. Se requiere uniformar criterios de asistencia mecánico a la respiración.Objective: to describe etiology and evolution of bacterial meningitis as seen from pediatric intensive care units. Patients and methods: a retrospective survey was done to 358 patients who met diagnostic criteria of acute bacterial meningitis and were odmited Jo 14 chilean hospitals along year 1996. Results: most frequently isolated bacteriae were: Neisseria meningitidis (36,6%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (19,8% end Haemophilus influenzae type b (16%. In 2 1 % of the coses no etiology was identified. Specific mortality was 3,5% for N. meningitidis, 14% for 5. pneumonioe and 3% for H. influenzae type b. One in five patients was never admitted to an intensive care unit JICU. Shock (35%, seizures (22% and int-acraneal hypertension (13% were the most frecuent complications. Mechanical ventilation was used en 31% patients (9 to 71% depending of center; 23% patients died, 40% ofthern in the first 24hours after admission. Main causes of death were inlracraneal hypertension (61%] and shock (30,8%. Conclusion: most patients with acute bacterial meningitis should be admitted to inlensive care units. Uniform criteriae for mechanical respiratory assistance must be settled.

  15. Meninges of the brain (image)

    ... by 3 connective tissue layers collectively called the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the ... the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges also support blood vessels and contain cerebrospinal fluid. ...

  16. Meninges of the spine (image)

    ... by 3 connective tissue layers collectively called the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the ... the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges also support blood vessels and contain cerebrospinal fluid. ...

  17. Bacterial meningitis in children

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  18. [Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis].

    Soloaga, R; Carrión, N; Pidone, J; Suar, M; Salinas, A; Guelfand, L; Alvarez, V; Margari, A; Cococcella, D

    2008-01-01

    Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living with seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated). The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines. PMID:19213242

  19. Fatal Prevotella oralis meningitis.

    Cahalan, S D; Hick, G; Rossiter, A; Callanan, J J

    2013-03-01

    Prevotella oralis, an obligate Gram-negative anaerobe, was detected as the cause of acute meningitis in a four-year-old cocker spaniel. Clinical signs included acute onset collapse and severe depression. Despite treatment, the animal died. A post-mortem examination was performed which revealed a fibrinosuppurative meningitis with no significant inflammation of the brain or spinal parenchyma. The aetiological diagnosis was confirmed by anaerobic bacterial culture. This report discusses the nature and extent of the lesions and possible routes of infection of the causative organism. PMID:23190147

  20. Stroke? Localized, otogenic meningitis!

    Ingolfsdottir, Harpa Maria; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient admitted with aphasia, treated for a stroke. Subsequently, it was revealed that the symptoms were caused by complicated otitis media with localized meningitis. This case draws attention to the possible intracranial spread of infection when neurological symptoms occur...

  1. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    ... of meningitis can greatly reduce the risk of dying from the disease. Antiviral medications may be prescribed ... 703-6096 NIAID Office of Communications and Government Relations National ... by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ...

  2. Squamous cell carcinomatous meningitis

    Karim, Syed M.; Victor E. Nava; Edina Paal; Steven H. Krasnow; MacArthur Drake Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to a poorly differentiated malignancy is presented. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize it as a squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinomas rarely invade the meninges. There are few well-founded guidelines for managing patients with this condition. Prognosis is generally poor. A literature review of this entity is provided.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of fibronectin in meningitis.

    Torre, D.; Zeroli, C; Issi, M; Fiori, G P; Ferraro, G.; Speranza, F.

    1991-01-01

    Fibronectin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were assessed in 20 patients with acute meningitis using a turbidimetric immunoassay. A significant increase in fibronectin concentrations was observed in patients with bacterial meningitis; decreased concentrations were observed in patients with viral meningitis. The determination of fibronectin concentration in patients with bacterial meningitis may represent a useful marker in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  4. Adult bacterial meningitis

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... inappropriate clinical handling, abnormal consciousness, convulsions and nosocomial infection. Overall, the data indicated that neither age alone, community-acquired infection nor absence of identified risk factors can predict susceptibility to penicillin accurately. Recommendations for empirical antibiotic...

  5. Fibrosarcoma of the meninges

    Ishwar Chand Premsagar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal fibrosarcomas are rare tumors. Only 41 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Primary central nervous system fibrosarcomas are very aggressive neoplasms and have a poor prognosis. Hence they need to be correctly diagnosed. This is a case of a 13-year old boy with intracranial space occupying lesion. The mass was completely removed and histological examination was characteristic of meningeal fibrosarcoma. The pathological diagnosis is usually made on routine light microscopic examination; however, occasionally these may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant neoplasms such as gliomas, meningiomas and metastases. The diagnosis of fibrosarcoma is based on the identification of a predominant herringbone architectural pattern, the overall uniformity of the spindle cell population, the prominent vimentin positivity, and the presence of pericellular reticulin fibre network. IHC helps to exclude other diagnoses.

  6. Adult bacterial meningitis

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... inappropriate clinical handling, abnormal consciousness, convulsions and nosocomial infection. Overall, the data indicated that neither age alone, community-acquired infection nor absence of identified risk factors can predict susceptibility to penicillin accurately. Recommendations for empirical antibiotic...... treatment for ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting....

  7. Natalizumab and HSV meningitis

    Shenoy, Erica Seiguer; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Venna, Nagagopal

    2011-01-01

    Natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan Pharmaceuticals) is a monoclonal antibody approved for use in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as moderate to severe Crohns disease. We report the first case of a patient with a history of MS, on monthly natalizumab, who developed HSV-2 meningitis. We discuss the mechanism of action of natalizumab and review what is known about the reactivation of herpes infection in association with this medication. The question of herpes sim...

  8. Tuberculous meningitis in children.

    Altunba?ak, S; Alhan, E; Baytok, V; Aksaray, N; Yksel, B; Onenli, N

    1994-10-01

    Between May 1988 and November 1992 the data from 52 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) were noted down for their symptoms and signs, BCG vaccines, PPD tests; clinical, laboratory, radiologic and microbiologic findings. These data were discussed by means of literature knowledge. Cranial computed tomography (CT) demonstrated hydrocephalus (HC) in 98% of the patients. There was a statistically significant difference among the clinical stages on admission in respect to prognosis (P 0.05). PMID:7825446

  9. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  10. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis

    Hsieh, F.Y.; Chia, L.G. (Section of Neurology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan)); Shen, W.C. (Section of Neuroradiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan))

    1992-06-01

    The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the 'TB zone' supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the 'IS zone' supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS, 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TBM (71%) but rare with IS (5%). (orig.).

  11. Chemical meningitis in metrizamide myelography

    Seven patients with acute chemcial meningitis after metrizamide myelography are described. Five of the cases occurred within a time span of two months. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings in the acute stage of the illness were similar to findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Possible causes of this complication are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J.; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy controls. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was found in 32% of patients and this proportion was similar for survivors of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Survivors of pneumococcal meningitis ...

  13. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

    Babak Karimi; Gholamreza Khademi; Hossein Akhavan; Fateme Khorsandi

    2015-01-01

    Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was ...

  14. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Ohri, Alpana; Shah, Forum

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is rarely known to occur in children. We report an 11-year-old girl with fever, headache and vomiting, right hemiparesis with left-sided upper motor neuron facial nerve palsy and bladder incontinence. On investigation, she was found to have MRSA meningitis with an acute left thalamo-corpuscular infarct. She was treated with vancomycin, linezolid and rifampicin. She recovered successfully with residual right-sided lower limb monoparesis. MRSA meningitis is rare but can occur in children. PMID:26609421

  15. CT in meningitis purulenta

    Twenty nine infants with meningitis purulenta were classified into 5 groups according to CT findings in the acute stage: cerebral infarction group, subdural hygroma group, ventricular enlargement group, and a group of other diseases. In each group, clinical findings, surgical procedures and prognosis were evaluated. In the cerebral infarction group, although 3 of 4 patients underwent V-P shunt or subdural drainage, remarkable sequelae were found in all the cases. Of 4 subdural hygroma patients, 2 had subdural drainage, and 4 of 8 patients with ventricular enlargement underwent V-P shunt. All the patients of the two groups had favorable prognosis without any sequela. A patient with cerebral herniation in the group of other diseases died in its acute stage. Eleven infants without abnormal CT findings showed normal psychomotor development. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  17. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  18. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis.

  19. Meningitis tras anestesia espinal Meningitis after a spinal anesthesia

    A. L. Vázquez-Martínez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis post-punción es una importante complicación de la anestesia espinal. Describimos el caso de un varón de cuarenta y seis años que ingresó para tratamiento quirúrgico de una hernia umbilical, la cirugía se realizó bajo anestesia intradural. Tras la intervención el paciente comenzó con un cuadro clínico compatible con meningitis, que se confirmó tras examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se trató con antibióticos a pesar de la no identificación de gérmenes, siendo la evolución favorable. El diagnóstico etiológico de una meningitis iatrogénica no siempre es posible, pero siempre debemos tener en cuenta esta posibilidad. En este artículo queremos revisar la situación actual del problema, especialmente la profilaxis y la actitud terapéutica.Post-dural puncture meningitis is a serious complication of spinal anesthesia. We describe the case of a forty six years old male who was admitted for surgical intervention of an umbilical hernia, performed under spinal anesthesia. After surgery the patient developed a clinical syndrome compatible with meningitis, the diagnosis was confirmed by examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were started although spinal cultures were negatives, and the patient's clinical course was favourable. The meningitis differential diagnosis may be difficult, but we must think about this possibility. In this case report ,we want to check the present situation, specially the prevention and medical treatment.

  20. Neonatal meningitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Namnyak, S S; Holmes, B.; Fathalla, S E

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and bacteriological findings in a case of neonatal meningitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans are presented. This appears to be only the second report of meningitis caused by this species.

  1. Dynamic CT of tuberculous meningeal reactions

    Jinkins, J.R.

    1987-07-01

    The technique of intravenous dynamic cranial computed tomography has been applied to the patient population at this location in Saudi Arabia with meningeal tuberculosis. The various manifestations and sequelae including meningitis, arteritis, infarct, and true meningeal tuberculomata all have characteristic if not specific appearances. The dynamic study enhances an otherwise static examination and reveals a great deal about the pathophysiology of tuberculosis involving the cerebral meningeal surfaces.

  2. Meningitis de Mollaret: reporte de caso

    Luz Clemencia Zrate C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis de Mollaret es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por episodios recurrentes y autolimitados de meningitis linfoctica. Se presenta un caso de meningitis de Mollaret asociado a la infeccin por herpes simple tipo 2 en una mujer de 27 aos con confirmacin por reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR del lquido cefalorraqudeo y se hace una revisin del tema.

  3. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... treatment differs depending on the type of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is usually a very severe condition but there ...

  4. Mycobacterium Bovis Meningitis: Case Report

    Nihan Uygur Klc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic bacteria infecting human. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapy is important for prognosis. Here,we present a three-year-old boy treated for bacterial meningitis. Because of inadequate clinical improvement, advanced diagnostic techniques were used and M. bovis was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient survived with minimal sequela after 18 months therapy. In children without immune deficiency M. bovis meningitis is rare. In order to diagnose this disease, the clinician should suspect and use advanced diagnostic techniques like DNA Fingerprinting Spoligotyping. This rare case is presented to draw attention to M. bovis infections for public health.

  5. Subdural effusion following purulent meningitis

    The authors experienced 6 cases of subdural effusion following purulent meningitis. All patients were less than one year old. Subdural puncture revealed subdural effusion in all cases. CT scan was performed in 4 cases at an acute stage and showed a low density area in the anterior parietal region. In 3 of them, although neurological symptoms disappeared after subdural puncture, CT findings did not improve. Follow-up CT scan revealed ventricular dilatation and cerebral atrophy. CT is considered to be useful for diagnosis of subdural effusion after meningitis and follow-up the effect of treatment. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Meningitis, clinical presentation of tetanus.

    Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Agata; Tumiel, Ewa; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Zdrodowska, Agnieszka; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease. PMID:25789186

  7. Acute Meningitis by Streptococcus suis

    Corrales-Arroyo, Maria-Jesus; Real-Francia, Maria Angeles Del; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Amalia; Lopez-Gallardo, Gema; Puebla, Jose Manuel Morales; Caston-Osorio, Juan Jose

    2012-01-01

    Maria-Jesus Corrales-Arroyo, Maria Angeles Del Real-Francia, Amalia Hernandez-Gonzalez, Gema Lopez-Gallardo, Jose Manuel Morales Puebla, Juan Jose Caston-Osorio Streptococcus suis is a coccus Gram positive, anaerobic optional. Human infection by this microorganism is a zoonotic disease that usually presents as purulent meningitis. Mortality is low but is common sequelae. A case of meningitis by S. suis secondary to contact with pigs is presented here. A 35-year-old male patient was admi...

  8. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of the 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role.

  9. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role. (author)

  10. Onkologisk behandling af meningeal carcinomatose

    Sulim, S.; Høyer, Morten

    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) occurs in 5-8% of cancer patients. In the       majority of cases, MC appears in patients with advanced disease. The       increase in incidence is probably caused by improved survival due to       improvements in systemic therapy and an increased awareness of MC among...

  11. Differential vasoactive effects of sildenafil and tadalafil on cerebral arteries

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Gupta, Saurabh; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Kruse, Lars; Edvinsson, Lars

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is associated with migraine pathophysiology, stroke recovery and vasospasm treatment. The potential vascular interplay of PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and UK-114,542 was studied by intra- versus extra-luminal administration in rat middle cerebral arteries in...... vitro and on middle meningeal arteries in vivo. By Western blot PDE5 was detected in both cerebral and meningeal arteries, though with minor variations in band intensity between vascular beds. Rat middle cerebral artery diameter was investigated using pressurised arteriography, applying UK-114...... conclusion, PDE5 inhibitors applied luminally had minor contractile effect, whereas abluminal sildenafil induced middle cerebral artery dilatation above therapeutic levels. In vivo, sildenafil dilated middle meningeal artery concomitant with a reduction in blood pressure. Tadalafil had no dilatory effects...

  12. Autosplenectomy Causing Catastrophic Pneumococcal Meningitis in a Patient with Lupus/Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.

    Sheth, Khushboo; Snyder, Aaron; Wu, Ulysses; Lahiri, Bimalin; Grover, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    We present the case ofa26-year-old female who presented to the hospital with pneumococcal meningitis. A review of her records showed atrophic spleen, and a hypercoagulable workup was positive for Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)/Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS). An autosplenectomy from thrombotic occlusion of the splenic artery made her susceptible to pneumococcal meningitis. Autoimmune conditions, particularly SLE and APS, are important causes of hypercoagulable states in a young population, and earlier detection of these conditions and appropriate treatment helps to decrease morbidity and mortality among these patients. PMID:26882790

  13. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)

  14. Increased anisotropy in neonatal meningitis: an indicator of meningeal inflammation

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Nath, Kavindra [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Malik, Gyanendra K.; Gupta, Amit [King George' s Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Prasad, Kashi N. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Lucknow (India); Purwar, Ankur; Rathore, Divya; Rathore, Ram K.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Kanpur (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes regress following antibiotic therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 14 term neonates (mean age 13 days) with bacterial meningitis and 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on areas including the leptomeninges, the cerebral cortex and adjoining subcortical white matter for quantitation of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD) values. Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. Significantly higher FA values but no difference in MD values were observed in the patient group as compared to the healthy controls at both time points (before and after antibiotic treatment). Significantly decreased FA values in the frontal, occipital and temporal cortical regions were observed in patients following antibiotic treatment. DTI-derived FA may be of value in the noninvasive assessment of meningeal inflammatory activity and treatment response in neonates. (orig.)

  15. [Meningitis caused by Oerskovia xanthineolytica].

    Yilmaz, Emel; Ozakin, Cüneyt; Sinirtaş, Melda; Evci, Canan; Akalin, Halis; Gedikoğlu, Suna

    2006-01-01

    Oerskovia species are Nocardia-like bacteria that have been only and rarely associated with human infections. In this report, a meningitis case caused by Oerskovia xanthineolytica was presented. A 44 years old male patient who had experienced ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (V-P shunt) due to hydrocephaly, developed meningitis. O. xanthineolytica was isolated from three of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and V-P shunt cultures. Identification of the isolate was performed by Phoenix SystemTM (NMIC/ID-5 panel, Becton Dickson, Sparks, MD, USA). Empirical vancomycin (2x1 g/day iv) plus rifampin (1x600 mg/day po) therapy has failured. Since CSF cultures were still positive in the 22nd day of therapy, the shunt was removed and continuation of the same antimicrobial treatment for 42 days resulted in complete cure. PMID:16775964

  16. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jørgensen, P E; Nexø, E; Wang, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published articles on the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests with cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. The literature from 1980 and onwards was searched using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, and we used summary...... measured in serum, and 4 in which it had been measured in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The odds ratio for bacterial meningitis versus aseptic meningitis for a positive CRP test with cerebrospinal fluid was estimated at 241 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-980), and the central tendencies for the.......06-0.08, respectively, the post-test probability of not having bacterial meningitis given a negative test is very high (> or = 97%), in the range of a pre-test probability (prevalence of bacterial meningitis) from 10 to 30%, whereas the post-test probability of bacterial meningitis given a positive test is considerably...

  17. Meningitis caused by Oerskovia xanthineolytica.

    Kailath, E J; Goldstein, E; Wagner, F H

    1988-03-01

    In summary, we describe a case of central nervous system infection with O. xanthineolytica in which the infecting microbe probably was engrafted on a ventricular shunt. The bacteria caused a smoldering meningitis that did not respond to penicillin and rifampin despite in vitro sensitivity, presumably because of inadequate cerebrospinal fluid penetration of the penicillin and the recognized difficulty of eradicating bacteria from contaminated shunts. Removal of the shunt and continued treatment with penicillin and rifampin resulted in cure. PMID:3354593

  18. Meningitis due to Fusobacterium necrophorum

    Luana Coltella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram negative bacillus highly virulent, responsible, usually in children or adolescents, of localized abscesses and pharynx, as well as severe systemic infections, called Lemierre syndrome. Methods: A 15 year old child came to the emergency department (ED of Bambino Gesù Children Hospital. Physicians prescribed chemicalphysical examination on blood and liquor, blood cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and for fungi (BD Ped Plus, lytic Ana, Micosis, microbiological culture on liquor (CSF and on the swab from the right outer ear. Results: On chemical examination, liquor appears cloudy, with 309 mg/dl of total proteins, glucose undetectable,WBC 11,160 mmc, 92% of neutrophils. Hyperleukocytosis was detected also on the emocrome (WBC 21x103/μl, 92% neutrophils. No bacterial antigens were detected. CSF culture resulted negative for aerobic bacteria, even after 48 hours of incubation. After 24 hours of inoculation, the blood culture for anaerobic bacteria resulted positive and, Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated and identified, by genomic sequencing, after 24 hours growth on Schaedler medium. Microbiological culture of the right outer ear swab, highlighted only Corynebacterium spp. After 6 days from admission, the patient died for meningitis. Conclusion:This event has shown the severity of infection by F. necrophorum and, at the same time, the underestimation of this germ in the spectrum of etiologic agents responsible for meningitis.The only microbiological indication was obtained from the anaerobes bacteria blood culture. Following this episode our working procedures for what concerns liquor samples management was modified, including routinely the investigation for anaerobic bacteria. Presumably this episode of meningitis has originated from a F. necrophorum otitis of the right ear, unfortunately not microbiologically confirmed.The anaerobic bacteria should always be considered as potentially responsible of meningitis, especially when ear infections or pharyngeal abscesses precede or accompany the onset of symptoms.

  19. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

    Babak Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was referred to Sheikh Children's Hospital, where chest X-ray showed clear lungs with no evidence of abnormality. Furthermore, the cardiothoracic ratio was normal. A complete blood count demonstrated white blood cell (WBC count of 5400/uL. In Blood/Culcture ratio (B/C test, Streptococcus pneumonia was reported, and the results of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis confirmed this result. Following 14 days of receiving antibiotic therapy, the results of CSF analysis were within the normal range. Her visual and hearing examinations were normal, and demonstrated improved situation. The infant was discharged with exclusive breastfeeding.

  20. Gallium-67 uptake in meningeal sarcoidosis

    A case of sarcoidosis limited to the central nervous system is described in which the diagnosis was suggested by high Ga-67 uptake in the cranial and spinal meninges. The diagnosis was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. Treatment with oral corticosteroids resulted in clinical improvement and marked reduction in Ga-67 uptake in the meninges. This is the first reported case of the central nervous system sarcoid diagnosed by Ga-67 imaging

  1. Tuberculous Meningitis in BCG-Vaccinated Children

    M Movahhedi

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that BCG vaccination is fully effective in preventing Tuberculous Meningitis and military Tuberculous, although it does not develop complete immunity for Tuberculous infection of lungs and other organs. A series of 3 children with Tuberculous Meningitis who had positive history of BCG vaccination as newborns and distinct BCG scar show that Tuberculous Meningitis may be caught despite successful BCG vaccination.

  2. Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT

    Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution. (orig.)

  3. Diagnostic value of MRI in tuberculous meningitis

    In this study 15 patients with clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid analyses for tuberculous meningitis were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tuberculous meningitis was diagnosed in 11 cases when thick meningeal enhancement was present after intravenous injection of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in T1-weighted images. Intra-axial tuberculomas were present in 8 patients, 2 of whom had intra-axial tuberculomas without MRI evidence of meningitis. Tuberculomas showed ring or nodular enhancement in postcontrast T1-weighted images, but the most significant MR feature of intraparenchymal tuberculomas was the hypointense appearance of the lesions on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  4. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  5. MRI of intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    We describe the CT and MRI findings in a patient with primary intracranial meningeal malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). CT delineated the anatomical relations and MRI aided in tissue characterisation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings in primary intracranial meningeal MFH. (orig.). With 1 fig

  6. Antibiotikavalg ved purulent meningitis uden bakteriologisk diagnose

    Krarup, H B

    1989-01-01

    A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...

  7. Cerebral infarction in childhood bacterial meningitis

    Snyder, R D; Stovring, J; Cushing, A H; Davis, L E; Hardy, T L

    1981-01-01

    Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.

  8. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  9. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  10. MR of childhood tuberculous meningitis

    MR imaging was performed on 27 children with stage II-III tuberculous meningitis for the specific purpose of examining the brainstem, as well as comparison with other CT features of the disease. In addition to defining the ischemic disturbances of basal ganglia and diencephalon more clearly, MR also demonstrates the frequent occurrence of parenchymal signal abnormalities in the brainstem and adjacent temporal lobes, which are invisible or uncertain on CT. Although the presence of brainstem abnormalities on MR correlated well with clinical findings of brainstem dysfunction, clinical staging on admission remains the best prognostic indicator in advanced TBM. We also review the MR features of basal exudation, hydrochephalus and tuberculoma. (orig.)

  11. MR of childhood tuberculous meningitis

    Schoeman, J.; Donald, P.; Hewlett, R.

    1988-12-01

    MR imaging was performed on 27 children with stage II-III tuberculous meningitis for the specific purpose of examining the brainstem, as well as comparison with other CT features of the disease. In addition to defining the ischemic disturbances of basal ganglia and diencephalon more clearly, MR also demonstrates the frequent occurrence of parenchymal signal abnormalities in the brainstem and adjacent temporal lobes, which are invisible or uncertain on CT. Although the presence of brainstem abnormalities on MR correlated well with clinical findings of brainstem dysfunction, clinical staging on admission remains the best prognostic indicator in advanced TBM. We also review the MR features of basal exudation, hydrochephalus and tuberculoma.

  12. CT finding of cryptococcal meningitis

    We have experienced 14 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in the last 6 years. Their neurological signs, CT findings, and prognoses were studied. They fall into three types: the brain-stem-encephalitis type, the cortical-encephalitis type, and the meningitis type, according to the clinical course. The first type (6 cases) revealed mainly cerebellar signs, eye-movement damage, and so forth. The second type (5 cases) demonstrated ''Personality'' changes, chiefly aphasia. The third type (5 cases) did not show any focal signs. Prognosis of the brain-stem-encephalitis type was very poor, with a 50% mortality rate. In the survivors, also, clinical signs did not disappear for a long time. Repeated CT was performed in 13 among the 14 cases; abnormal CT findings were revealed in 5 cases because of cryptococcal infection. Granuloma shadow and ventriculitis shadow were observed in 3 cases each. These abnormal findings disappeared upon treatment except in one case. The clinical signs are not completely related with the CT finding, but it is useful that the site which has been infiltrated by the cryptococcus can be observed. Abnormal CT findings were observed in the 4 cases of the brain-stem-encephalitis type among the 5 abnormal cases. It is very useful to know the severity of the condition. (author)

  13. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal. (orig.)

  14. Epidemiologa de la meningitis Venezuela 2010

    Luis, Echezura; Raiza, Len; Eva, Rodrguez; Alejandro, Rsquez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las meningitis en Venezuela constituyen un importante problema de salud pblica, que afecta de manera especial a los nios menores de 5 aos. Las vacunas antineumoccicas, antimeningoccicas, contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, as como la BCG, obligan a revisar la dinmica de la morbi-mortalidad [...] en nuestro pas. La etiologa ms frecuente es viral, seguida de las meningitis bacterianas y las tuberculosas, mientras que se conoce poco de la mictica y otras causas. Los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiolgica muestran cifras altas de la incidencia de las meningitis que ameritan acciones ms enrgicas de salud pblica para vigilar, prevenir y mejorar los Programas Nacionales de Inmunizaciones y sus coberturas, adems de tratar mdicamente las meningitis en cualquiera de sus causas infecciosas. Abstract in english Meningitis constitutes an important public health problem in Venezuela that affects children, specially under 5 years of age. Antimeningococcal, anti-pneumococcal, vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and BCG induce pediatricians to review the dynamics of the morbidity and mortality of the [...] se diseases. The most common etiology is the viral followed by bacterial meningitis followed by tuberculosis, while little is known of the fungal or other causes. Epidemiological surveillance systems show high figures of the incidence which warrant a more intense public health action to monitor, prevent and improve national programs of immunization and their vaccine coverage, and to treat medically any infectious cause of meningitis.

  15. Climate Change and Cerebrospinal Meningitis in the Ghanaian Meningitis Belt

    Samuel Nii Ardey Codjoe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics.

  16. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every pare...

  17. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal seizure. CSF study indicates neuroinfection. ICU care with steroids, antibiotics andmechanical ventilation. Cerebrospinal fluid culture reports growth of Streptococcus agalactiae. In coexistencewith the central nervous system involvement appeared otomastoidea infection.Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis can be caused by Streptococcus agalactiae,germ infrequently involved in this pathology. Work activities in non-tech agribusiness,had to be considered risk.RESUMEN:Introducción: la meningitis bacteriana (MB es una enfermedad infecciosa consideradauna emergencia médica. El manejo oportuno tiene importante impacto en la evoluciónde la entidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae, significativo agente causal de infeccionesseveras en recién nacidos, puede colonizar diferentes tejidos, entre ellos el sistemanervioso central.Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 47 años de edad, procedente de zona rural,con actividad laboral ordeñador de reses bovinas, remitido a tercer nivel de atención,con desorientación, rigidez de nuca y convulsión tónico-clónica. Estudio de líquidocefalorraquídeo indica neuroinfección. Manejo en UCI con esteroides, antibióticosy ventilación mecánica. Cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo, informa crecimiento deStreptococcus agalactiae. En coexistencia con el compromiso del sistema nerviosocentral se presentaba infección otomastoidea.Conclusión: la MB puede ser causada por el Streptococcus agalactiae, germeninfrecuentemente involucrado en este tipo de patología. Actividades laborales en laagroindustria no tecnificada, debiesen ser consideradas situaciones de riesgo.

  18. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: rare cause of meningitis.

    Correia, Cátia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sara Tavares; Nunes, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacillus, which is an extremely rare cause of meningitis. To our knowledge, there are only five previous pediatrics cases. Here, we describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed meningitis associated with this organism, after several neurosurgical procedures and previous treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. He was treated successfully with a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and levofloxacin. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis, especially among severely debilitated or immunosuppressed patients. Antimicrobial therapy is complicated by the high resistance of the organism to multiple antibiotics. PMID:25252064

  19. Cranial Nerve Palsy as a Factor to Differentiate Tuberculous Meningitis from Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Ali Moghtaderi; Roya Alavi-Naini; Saideh Rashki

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in both children and adults. Identification of poor prognostic factors at patients admission could prepare physicians for more aggressive monitoring of patients with meningitis. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of neurological features to differentiate ABM and TBM. A retrospective study was conducted between patients affected with ABM or TBM admitted to...

  20. [The value of C-reactive protein for the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis].

    Diculencu, D; Miftode, E; Turcu, T; Buiuc, D

    1995-01-01

    In order to differentiate bacterial meningitis versus viral meningitis, we have comparatively tested the efficacy of the following tests: C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), fever, level of glucose in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), glucose in CSF/glycemia ratio, number of white blood cells in peripheric blood, percentage of neutrophils in peripheric blood, level of proteins in CSF and number of nucleated cells in CSF for a group of 49 patients, both children and adults with central nervous system infection (37 patients with bacterial meningitis and 12 with viral meningitis) hospitalised between May 1993 and July 1994 in Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Iaşi. The mean value of CRP in bacterial meningitis patients was 8.78 mg%, contrasting with the mean value of CRP = 1.92 mg% recorded in patients with viral meningitis. Ten out of 37 bacterial meningitis patients presented a CRP concentration 0.5). Data were analysed also by box-plot method which facilitates the visual appraisal of the differences recorded between the two aetiological groups. In conclusion, assays of CRP and ESR may be used as differentiation tests for bacterial meningitis versus viral meningitis, when assay is done before the antibiotic treatment, being sufficient sensitive, and easy to perform. PMID:9524672

  1. Meningeal carcinomatosis in solid tumors

    Sandro Jos Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the leptomeninges by metastatic tumors can be observed in solid tumors, in which case it is termed meningeal carcinomatosis (MC, and in lymphoproliferative malignant disease. It is more common in breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma, with adenocarcinoma being the most frequent histological type. MC is usually a late event, with disseminated and progressive disease already present and, it is characterized by multifocal neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging studies. The better systemic disease control is observed with new therapeutic agents, and the development of neuroimaging methods is responsible for the increasing incidence of such metastatic evolution. Intrathecal chemotherapy is generally the treatment of choice, although frequently palliative. Prognosis is guarded, although a higher performance status may indicate a subgroup of patients with a more favorable outcome.

  2. Computed tomography in suppurative meningitis

    Computed tomography abnormalities revealed in 18 of 29 patients (62%) with infantile supprative meningitis. The abnormalities included ventricular dilatation (12 cases), subdural edema (8), cerebral infarction (4), cerebral atrophy (3), encephalitis (2), and cerebral herniation (1). The comparative study of CT pictures and clinical findings in the acute stage of the disease showed that the high incidence of these abnormalities occurred in the following conditions: 1) The age was less than 1 year, 2) establishment of the diagnosis took more than 5 days, 3) glucose of the cerebrospinal fluid was less than 200 mg/dl, 4) protein of the cerebrospinal fluid was more than 200 mg/dl, and 5) convulsion occurred 24 hrs after institution of the treatment. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Pyogenic meningitis in Ilesa, Nigeria.

    Ogunlesi, T A; Okeniyi, J A O; Oyelami, O A

    2005-10-01

    This study was conducted in 124 children with meningitis to review the etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome of disease in a Nigerian tertiary health facility. Of these, 97 (78.27%) were culture positive; in the rest 27(21.8%), diagnosis was based on Gram staining of the CSF. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were isolated in 33.9%, 33.9%, 5.6%, 2.4%, and 2.4% samples respectively. All the isolates had 100 percent; sensitivity to both ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin while the sensitivities to penicillin and ampicillin were remarkably low. The mortality was 33/124 (26.6%) while 16/ 91 (17.6%) of the survivors had various neurologic sequelae. PMID:16269839

  4. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries

    Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klærke, Dan Arne; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2008-01-01

    expression of the BK(Ca) channel in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Distribution patterns were investigated using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. RT......-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detected the expression of the BK(Ca) channel mRNA transcript in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries, with the transcript being expressed more abundantly in rat basilar arteries than in middle cerebral and middle meningeal arteries. Western...... blotting detected the BK(Ca) channel protein in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that the BK(Ca) channel mRNA and protein expression was localized to smooth muscle cells in all three intracranial arteries. The data thus suggest the...

  5. The meningeal sign: a new appraisal

    To evaluate the occurrence of the meningeal sign in meningiomas and metastases. We studied 20 patients with meningiomas and 17 patients with cerebral metastases adjacent to the dura. MRI studies (Siemens, Magnetom 1,5) included axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted unenhanced as well as gadolinium-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted (axial, coronal, sagittal) SE imaging. In all patients the tumours were resected with the attached dura mater. Histopathological examinations were done, which corresponded to the area of marked enhancement by gadolinium-DTPA. There was no correlation between the occurrence of the meningeal sign and the histopathological examinations. In 20 patients with meningiomas adjacent to the dura we found the meningeal sign in 11 cases. Histologically we observed an increase of collagen fibres and fibrocytes. In 5 to 17 cases with superficial cerebral as dura infiltrations and microbleedings. The meningeal sign is not specific for meningiomas and can be observed in a wide variety of pathological entities. (orig.)

  6. A Practical Approach to Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Richie, Megan B; Josephson, S Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Meningitis is an inflammatory syndrome involving the meninges that classically manifests with headache and nuchal rigidity and is diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination. In contrast, encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma itself and often results in focal neurologic deficits or seizures. In this article, the authors review the differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, with an emphasis on infectious etiologies. The recommended practical clinical approach focuses on early high-yield diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial administration, given the high morbidity associated with these diseases and the time-sensitive nature of treatment initiation. If the initial workup does not yield a diagnosis, further etiology-specific testing based upon risk factors and clinical characteristics should be pursued. Effective treatment is available for many causes of meningitis and encephalitis, and when possible should address both the primary disease process as well as potential complications. PMID:26595861

  7. The Role of Vancomycin on Meningitis

    team, Ahmed I. Shatat and P.I.C.U; Hashem Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Central nervous system(CNS) infection is the most common cause of fever associate with signs and symptoms of CNS disease in children. Many organisms can cause these infections, but viral is the most common, then bacterial which is more common than parasitic and fungal infections. The most common three organisms are Haemophilus influenza type b(Hib), streptococcus pneumonia and Nieseria meningitis. Treatment should start as soon as possible in bacterial meningitis with antibiotics, bu...

  8. [Neuropsychological findings in patients with aseptic meningitis.

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Klostergaard, Kirsten Rose; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2014-10-20

    Aseptic meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with mild symptoms, and the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that these patients may experience cognitive sequelae. A neuropsychologist was affiliated to the Department of Infectious Diseases, and neuropsychological findings in patients with aseptic meningitis were assessed. In conclusion, at twelve months of follow-up cognitive dysfunction persist among the majority of patients; 75% had mental fatigue and 45% had changed their work status. PMID:25353677

  9. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Mahadevan A; Kumar A.; Santosh V; Satishchandra P.; Shankar S K

    2000-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of...

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Manoharan G; Padmavathy B; Vasanthi S; Gopalte R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8&#x...

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients.

    Manoharan, G; Padmavathy, B K; Vasanthi, S; Gopalte, R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8% PMID:17664823

  13. Carcinomatous meningitis mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Vas C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of carcinomatous meningitis diagnosed at autopsy that was clinically diagnosed as a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD because of rapidly evolving dementia. Pathological study revealed diffusely spreading carcinomatous meningitis, infiltrating into cortex along Virchow Robin space. Immunostaining for Prion protein was negative. Despite advances in clinical diagnosis, tissue diagnosis remains a pre-requisite for confirmation of CJD.

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

    Sloan DJ; Parris V

    2014-01-01

    Derek J Sloan, Victoria Parris Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Cryptococcal meningitis causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease is greatest in middle- and low-income countries with a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs and some immunocompetent hosts are also at risk. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis consists of three phases: inducti...

  15. MRI enhancing patterns of non-meningioma meningeal lesions

    Objective: To analyze the MRI appearances of meningeal diseases and to study MRI diagnostic value of enhancing patterns in different meningeal processes. Methods: Sixty-one patients with integrated clinical data, including 27 infectious meningitis, 4 inflammatory meningitis (2 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 Wegener granuloma, and 1 unknown etiological factor), 12 meningeal metastasis, 2 meningeal lymphoma, 8 cerebrovascular disease, and 8 postoperative changes, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were examined on MRI before and after contrast administration. Results: (1) MR plain scan: positive findings of plain scan were revealed in only 3 cases, including 1 linear meningeal thickening pattern and 2 nodular pattern. (2) MR enhancement: All cases showed 3 kinds of enhancing patterns: 19 dural-arachnoid pattern, 32 pia-arachnoid pattern, and 10 total meninges pattern, respectively. Conclusion: Different meningeal diseases have different MR imaging manifestations. Creating the enhancement patterns of various diseases can have great clinical significance. (authors)

  16. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly: apoplexy mimicking meningitis or meningitis as a cause of apoplexy?

    Roco Villar-Taibo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by ischemic infarction or hemorrhage into a pituitary tumor. The diagnosis of pituitary tumor apoplexy is frequently complicated because of the nonspecific nature of its signs and symptoms, which can mimic different neurological processes, including meningitis. Several factors have been associated with apoplexy, such as dopamine agonists, radiotherapy, or head trauma, but meningitis is a rarely reported cause. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma. Before surgical treatment, she arrived at Emergency with fever, nausea, vomiting and meningismus. Symptoms and laboratory tests suggested bacterial meningitis, and antibiotic therapy was initiated, with quick improvement. A computerized tomography (CT scan at admission did not reveal any change in pituitary adenoma, but a few weeks later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed data of pituitary apoplexy with complete disappearance of the adenoma. Currently, her acromegaly is cured, but she developed hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus following apoplexy. We question whether she really experienced meningitis leading to apoplexy or whether apoplexy was misinterpreted as meningitis. In conclusion, the relationship between meningitis and pituitary apoplexy may be bidirectional. Apoplexy can mimic viral or bacterial meningitis, but meningitis might cause apoplexy, as well. This fact highlights the importance of differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with pituitary adenomas and acute neurological symptoms.

  17. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis.

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection. PMID:24452771

  18. An unusual case of chronic meningitis

    Hinton Anna

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic meningitis is defined as symptoms and signs of meningeal inflammation and persisting cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities such as elevated protein level and pleocytosis for at least one month. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman, of unremarkable past medical history, was admitted to hospital for investigation of a four-week history of vomiting, malaise an associated hyponatraemia. She had a low-grade pyrexia with normal inflammatory markers. A CT brain was unremarkable and a contrast MRI brain revealed sub-acute infarction of the right frontal cortex but with no evidence of meningeal enhancement. Due to increasing confusion and patient clinical deterioration a lumbar puncture was performed at 17 days post admission. This revealed gram-negative coccobacilli in the CSF, which was identified as Neisseria meningitidis group B. The patient made a dramatic recovery with high-dose intravenous ceftriaxone antibiotic therapy for meningococcal meningitis. Conclusions 1 Chronic bacterial meningitis may present highly atypically, particularly in the older adult. 2 There may be an absent or reduced febrile response, without a rise in inflammatory markers, despite a very unwell patient. 3 Early lumbar puncture is to be encouraged as it is essential to confirm the diagnosis.4 Despite a delayed diagnosis appropriate antibiotic therapy can still lead to a good outcome.

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis: Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic overviews

    Satishchandra P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS. Among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-seropositive subjects, cryptococcal meningitis is the second most common cause of opportunistic neuro-infection. Current trends are changing due to the marked improvement of quality and length of life produced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The introduction of generic HAART in India has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals getting treatment for HIV infection, as the cost of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has decreased 20- fold. Cryptococcal meningitis occurs in non-HIV patients who are immunodeficient due to diabetes, cancer, solid organ transplants, chemotherapeutic drugs, hematological malignancies etc and rarely in healthy individuals with no obvious predisposing factors. Diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis is fairly straightforward once the diagnosis is considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic meningitis. Treatment of a patient with cryptococcal infection is a challenge for both the physician and the patient, but rewarding, as many would recover with timely and adequate antifungal therapy.

  20. MR imaging of the meningeal diseases

    The value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of meningeal diseases was studied in 22 patients with various meningeal alterations (tumor, inflammation, trauma, radiation). MR studies (0.5 T) included T2-weighted (spin echo [SE] 1,600/70 [repetition time msec/echo time msec]) images in 20 of 22 patients and T1-weighted images (SE 400/30) in all patients, before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement. As compared with a control group (20 cases), 16 of 20 T2-weighted studies of the patient group showed pathologically increased signal intensity of the subarchnoidal space. Whereas only normal findings were seen on T1-weighted images in the patient group, 21 of 22 patients had pathologically increased contrast accumulation of the meninges. In conclusion, pathologic changes of the meninges could be demonstrated on plain T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. In selected cases, detection of meningeal disease could be achieved only with Gd-DTPA-enhanced studies

  1. Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2002 Study of the Risk of Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cochlear Implants ...

  2. Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol.

    Guiscafré, H.; Solórzano, F; Delgado, O; Muñoz, O

    1986-01-01

    We report two cases of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. In one child the meningitis was preceded by pneumonia and pleural effusion. Both children responded to treatment with cefotaxime.

  3. Cholinesterase modulations in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    Berg, Ronan M G; Ofek, Keren; Qvist, Tavs; Tofteng, Flemming; Soreq, Hermona; Møller, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis.......The circulating cholinesterases acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase may be suppressed and subsequently released from the brain in acute bacterial meningitis....

  4. [A case of recurrent aseptic meningitis induced by ergot agents].

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Tagawa, Asako; Hashimoto, Ritsuo; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with recurrent aseptic meningitis that was caused by ergot agents. She miscarried at age 27, and the uterus constrictor methylergometrine was prescribed. Three days later, she developed aseptic meningitis and was hospitalized. Two years later, she again developed aseptic meningitis the day after she took ergotamine tartrate. In both events, her symptoms improved rapidly when the medication was stopped. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for methylergometrine yielded a value of 180%. Drug-induced meningitis is a rare form of recurrent aseptic meningitis. Many studies have reported cases of meningitis caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but many other drugs can induce aseptic meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of aseptic meningitis induced by ergot agents. PMID:26103816

  5. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

    Olga Dzupova; Hanus Rozsypal; Dita Smiskova; Jiri Benes

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 2680 years. Nineteen patients (61%) had u...

  7. Chronic meningitis and central nervous system vasculopathy related to Epstein Barr virus

    Anil Kumar B Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection causes a wide spectrum of manifestation, due to meningeal, parenchymal and vascular involvement. An 11-year-old boy presented with chronic headache, fever and seizures of 18 months duration. His magnetic resonance imaging Brain showed fusiform aneurysmal dilatations of arteries of both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed persistent lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and low sugar with positive polymerase chain reaction for EBV. He later developed pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia, with secondary infection and expired. From clinical, imaging and CSF findings, he had chronic lymphocytic meningitis with vasculopathy, which was isolated to the central nervous system. He later had marrow aplasia probably due to X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder related to EBV infection. Vasculopathy, especially diffuse fusiform aneurysmal dilatation associated with chronic EBV infection, is rare, but has been described, similar to our case report.

  8. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    Colding, H; Lind, I

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens of cerebros......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens of...... culture-negative specimens. CSF specimens from 21 patients with bacterial meningitis caused by other species were all negative in CIE, except four, three of which contained Escherichia coli antigen reacting with antiserum to N. meningitidis group B and one E. coli antigen reacting with antiserum to H...

  9. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids. PMID:26438456

  10. Proteus mirabilis meningitis and cerebral abscess in the newborn period.

    M. L. Smith; Mellor, D

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of Proteus mirabilis meningitis in neonates are reported, in 2 of which abscess formation was proved neuroradiologically. All neonates with P. mirabilis meningitis warrant a CAT scan, as does any newborn infant with meningitis who has a continuing pleocytosis after adequate treatment with antibiotics.

  11. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  12. Asymptomatic (Subclinical Meningitis in One of Premature Triplets with Simultaneous Enteroviral Meningitis: A Case Report

    Ashish Gupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most enterovirus infection in the neonate and young infant is asymptomatic, but serious disease may occur, especially if acquired perinatally. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of asymptomatic enterovirus aseptic meningitis, and of concurrent enterovirus aseptic meningitis in premature triplets. Ten-week-old, 31-week-estimated gestational age premature triplet boys were diagnosed with enterovirus aseptic meningitis on the same day. Two of the triplets developed symptoms on the day of admission, while the third remained symptom free throughout the infection. All three recovered completely and are healthy more than a decade later.

  13. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report.

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  14. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  15. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  16. Anthrax Meningitis - Report Of An Autopsied Case

    Mahadevan A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a rare cause of hemorrhagic meningitis in man. This report illustrates the characteristic hemorrhagic manifestations in the brain of a patient dying of anthrax meningitis secondary to overwhelming bacteremia. Gross examination of the brain revealed a thick dense subarachnoid hemorrhage with numerous petechial hemorrhages in the cortex. Histologically, meningoencephalitis with vascular necrosis, edema, perivascular cortical hemorrhages and clumps of Gram positive bacilli in the vascular lumen and invading vessel wall were the salient features. The anthrax bacillus was isolated from CSF and brain tissue and further its pathogenecity was confirmed by animal inoculation.

  17. [Fahr syndrome discovered following a bacterial meningitis].

    Sbai, H; Smail, L; Hamdani, S; Essatara, Y; Harrandou, M; Khatouf, M; Kanjaa, N

    2008-05-01

    Fahr's disease refers to a rare syndrome characterized by symmetrical and bilateral intracranial calcifications. The basal ganglia and dentate nucleus are the most common site of involvement and most cases present extrapyramidal symptoms. This disease is mostly associated with a phosphocalcic metabolism disorder, especially to hypoparathyroidism. The authors report a case of Fahr syndrome (FS) discovered when a young patient with hypocalcemia and bacterial meningitis had a cerebral CT scan disclosing intracerebral calcifications. She fully recovered after both meningitis and hypocalcemia were treated. PMID:18329142

  18. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    Kim, Moon Chul; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Hong Kue; Lee, Soon Il [Sowa Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis.

  19. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis

  20. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    AR EMAMI NAEINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to one laboratory and were examined by Slide method.
    Results. Positive CRP was found in 97.6 percent of those who were finally diagnosed as bacterial meningitis. The frequency of CRP for other types of meningitis was 16.6 percent (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. In the absence of infection, CSF is free of CRP. Positive CRP may help to the differentiate the different types of meningitis.

  1. Bacteremia causes hippocampal apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Leib, S.L.; Rowland, Ian J; Brandt, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    -specific pneumococcal antibodies (n=14), and III. uninfected controls (n=6). RESULTS: Pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis score 0.22 (0.18-0.35) compared to uninfected controls (0.02 (0.00-0.02), Mann Whitney test, P=0.0003). Also, meningitis with an attenuation of bacteremia by...... antibody treatment resulted in significantly reduced apoptosis (0.08 (0.02-0.20), P=0.01) as compared to meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that bacteremia accompanying meningitis plays an important role in the development of hippocampal injury in pneumococcal meningitis....

  2. MR demonstration of the meninges: Normal and pathological findings

    The MR appearance of normal and pathological meninges was studied in 23 patients. Amongst twelve normals, T1-weighted images demonstrated the meninges as slightly hyperintense density structures (compared with CSF) which increased in signal intensity somewhat after the administration of gadolinium-DTPA. On T2-weighted images, the subarachnoid space and meninges were isointense. In eleven patients with inflammatory disease or tumourous infiltration of the meninges, abnormal findings were evident in the unenhanced images as well as after administration of gadolinium-DTPA. Compared with CT, MR proved greatly superior in the diagnosis of meningeal abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    The utility of the radioactive bromide partition test in differentiating tuberculous meningitis (TBM) from other forms of meningitis has been assessed. The test was carried out in 19 patients with TBM, 6 patients with partially treated pyogenic meningitis and 17 non-meningitis controls. Eighteen of the 19 TBM patients gave bromide partition ratio (BPR) value below 1.3 while the value was above this level in all control patients including partially treated meningitis. The results indicate that the test is useful in the differential diagnosis of TBM. (author)

  4. Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA

    Purohit Hemant J; Chandak Nitin H; Agarwal Neha P; Satpute Ravindra M; Kainthla Rani P; Kashyap Rajpal S; Taori Girdhar M; Daginawala Hatim F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM). In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients...

  5. Randomized comparison of meropenem with cefotaxime for treatment of bacterial meningitis. Meropenem Meningitis Study Group.

    Klugman, K. P.; DAGAN R.

    1995-01-01

    Broad-spectrum cephalosporins are drugs of choice for the treatment of meningitis in communities which can afford them. The emergence of cephalosporin-resistant pneumococci demands the clinical trial of alternate agents. Carbapenems are active against the bacteria causing meningitis, but the use of imipenem-cilastatin was frustrated by drug-associated seizures. The safety and efficacy of meropenem, a new carbapenem, were compared to those of cefotaxime in a prospective randomized trial of 190...

  6. Validacin de una regla de prediccin clnica para diferenciar meningitis bacteriana de meningitis asptica / Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis

    Gonzalo, Agero; Mara C., Davenport; Mara de la P., Del Valle; Paulina, Gallegos; Ana L., Kannemann; Vivian, Bokser; Fernando, Ferrero.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. La mayora de las meningitis en la infancia no son bacterianas, pero la dificultad en descartar tal etiologa obliga con frecuencia a utilizar antibiticos inicialmente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar, en nuestro medio, una regla de prediccin clnica para diferenciar la etiol [...] oga de las meningitis en nios a su ingreso al hospital. Mtodo. Estudio prospectivo que incluy pacientes Abstract in english Introduction. Despite most meningitis are not bacterial, antibiotics are usually administered on admission because bacterial meningitis is difficult to be rule-out. Distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis on admission could avoid inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization. We aimed to [...] validate a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children, on arriving to the emergency room. Methods. This prospective study included patients aged

  7. The Association of Meningitis with Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula

    Allen, Kyle P.; Isaacson, Brandon; Kutz, J. Walter; Purcell, Patricia L.; Roland, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors for and the clinical course of postoperative meningitis following lateral skull base surgery and to determine its relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. Patients Patients undergoing lateral skull base surgery between July 1999 and February 2010 at an academic tertiary referral center. All subjects had culture-proven meningitis or suspected bacterial meningitis in the postoperative period. Medical records were compared with the lateral skull base patients who did not develop meningitis. Results Of 508 procedures, 16 patients developed meningitis (3.1%). The most common diagnosis was acoustic neuroma in 81.3%; 68.8% of patients had a CSF leak prior to onset of meningitis, and 50% received a lumbar drain. The median time from surgery to the onset of meningitis was 12 days with a range of 2 to 880 days. The relative risk of developing meningitis in the setting of postoperative CSF fistula is 10.2 (p < 0.0001). No meningitis-associated mortality was observed. Conclusions Postoperative meningitis occurred in a small number of patients undergoing lateral skull base surgery. A postoperative CSF fistula leads to an increased risk of meningitis by a factor of 10.2. PMID:24294557

  8. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  9. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N; Gulsun, S; Sengoz, G; Crisan, A; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Inan, A; Nechifor, M; Al-Mahdawi, A; Civljak, R; Ozguler, M; Savic, B; Ceran, N; Cacopardo, B; Inal, A S; Namiduru, M; Dayan, S; Kayabas, U; Parlak, E; Khalifa, A; Kursun, E; Sipahi, O R; Yemisen, M; Akbulut, A; Bitirgen, M; Dulovic, O; Kandemir, B; Luca, C; Parlak, M; Stahl, J P; Pehlivanoglu, F; Simeon, S; Ulu-Kilic, A; Yasar, K; Yilmaz, G; Yilmaz, E; Beovic, B; Catroux, M; Lakatos, B; Sunbul, M; Oncul, O; Alabay, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kose, S; Shehata, G; Andre, K; Alp, A; Cosić, G; Cem Gul, H; Karakas, A; Chadapaud, S; Hansmann, Y; Harxhi, A; Kirova, V; Masse-Chabredier, I; Oncu, S; Sener, A; Tekin, R; Deveci, O; Karabay, O; Agalar, C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Sloveni...

  10. Kleine-Levin syndrome in tubercular meningitis

    Thacker Anup; Aeron Anupam; Haider Jamal; Rao K

    2007-01-01

    Kleine Levin syndrome is a rare syndrome that involves hypersomnolence, megaphagia and psychiatric disturbances of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. A 16-year-old male with tuberculous meningitis developed hypersomnia and megaphagia with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing increased T2 hyperintensity in the cerebral peduncles and left occipital cortex. Antitubercular therapy led to the disappearance of clinical symptoms and MRI changes.

  11. Liposarcoma of the meninges. A case report.

    Sima, A; Kindblom, L G; Pellettieri, L

    1976-07-01

    A report on a liposarcoma in the meninges of a 70-year-old woman is presented. Pre-operative clinical and angiographic findings indicated that the tumour might be a meningeoma. Pathological examination revealed a predominantly lipoma-like, well-differentiated liposarcoma with round-cell and pleomorphic areas. The angiographic and pathological differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:961421

  12. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Aseptic meningitis due to zona zoster infection

    Adem Karbuz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zona Zoster, is a mostly benign disease in immunocompetent children. Those of in immunocompromised children, there is a risk of dissemination. Zona zoster, scarcely causes some neurological complications such as myelitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and ventriculitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised children. A 17-year-old girl who had bone marrow transplantation for thalasemia major was admitted to our hospital with fever, itchy rash on the right chest and axillary region and diagnosed as zona zoster. She had severe headache and vomiting on follow-up. We performed lumbar puncture because of the neck stiffness and meningeal irritation signs, pleocytosis and protein elevation were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The diagnosis of aseptic meningitis due to zona zoster was confirmed by VZV-PCR in the CSF. She cured without sequele after the administration of acyclovir treatment for 10 days. If symptoms such as headache and vomiting develop in immunocompromised children with zona zoster, neurological complications like aseptic meningitis should be remembered. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 143-6

  14. Tuberculous and brucellosis meningitis differential diagnosis

    Erdem, Hakan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Gencer, Serap; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Sengoz, Gonul; Karsen, Hasan; Kaya, Selçuk; Civljak, Rok; Inal, Ayşe Seza; Pekok, Abdullah Umut; Celen, Mustafa Kemal; Deniz, Secil; Ulug, Mehmet; Demirdal, Tuna; Namiduru, Mustafa; Tekin, Recep; Guven, Tumer; Parlak, Emine; Bolukcu, Sibel; Avci, Meltem; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Nayman-Alpat, Saygin; Yaşar, Kadriye; Pehlivanoğlu, Filiz; Yilmaz, Emel; Ates-Guler, Selma; Mutlu-Yilmaz, Esmeray; Tosun, Selma; Sirmatel, Fatma; Şahin-Horasan, Elif; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Akbulut, Ayhan; Simeon, Soline; Batirel, Ayşe; Öztoprak, Nefise; Cag, Yasemin; Catroux, Melanie; Hansmann, Yves; Kadanali, Ayten; Turgut, Huseyin; Baran, Ali Irfan; Gul, Hanefi Cem; Karaahmetoglu, Gokhan; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Haykir-Solay, Asli; Denk, Affan; Ayaz, Celal; Kose, Sukran; Gorenek, Levent

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the dif...

  15. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  16. Hearing assessment after meningitis and meningococcal disease.

    Riordan, A.; Thomson, A.; Hodgson, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method to increase audiology referral after meningitis or meningococcal disease was audited in 89 children. A standardised proforma increased referrals from 78% to 96% over a two year period. However, only 73% of children had a hearing test. The major reason for hearing not being tested changed from non-referral to non-attendance.

  17. Arterial Catheterization

    ... version AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Patient Information Series Arterial Catheterization An arterial catheter is a thin, hollow tube ... PHYSICIANS: AND COPY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ■ ...

  18. Ophthalmic systems completely supplied from dural arteries indicate the utility of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms.

    Kadooka, Keisuke; Tanaka, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    We report a 67-year-old man who harboured an unruptured left basilar-superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Cerebral angiography and cone beam computed tomography with diluted contrast medium showed that the bilateral ophthalmic arteries were not supplied from internal carotid arteries but, rather, were supplied from the middle meningeal and accessory meningeal arteries. This meant that the ophthalmic system was predominantly supplied from the dural arteries and, therefore, pterional craniotomy might cause a compromise in blood supply to the retinal artery. To avoid this complication, coil embolization was selected instead of neck clipping, and this endovascular therapy succeeded without neurological deficit. This case report shows the importance of cerebral angiography (including cone beam computed tomography) and consideration of the patterns of ophthalmic artery perfusion when selecting operative procedures for management of aneurysms that require manipulation around the sphenoid ridge. PMID:26472634

  19. In-depth characterization of CGRP receptors in human intracranial arteries

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Jrgensen, Linda; Engel, Ulla; Edvinsson, Lars

    meningeal arteries. Removal of the endothelium neither changed the maximum relaxant response nor the pIC(50) values for alpha- and beta-CGRP as compared to the responses in arteries with an intact endothelium. Human alpha-CGRP-(8-37) caused a shift of h alpha- and h beta-CGRP-induced relaxations in cerebral...

  20. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries: presence and localization

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klrke, Dan Arne; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2008-01-01

    of the BK(Ca) channel in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Distribution patterns were investigated using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. RT......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(ca)) are crucial for the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone and might be involved in cerebral vasodilation relevant to migraine and stroke. We studied the differential gene expression of mRNA transcript levels and protein expression......-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detected the expression of the BK(Ca) channel mRNA transcript in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries, with the transcript being expressed more abundantly in rat basilar arteries than in middle cerebral and middle meningeal arteries. Western...

  1. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma via left ophthalmic artery and right anterior deep temporal artery.

    Amans, Matthew R; Narvid, Jared; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month-old boy with a history of bilateral retinoblastoma refractory to systemic chemotherapy, laser therapy and cryotherapy, with excellent response to previous intra-arterial melphalan infusion, presents with active tumour deposits in the right eye. Repeat intra-arterial chemotherapy was recommended. Previous bilateral melphalan infusion was uneventful using flow-guided catheterisation technique. Direct catheterisation of the right ophthalmic artery was unsuccessful despite employment of several flow-guided and over-the-wire catheters. Superselective catheterisation of the ipsilateral middle meningeal artery was unable to identify an anastomotic connection to the ophthalmic artery; however, angiography of the anterior deep temporal artery identified an alternate route for chemotherapy infusion. The anterior deep temporal artery was successfully and safely catheterised to infuse chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery. The anterior deep temporal artery is an important potential anastomotic connection to the ophthalmic artery that can be used safely and effectively for central retinal artery chemotherapy infusion for retinoblastoma treatment. PMID:25240013

  2. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

    Mook-Kanamori Barry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  3. Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003.

    Dos Santos, Gina P L; Skraba, Irene; Oliveira, Denise; Lima, Ana A F; de Melo, Maria Mabel M; Kmetzsch, Claudete I; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson E

    2006-01-01

    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. Non-Polio enteroviruses (NPEV) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. In the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in Brazil from December 1998 to December 2003. Enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,022 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens analyzed. Echovirus 30 was identified in 139 of these isolates (139/162-85.2%). Other identified enteroviruses were: Coxsackievirus B5 (3.7%), Echovirus 13 (3.7%), Echovirus 18 (3%), Echovirus 6 (1.2%), Echovirus 25 (1.2%), Echovirus 1 (0.6%), and Echovirus 4 (0.6%). Patients's age ranged from 28 days to 68 years old. The most frequent symptoms were fever (77%), headache (69.5%), vomiting (71.3%), neck stiffness (41.3%), convulsion (7.1%), and diarrhea (3.7%). Although, the majority of the patients recovered without any complication or permanent squeal, five deaths occurred. Throughout the surveillance period, five viral meningitis outbreaks were confirmed: four in the Southern Brazil and one in the Northeast Brazil. Echovirus 30 was responsible for four out of the five outbreaks while Echovirus 13 caused the fifth one. Besides the outbreaks, 734 sporadic cases were also identified during the study period and 59 of these were positive for virus isolation (8%). Echovirus 30 accounted for 70% of the isolates. Our results showed that Echovirus 30 was the most prevalent etiological agent of viral meningitis in Brazil, causing both outbreaks and sporadic cases. PMID:16299728

  4. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of borderzone necrosis in paediatric tuberculous meningitis

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with borderzone necrosis (BZN) of the brain parenchyma in areas adjacent to meningeal inflammation. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) allows for accurate detection of cytotoxic oedema associated with necrosis. Detection and characterisation of BZN using DWI to explain its pathogenesis in TBM have not been performed previously in children. Our objective was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of BZN using DWI in children with TBM and to correlate it with the presence, degree and distribution of basal meningeal enhancement (BE) in the absence of large-vessel thrombosis. A retrospective descriptive MRI DWI study of 34 children with TBM was conducted. The topography of BZN was compared with the presence and severity of BE on specific MRI sequences. BZN was identified on MRI DWI in 50% of patients of which 82% had involvement of the temporal lobes. The severity and extent of BE in either middle cerebral artery cistern correlated with the presence of BZN (P = 0.02). BZN did not correlate with radiologically detectable vascular occlusion BZN is common in TBM occurring in 50% of children. Detection and confirmation of cytotoxic oedema associated with BZN using DWI, and its clear relation to BE supports existing pathogenetic descriptions. The pathogenesis of BZN differs to that of topographical infarction on the basis of distribution as well as an absent statistical relationship between vascular occlusion and BZN.

  5. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is......, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection....... rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first...

  6. Intracranial meningeal melanocytoma: CT and MRI

    We report the MRI and CT findings of an intracranial meningeal melanocytoma (IMM) arising from Meckel's cave and review the imaging characteristics of IMM. On CT, IMM constantly appear as well-circumscribed, isodense to slightly dense, extra-axial tumours with homogeneous contrast enhancement. This appearance is nonspecific and similar to that of meningiomas or small neuromas. On MRI, the signal of IMM is strongly related to the amount of melanin pigment: the more melanin, the more shortening of T1 and T2 relaxation times. Only when it shows as a homogeneous mass, bright on T1 and dark on T2 weighting, can a specific diagnosis of a melanin-containing tumour be made. However, this still cannot provide a distinction between IMM and malignant meningeal melanoma. (orig.)

  7. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N; Gulsun, S; Sengoz, G; Crisan, A; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Inan, A; Nechifor, M; Al-Mahdawi, A; Civljak, R; Ozguler, M; Savic, B; Ceran, N; Cacopardo, B; Inal, A S; Namiduru, M; Dayan, S; Kayabas, U; Parlak, E; Khalifa, A; Kursun, E; Sipahi, O R; Yemisen, M; Akbulut, A; Bitirgen, M; Dulovic, O; Kandemir, B; Luca, C; Parlak, M; Stahl, J P; Pehlivanoglu, F; Simeon, S; Ulu-Kilic, A; Yasar, K; Yilmaz, G; Yilmaz, E; Beovic, B; Catroux, M; Lakatos, B; Sunbul, M; Oncul, O; Alabay, S; Sahin-Horasan, E; Kose, S; Shehata, G; Andre, K; Alp, A; Cosi?, G; Cem Gul, H; Karakas, A; Chadapaud, S; Hansmann, Y; Harxhi, A; Kirova, V; Masse-Chabredier, I; Oncu, S; Sener, A; Tekin, R; Deveci, O; Karabay, O; Agalar, C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-? release...... accuracy of TBM was increased when both ACS and L-J cultures were used together. Non-culture tests contributed to TBM diagnosis to a degree. However, due to the delays in the diagnosis with any of the cultures, combined use of non-culture tests appears to contribute early diagnosis. Hence, the diagnostic...

  8. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Shin, H.J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  9. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

    Sloan DJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Derek J Sloan, Victoria Parris Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Cryptococcal meningitis causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease is greatest in middle- and low-income countries with a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs and some immunocompetent hosts are also at risk. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis consists of three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. Effective induction therapy requires potent fungicidal drugs (amphotericin B and flucytosine, which are often unavailable in low-resource, high-endemicity settings. As a consequence, mortality is unacceptably high. Wider access to effective treatment is urgently required to improve outcomes. For human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, judicious management of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia and appropriately timed introduction of antiretroviral therapy are important. Keywords: cryptococcosis, HIV, immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, antiretroviral therapy

  11. Group B streptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy man.

    Li, Lucy Qian; Cheema, Sanjay; Goel, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an infrequent cause of meningitis in adults, usually affecting elderly patients and those with serious underlying disease. It is more commonly recognised as one of the leading aetiological agents of neonatal sepsis following maternally derived infection during pregnancy. We report a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old man who presented with fevers, confusion and headache. Lumbar puncture results were consistent with bacterial meningitis, and blood cultures grew GBS. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents one of the few reported cases of GBS meningitis in a previously healthy young man. Interestingly, our patient had a significant family history of central nervous system infection including a son with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, a sister with meningococcal meningitis and a great-uncle with meningitis of unknown cause. We discuss genetic factors that may predispose certain people to develop meningitis with normally harmless microorganisms such as GBS. PMID:26759446

  12. The Role of Vancomycin on Meningitis

    Ahmed I. Shatat and P.I.C.U team

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: After the previous discussion of the results obtained from this study, the researchers concluded that most of the cases diagnosed meningitis was aseptic and there was no need for antibiotics. Also in those who diagnosed as bacterial vancomycin was not essential in all cases, this confirmed by the absence of any differences in the outcome. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 501-511

  13. How a bowel tumour led to meningitis

    Shipway, Toby Edward; Nelatur, Varun

    2011-01-01

    This report summarises a case history in which a 75-year-old man was admitted with bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A subsequent abdominal investigation in the light of the known association between invasive S bovis infection and colonic cancer confirmed the suspicion of a cancer located to the rectum. The patient died from Clostridium difficile enterocolitis with sepsis and multi-organ failure. This is a highly relevant and interesting case presentation, which besides prov...

  14. Kleine-Levin syndrome in tubercular meningitis

    Thacker Anup

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kleine Levin syndrome is a rare syndrome that involves hypersomnolence, megaphagia and psychiatric disturbances of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. A 16-year-old male with tuberculous meningitis developed hypersomnia and megaphagia with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showing increased T2 hyperintensity in the cerebral peduncles and left occipital cortex. Antitubercular therapy led to the disappearance of clinical symptoms and MRI changes.

  15. CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII POSTOPERATIVE MENINGITIS

    Laura Ghibu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing relevance in hospital infections during the last 15 years.This organism causes a wide range of infection .Extensive use of antibiotics within hospitals has contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistent A.baumannii strains that exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics ,including carbapenems.We report the case of an 37 years old man diagnosed with Acinetobacter multidrug-resistant post-neurosurgical meningitis with fatal outcome.

  16. CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII POSTOPERATIVE MENINGITIS

    Laura Ghibu; Egidia Miftode; Olivia Dorneanu; Carmen Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing relevance in hospital infections during the last 15 years.This organism causes a wide range of infection .Extensive use of antibiotics within hospitals has contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistent A.baumannii strains that exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics ,including carbapenems.We report the case of an 37 years old man diagnosed with Acinetobacter multidrug-resistant post-neurosurgical meningitis with...

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in tubercular meningitis

    Sudha, K.; Rao, Ashalatha V.; Rao, S. N.; Rao, Anjali

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Therefore, in the present study, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, percentage hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, vitamins A,E and C have been determined in 19 patients with tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 50 normals. Six patients who were treated with antibiotics were considered for the follow up...

  18. Tuberculous Meningitis: Diagnosis and Treatment Overview

    Grace E. Marx; Chan, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) and has very high morbidity and mortality. TBM is typically a subacute disease with symptoms that may persist for weeks before diagnosis. Characteristic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of TBM include a lymphocytic-predominant pleiocytosis, elevated protein, and low glucose. CSF acid-fast smear and culture have relatively low sensitivity but yield is increased with multiple, large volume samples...

  19. [Pneumococcal meningitis in a pregnant woman].

    Scharek, Petra; Jekkel, Csilla; Budai, Jzsef; Szilasi, Zsuzsanna; Helferich, Frigyes; Arva, Ilona; Vradi, Andrs; Ltay, Erzsbet; Katona, Katalin; Rkusz, Lszl

    2014-01-30

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease. The incidence of meningitis is about 2.6-6 cases per 100.000 adults per year in developed countries. The most common causative microorganisms are Sreptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. A 33-year-old multigravida, at 24 week of gestation was admitted to the hospital because of ear pain, haedache, fever and confusion. Lumbal puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed signs of bacterial meningitis. Latex agglutination test was positive for S. pneumoniae, Gram-positive diplococci have seen under microscope and later cultivation verified S. pneumoniae as the causative agent. After ceftriaxon, dexamethasone administration and treatment in intensive care unit, left side mastoidectomy was performed since cranial computed tomography showed acut exacerbation of chronic mastoiditis on the left side. After extubation, mobilisation and 14 days antibiotic treatment the patient, who had residual hearing loss on the left side, was discharged from the hospital. During the treatment the foetal parameters were normal. The patient at 39 week of gestation gave birth to a healthy infant. Forty-eight case reports have been published in this topic around the world until April, 2012. The most common causative agents were S. pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes. Because of the little amount of data, it is hard to appreciate the actual incidence and prognosis of this life-threatening illness both for mother and infant. As far as we know this is the first published case report of meningitis during pregnancy in Hungary. By this article we would like to draw attention to the importance of teamwork, of prevention of brain abscess formation and of the removal of the infection's focus. PMID:24654448

  20. Optic nerve sheath fenestration in cryptococcal meningitis

    Tatyana Milman; Neena Mirani; Turbin, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    Tatyana Milman1, Neena Mirani1,2, Roger E Turbin11Ophthalmology Department, Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Pathology Department, University Hospital, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USAAbstract: A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed crytpococcal meningitis, complicated by papilledema and severe progressive visual loss despite medical therapy. Bilateral optic sheath fenestration resulted in significant improvement in vision and resolution of...

  1. Bifrontal solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges

    Benoit, Michael; Janzer, Robert-Charles; Regli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Background: We report the case of a bifrontal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising from the meninges. The points of interest in this case report are the particular imaging appearance, the immunohistochemical findings and the surgical features. Case Description: A 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 1-year history of behavioral changes, attention disorders and anterograde memory disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bifrontal heterogeneous lesion attached to the anterior fal...

  2. Listeria meningitis and paté.

    Cumber, P M; Mumar-Bashi, W; Palmer, S.; Hutton, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Listeria meningitis occurred in a 63 year old man who was in complete haematological remission following chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. The patient had followed Department of Health advice to immunocompromised patients and had avoided soft cheeses, cook-chill meals, and salads. He had, however, recently eaten paté produced in Belgium. This was no longer available for examination but a coincidental survey of paté in the Cardiff area found Listeria monocytogenes in 16 out of 73 sampl...

  3. Human Parechovirus 3 Meningitis and Fatal Leukoencephalopathy.

    Bissel, Stephanie J; Auer, Roland N; Chiang, Cheng-Hsuan; Kofler, Julia; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Nix, W Allan; Painter, Michael; Richer, Maxime; Sartelet, Hervé; Wang, Guoji; Wiley, Clayton A

    2015-08-01

    Human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) is a picornavirus associated with neurologic disease in neonates. Human parechovirus 3 infection of preterm and term infants is associated with seizures and destructive periventricular white matter lesions. Despite unremarkable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), HPeV3 RNA can be amplified from CSF and nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs. We report pathologic findings in 2 autopsy cases of infants with active HPeV3 infection. Both children were born approximately 1 month premature and were neurologically intact but, after a few weeks, developed seizures and radiologic evidence of white matter lesions. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated classic severe periventricular leukomalacia in the absence of an immune response. Human parechovirus 3 sequences were identified in RNA extracted from CSF, sera, and tissues. Human parechovirus 3 in situ hybridization detection of infected cells was limited to meninges and associated blood vessels in addition to smooth muscle of pulmonary vessels. Ultrastructural evaluation of meninges demonstrated dense core structures compatible with picornavirus virions. These findings suggest that encephalopathic changes are secondary to infection of meninges and potential compromise of vascular perfusion. Thus, parechovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle may be a more general pathogenic process. PMID:26115191

  4. RICKETTSIAL MENINGITIS : FUNDOSCOPY AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOL

    Patil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF, also known as boutonneuse fever, is caused by R. conorii . The onset of MSF is typically abrupt. Almost all patients have fever, headache, and a rash. Neurological complications are rarely described. AIM : We report a rare case of meningitis of rickettsial origin. Suspected and later confirmed on the basis of fundoscopy findings. METHODS : 31 yr old female presented with fever, headache and altered sensorium of abrupt onset past one day. On examination she had signs of meningitis. Fundus examination revealed haemorrages and cotton wool spots. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed normal protein and sugar , with 2 lymphocytes and no polymorph nuclear cells on cytology. Weil - Felix test showed significantly raised titres to proteus antigen (ag OX 19 (1 : 320 and proteus Ag OX 2 (1 : 640, suggestive of rickettsia of spotted fever group. Later confirmed with PCR based detection. Patient was started on Doxycycline and responded well. CONCLUSION: Meningitis of rickettsial origin require a high index of suspicion and Ocular involvement in rickettsioses is common, easily overlooked. Typical ocular manifestations are helpful in diagnosing a rickettsial disease, would increase the frequency with which rickettsial diseases are diagnosed.

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in bacterial meningitis.

    Doran, Kelly S; Fulde, Marcus; Gratz, Nina; Kim, Brandon J; Nau, Roland; Prasadarao, Nemani; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a devastating disease occurring worldwide with up to half of the survivors left with permanent neurological sequelae. Due to intrinsic properties of the meningeal pathogens and the host responses they induce, infection can cause relatively specific lesions and clinical syndromes that result from interference with the function of the affected nervous system tissue. Pathogenesis is based on complex host-pathogen interactions, some of which are specific for certain bacteria, whereas others are shared among different pathogens. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in understanding the molecular and cellular events involved in these interactions. We focus on selected major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Escherichia coli K1, and also include a neglected zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus suis. These neuroinvasive pathogens represent common themes of host-pathogen interactions, such as colonization and invasion of mucosal barriers, survival in the blood stream, entry into the central nervous system by translocation of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and induction of meningeal inflammation, affecting pia mater, the arachnoid and subarachnoid spaces. PMID:26744349

  6. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Ashique, Amir M.; ZARBALIS, KONSTANTINOS; Patterson, Katelin P.; Hecht, Jonathan H.; Kane, Maureen A.; Folias, Alexandra E.; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R.; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2009-01-01

    Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation o...

  7. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Anish Mehta; Rohan R Mahale; Uchil Sudhir; Mahendra Javali; Rangasetty Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no pri...

  8. Postoperative meningeal enhancement on MRI in children with brain neoplasms

    The meninges composed of the dura, the arachnoid and the pia are significant sites of blood-brain barrier. Physical disruption of the integrity of the meninges from a variety of causes including surgery results in various patterns of meningeal enhancement on contrast enhanced MR images. It is important to distinguish normal reactive or benign postoperative enhancement from more serious leptomeningeal metastasis or infection, particularly in children with intracranial neoplasms. We present various patterns of meningeal enhancement on MRI in children following surgery for brain neoplasms. (author)

  9. Bacterial meningitis: an update of new treatment options.

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Spreer, Annette; Ribes, Sandra; Eiffert, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The outcome of bacterial meningitis critically depends on the rapid initiation of bactericidal antibiotic therapy and adequate management of septic shock. In community-acquired meningitis, the choice of an optimum initial empirical antibiotic regimen depends on the regional resistance patterns. Pathogens resistant to antibacterials prevail in nosocomial bacterial meningitis. Dexamethasone is recommended as adjunctive therapy for community-acquired meningitis in developed countries. In comatose patients, aggressive measures to lower intracranial pressure Palmitoylethanolamide appears promising to enhance the resistance of the brain to infections. PMID:26293166

  10. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in meningitis

    Gd-DPTA-enhanced MR imaging was performed in 16 patients with meningitis (seven tuberculous, four bacterial, three fungal, and two viral) on a 2.0-T unit. Hemorrhagic infarcts of basal ganglia and localized enhancement of thickened dura adjacent were demonstrated on T1-weighted images in three patients with tuberculous meningitis and four with bacterial meningitis, respectively, that were not seen on CT. Enhanced T1-weighted images readily differentiated leptomeningeal enhancement from vessels in two cases with CT of equivocal meningeal enhancement. Nonenhanced T2-weighted images were most sensitive for demonstrating ischemia/infarct and edema. Otherwise, MR images generally matched CT scans

  11. Meningitis bacteriémica por Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis

    R. Soloaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Pasteurella multocida en seres humanos habitualmente están relacionadas con mordeduras o arañazos de perros y gatos. Muchas de ellas se acompañan de otros microorganismos de la orofaringe de estos animales. Se presenta un caso de meningitis bacteriémica por P. multocida en una mujer de 86 años que convivía con siete gatos. Si bien no se documentó una infección de piel o de partes blandas, es posible que ésta haya pasado inadvertida inicialmente y que fuera la causa de la bacteriemia con impacto en meninges, o bien que la meningitis se haya producido luego de la colonización nasofaríngea (no demostrada. Los aislamientos de hemocultivos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron identificados como P. multocida por medio de API 20NE, API 20E y Vitek 1. La cepa aislada presentó sensibilidad a penicilina, cefotaxima, levofloxacina y tetraciclinas, en coincidencia con lo descrito en la literatura.Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living with seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated. The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines.

  12. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    Yong-Juan Liu; Li-Hua Shao; Qian Wang; Jian Zhang; Rui-Ping Ma; Hai-Hong Liu; Xiao-Meng Dong; Li-Xian Ma

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by...

  13. Arterial stick

    ... the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries). The procedure is done as follows: The ... Arteries also have thicker walls and have more nerves. When the needle is inserted, there may be ...

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib). The...

  15. Radioactive bromide partition test in early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Use of the radioactive bromide partition test in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is described briefly. Results of the (1) normal control group, (2) tuberculous menigitis group and (3) non-tuberculous lymphocytic meningitis are reported. Dose rates administered are specified. (K.B.)

  16. [Tuberculous meningitis presented by altered mental state and hydrocephalus].

    von Huth, Sebastian; Pedersen, Court; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2015-03-30

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) denotes infection of the meninges with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In Denmark, TBM is rare, but requires correct handling and rapid treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a previously healthy 19-year-old man from Somalia, whose primary symptoms were fever, headache and altered mental state. PMID:25822950

  17. Meningococcal Meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, Public Health Perspectives

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed.

  18. Method for inducing experimental pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice

    Cintorino Marcella

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with the highest mortality among bacterial meningitis and it may also lead to neurological sequelae despite the use of antibiotic therapy. Experimental animal models of pneumococcal meningitis are important to study the pathogenesis of meningitis, the host immune response induced after infection, and the efficacy of novel drugs and vaccines. Results In the present work, we describe in detail a simple, reproducible and efficient method to induce pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice by using the intracranial subarachnoidal route of infection. Bacteria were injected into the subarachnoid space through a soft point located 3.5 mm rostral from the bregma. The model was tested with several doses of pneumococci of three capsular serotypes (2, 3 and 4, and mice survival was recorded. Lethal doses killing 50 % of animals infected with type 2, 3 and 4 S. pneumoniae were 3.2 10, 2.9 10 and 1.9 102 colony forming units, respectively. Characterisation of the disease caused by the type 4 strain showed that in moribund mice systemic dissemination of pneumococci to blood and spleen occurred. Histological analysis of the brain of animals infected with type 4 S. pneumoniae proved the induction of meningitis closely resembling the disease in humans. Conclusions The proposed method for inducing pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice is easy-to-perform, fast, cost-effective, and reproducible, irrespective of the serotype of pneumococci used.

  19. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...

  20. Recent experience of four patients with suppurative meningitis

    Four patients with suppurative meningitis, 2 by H. influenzae and 2 by H. parainfluenzae, are reported. Cranial CT showed subdural effusion, enhancement of the meninges, ventricular dilatation, and periventricular low density area. Follow-up CT was useful in deciding indications for operation, leading to better management. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. First epidemic of echovirus 16 meningitis in Cuba.

    Sarmiento, L.; P. Mas; Goyenechea, A.; Palomera, R.; Morier, L.; Capó, V; I. QUINTANA; Santin, M.

    2001-01-01

    From April to September 2000, an epidemic of aseptic meningitis spread throughout Cuba, with 16,943 reported cases. Virologic studies identified echovirus 16 as the cause of this epidemic. This is the first reported isolate of echovirus 16 from patients with viral meningitis in Cuba.

  2. Unusual presentation of primary klebsiella meningitis: successful treatment with cefotaxime.

    Sandyk, R.; Brennan, M J

    1983-01-01

    A man who presented with lumbar backache subsequently developed signs of meningitis. The causative organism was proved to be Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite treatment with chloramphenicol and amikacin, the condition progressed until cefotaxime was added to the treatment regimen. The patient made a good recovery. This is the first report of the use of cefotaxime in klebsiella meningitis.

  3. Possible Tick-Borne Human Enterovirus Resulting in Aseptic Meningitis

    Freundt, Eric C.; Beatty, Douglas C.; Stegall-Faulk, Teresa; Wright, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterovirus-specific genetic sequences were isolated from two Amblyomma americanum tick pools. Identical genetic sequences were later obtained from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with aseptic meningitis and a recent history of tick attachment. These observations suggest the possibility of an emerging tick-borne human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis.

  4. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis.

  6. Purulent meningitis with unusual diffusion-weighted MRI findings

    We describe unusual findings obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with acute purulent meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Along cerebral convexities and the Sylvian fissure, multiple small intense lesions showed high signal intensity in these sequences. This may be the first report of diffusion-weighted in purulent meningitis

  7. Chemical meningitis in metrizamide myelography. A report of seven cases

    Sand, T.; Hesselberg, J.P.; Anda, S.; Dale, L.; Hellum, K.

    1986-01-01

    Seven patients with acute chemcial meningitis after metrizamide myelography are described. Five of the cases occurred within a time span of two months. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings in the acute stage of the illness were similar to findings in acute bacterial meningitis. Possible causes of this complication are discussed. (orig.).

  8. Intracerebral tuberculoma in children with tuberculous meningitis.

    Altunba?ak, S; Alhan, E; Baytok, V; Aksaray, N; Onenli, N

    1996-01-01

    Not all patients with tuberculosis develop tuberculoma during the disease or antituberculous therapy. Therefore, we compared various parameters in patients with and without tuberculoma and presented the results. We formed two groups from the patients with tuberculous meningitis: Group I consisted of 18 patients with tuberculoma, and Group II consisted of 18 randomly selected patients without tuberculoma. Significant difference between the groups was found with respect to level of consciousness and CSF-glucose level (p < 0.05). The consciousness level was more depressed and the CSF-glucose level more decreased in the group without tuberculoma. These findings were discussed. PMID:8827901

  9. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.)

  10. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis

  11. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chu, Sung Nam; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis.

  12. Divided maxillary artery in relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle.

    Aland, R Claire; Shaw, Vivien

    2016-03-01

    We describe an anatomical variation of the right maxillary artery. The variation loops deep, giving off a middle meningeal artery with an extremely short extracranial segment, then bifurcates into unequal branches. The smaller branch passes superficial to the lateral pterygoid head and distributes primarily to the masticatory muscles. The larger partially pierces the lateral pterygoid lower head, re-emerges superficially, branches again and passes into the pterygopalatine fossa. The larger lies superficial to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and deep to the buccal nerve. An embryonic development origin of the cranial arteries is suggested. PMID:26077959

  13. MRI features of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis

    Objective: To explore the features of MRI in the patients with cryptococcus neoformans meningitis (CNM). Methods: All 10 cases with CNM in this group were examined with India-ink capsule staining of CSF. 9 cases were performed with contrast enhanced MRI head scan, 1 case performed with chest CT scan. Results: MRI features of CNM included: (1) There were no abnormalities on MRI plain scan in 2 cases, however with linear-like enhancement in cisterns and meninges after contrast. The leptomeninges and basal cisterns were often involved. (2) Multiple patch or flake-like longer T1 and T2 signals in bilateral basal ganglions, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes were displayed on MRI plain scan in 5 cases. And the lesions were enhanced like flake or no enhancement on contrast enhanced MRI. Basal and pre-pontine cisterns showed linear-like enhancement in 1 case. (3) Multiple round or oval shape longer T1 and T2 signals were occurred in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres, with nodular enhancement in 3 cases. (4) Hydrocephalus was found in 3 cases. Conclusion: CNM has high rate of misdiagnose, and the final diagnosis depend on pathology. Although MRI features of CNM lack specificity, MRI is of very important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CNM. (authors)

  14. Stages of tuberculous meningitis: a clinicoradiologic analysis

    Objective: To determine the frequencies and percentages of various clinicoradiologic variables of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with reference to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of the disease. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October 2010 to September 2011. Methodology: The study included 93 adult patients with the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) at the study place. Patients were divided in three groups according to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of TBM. Different clinical and radiological findings were analyzed at different stages of the disease. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 11.0. Results: A majority of patients were found to be in stage-II disease at the time of admission. History of illness at the time of admission was more than 2 weeks in 50% of stage-I patients but around 80% in stage-II and stage-III patients. Neck stiffness was the most commonly reported finding in all stages. Cranial nerve palsies were higher in stage-III (75%) than in stage-II (43%) and in stage-I (24%) patients. Hydrocephalus and basal enhancement was the most frequently reported radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: Duration of illness and cranial nerve palsies are important variables in the diagnosis of TBM stages and if TBM is suspected, empiric treatment should be started immediately without bacteriologic proof to prevent morbidity and mortality. (author)

  15. Etiology of aseptic meningitis and clinical characteristics in immune-competent adults.

    Han, Su-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Park, Kwang-Ryul; Youn, Young Chul; Shin, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Viral meningitis is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the ability to determine the etiology of viral meningitis. This study used PCR analysis to evaluate the etiology of aseptic meningitis in 177 previously healthy adults over a 5-year period, as well as analyzing the clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, and prognosis according to each etiology. The most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis was enterovirus (EV), followed by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Patients with EV meningitis were significantly younger than those with VZV meningitis. The percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cell counts and protein concentrations in the CSF differed significantly among patients with EV, VZV and meningitis of undetermined etiology. Younger age and lower percentage of lymphocyte and protein level in CSF analysis may be suggestive of EV meningitis. Further prospective studies are warranted to identify the correlations between the clinical characteristics and the etiologies of meningitis. PMID:26118835

  16. [Clinical implications of lactic acidosis in purulent meningitis].

    Vengerov, Iu Ia; Nagibina, M V; Chentsov, V B; Menushenkova, S A; Molotilova, T N; Migmanov, T E

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is an integral index of metabolic disturbances and severity of inflammation processes. This study was designed to measure lactate levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CSF/blood lactate ratio, correlation coefficient between CSF lactate and other CSF parameters in patients with purulent meningitis of different etiology. The study included 112 patients (62 men and 50 women aged 18-70 years) admitted to No2 City Hospital, Moscow, for the treatment of meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis (40 and 23 respectively), purulent meningitis of unknown etiology (22), staphylococcal sepsis with secondary purulent meningitis (11), serous viral meningitis (9), and non-inflammatory lesions of central nervous system (control group of 7patients). Blood and CSF lactate levels were measured on admittance, days 3- 7and 8-18 after the initiation of therapy. CSF lactate was especially high in patients with primary purulent meningitis having lower blood lactate levels. Patients with sepsis and secondary purulent meningitis had higher lactate levels in plasma than in CSF on admittance and days 8-18 after the onset of therapy; this situation reflects a generalized infectious process. CSF lactate positively correlated with protein content and pleocytosis intensity in the liquor and negatively with the glucose level. Prognosis of the disease depended on the efficiency of antibacterial therapy. PMID:19069459

  17. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Tatiana Barichello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  18. Distribution of 82Br between serum and CSF in patients with meningitis

    The ratio between concentrations of 82Br in serum and spinal fluid was determined in patients with meningitis. The ratio was found to be low in three patients strongly suspect for tuberculous meningitis and in eight of nine patients with purulent meningitis, but normal in 13 patients with non-tuberculous, serous meningitis. These results confirm previous investigations and determination of the 82Br ratio is a simple, reliable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  19. The Relation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Nitric Oxide Levels to Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis of Meningitis

    ET?N, Kas?m

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the differential diagnosis of bacterial, tuberculous and viral meningitis, and the relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NO levels and meningitis prognosis. Twenty patients with bacterial meningitis, 9 with tuberculous meningitis, 11 with viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis and 21 control patients were included in the study. CSF NO levels were investigated by measuring the levels of nitrite with a colorimetric test...

  20. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 C, vmitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientacin tmporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de lquido cefalorraqudeo fueron positivos. La identificacin preliminar se realiz utilizando las pruebas bioqumicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriologa Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrn". Se comenz el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostr sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucion favorablemente, pero se comprob leve hipoacusia. Reingres a los 4 meses con marcha atxica, anacusia en odo izquierdo e hipoacusia en odo derecho. Contina con seguimiento neurolgico y audiomtrico. Retrospectivamente se constat el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiolgico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrn". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patients retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

  1. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    A.R EMAMI NAEINI

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to...

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis and SLE: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Khairullah, S; Sulaiman, H; Yahya, F; Jasmin, R; Cheah, T E; Sockalingam, S; Bick, J; Chin Teck, N G

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare occurrence in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The risk factors of developing this infection are duration of SLE, intensity of glucocorticoid use, and SLE-related intrinsic immune abnormalities. Early recognition and prompt initiation of antifungals can prevent complications and improve survival. There is a dearth of evidence with regards to optimal treatment of cryptococcosis in non-HIV infected and non-transplant patients. The general consensus is to follow treatment guidelines for HIV-positive patients with cryptococcal meningitis. We describe a girl with active SLE and cryptococcal meningitis, and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced in this case. PMID:25326406

  3. Giant Leaking Colloid Cyst Presenting with Aseptic Meningitis

    Bakhtevari, Mehrdad Hosseinzadeh; Sharifi, Guive; Jabbari, Reza; Shafizad, Misagh; Rezaei, Mona; Samadian, Mohammad; Rezaei, Omidvar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colloid cysts are benign third ventricle lesions that need to be diagnosed correctly because of their association with sudden death. Chemical or aseptic meningitis is a rare presentation of a colloid cyst. METHODS: We present a case of a 69-year-old man with fever, alteration of mental...... status, and meningismus. Microbiological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed aseptic meningitis. Brain imaging revealed a third ventricular colloid cyst with hydrocephalus. RESULTS: The tumor was resected via endoscopic intervention. There were no persistent operative complications related to...... the endoscopic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical or aseptic meningitis is an unusual clinical manifestation of a colloid cyst, complicating the differential diagnosis, especially in the elderly....

  4. Chronic meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: An unusual etiology

    Anu Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Apart from immunological causes and drugs, the aseptic meningitis group can include some unidentified viral infections that cannot be detected by routine microbiological testing. It is imperative to do complete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF workup before implicating the symptoms to disease activity or drugs, as untreated infections cause significant mortality in SLE. We present a case of young female with SLE who presented with chronic meningitis of an uncommon etiology.

  5. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes, and Neurologic Complications

    KHALESSI, Nasrin; Ladan AFSHARKHAS*

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Khalessi N, Afsharkhas L. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes and Neurologic Complications.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4): 46-50.AbstractObjectiveNeonates are at greater risk for sepsis and meningitis than other ages and in spite of rapid diagnoses of pathogens and treatments, they still contribute to complications and mortality. This study determines risk factors, causes, andneurologic complications of neonatal meningitis in  ospitalized neonates.Materi...

  6. [Acute bacterial meningitis as an occupational disease].

    Seixas, Diana; Lebre, Ana; Crespo, Pedro; Ferreira, Eugénia; Serra, José Eduardo; Saraiva da Cunha, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen with worldwide distribution, responsible for more than 700 human cases globally reported. This infection affects mostly men, exposed to pig or pork, which leads to its usual classification as an occupational disease. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 44 years old male. According to his past medical history, the patient had chronic alcoholism and worked in a restaurant as a piglet roaster. Microbiological examination of blood and CSF revealed S. suis. After 14 days of ceftriaxone the patient fully recovered. The authors review the clinical reports previously described in Portugal. In all of them was possible to identify risk exposition to pork. We alert to this microorganism's importance in Portugal where it is probably underdiagnosed. PMID:25203963

  7. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse empêcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudará en la planificación de estudios futuros sobre la epidemiología del estado de portador de meningococo, tanto en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis como en otros lugares del mundo. PMID:23682910

  8. Impact of bacteremia on the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    Brandt, Christian; Peters, David Alberg; Liptrot, Matthew George; Ostergaard, Christian; Lundgren, Jens; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Skovsted, Ian C; Rowland, Ian J

    2008-01-01

    , brain water distribution, and brain pathologic findings were analyzed using magnetic resonance morphological and functional imaging. Laboratory data and clinical disease scores were obtained. Results. Attenuation of the bacteremic component of pneumococcal meningitis improved clinical disease symptoms...

  9. Antituberculosis drug resistance patterns in adults with tuberculous meningitis

    Senbayrak, Seniha; Ozkutuk, Nuri; Erdem, Hakan; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Civljak, Rok; Inal, Ayse Seza; Kayabas, Uner; Kursun, Ebru; Elaldi, Nazif; Savic, Branislava; Simeon, Soline; Yilmaz, Emel; Dulovic, Olga; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Ceran, Nurgul; Lakatos, Botond; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Sunbul, Mustafa; Yemisen, Mucahit; Alabay, Selma; Beovic, Bojana; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Cag, Yasemin; Catroux, Melanie; Inan, Asuman; Dragovac, Gorana; Deveci, Ozcan; Tekin, Recep; Gul, Hanefi Cem; Sengoz, Gonul; Andre, Katell; Harxhi, Arjan; Hansmann, Yves; Oncu, Serkan; Kose, Sukran; Oncul, Oral; Parlak, Emine; Sener, Alper; Yilmaz, Gulden; Savasci, Umit; Vahaboglu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to antituberculosis drugs is an increasingly common clinical problem. This study aimed to evaluate drug resistance profiles of TBM isolates in adult patients in nine European countries involving 32 centers to ...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid "leaks" and meningitis following acoustic tumor surgery.

    Hughes, G B; Glasscock, M E; Hays, J W; Jackson, C G; Sismanis, A

    1982-01-01

    We reviewed 271 intracanalicular and cerebellopontine angle lesions removed over the past ten years, 237 by the translabyrinthine or combined approach which created a mastoid defect. The patients were divided into three groups with the following results: (1) obliteration of the mastoid defect combined with older wound closure techniques in the first 188 patients produced CSF leakage in 25% and meningitis in 16% of cases; (2) not obliterating the defect intentionaly in 16 patients produced CSF leakage in 50% and meningitis in 25% of cases; (3) obliteration of the defect combined with newer packing and closure techniques in the last 33 patients produced CSF leakage and meningitis in only 6% of cases. Four problem areas were identified: the eustachian tube, middle ear, mastoid defect, and postauricular wound. Of these, obliteration of the mastoid defect was most important in minimizing postoperative CSF wound leakage, CSF rhinorrhea, and meningitis. PMID:6806745

  11. Neoplastic meningitis as the presenting manifestation of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Schneider, Siim; Krikmann, Ulle; Lüüs, Siiri Merike; Kulla, Andres; Haldre, Sulev

    2009-01-01

    A middle aged man presented with clinical signs of chronic meningitis, including bilateral hearing loss and progressive blindness. Lumbar puncture revealed a mild elevation in lymphocyte number, an elevation in protein levels, and diminished glucose levels, without malignant cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 weighted seqeunces showed bilateral enhancement of the acoustic nerves. The aetiology of the chronic meningitis was revealed gastric cancer by gastroscopy, and micrometastasis by bone marrow trephine biopsy. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology was negative, neoplastic meningitis (NM) was diagnosed based on clinical and MRI data. The patient's condition worsened rapidly and he died shortly thereafter. Autopsy confirmed the presence of advanced gastric cancer (adenocarcinoma of signet-ring cell type) with pancreatic involvement, and NM with cancer cells on the meninges, but without infiltration tumour cells into underlying brain parenchyma. We conclude that NM as an initial symptom of gastric cancer is rare and ultimately fatal. PMID:21785656

  12. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    Møller, Kirsten

    2001-01-01

    Ph.d. afhandlingen omhandler sammenhængen mellem hjernens blodtilførsel (CBF) og middelarterietrykket (MAP) hos patienter med akut bakteriel meningitis. Hos raske er CBF uafhængig af MAP, hvilket kaldes CBF autoregulation. Svækket autoregulation antages at øge risikoen for cerebral hypoperfusion og...... iskæmi under episoder med lavt MAP, og for cerebral hyperperfusion og vasogent ødem ved højt MAP. CBF autoregulationen undersøgtes hos tyve voksne patienter med akut bakteriel meningitis i den tidlige sygdomsfase (<24 timer efter diagnostisk lumbalpunktur). Idet autoregulationen fandtes svækket hos...... meningitis, men retableres ved klinisk restitution. Autoregulationen kan endvidere delvis retableres ved akut hyperventilation. Fundene har potentiel betydning for valg af supportiv terapi hos patienter med meningitis....

  13. Prevention of meningeal relapses in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    The paper describes modern methods of preventing meningeal leukemia which, in view of the noxiousness of skull radiotherapy, increasingly restrict the use of this method in a growing number of children.(author)

  14. The Association of Meningitis with Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula

    Allen, Kyle P.; Isaacson, Brandon; Kutz, J. Walter; Purcell, Patricia L.; Roland, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors for and the clinical course of postoperative meningitis following lateral skull base surgery and to determine its relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula.

  15. The use of magnetic resonance and MR angiography in the detection of cerebral infarction: A complication of pediatric bacterial meningitis

    Stošić-Opinćal Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Association of both cerebral infarction and acute bacterial meningitis is more common in younger patients than in the elderly. The rate of mortality and the frequency of sequel are very high inspite of the use of modern antibiotic therapy. In more than 30% of the cases of childhood bacterial meningitis, both arterial and venous infarctions can occur. The aim of this study was to present the role of the use of magnetic resonance (MRI, and MR angiography (MRA in the detection of bacterial meningitis in children complicated with cerebral infarctions. Method. In the Centre for MR, the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 25 patients with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, of which 9 children with cerebral infarction whose clinical conditon deteriorated acutely, despite the antibiotic therapy, underwent MRI and MR angiography examination on a 1T scanner. Examination included the conventional spin-echo techniques with T1-weighted saggital and coronal, and T2- weighted axial and coronal images. Coronal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR and the postcontrast T1-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were also used. The use MR angiography was accomplished by the three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF technique. Results. The findings included: multiple hemorrhagic infarction in 4 patients, multiple infarctions in 3 patients, focal infarction in 1 patient and diffuse infarction (1 patient. Common sites of involvement were: the frontal lobes, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The majority of infarctions were bilateral. In 3 of the patients empyema was found, and in 1 patient bitemporal abscess was detected. In 8 of the patients MR angiography confirmed inflammatory vasculitis. Conclusion. Infarction is the most common sequel of severe meningitis in children. Since the complication of cerebral infarction influences the prognosis of meningitis, repetitive MRI examinations are very significant for the evaluation of the time course of vascular involvement. The use of MRI, especially FLAIR imaging, confirmed its value in the detection and determination of the site and the extent of cerebral infarction. Non-invasive technique of examination, 3D TOF MR angiography clearly should show the presence of inflammatory vasculitis.

  16. Meningitis as a primary presentation of dengue infection

    Bhat, Ramesh Y.; Chaitanya Varma

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral infection in the world that is transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acuteillness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever and rash. Centralnervous system manifestations of dengue infection are usually rare. Here, a Dengue case with meningitis as primarymanifestation has been presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(1): 39-40Key words: Meningitis, presentation, Dengue

  17. Meningitis as a primary presentation of Dengue infection

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most prevalent arboviral infection in the world that is transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acuteillness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever and rash. Centralnervous system manifestations of dengue infection are usually rare. Here, a Dengue case with meningitis as primarymanifestation has been presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(1: 39-40Key words: Meningitis, presentation, Dengue

  18. Fatal group a streptococcal meningitis in an adult

    Mani R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent resurgence in reports of invasive Group A Streptococcal (GAS infections worldwide, it remains a rare cause of pyogenic meningitis both in children and adults. We report a case of fatal GAS meningitis in a healthy adult emphasizing the need for clinicians to be aware of its fulminant course, prompting early diagnosis and treatment. There is also a need to consider postexposure chemoprophylaxis in close contacts of such cases.

  19. [Alkaline phosphatase in the diagnosis of purulent and serous meningitis].

    Lutsik, B D; Marusenkova, N I

    1989-01-01

    The authors have modified the method for measuring the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Their studies have revealed a considerable increase of CSF AP activity in purulent meningitides whereas in serous meningitides it grows negligibly. It is recommended that purulent meningitis be diagnosed when CSF AP concentrations are 3.5 U/l and higher and serous meningitis be diagnosed when these concentrations are below 2.5 U/l. PMID:2470955

  20. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  1. Computed tomography in cases of coccidioidal meningitis, with clinical correlation

    Cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 22 patients with coccidioidal meningitis were reviewed and their clinical course was analyzed. Abnormalities of the ventricular system or the basilar cisterns or both were present in 16 instances. Although it is not a definitive diagnostic tool, the CT scan is helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of coccidioidal meningitis and in predicting the prognosis of patients affected by the disease. 19 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  2. Neoplastic meningitis as the presenting manifestation of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Schneider, Siim; Krikmann, Ülle; Lüüs, Siiri Merike; Kulla, Andres; Haldre, Sulev

    2009-01-01

    A middle aged man presented with clinical signs of chronic meningitis, including bilateral hearing loss and progressive blindness. Lumbar puncture revealed a mild elevation in lymphocyte number, an elevation in protein levels, and diminished glucose levels, without malignant cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 weighted seqeunces showed bilateral enhancement of the acoustic nerves. The aetiology of the chronic meningitis was revealed gastric cancer by gastroscopy, and micrometastasis by...

  3. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial meningitis in children in developing countries.

    Kumar, P.; Verma, I. C.

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a study to investigate the effectiveness of chloramphenicol alone as a treatment for bacterial meningitis. A total of 70 consecutive children aged > 3 months with bacterial meningitis, who had been admitted to the paediatric hospital of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, were randomized to receive chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol + penicillin. The two groups were matched with each other. Treatment failure occurred with three (9%) patients in the chloramphenico...

  4. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Maria Bruna Pasticci; Maurizio Paciaroni; Piero Floridi; Enisia Cecchini; Franco Baldelli

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of ...

  5. Tuberculous meningitis: presenting as isolated complete III nerve palsy

    Laul Rohit S , Avhad Vinod, Laul Abhishek S, Laul Subodh S

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) and has very high morbidity and mortality. TBM is a subacute disease with symptoms that may persist for weeks before diagnosis. Based on the clinical features alone, the diagnosis of TBM can neither be made nor excluded with certainty. A high clinical suspicion and vigilance is required for early diagnosis of TBM. The present case report demonstrates a patient with TB meningitis, who presented wit...

  6. Diagnostic features of tuberculous meningitis: a cross-sectional study

    Pasco Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a common central nervous system infection in the Philippines; however it is difficult to diagnose as findings are non-specific. Hence we decided to determine if, among patients with chronic meningitis syndrome, the following are associated with the diagnosis: new-onset seizures; focal neurologic deficit; pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) on chest X-ray; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis with lymphocytic predominance; decreased CSF glucose; in...

  7. The cochlear lesion in experimental bacterial meningitis of the rabbit.

    Osborne, M. P.; Comis, S D; Tarlow, M. J.; Stephen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss was studied in a rabbit model of experimental bacterial meningitis using electrophysiological and ultrastructural techniques. Hearing impairment was monitored by auditory brain-stem evoked responses (ABERs) and concomitant structural lesions were identified by both transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Meningitis was induced by intra-cerebrospinal fluid injection of either Escherichia coli (strain 2073 and type K-12) or Haemophilus influenzae ty...

  8. Sub-meninges Implantation Reduces Immune Response to Neural Implants

    Markwardt, Neil T.; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the gl...

  9. The enigma of transient splenial hyperintensity: In cryptococcal meningitis

    Kaushik Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient hyperintensity in splenium of corpus callosum is a relatively infrequent finding in MRI. Although it has been most consistently linked with frequent seizure episodes, many other possible causes have been proposed by different workers. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of transient splenial hyperintensity has never been reported till date. Here, we report a young girl who is congenitally immunodeficient and had suffered from cryptococcal meningitis with typical transient splenial hyperintense lesions in MRI.

  10. The enigma of transient splenial hyperintensity: In cryptococcal meningitis

    Kaushik Sen; Gautam Guha; Kapil Khandelwal; Joseph Lalhmachhuana

    2013-01-01

    Transient hyperintensity in splenium of corpus callosum is a relatively infrequent finding in MRI. Although it has been most consistently linked with frequent seizure episodes, many other possible causes have been proposed by different workers. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of transient splenial hyperintensity has never been reported till date. Here, we report a young girl who is congenitally immunodeficient and had suffered from cryptococcal meningitis with typical transient splenial hy...

  11. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Maria das Graas Gomes, Saraiva; Eyde Cristianne Saraiva, Santos; Valria, Saraceni; Lvia Laura dos Santos, Rocha; Rossiclia Lins, Monte; Bernardino Cludio de, Albuquerque; Michele de Souza, Bastos; Marcelo Cordeiro dos, Santos; Wuelton Marcelo, Monteiro; Maria Paula Gomes, Mouro; Marcus Vinitius de Farias, Guerra; Marcus Vincius Guimares de, Lacerda.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present s [...] tudy reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named) Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  12. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  13. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  14. Paediatric Meningitis and Hearing Loss in a Developing Country: Exploring the Current Protocols Regarding Audiological Management Following Meningitis

    Katijah, Khoza-Shangase; Emma, Rifkind Romi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish audiology referral protocols for post meningitis paediatric populations in two academic hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa. Specific objectives of this study included determining if audiological assessment referrals were made following infection; determining the time of referral post meningitis diagnosis; establishing what audiological assessments were conducted on this population, as well as determining any correlations between signs and symptoms of...

  15. BURDEN OF BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW ON LABORATORY PARAMETERS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH IN MENINGITIS, KELANTAN MALAYSIA

    Basri, Rehana; ZUETER, ABDEL RAHMAN; Mohamed, Zeehaida; ALAM, MOHAMMAD KHURSHEED; NORSA’ADAH, Bachok; HASAN, SITI ASMA; HASAN, HABSAH; AHMAD, FADZILAH

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To describe the clinical characteristics and the risk factors associated with mortality in patients with meningitis. This is a retrospective review of patients diagnosed to have meningitis with positive culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. All cases aged 19 > years who were admitted to Hospital USM between January 2004 and December 2011 were included in the study. The CSF results database were obtained from the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Hospit...

  16. Criteria indicating morbidity in tuberculous meningitis

    Objective: To work out a criterion that may indicate morbidity in tuberculous meningitis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Medical Unit of the Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, and included cases related to a period between January 2006 and June 2011. Record of 50 patients were evaluated for clinical features, chest radiograph, Mantoux test, sputum for acid fast bacilli, routine investigations, cerebrospinal fluid studies, computerised tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging of head. All the patients in the study had been treated with conventional approach. The severity of the condition was classified in stages, I, II and III. Clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging reports were analysed through SPSS 10 to find out the criteria indicating morbidity. Mean, median, standard deviation were calculated. Student t-test was applied on variables. Results: Of the 50 patients, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Their ages ranged from 12 to 70 years. Mean age was 37.72 +-19.65 years. Median age was 35.54 years. Of the total, 17 (34%) patients recovered completely without any complications. Their mean age was 24+-8.98 years and their mean time interval from onset of illness to presentation in the hospital was 21.75+-9.75 days. Besides, 30 (60%) patients persisted with neurological sequelae, including cranial nerve palsies, hemiplegia, and hydrocephalus. Patients with neurological sequelae had mean age of 48+-17.48 years and their mean time interval from onset of illness to presentation in the hospital was 41.33+-14.14 days. Hydrocephalus was seen in 10 (20%) patients. Three (6%) patients expired. Clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging reports analysis showed that the criteria indicating morbidity were increasing age of the patient (p=0.037), late diagnosis (p=0.044), advancing stage of disease, and development of hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Increasing age of the patient, late diagnosis, advancing stage of the disease and the development of hydrocephalus indicate morbidity in tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  17. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis; Otobasale Liquorfistel als Ursache einer rezidivierenden bakteriellen Meningitis

    Doege, H. [Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Klinghammer, A.; Elix, H. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Pilz, D. [Institut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik der Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Germany); Bootz, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde/ Plastische Operationen, Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB) [German] Die zerebrale Liquorraumszintigraphie ist aufgrund der hohen Empfindlichkeit auch heute noch die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Liquorrhoe beziehungsweise einer Liquorfistel, insbesondere bei einer rezidivierenden Meningitis unklarer Genese. Sie ermoeglichte bei unserer Patientin eine gezielte definitive operative Behandlung. (orig.)

  18. [Responding to Arterial Perforation during Endovascular Neurosurgery].

    Muraoka, Kenichiro; Tomita, Yosuke; Kuwahara, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Okuma, Yu; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Meguro, Toshinari; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2015-11-01

    During endovascular neurosurgery, various devices, such as catheters, are passed through the intracranial arteries to access target vessels;the arteries can thereby be perforated. Even though such incidents are serious and should be dealt with appropriately, few case reports or standard procedures have been published. Herein, we report two cases of arterial perforation that occurred recently in our hospital. In the first case, the patient had been treated preoperatively using feeder occlusion of an arteriovenous malformation;the microcatheter perforated the feeder, which branched from the middle cerebral artery. The feeder and perforation site were occluded by injection of n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate(NBCA)through the same microcatheter, and complete hemostasis was thereby achieved. The second case occurred during an embolization of the middle meningeal artery(MMA)to treat a refractory chronic subdural hematoma;the microcatheter perforated a branch of the MMA. Both the perforation and the artery were embolized using platinum coils and by injecting NBCA, and hemostasis was achieved. Considering the anatomical and pathological properties of the injured vessels, favorable results were achieved with appropriate intervention. PMID:26549717

  19. FDG PET in the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis

    Objective: Meningeal involvement is frequent in metastatic lymphoma, leukemia, and other metastatic tumor. Functional signs may be misleading and the neurological examination may be normal or non-specific. Certain diagnosis requires identification of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. CSF cytology is however sometimes negative and MRI maybe help in providing the diagnosis. The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the role of FDG PET in the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis. Patients and Methods: The diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis was made in 5 patients between 1999 and 2001. Two of the patients were suffer from lymphoma, two were lung cancer patients, and another was a breast cancer patient. Cytology examination of the cerebrospinal fluid provided the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis in these 5 patients. All the patients had signs of neurological function impairment, but the neurological examination cannot demonstrate the site of lesions. Therefore, All the patients had MRI examination, but only 1 case was diagnosis correctly (the MRI showing meningeal enhancement). 3 patients' MRI results show normal .Another MRI was suspicious of ischemic change. Results: A brain FDG PET using an ECAT HR + PET examined all the 5 patients. All the FDG PET results show the hypermetabolic foci respectively. The foci were diffused on the brain meninges. Their size is bigger than the foci detected by MRI . 3 of the patients repeated the FDG PET scan after treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy). The therapeutic effect can be reflecting by FDG PET (the foci dismissed as the neurological symptoms disappeared), although the simultaneity MRI shows no change before and after treatment. Conclusion: 5 patients proven meningeal carcinomatosis FDG PET has better sensitivity than brain MRI scans and other anatomic modality. The patients who suffer from metastatic lymphoma, leukemia, and other metastatic tumor with nonspecific neurological signs should be explored with a brain FDG PET

  20. Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: challenges and promises.

    Philip, N; William, T; William, D V

    2015-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects primarily the lungs but it also affects other parts of the body. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of TB and has the highest mortality and morbidity rate compared to other forms of TB. It is common in young children and HIV-infected patients, but is also seen in adults. Despite anti-tuberculosis treatment, TBM is still a major cause of death and neurological sequelae as treatment given to the patients is often delayed. Early diagnosis is challenging due to the non-specific symptoms of TBM and the low number of tubercle bacilli in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Until now, there is no established diagnostic method that can rapidly detect M. tuberculosis in TBM patients with high sensitivity and specificity. The emergence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains further complicates the diagnosis and treatment regimen of TBM. This review summarizes challenges of the currently used diagnostic methods and the potential future use of molecular diagnostic methods for TBM. PMID:25890607

  1. Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA

    Purohit Hemant J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM. In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients. The purpose of this study was to develop an assay that can discriminate between TBM and PTPM. Methods We developed a cell enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (Cell ELISA to quantitatively measure production of antibodies against the 30-kD protein in B cells from CSF of TBM and PTPM patients. Results The cell ELISA yielded 92% (11/12 sensitivity and 92% (11/12 specificity for the differential diagnosis of TBM from PTPM. Conclusion When induced with the 30-kD protein antigen, B cells derived from CSF of TBM patients respond to IgG production within 24 h while those derived from PTPM patients do not respond.

  2. Predictors of mortality in patients with meningeal tuberculosis

    Elizabeth Litta George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meningeal tuberculosis (TB has higher mortality compared to other forms of central nervous system TB. However, data on predictors of mortality is limited. Aims: To determine the predictors of mortality in patients with meningeal TB. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of patients admitted with a diagnosis of meningeal TB between January 2006 and December 2008. Thwaites′ index score of four or less was used for the diagnosis of meningeal TB which is a weighted diagnostic index score for dichotomised clinical variables. Predictors of mortality were analyzed separately for both patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and without. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression was done. Results: Univariate analysis showed age >40 years, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score 40 years was a risk factor for mortality when HIV patients were included (P=0.049 as well as when they were excluded (P=0.048. CSF protein ͳ 60 mg% was found to be a significant risk factor when both HIV seropositive persons (P=0.011 as well as seronegative persons (P=0.004 were included. HIV seropositivity, steroid treatment or delay in treatment did not affect mortality. Conclusions: Identification of factors predictive of in-hospital mortality will help to prognosticate patients with meningeal TB at the time of admission.

  3. MRI features of meningeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Objective: To investigate the pathway and MRI findings of meningeal metastasis original from lung cancer. Methods: 44 cases with cerebro-spinal meningeal metastasis original from lung cancer proven by clinical and pathology were retrospectively reviewed. All cases undergone plain MRI scan and Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI scan on brain and/or spine. Results: MRI plain scan indicated 28 cases with brain metastases, 3 cases with meningeal nodosity or irregularly patchy abnormal signal, 1 case with nodule in left cavernous sinus, 10 cases with abnormal signal in spine, 2 cases with abnormal signal in spinal dura mater. 34 cases with cerebro meningeal metastases were found in MRI enhancement scan. Among them, 11 cases displayed cerebral dura mater-arachnoid enhancement, 17 cases revealed cerebral pia mater-arachnoid enhancement and 6 cases with mixed typed enhancement. Osteoclasia in skull was found in 4 cases, spinal metastasis was revealed in 17 cases, and patchy abnormal enhancement in spinal dura mater was showed in 12 cases. Conclusion: Hematogenous metastasis is a main route of meningeal metastasis caused by lung cancer and enhanced MRI scan is of important diagnostic value. (authors)

  4. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    ... gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants ... which may increase their risk for meningitis. Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cochlear Implant Candidates and ...

  5. Long-term mortality in children diagnosed with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The long-term mortality in children diagnosed with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis is poorly documented.......The long-term mortality in children diagnosed with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis is poorly documented....

  6. Contrast enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid on MRI in two cases of spirochaetal meningitis

    We report two patients with meningitis due to spirochaetal infection, both of whom showed diffusely enhancing meninges around the brain and spinal cord. In addition, there was enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. (orig.)

  7. Dementia and capsular genu ischemia in patients with severe bacterial meningitis.

    Naito, Makoto; Johkura, Ken; Momoo, Takayuki; Nomiya, Tamaki; Kudo, Yosuke; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2010-04-01

    Infarction in the genu of the internal capsule causes dementia that is characterized by abulia, lethargy and memory loss without obvious motor palsy (capsular genu syndrome). We found infarction or decreased cerebral blood flow in the genu of the internal capsule in 6 of 13 patients with severe bacterial meningitis. Four of these six patients developed post-meningitis dementia, characterized by abulia, lethargy, and memory loss. Of 24 patients with viral meningitis, none developed capsular genu ischemia or post-meningitis dementia. In patients with severe bacterial meningitis, capsular genu ischemia may play some role in the development of post-meningitis dementia. In patients with viral meningitis, absence of such ischemia may explain, at least in a part, the rarity of post-meningitis dementia. PMID:19838622

  8. Bakteriel meningitis i Danmark 2002 og 2003. Landsdaekkende registrering baseret p laboratoriedata

    Meyer, Christian N; Schnheyder, Henrik Carl; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Mller, Jens K; Mlbak, Kre; Korshin, Andr; Rnneberg, Elisabeth; Kster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hiby, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Notification of bacterial meningitis (BM) is likely to be incomplete, and a recent Danish study indicated that unbalanced notification may bias expected aetiology of BM. Therefore the Danish Bacterial Meningitis Group initiated a national registration of culture-positive BM....

  9. Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound.

    D'Amato, R F; M. Salemi; Mathews, A.; Cleri, D J; Reddy, G.

    1988-01-01

    The microbiological and clinical features of a case of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound are described. To our knowledge, this is the third confirmed case report of meningitis caused by this organism.

  10. Supporting Meningitis Diagnosis amongst Infants and Children Through The Use Of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping

    Mago Vijay K; Mehta Ravinder; Woolrych Ryan; Papageorgiou Elpiniki I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Meningitis is characterized by an inflammation of the meninges, or the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for a positive outcome, yet identifying meningitis is a complex process involving an array of signs and symptoms and multiple causal factors which require novel solutions to support clinical decision-making. In this work, we explore the potential of fuzzy cognitive map to assist in the modeling of meningitis, as a ...

  11. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. Using mice with either meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we’ve identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expressi...

  12. Penetration of aztreonam into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with and without inflamed meninges.

    Duma, R J; Berry, A. J.; Smith, S.m.; Baggett, J W; Swabb, E A; Platt, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Aztreonam was administered as a single, 2-g intravenous dose to 25 patients with noninflamed meninges and to 9 patients with inflamed meninges. It was well tolerated and was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid at the initial sampling period at 1 h after the end of infusion. Aztreonam levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with inflamed meninges were four times higher than those recorded for the same time period in patients with noninflamed meninges. Aztreonam concentrations in cerebros...

  13. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico [Dept. of Surgical and Oncological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina [Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio [Villa Santa Teresa, Diagnostica per Immagini, Palermo (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint.

  14. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint.

  15. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant rise of IR in period C. The Case Fatality Rate (CFR from all causes was 3.8%, while higher CFR were estimated for Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.5%, RR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.7 and Neisseria meningitidis (4.8%, RR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.5 compared to other pathogens. Moreover, overall CFR varied significantly among the three time periods (p = 0.0015, and was estimated to be higher in period C. Conclusion By using the MR we were able to delineate long-term changes in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. Thus the MR proved to be a useful tool in the study and the prevention of communicable diseases in correlation with prevention strategies, such as vaccinations.

  16. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis

    Lucia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, the clinical features, underlying diseases and clinical outcomes of patients with cryptococcosis were investigated. In addition, a molecular analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolated from these patients was performed. Methods A prospective study of 62 cases of patients with cryptococcal infection was conducted at the Hospital de Doenças Tropicais de Goiás Dr. Anuar Auad from 2009-2010. Cryptococcal meningitis cases were diagnosed by direct examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample culture. The profiling of these patients was assessed. The CSF samples were submitted to India ink preparation and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, and C. neoformans was identified by the production of urease, a positive phenoloxidase test and assimilation of carbohydrates. C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates were distinguished by growth on L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium, and molecular analysis was conducted via PCR fingerprinting reactions using M13 and (GACA4 primers. Results From the 62 patients with cryptococcosis, 71 isolates of CSF were obtained; 67 (94.4% isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii/VNI, and 4 (5.6% were identified as C. gattii/VGII. Of these patients, 53 had an HIV diagnosis. The incidence of cryptococcosis was higher among patients 20-40 years of age, with 74.2% of the cases reported in males. Cryptococcus-related mortality was noted in 48.4% of the patients, and the symptoms were altered sensorium, headache, fever and stiff neck. Conclusions The high morbidity and mortality observed among patients with cryptococcosis demonstrate the importance of obtaining information regarding the epidemiological profile and clinical course of the disease in the State of Goiás, Brazil.

  17. Treatment of indolent, nonencapsulated cryptococcal meningitis associated with hydrocephalus

    Sarah T. Garber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with cryptococcal meningitis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. The major virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule, while nonencapsulated mutants are generally considered nonpathogenic. The authors present a case of hydrocephalus caused by meningitis from an indolent, nonencapsulated Cryptococcus sp. requiring placement and multiple revisions of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS. The patient presented with progressively worsening occipital headaches. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hydrocephalus with no apparent cause. Her symptoms initially resolved after placement of a VPS, but returned four months later. Cultures of the shunt tubing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed no bacterial infection. When the symptoms failed to resolve, CSF fungal culture revealed Cryptococcus-like yeast, although the organisms were nonencapsulated, and the cryptococcal antigen was negative. After antibiotic therapy, the symptoms resolved. The unusual clinical presentation delayed the diagnosis, highlighting the importance of understanding the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of meningeal infections caused by C. neoformans.

  18. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan. (author)

  19. Treatment of lymphomatous and leukemic meningitis with liposomal encapsulated cytarabine

    Melanie Kripp

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Kripp, Ralf-Dieter HofheinzOnkologisches Zentrum, III. Medizinische Klinik, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Liposomal encapsulated cytarabine (DepoCyte®, Mundipharma GmbH, Limburg/Lahn, Germany is a slow-release formulation of conventional cytarabine. It is licensed for intrathecal use in patients with lymphomatous and leukemic meningitis. DepoCyte® obtained superior response rates, improved patient quality of life and improved the time to neurological progression in a randomized albeit small clinical trial. In this review we briefly summarize the clinical data and discuss them in light of clinical problems and possible treatment scenarios.Keywords: liposomal cytarabine, leukemic meningitis, lymphomatous meningitis

  20. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis.

    Quagliarello, V J; Scheld, W M

    1986-11-01

    Bacterial meningitis continues to account for worldwide morbidity and mortality despite the advent of effective bactericidal antibiotic therapy. Recent advances over the past 10 years in the development of experimental animal models as well as basic investigation into critical bacterial surface virulence factors have begun to clarify a conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of meningitis development in humans. Basic observations regarding competing host defenses and bacterial virulence factors have supported a pathogenetic sequence of mucosal colonization with a meningeal pathogen; systemic host invasion with intravascular replication; blood brain barrier penetration and unimpeded CSF proliferation amid the impaired host defenses in the CSF milieu; and pathophysiologic sequelae including vasogenic, cytotoxic, and interstitial brain edema (and other processes) accounting for irreversible neuronal injury and death. Only through continued basic investigation into each of these pathogenetic steps will significant reductions in morbidity and mortality ensue. PMID:3535498

  1. Meningeal carcinomatosis as first manifestation of gastric carcinoma

    Meningeal carcinomatosis is defined as the malignant and widespread infiltration of the meninges due to the planting and growth of cancer cells within the leptomeningeal space. It occurs more frequently in patients with disseminated neoplastic disease, but it may occur after a disease free interval and may even be the first manifestation of cancer. The most common primary tumors in adults are breast (30-50%), lung (15-25%), melanoma (11%) and gastric cancer (0.16-0.69%); in marked contrast with pediatric cases in which lymphocytic leukemia is the most common. The following article describes an autopsy case of a patient with psychiatric symptoms, with no antecedents of importance, with progressive and fatal neurological impairment, whose pathological studies show meningeal carcinomatosis attributable to advanced gastric adenocarcinoma discovered de novo post mortem.

  2. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  3. Epidemiologa de la meningitis Una visin socio-epidemiolgica

    Arturo Morales Bedoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la socio-epidemiologa, la meningitis tiene dos diferentes comportamientos tanto en su etiologa como en su distribucin, morbilidad y letalidad. La meningitis viral o asptica, con manifestaciones clnicas menos severas, responde principalmente en su distribucin a hbitos personales, factores educativos y estilos de vida, siendo principalmente los enterovirus sus agentes etiolgicos. La meningitis de origen bacteriano, causada principalmente por Neisseriae meningitidis y el Streptococcus pneumoniae, representa la forma ms letal de la enfermedad, y tanto su distribucin, morbilidad y mortalidad estn determinadas por las condiciones econmicas y sociales de los pases y comunidades ms pobres del mundo, en donde la vacunacin para su prevencin como los medicamentos para su control estn muy limitados por el nivel de desarrollo econmico.

  4. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  5. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases. (orig.)

  6. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  7. Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.

    McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. PMID:25962101

  8. Meningitis tuberculosa en adultos: Anlisis de 53 casos Tuberculous meningitis in adults: review of 53 cases

    Margarita Enberg G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis tuberculosa (MTBC es la forma ms grave de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. El amplio espectro del cuadro clnico y su poca especificidad difcultan su diagnstico precoz, relacionndose directamente con mayor letalidad. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las caractersticas clnicas de los pacientes con diagnstico de MTBC en el Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr. Lucio Crdova, de Santiago, Chile, entre 1995 y 2002. Se estudiaron 53 casos de MTBC en adultos, con una edad mediana de 39 aos. Al ingreso 66% de los pacientes presentaba algn grado de compromiso de conciencia, pero slo 30% la trada sintomtica clsica. El LCR mostr aumento de protenas, glucosa baja y linfocitosis, en la mayora de los casos. Treinta por ciento de los pacientes present co-infeccin con VIH; la letalidad en este grupo de pacientes fue mayor, 31 vs 17% del total de la muestra. La MTBC contina siendo una enfermedad vigente. El diagnstico de certeza precoz de esta patologa no es posible con los mtodos actuales, por lo que la sospecha clnica es importanteTuberculous Meningitis (TBM is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical spectrum is broad and may be non-specific making early diagnosis difficult. This increases the incidence of mortality. We decribe the clinical characteristics of patients with TBM in the Dr. Lucio Crdovas Infectious Disease Hospital in Santiago, Chile, between 1995 and 2002. We review 53 adult cases of TBM, with a median age of 39 years. At admission 66% of the patients had some mental status deterioration, and the classic triad of symptoms of meningeal irritation was present only in 30%. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination showed increased protein level, low glucose level and lymphocytic pleocytosis in most. Thirty percent of the patients were coinfected with HIV. The mortality in the later group was greater than in the TBM population as a whole (31 vs 17%. TBM is still a present diagnostic problem, in spite of the new diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion is required in order to make an early diagnosis

  9. Intracranial neurenteric cyst: A rare cause of chemical meningitis

    Naseer A Choh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial neurenteric cysts are exceedingly rare congenital intracranial lesions that result from disorder of gastrulation. Still, more rarely, the cyst contents may leak into the CSF and give rise to recurrent episodes of chemical meningitis. We present a case of chemical meningitis due to a leaking posterior fossa neurenteric cyst in a young female, with emphasis on its imaging features. The final diagnosis was achieved by sufficiently characteristic imaging features; histopathologic documentation could not be achieved as the patient denied surgery.

  10. Group A streptococcal meningitis in a patient with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Otsuka, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with a 10-year history of palmoplantar pustulosis, a recent history of cranial surgery and a persistent upper airway infection presented with a high fever and deep coma. The patient was diagnosed with Group A Streptococcal meningitis and promptly treated with antibiotics. Although his general condition recovered well, sensorineural hearing loss and facial palsy remained. Group A Streptococcal meningitis is a rare condition, and its typical clinical picture and epidemiological features remain poorly understood. Physicians need to be more aware of this infection, which is extremely rare but frequently causes various complications and yields a high mortality. PMID:24292762

  11. Meningitis due to Rhodotorula glutinis in an HIV infected patient

    Shinde R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula spp, though considered a common saprophyte, recently has been reported as causative agent of opportunistic mycoses. We present a case of meningitis in an immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus infected patient who presented with longstanding fever. He was diagnosed as a case of chronic meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by cell cytology, India ink preparation, Gram staining and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample. CSF culture grew Rhodotorula glutinis . Therapy with amphotericin B was successful in eliminating the yeast from CSF and the patient was discharged after recovery.

  12. Spinal Extradural Meningeal Cyst in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome

    Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ahn, Sung Tae; Shin, Yong Hawn; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    A case of a symptomatic spinal extradural meningeal cyst (SEMC) in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is introduced. A 38-year-old woman presented with right L2 radiculopathy. She underwent operations for varicose veins in both her lower extremities. She had port-wine nevi on her trunk and extremities. The edematous change in both legs had waxed and waned. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 11.813 mm extradural meningeal cyst growing through the intervertebral foramen in L2-3. Multiple menin...

  13. Brain CT scanning of children with purulent meningitis

    Mishima, M.; Suzuki, M.; Nagata, M.; Kawamura, G.

    1986-12-01

    Nine of 21 children with purulent meningitis showed abnormal findings in brain CT when admitted. All of the abnormal group were less than 12 months of age, but 75 % of the normal group were more than 1 year old. The period of positive CRP was longer and the level of sugar in CSF was lower in abnormal group when compared with normal group. Because convulsion and EEG abnormalities were observed similarly in both groups, it may be difficult to determine the organic changes of the brain clinically. Brain CT scanning is recommended as soon as possible after the onset of purulent meningitis.

  14. Brain CT scanning of children with purulent meningitis

    Nine of 21 children with purulent meningitis showed abnormal findings in brain CT when admitted. All of abnormal group were less than 12 months of age, but 75 % of normal group were after 1 year old. The period of positive CRP was longer and the level of sugar in CSF was lower in abnormal group when compared with normal group. Because convulsion and EEG abnormalities were observed similary in both groups, it may be hard to suggest the organic changes of brain by clinically. It will be better to perform brain CT scanning as soon as possible on the beginning of purulent meningitis. (author)

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  16. Meningitis bacteriana por Lactococcus lactis cremoris Bacterial meningitis caused by Lactococcus lactis cremoris

    Danais Vidal Rosell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Lactococcus lactis cremoris es una bacteria perteneciente a la familia Streptococcaceae que normalmente puede aislarse como parte de la microbiota transitoria o residente del tracto gastrointestinal en el ser humano. Se considera esencial en la industria alimenticia donde se emplea en la fermentación de la leche para la obtención de productos derivados como el queso, yogur, mantequilla, entre otros. OBJETIVOS: este caso constituye el primer reporte de un paciente adulto sin evidencias anteriores de inmunodepresión con una meningitis bacteriana por L. lactis. MÉTODOS: se estudió la evolución del caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad, que llegó al cuerpo de guardia del hospital con un cuadro clínico sobreagudo dado por trastornos de la conducta como irritabilidad con inmediata evolución a estado de obnubilación y desorientación. Se realizó el diagnóstico microbiológico utilizando las técnicas convencionales de identificación y los estudios de sensibilidad antimicrobiana. RESULTADOS: se diagnosticó una meningitis bacteriana por L. lactis, bacteria asociada a procesos infecciosos fundamentalmente en pacientes pediátricos e inmunodeprimidos. CONCLUSIONES: el modo de transmisión de la infección es indirecto por vía oral. No se determinó el foco primario de infección a partir del cual se produjo la diseminación dentro del organismo, la cual se considera fue por vía hematógena según la localización anatómica de los sitios donde se encontraron signos de sepsis. En los datos referidos en la historia clínica de la paciente no se encontró ningún antecedente de compromiso de su inmunidad antes del cuadro clínico que motivó el ingreso.BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis cremoris is a bacteria from Streptococcaceae family that may usually be isolated as part of transient or residing microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is considered essential element in the food industry where it is used as milk fermenter to obtain byproducts such as cheese, yoghurt, butter and others. OBJECTIVES: this is the first report of an adult patient with bacterial meningitis by L. lactis, without a previous history of immunosuppresion. METHODS: the evolution of a 73 years-old female patient, who came to the Emergency Department with a very acute clinical picture of behavioural disorders like irritability, immediately evolving into obnulation condition and lack of proper orientation. The conventional identification techniques together with the antimicrobial sensitivity studies allowed making the microbiological diagnosis. RESULTS: bacterial meningitis caused by L. lactis was diagnosed. This bacterium is linked to infectious processes mainly in pediatric and inmmunosuppresed patients. CONCLUSIONS: the mode of transmission is indirect and orally. The primary focus of infection from which the virus disseminated inside the body was not found. It was considered then that it occurred according to the anatomical location of the sites where sepsis signs were found. According to the data provided by the patient´s medical history, not a single antecedent of compromised immunity was found before appearing the above-mentioned clinical picture.

  17. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to the number cases of meningitis in the Sahel. Using currently available forecast models contributed through the WMO Thorpex-Tigge project, and applying quantile regression to enhance their accuracy, we can forecast the average weekly relative humidity to two weeks in advance which allows us to anticipate the end of an epidemic in a region of the Sahel up to four weeks in advance. This would allow public health officials to deploy vaccines to areas in which the epidemics are likely to persist due to continued dryness and avoid vaccinating in areas where the epidemics will end with higher humidity. Our presentation will conclude by introducing the relative humidity decision-information tool developed for use by public-health officials. We will also summarize the results of a weekly meningitis forecast exercise held during the 2011-2012 dry season with public health decision makers from several African countries and the World Health Organization. Finally, we highlight some results of concurrent socio-economic research that suggests other interventions for managing meningitis and helps quantify the economic impact of the disease in Ghana. Overall, while our research has demonstrated an actionable relationship between weather and disease, this relationship is only one factor in a complex and coupled human-natural system which merits continued investigation.

  18. Arterial embolism

    ... the affected artery Shedding (sloughing) of skin Skin erosion ( ulcer ) Tissue death (necrosis; skin is dark and ... of the following tests: Euglobulin lysis time (ELT) Factor VIII assay Isotope study of the affected organ ...

  19. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  20. Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal meningitis.

    V Puri; Khalil, A.; Suri, V.

    1995-01-01

    A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal meningitis is reported. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and the results of electrophysiological studies. The patient recovered spontaneously. Guillain-Barré syndrome following meningococcal infection has not to our knowledge been reported previously.

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  3. Streptococcal Meningitis Resulting from Contact with an Infected Horse

    Downar, James; Willey, Barbara M.; Sutherland, Jeffrey W.; Mathew, Kelly; Low, Donald E

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of group C streptococcal meningitis in a woman with a history of close animal contact as well as head trauma as a result of a kick by a horse. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, as did a throat culture taken from the colt that had kicked her 2 weeks prior to admission.

  4. New in neuroprotective therapy for children with aseptic meningitis.

    M. V. Ivanova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: assessment of efficienty of Nooclerin in children with aseptic meningitis.Materials and methods: our study was performed on 50 children with aseptic meningitis; efficiency of Nooclerin was analized. First group (main, 35 patients took standart therapy and Nooclerin from the 5th day of hospitalization within 2 months; s cond group (control, 15 patients took only standart treatment. During the whole period of hospitalization and 2 months after all patients were monitored with clinilalneurological signs. Assessment of asthenia was performed on the «Children asthenia’s symptoms scale» and «Schatz asthenia scale». Also we defined the quality of life by means of questionnaire PedsQL4.0; EEG was conducted twice: first days of hospitalization and 2 months after discharge from the hospital.Results: we analized including of Nooclerin in the therapy of aseptic meningitis leads to significant decrease of asthenic syndrome and increase the quality of life compare to control group.Conclusion. We recommend to include Nooclerin in standarts of management of children with aseptic meningitis.

  5. Stroke in a Patient with Tuberculous Meningitis and HIV Infection

    Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Floridi, Piero; Cecchini, Enisia; Baldelli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.

  6. Meningitis due to aeromonas hydrophila

    Seetha K; Jose B; Jasthi A

    2004-01-01

    A 3-month-old male child with the history of fever, of not sucking the breast and exhibitingsymptoms of meningitis was brought to the hospital for medical advice and was investigated. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated thrice from CSF, blood samples as well as the water source.

  7. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  8. Ovarian small cell carcinoma complicated by carcinomatous meningitis

    Terukazu Ishii

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal metastasis is rare in the clinical course of ovarian carcinoma and its prognosis is extremely poor. We experienced a case of carcinomatous meningitis from metastatic ovarian small cell carcinoma. A 33-year-old woman with atypical genital bleeding, was diagnosed with a right ovarian tumor and referred to our department. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and lymphadenectomy. It was an optimal debulking surgery. She was diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma classified as Stage IIIc according to the Fderation Internationale de Gyncologie et dObsttrique classification system. Histological findings showed small cell carcinoma of the pulmonary type. The tumor was bilateral with paraaortic lymph node involvement. The patient was treated with irinotecan and cisplatin (CPT-P therapy. After 4 courses of CPTP therapy, multiple liver metastases and Virchows lymph node metastases were found. She was treated with amrubicin as a secondline chemotherapy, but the treatment was ineffective. Five months after surgery, the patient complained of severe headache and nausea. Lumbar puncture was performed and cytology was positive. Magnetic resonance brain imaging indicated meningeal thickening. The patient was diagnosed with meningeal metastasis and received 19-Gy whole cranial irradiation. In spite of these treatments, her disease progressed rapidly and she was often drowsy. She died of aspiration pneumonia 6 months after surgery.

  9. Fatal cerebrospi-nal meningitis due to Treponema pallidum infection

    Abramova T.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report the case of young patient, whose cause of death was generalized syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis. The results of autopsy and histological examination are presented. The possibility of using magnetic resonance imaging to verify the form of neurosyphilis is discussed.

  10. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-01-01

    dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...

  11. Meningitis kan ligne subaraknoidal blødning

    Elghoura, Nour Foad Diab

    2012-01-01

    pneumocephalus, and a lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis meningitis. The increased middle ear pressure relative to the intracranial pressure had caused air and bacteria to penetrate intracerebrally. This case illustrates the importance of a rapid diagnostic workup in acute onset headache including a careful...... anamnesis, CT and lumbar puncture....

  12. K ATP channels in pig and human intracranial arteries

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Sørensen, Mette Aaskov; Strøbech, Lotte Bjørg; Klærke, Dan Arne; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Sheykhzade, Majid; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    Clinical trials suggest that synthetic ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel openers may cause headache and migraine by dilating cerebral and meningeal arteries. We studied the mRNA expression profile of K(ATP) channel subunits in the pig and human middle meningeal artery (MMA) and in the pig middle...... cerebral artery (MCA). We determined the order of potency of four K(ATP) channel openers when applied to isolated pig MMA and MCA, and we examined the potential inhibitory effects of the Kir6.1 subunit specific K(ATP) channel blocker PNU-37883A on K(ATP) channel opener-induced relaxation of the isolated...... pig MMA and MCA. Using conventional RT-PCR, we detected the mRNA transcripts of the K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR2B in all the examined pig and human intracranial arteries. Application of K(ATP) channel openers to isolated pig MMA and MCA in myographs caused a concentration...

  13. Prompt meningeal reconstruction mediated by oxygen-sensitive AKAP12 scaffolding protein after central nervous system injury

    CHA, JONG-HO; Wee, Hee-Jun; SEO, JI HAE; Ahn, Bum Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Sae-Won; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Gelman, Irwin H; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    The meninges forms a critical epithelial barrier, which protects the central nervous system (CNS), and therefore its prompt reconstruction after CNS injury is essential for reducing neuronal damage. Meningeal cells migrate into the lesion site after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repair the impaired meninges. However, the molecular mechanisms of meningeal EMT remain largely undefined. Here we show that TGF-β1 and retinoic acid (RA) released from the meninges, togeth...

  14. Carotid artery surgery

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  15. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye.

  16. Culture- and antigen-negative meningitis in Guatemalan children / Meningitis negativa a pruebas antignicas y de cultivo en nios guatemaltecos

    Erica L., Dueger; Edwin J., Asturias; Neal A., Halsey.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar los casos infantiles de meningitis bacteriana confirmada (MBC) y meningitis negativa a pruebas de ltex y de cultivo (MNLC). MTODOS: Se evaluaron los nios de 1 a 59 meses de edad ingresados en tres grandes hospitales de referencia de la Ciudad de Guatemala entre el 1 de octubre [...] de 1996 y el 31 de diciembre de 2005 con signos clnicos de infeccin bacteriana. Se realizaron cultivos bacterianos y pruebas de aglutinacin antignica con ltex en muestras de lquido cefalorraqudeo (LCR). RESULTADOS: La tasa de letalidad fue significativamente mayor en los 493 nios con MBC que en los 528 nios con MNLC (27,6% y 14,9%, respectivamente; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare children with confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM) and those with culture- and latex-negative meningitis (CLN). METHODS: Children 1 to 59 months of age admitted to three major referral hospitals in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were eva [...] luated prospectively between 1 October 1996 and 31 December 2005. Bacterial cultures and latex agglutination antigen testing were performed on samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). RESULTS: The case-fatality rate was significantly higher in the 493 children with CBM than in the 528 children with CLN (27.6% and 14.9%, respectively; P

  17. Carotid Artery Screening

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  18. [Cryptococcus meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report].

    Ndiaye, M; Hagerimana, R; Diagne, N S; Faye, M W; Sène, M S; Sow, A D; Sène-Diouf, F; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M M

    2010-07-01

    Cryptococcus meningitis is uncommon in childhood. We report a Senegalese case of cryptococcus meningitis diagnosed in an apparently immunocompetent child. A 9-year-old boy was admitted for acute meningoencephalitis. A computerized tomography scan of the brain showed an ischemic lesion in the left caudate and study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed cytological and biochemical abnormalities and Cryptococcus neoformans on direct exam and culture. HIV and syphilis antibodies were negative and the blood CD4 lymphocyte count was 804/mm(3). The child had no immunocompromising factors such as hematologic abnormalities, solid tumor, or undernutrition. He was treated with fluconazole intravenously, but clinical outcome was unsuccessful. The patient died after 1 month from cardiovascular and respiratory distress. PMID:20400277

  19. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  20. Tuberculoma and Meningitis in a Young Girl: A Case Report

    Behroz Ahssan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of difficulty in early diagnosis and severe consequences of delay in diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis meningitis is a serious problem for clinicians. Therefore recognizing rare cases of tuberculosis can improve clinician practice and save the patient's life in countries with a high burden of disease. An 18-year-old girl suffered from fever, headache, illness, arthralgia, myalgia, constipation and weight loss for several weeks. On clinical exam, lethargy, Strabismus, neck stiffness, papilledema, bilateral cranial nerve VI palsy and left facial nerve palsy were observed. Pleocytosis in CSF and multiple small nodular enhancements was detected within the cerebellum. The anti-tuberculosis plus corticosteroid were prescribed. Conclusion/Recommendations: In TB high burden regions such as Iran and Middle East, clinical diagnosis is an important tool for making decisions about such cases. Though using corticosteroids in tuberculosis meningitis are still controversial, we recommend it strongly.

  1. Subdural collections associated with pediatric bacterial meningitis MR imaging

    To evaluate meningitis complications caused by spontaneously resolving sterile subdural (SD) effusions in children, the authors used CT and MR imaging to examine six children (age range, 2 months to 5 years) with bacterial meningitis; two patients also underwent Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Seven SD collections were identified, ranging from nearly isointense (two) to hyperintense (five) relative to cerebrospinal fluid. Both collections evaluated with gadolinium enhanced markedly. Although the presence of hyperintense, enhancing SD collections might suggest that they were empyemas, all patients were clinically stable or improving. This contrasted with the acutely ill adolescents with otorhinologic-related empyemas who required immediate extensive craniotomy. Clinical factors (age, type of bacteria, severity of illness) might be more helpful than MR features to assess clinical status and surgical requirements

  2. A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis

    A 63-year-old man was admitted for headache and progressive drowsiness. In spite of negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stains and cultures of tuberculosis and other bacteria, CSF findings and tuberculosis-positive sputum culture led to a tentative diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Symptoms and neurological test results both improved remarkably during antituberculous chemotherapy. Although the brain CT scan taken on admission showed no abnormal findings, one taken two months later revealed multiple high-density areas after enhancement with a contrast medium, suggesting multiple intracranial tuberculomas accompanied by tuberculous meningitis. The size of the multiple high-density areas gradually decreased during antituberculous chemotherapy. The CT scan can clearly locate lesions, detect complications, and evaluate the effects of treatment in patients with intracranial tuberculosis. (author)

  3. MRI of primary meningeal sarcomas in two children: differential diagnostic considerations

    Meningeal sarcomas are very rare, highly aggressive tumours affecting children more frequently than adults. The clinical course and MRI of meningeal sarcomas in two cases are discussed with special regard to possible misinterpretation. In one case MRI demonstrated a circumscribed mass in contact with the meninges, with central areas of haemorrhage. In the other, a case of primary leptomeningeal sarcomatosis, several MRI examinations over the course of almost a year were unhelpful, despite severe neurological complaints. Then MRI revealed meningeal contrast enhancement all over the brain and spinal canal, together with cerebral infarcts. MRI of meningeal sarcomas has not been discussed in the literature. MRI did not permit specific diagnosis, but enabled visualisation of the extent of the tumour and/or meningeal involvement. Early histological diagnosis is indispensable for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  4. Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study of aseptic meningitis

    Robinson Joan L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian pediatric hospitals over a two-year period. Results There were 233 cases of proven enteroviral (EV meningitis, 495 cases of clinical aseptic meningitis and 74 cases of possible aseptic meningitis with most cases occurring July to October. Headache, vomiting, meningismus and photophobia were more common in children ? 5 years of age, while rash, diarrhea and cough were more common in children Conclusion The clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis varies with the age of the child. Absence of CSF pleocytosis is common in infants

  5. Successful treatment of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis

    Acinetobacter baumannii, Post-surgical meningitis, High dose meropenem

    2007-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infections in many hospitals and appears to have a propensity for developing multiple antimicrobial resistance rapidly.Cases: We report two cases with post-surgical meningitis due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii which were successfully treated with high-dose intravenous meropenem therapy.Conclusions: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter spp. in intensive care units are a growing concern. High-dose meropenem is used in the tre...

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting with bilateral complete ophthalmoplegia: a case report

    Liyanage, Damith S; Pathberiya, Lakmini PS; Gooneratne, Inuka K.; Caldera, Manjula HPC; Perera, Priyankara WS; Gamage, Ranjani

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus neoformans is saprophytic encapsulated yeast. Infection is acquired by inhalation of the organism and could be asymptomatic or limited to the lungs, specially in the immunocompetent host. Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious opportunistic infection among post transplant recipients. Cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia are well known complications of this disease, but bilateral complete ophthalmoplegia is a very rare presentation. Case Presentation A Sri Lankan you...

  7. Characteristics of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients

    Hristea, A; C Manciuc; E Zaharia-Kezdi; C Dorobat; Arbune, M; Olaru, I; R Jipa; Niculescu, I.; Streinu-Cercel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has a substantial mortality even with anti-tuberculous treatment, in HIV-non-infected patients. Purpose of the study. The objectives were to describe clinical and laboratory differences of TBM in HIV-infected versus HIV non-infected patients and to assess risk factors of death in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to four infectious diseases hospitals in Romania, between 2001 and 2011, with TBM. Patients were ...

  8. Prognostic factors of tuberculous meningitis: a single-center study

    Gu, Jin; Xiao, Heping; Wu, Furong; Ge, Yanping; MA, JUN; Sun, Wenwen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic factors of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and develop strategies for the improvement of clinical efficacy. Methods: A total of 156 TBM patients were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, clinical features, laboratory findings, bacteriologic test, images, use of steroids, mannitol and anti-TB drugs, surgery or drainage, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: Patients with tubercle bacillus in ...

  9. Tuberculous meningitis in Denmark: a review of 50 cases

    Andersen Peter H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors. The aim of this study is to assess the current epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome in patients with tuberculous meningitis in Denmark, a country with a low tuberculosis incidence. Methods A nationwide retrospective study was conducted, comprising all patients notified with tuberculous meningitis (TBM in Denmark from 2000-2008. Medical records were reviewed using a standardised protocol. Results Fifty patients, including 12 paediatric patients, were identified. 78% of the patients were immigrants from countries of high tuberculosis endemicity. 64% of all patients had a pre-existing immunosuppressive condition; 10% were HIV positive, 48% were HIV seronegative and 42% had an unknown HIV status. Median symptom duration before admission was 14 days in the Danish patient population and 20 days in the immigrant group. Biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples revealed pleocytosis in 90% with lymphocyte predominance in 66%. Protein levels were elevated in 86%. The most common findings on neuro-radiological imaging were basal meningeal enhancement, tuberculomas and hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture was performed on 42 patients; 31 of these specimens (74% had a positive CSF culture for mycobacteria and 9.5% were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. The overall mortality rate was 19% and 48% of the remaining patients had neurological sequelae of varying degree. Conclusion TBM is a rare but severe manifestation of extrapulmonary TB in Denmark. The clinician must be prepared to treat empirically if the suspicion of TBM has arisen to improve treatment outcome.

  10. Tuberculous Meningitis: A Comparison of Scoring Systems for Diagnosis

    Roshan Kurien; Thambu David Sudarsanam; Samantha S; Kurien Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major clinical and public health problem, both for diagnosis and management. We compare two established scoring systems, Thwaites and the Lancet consensus scoring system for the diagnosis of TB and compare the clinical outcome in a tertiary care setting.Methods: We analyzed 306 patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection over a 5-year period and classified them based on the units diagnosis, the Thwaites classification as well as the newe...

  11. Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculous Meningitis in Pediatric Age Group

    Bibek Talukdar; Monica Chaudhary; Manisha Jain; Vidyanidhi Gumma; Chander Prakash Baveja; Vinay Kumar Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Past decade has seen increase in cases of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and multidrug resistance in such cases. The mortality rate for a mismanaged TBM is very high which increases manifold in presence of associated complicating factors. The present study was thus planned to evaluate the prevalence of MDR-TBM and look for associated complicating factors and carry out drug sensitivity pattern in all culture positive isolates. Methods: One hundred cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) samples fr...

  12. Tuberculous meningitis in BCG vaccinated and unvaccinated children

    Kumar, R; Dwivedi, A.; Kumar, P.; Kohli, N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A modified clinical presentation of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children vaccinated with BCG has been described in the literature. However, most reports are old and not based on actual comparisons and tests of significance. Also, neuroimaging features were not compared. With large scale BCG coverage, it becomes pertinent to describe the "modified" presentation and identify any significant differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated children with TBM.

  13. Vascular complications of tuberculous meningitis: An autopsy study

    Debajyoti Chatterjee; Bishan Dass Radotra; Rakesh Kumar Vasishta; Kusum Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vascular complications have the most serious consequences in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Although stroke is seen in approximately 20% of patients with TBM, the underlying vascular damage and infarction are much more extensive. This study has been undertaken to study the pathology at different levels of cerebral vessels and their resultant complications in TBM. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one postmortem TBM brains were examined over a period of 16 years (19972012). T...

  14. Immunocytochemical Method for Early Laboratory Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

    Sumi, M. G.; Mathai, A.; Reuben, S.; Sarada, C.; V V Radhakrishnan

    2002-01-01

    A simple immunocytochemical method was standardized for the direct demonstration of mycobacterial antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). CSF-cytospin smears were prepared from 22 patients with a clinical diagnosis of TBM and also from an equal number of patients with nontuberculous neurological diseases (disease control). Immunocytological demonstration of mycobacterial antigens in the cytoplasm of monocytoid cells was attempted, by using...

  15. Postradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy with spinal root cavernomas mimicking carcinomatous meningitis

    Ducray, François; Guillevin, Rémy; Psimaras, Dimitri; Sanson, Marc; Mokhtari, Karima; Delanian, Sylvie; Navarro, Soledad; Maisonobe, Thierry; Cornu, Philippe; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2008-01-01

    Lumbosacral radiculopathy is a rare complication of radiotherapy and may be challenging to differentiate from diagnosis of a tumor recurrence. We reviewed the records of three patients with a past history of cancer and radiotherapy who were referred for suspicion of carcinomatous meningitis on lumbar MRI, but whose final diagnosis was radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculopathy. The three patients developed a progressive lumbosacral radiculopathy at 20, 13, and 47 years after lumbar radiother...

  16. Ventricular Pneumocephalus with Meningitis after Lumbar Nerve Root Block

    Shin Ahn; Young Sang Ko; Kyung Soo Lim

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar nerve root block is a common modality used in the management of radiculopathy. Its complications are rare and usually minor. Despite its low morbidity, significant acute events can occur. Pneumocephalus is an accumulation of air in the intracranial space. It indicates a violation of the dura or the presence of infection. The object of this report is to describe the case of a patient with intraventricular pneumocephalus and bacterial meningitis after lumbar nerve root block. A 70-year-o...

  17. Seizure increases electroencephalographic abnormalities in children with tuberculous meningitis

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan; Darto Saharso

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe intracranial infection with fatal outcomes, permanent disabilities, and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Seizures may occur in TBM. The EEG findings in TBM vary according to the site of the inflammatory process. There are few studies describing the EEG patterns and clinical manifestations of TBM. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between clinical findings and EEG patterns in children with TBM. ...

  18. Tuberculous Meningitis in Adults: A Review of 160 Cases

    Filiz Pehlivanoglu; Kadriye Kart Yasar; Gonul Sengoz

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of 160 adult patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) according to Thwaites' diagnostic index. Methods. The subjects of this retrospective study are the patients with TBM who were followed up between years 1998 and 2009 in a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging signs and Thwaites' diagnostic index. Results. Mycobacterium tuber...

  19. Treatment of lymphomatous and leukemic meningitis with liposomal encapsulated cytarabine

    Melanie Kripp; Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz

    2008-01-01

    Melanie Kripp, Ralf-Dieter HofheinzOnkologisches Zentrum, III. Medizinische Klinik, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Liposomal encapsulated cytarabine (DepoCyte®, Mundipharma GmbH, Limburg/Lahn, Germany) is a slow-release formulation of conventional cytarabine. It is licensed for intrathecal use in patients with lymphomatous and leukemic meningitis. DepoCyte® obtained superior response rates, improved patient quality...

  20. Meningeal Melanocytes in the Mouse: Distribution and Dependence on Mitf

    Stefan Arni Hafsteinsson Gudjohnsen; Franck Gesbert; Graca Raposo; Ilse Hurbain; Eirikur Steingrimsson

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Melanocytes are pigment producing cells derived from the neural crest. They are primarily found in the skin and hair follicles, but can also be found in other tissues including the eye, ear and heart. Here, we describe the distribution of pigmented cells in C57BL/6J mouse meninges, the membranes that envelope the brain. These cells contain melanosomes of all four stages of development and they depend on Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), the master regulator of me...

  1. Meningoscintigraphy - a new method of detecting meningeal changes

    The diagnostic value of intrathecally injected radiocolloids being fixed to the meninges was tested in 86 patients. 15 of them were children treated with 198Au for meningosis prophylaxis. 34 children were treated with methotrexate prior to scintiscanning. 37 adults revealed neurological symptoms. In 18 children of the methotrexate ,treated group and in 3 adults signs of arachuopathy could be demonstrated scintigraphically. Because of its favourable properties 111In proved to be the nuclide of choice in 'meningoscintigraphy'

  2. Primary Granulocytic Sarcoma of Meninges and Mediastinum as Diagnostic Dilemma

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Mohanty, Kirti Ranjan; Roopesh, K.; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is a rare hematological neoplasm which is often misdiagnosed. We report two patients of primary granulocytic sarcoma, one at meninges who was diagnosed radiologically as meningioma and on histopathology as langerhans cell histiocytosis. The second patient presented with an ulcerated chest wall swelling, who on histopathology revealed malignant round cell tumour. Both the patients subsequently proved as primary granulocytic sarcoma on immunohistochemistry. These two cases ...

  3. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis after dental care: case report

    Maira Zoppelletto; Dario Cesco; Dina Bonini; Alessandra Dinale; Maria Frizzo; Gilberto Lorenzin; Elide Marcon; Alessandra Vigolo; Francesco Malfa; Giorgio Da Rin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus salivarius is a common commensal of the oral mucosa, associated with infections in different sites. Meningitis due to this species are described in a few occasions . In this study refer to a case recently diagnosed in our hospital for treatment of a subsequent dental caries. Case report. A man of 35 years, presents to the emergency room with fever, headache, confusion, marked nuchal rigor.Anamnesis is the treatment of dental caries on the previous day.The blood cou...

  4. Meningitis due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia after a Neurosurgical Procedure

    Sood, Smita; Vaid, Vivek Kumar; Bhartiya, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, glucose non- fermentative, gram negative bacillus, which is being increasingly recognized as a cause of serious infections such as bacteraemia, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, meningitis and ocular infections in hospitalized patients. The treatment of invasive S. maltophilia infections is difficult, as this pathogen shows high levels of intrinsic or acquired resistance to differe...

  5. Computed tomography. CT and prognosis of hemophilus influenza meningitis

    Suzuki, H.; Ogawa, K.; Shiihara, H.; Ohkubo, O.; Utsumi, Y. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine)

    1981-06-01

    CT scanning was performed on 18 patients with hemophilus influenza meningitis. These findings were classified into 4 groups, i.e., focal cortical necrosis (F.C.N.), subdural effusion (S.Ef.), ventricular dilatation (V.D.), and subdural empyema (S.Em.). These findings reflect the process developing encephalopathy, and can be graded mild, moderate, and severe concerning the prognosis. Therefore, follow-up CT scanning is of value in elucidating the mechanism of encephalopathy and predicting the prognosis.

  6. Vaccination against meningitis B: is it worth it?

    Peter English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: when a new vaccine is licensed having passed the tests for efficacy and safety, governments who have to pay for it to be used, as in the UK, will carry out a careful economic appraisal before making it generally available. In this challenging article, Dr Peter English discusses whether or not a new vaccine for meningitis that has just been licensed and that could save lives is actually worth it.

  7. Meningitis Associated with Brucella abortus in an Aborted Bovine Foetus

    ÇETİN, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the brain and other organs from an aborted bovine foetus were examined histopathologically and microbiologically. In addition, a serum sample from the aborting cow was examined serologically. A granulomatous inflammation, characterised by the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells with some neutrophils and macrophages was observed in the meninges of the brain, liver and kidney. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated in pure culture from the brain and other organs. The serum ...

  8. Gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis

    Wittwer Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30% and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex and hippocampus. Despite this significant disease burden, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis is largely unknown. We used an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis to assess gene expression profiles in cortex and hippocampus at 22 and 44 hours after infection and in controls at 22 h after mock-infection with saline. To analyze the biological significance of the data generated by Affymetrix DNA microarrays, a bioinformatics pipeline was used combining (i a literature-profiling algorithm to cluster genes based on the vocabulary of abstracts indexed in MEDLINE (NCBI and (ii the self-organizing map (SOM, a clustering technique based on covariance in gene expression kinetics. Results Among 598 genes differentially regulated (change factor ≥ 1.5; p ≤ 0.05, 77% were automatically assigned to one of 11 functional groups with 94% accuracy. SOM disclosed six patterns of expression kinetics. Genes associated with growth control/neuroplasticity, signal transduction, cell death/survival, cytoskeleton, and immunity were generally upregulated. In contrast, genes related to neurotransmission and lipid metabolism were transiently downregulated on the whole. The majority of the genes associated with ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, signal transduction and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated specifically in the hippocampus. Of the cell death/survival genes found to be continuously upregulated only in hippocampus, the majority are pro-apoptotic, while those continuously upregulated only in cortex are anti-apoptotic. Conclusion Temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis identified potential targets for therapy.

  9. Bacterial meningitis as a first presentation of pituitary macroprolactinoma

    Margari, Niki; Page, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was brought to the Emergency Department after being found collapsed at his office with a reduced level of consciousness. From clinical examination and initial investigations, he was diagnosed as having bacterial meningitis and was promptly commenced on empirical i.v. antibiotics. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a parenchymal mass at the base of the skull and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the head 4 days later confirmed a large soft tissue mass, which ext...

  10. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Tatiana Barichello; Glauco D. Fagundes; Generoso, Jaqueline S.; Caroline S. Dagostin; Lutiana R. Simes; Mrcia C. Vilela; Comim, Clarissa M.; Fabricia Petronilho; Joo Quevedo; Teixeira, Antonio L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE) on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups:...

  11. Molecular Detection of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis

    H Sadighian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The clinical diagnosis of meningitis is crucial, particularly in children. The early diagnosis and empiric an­tibi­otic treatments have led to a reduction in morbidity and mortality rates. PCR and the enzymatic digestion of 16SrDNA frag­ment which is produced by universal primers led up fast and sensitive determination. The purpose of this study was to investi­gate a rapid method for detection of common bacterial pathogens causing meningitis."nMethods: According to the gene encoding 16SrDNA found in all bacteria, a pair of primers was designed. Then the univer­sal PCR was performed for bacterial agents of meningitis (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influ­enzae, etc. by employing broad- range DNA extraction method. The ob­tained uni­versal PCR products were digested with restriction enzymes (HaeIII, AluI and MnlI to identify bacterial species. "nResults: By the enzymatic digestion of the universal products of each standard strain of the above bacteria, specific patterns were achieved. These specific patterns may be used for comparison in CSF examination. The analytical sensitivity of the as­say was approximately 1.5´102 CFU/ml of CSF even in samples with high amount of proteins. Conclusion: The universal PCR coupled with enzymatic digestion can be used to detect and identify bacterial pathogens in clini­cal specimens rapidly and accurately. Molecular diagnostic of bacterial meningitis, though expensive and labor-inten­sive, but is valuable and critical in patient management.

  12. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma treated with surgery and radiation therapy -case report-

    Jang, Ji Young; Oh, Yoon Kyeong [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an uncommon dura-based tumor and can recur not only locally but also distantly in the neural axis or extraneural sites. We report our experience of radiation therapy, one preoperative and one elective postoperative, in two patients with meningeal HPC and reviewed the role of radiation therapy. A 41-year-old man (Case 1) presented with a 3-month history of headache and right hemiparesis. The mass was nearly unresectable at the first and second operation and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Preoperative radiation therapy was given with a total dose of 55.8 Gy/31 fractions to the large residual mass of left frontoparietal area. Follow-up computerized tomography (CT) showed marked regression of tumor after radiation therapy. The third operation was performed to remove the residual tumor at 6 months after the radiation therapy and a 2 x 2 cm sized tumor was encountered. The mass was totally removed. The serial follow-up CT showed no evidence of recurrence and he is alive without distant metastasis for 4 years and 10 months after the first operation. A 45-year-old woman (Case 2) presented with suddenly developed headache and visual impairment. Tumor mass occupying right frontal lobe was removed with the preoperative diagnosis of meningioma. It was totally removed with attached sagittal sinus and diagnosed as meningeal HPC. Elective postoperative radiation therapy was performed to reduce local recurrence with a total dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions to the involved area of right frontal lobe. She is alive for 5 years maintaining normal activity without local recurrence and distant metastasis.

  13. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma and hydrocephalus and intracranial superficial siderosis

    Meningeal melanocytomas are uncommon tumours of the central nervous system; fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English literature. We review the unique clinical presentation, radiological appearance and histological features of a rare case of meningeal melanocytoma. The patient was a 50-year-old man with a history of hypertension who presented with complaints of severe headache, nausea, vomiting and blurry vision for 2 days. Clinical examination revealed no hyperpigmentation marks and he had no history of regressed skin melanocytic lesions. Apart from mild terminal neck stiffness, his general medical examination was unremarkable. On funduscopic examination he had marked bilateral papilloedema and the blind spots were enlarged bilaterally. His neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. A magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) of the brain showed hydrocephalus. On the precontrast T2-weighted images, there was hyperintensity of the meninges with little change after administration of gadolinium, which was suggestive of blood. On the T2-weighted sequences, there was evidence of hypo-i intensity on the surface of the pons and medulla, which was indicative of superficial siderosis

  14. Classification of electrophoretic registers from meningitis contaminated rats

    Luis E Mendoza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for classification of Capillary Electrophoretic Registers (CER retrieved from cerebrospinal fluid sample taken from meningitis contaminated rats. The proposed approach applies several signal processing tools such as, wavelet analysis (WA, dynamic programming, principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machines (SVM, for data pre-processing, feature extraction and CER classification. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed that detects zones in the CER where local energy variations between study groups (meningitis group and control group are observed. This algorithm help us to identify the effects that Kliebsella Pneumonie (KP bacteria produce in certain substances (aminoacids that are part of the cerebrospinal fluid samples. It is shown that Meningitis disease can be effectively detected, analyzing the CER with the proposed methods. Futhermore, we show that exploiting the information related to the local energy variation improves the classification correctness rate up to 97.3%. This classification performance is obtained using least square SVM (LS-SVM as classification tools and the parameterized CER representation proposed in this paper.

  15. Carcinomatous meningitis appearing as acoustic neuromas. Two cases

    Astner, S.T.; Nieder, C.; Grosu, A.L. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Stock, K. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Gaa, J. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-05-15

    Background: For acoustic neuromas, stereotactic radiotherapy (radiosurgery or stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy) has been established as an important alternative to microsurgery. In most cases initial symptoms are slow progression of unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus or vertigo or acute hearing loss with vertigo. MRI scan shows a contrast-enhancing tumor within the inner auditory channel. If the patient undergoes primary radiotherapy, diagnosis is usually not verified histologically. Therefore, careful evaluation of the medical history is mandatory despite a typical appearance on the MRI scan. If medical history does not match with acoustic neuroma, further diagnostics are necessary to rule out infectious disease or carcinomatous meningitis. Case Report: Two patients with hearing loss, vertigo and the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas by MRI scan were referred for radiotherapy. In both cases the symptoms progressed very rapidly, not typical of acoustic neuromas, and in both patients repeated liquor puncture finally revealed carcinomatous meningitis. One patient died during therapy; in the second patient intrathecal chemotherapy and additional radiotherapy of the skull base led to partial remission continuing for several months. Conclusion: Before primary radiotherapy of small intrameatal lesions diagnosis must be reassessed carefully. This is especially true for bilateral lesions suspicious for acoustic neuromas and rapid progression and persistence of clinical symptoms where carcinomatous meningitis has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  16. Carcinomatous meningitis appearing as acoustic neuromas. Two cases

    Background: For acoustic neuromas, stereotactic radiotherapy (radiosurgery or stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy) has been established as an important alternative to microsurgery. In most cases initial symptoms are slow progression of unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus or vertigo or acute hearing loss with vertigo. MRI scan shows a contrast-enhancing tumor within the inner auditory channel. If the patient undergoes primary radiotherapy, diagnosis is usually not verified histologically. Therefore, careful evaluation of the medical history is mandatory despite a typical appearance on the MRI scan. If medical history does not match with acoustic neuroma, further diagnostics are necessary to rule out infectious disease or carcinomatous meningitis. Case Report: Two patients with hearing loss, vertigo and the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas by MRI scan were referred for radiotherapy. In both cases the symptoms progressed very rapidly, not typical of acoustic neuromas, and in both patients repeated liquor puncture finally revealed carcinomatous meningitis. One patient died during therapy; in the second patient intrathecal chemotherapy and additional radiotherapy of the skull base led to partial remission continuing for several months. Conclusion: Before primary radiotherapy of small intrameatal lesions diagnosis must be reassessed carefully. This is especially true for bilateral lesions suspicious for acoustic neuromas and rapid progression and persistence of clinical symptoms where carcinomatous meningitis has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  17. Antibiotic Therapy in Pyogenic Meningitis in Paediatric Patients

    Objective: To isolate and identify the causative pathogen, antibiotic sensitivity testing and success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy in pyogenic meningitis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to July 2012. Methodology: The study was performed on 72 culture positive meningitis cases in children less than 15 years of age. This therapy was evaluated by monitoring the patient's clinical picture for 14 - 21 days. The collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Seventeen different bacteria were isolated. The most commonly occurring bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococci (25%), E. coli (12.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%). All the bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (96.7%), meropenem (76.7%), amikacin (75%), ciprofloxacin (65.3%), chloramphenicol (46.5%), ceftazidime (44.2%), cefepime (41.9%), co-amoxiclav (38.0%), oxacillin (34.8%), cefotaxime (21.4%), penicillin (20.7%), ceftriaxone (18.6%), cefuroxime (14%) and ampicillin (6.9%). The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed antimicrobial sensitivity of 81.4%. The success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was 91.7%. Conclusion: It was found that Gram negative bacteria were the major cause of pyogenic meningitis. Mostly there were resistant strains against all commonly used antibiotics except vancomycin. All empirical antibiotic therapies were found to be most successful. (author)

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G; Täuber, Martin G; Leib, Stephen L

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaebacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  19. The cribriform plate: a sanctuary site for meningeal leukaemia

    Cranial irradiation is an effective prophylactic treatment for subclinical meningeal infiltration in lymphoblastic leukaemia, but, central nervous system (CNS) relapse still occurs in 6-10% of cases overall and as many as 30% of cases with a poor prognosis in some series. These recurrences may be due in part to inadvertent underdosage of the cribriform plate, centrally situated between the orbits and projected over their upper third in a lateral view. The dose to the adjacent meninges may thus be reduced by shielding of the radiosensitive lenses. This problem is exacerbated if conventional lateral fields centred on the mid-skull are used, because the eyes will not then project over one another. If the field centre is moved to the edge of the orbit, this problem of beam divergence can be overcome. Central axis beam blocking of both lenses is possible, in some patients the cribriform plate can be adequately irradiated. In most children the geometry of the orbit is such that it is necessary to add an anterior electron beam to ensure homogeneous dosage. These refinements in technique might prevent meningeal relapse with a lower whole-brain dose and, hence, fewer neurophyschological sequelae. (author)

  20. Spontaneous pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis

    Bouchra Amara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumorrhachis is the presence of air in the spinal canal; mostly, it has an iatrogenic origin. The association of this entity with spontaneous pneumomediastinum without any pneumothorax is rarely reported in the literature. The spontaneous resorption is the usual evolution. The association to acute transverse myelitis is discussed by the authors. The patient is a 21-year-old male with pneumorrhachis associated to a spontaneous pneumomediastinum was admitted at the emergency department for bacterial meningitis. The antibiotherapy has marked the clinical profile by disappearance of the meningeal signs in the 48 h after admission. In contrast, the neurological symptoms were of marked aggravation by appearance of a tetraparesis with a respiratory distress syndrome having required artificial ventilation. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a typical hypodensity corresponding to paramedullary air extending to several thoracic segments. The spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a high cervical medullary edema without signs of compression. The patient died within 15 days with a profile of vasoparalysis resistant to vasoactive drugs. Pneumomediastinum associated to pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis is a rare entity. Although the usual evolution is favorable, the occurrence of serious complications is possible.

  1. Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score

    Lucas, M. J.; Brouwer, M.C.; Ende, A; van de Beek, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In bacterial meningitis, a decreased level of consciousness is predictive for unfavorable outcome, but the clinical features and outcome in patients presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale are unknown. Methods: We assessed the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale from a nationwide cohort study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Net...

  2. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Manitoba and the Keewatin District, NWT: potential for mass vaccination.

    Hammond, G. W.; Rutherford, B E; Malazdrewicz, R; MacFarlane, N; N Pillay; Tate, R B; Nicolle, L.E.; Postl, B D; Stiver, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    A community-based surveillance study of all central nervous system infections was carried out in Manitoba and the Keewatin District, NWT, between Apr. 1, 1981, and Mar. 31, 1984. There were 201 cases of bacterial meningitis in Manitoba over the study period, 81 (40%) caused by Haemophilus influenzae; all but one isolate tested were type b (Hib). There were nine cases of H. influenzae meningitis in the Keewatin District. The overall annual incidence rate of H. influenzae meningitis in Manitoba...

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in Alberta pre- and postintroduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    Johnstone, Jennie; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Marrie, Thomas J.; Garg, Sipi; Kellner, James D; the Streptococcus pneumoniae Alberta Team

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology and outcomes of patients of all ages with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis between 2000 and 2004; two years pre- and postintroduction of an S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program in Alberta in children younger than two years of age. The high mortality rate associated with S pneumoniae meningitis, despite appropriate therapy, suggests that prevention of S pneumoniae meningitis is cr...

  4. MENINGES HARBOR CELLS EXPRESSING NEURAL PRECURSOR MARKERS DURING DEVELOPMENT AND ADULTHOOD

    Girogio Malpeli; Mauro Krampera; Ilaria Decimo

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro...

  5. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro...

  6. Lectin and Neuropeptide Labeling in Whole-Mount Preparation of Meninges in the Rat

    SOYGÜDER, Zafer

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of both peptidergic and non-peptidergic primary afferents in meninges was investigated in whole-mount preparations from meninges. Lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I-B4 (GSA I-B4) was used as a marker for non-peptidergic fibres. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was used as a marker for peptidergic fibers. Lectin Griffonia simplicifolia selectively labeled thin sensory axons that were distributed throughout meninges unrelated to blood vessels. CGRP immunoreactive axons, i...

  7. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma with benign histology showing leptomeningeal spread: Case report

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hoon [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare benign tumor with relatively good prognosis. However, local aggressive behavior of meningeal melanocytoma has been reported, especially in cases of incomplete surgical resection. Malignant transformation was raised as possible cause by prior reports to explain this phenomenon. We present an unusual case of meningeal melanocytoma associated with histologically benign leptomeningeal spread and its subsequent aggressive clinical course, and describe its radiological findings.

  8. Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains in a Rabbit Meningitis Model

    Stucki, A.; Acosta, F; Cottagnoud, M; Cottagnoud, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil was compared with that of cefepime in an experimental rabbit meningitis model against two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli QK-9 and Klebsiella pneumoniae 1173687). The penetration of ceftaroline into inflamed and uninflamed meninges was also investigated. Both regimens were bactericidal, but ceftaroline fosamil was significantly superior to cefepime against K. pneumoniae and E. coli in this experimental rabbit meningitis model (P < 0.0...

  9. Phenotypic Characterization and Antibiogram of CSF Isolates in Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Modi, Syamal; Anand, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a medical emergency, which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of potent newer antibiotics, the mortality rate caused by acute bacterial meningitis remains significantly high in India and in other developing countries, which ranges from 16 - 32%. There is a need of a periodic review of bacterial meningitis worldwide, since the pathogens which are responsible for the infection may vary with time, geography...

  10. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review

    Mosi Jennifer C; Steinhardt Laura C; Ulland Aaron J; Ramakrishnan Meenakshi; Were Fred; Levine Orin S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background African children have some of the highest rates of bacterial meningitis in the world. Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high case fatality and frequent neuropsychological sequelae. The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive review of data on bacterial meningitis sequelae in children from the African continent. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search to identify studies from Africa focusing on children aged between 1 month to 15 ye...

  11. Bacterial meningitis in HIV-infected patients: Case reports and review of the literature

    Tommasini, Robert; Fong, Ignatius W

    1992-01-01

    Meningitis is not an uncommon complication of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Purulent meningitis is not a well recognized infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. Three cases of bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Listeria monocytogenes are presented. These cases illustrate that common community organisms may present in HIV positive patients. An acquired B cell defect may predispose to bacterial infections res...

  12. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    Jennifer A Veltman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population. Methods: We reviewed the scientific literature published in PubMed to determine the incidence rates of meningitis among hospitalized people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and report our findings from seven studies across sub-Saharan Africa. Results: We found high rates of cryptococcal meningitis (19–68%. Tuberculous meningitis was lower (1–36%, although some centres included possible cases as “other” meningitis; therefore, this may not be a true representation of the total cases. Pyogenic meningitis ranged from 6 to 30% and “other” meningitis ranged from 7 to 28% of all reported cases of meningitis. Mortality rates ranged from 25 to 68%. This review describes the most common aetiologies and provides practical diagnostic, treatment and prevention considerations as they apply to the individual living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions: Diagnosis is often limited, and wider availability of accurate and low-cost laboratory diagnostics is desperately needed for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Wider acceptance and adoption of available preventative modalities can decrease the incidence of potentially fatal central nervous system infections in African patients living with HIV.

  13. Adenosine deaminase levels in cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic test for tuberculous meningitis in children

    Rana, Satya Vati; Singhal, Raj Kumar; Singh, Kartar; Kumar, Lata

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) was estimated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 10 patients each of partially treated pyomeningitis (PTM), aseptic meningitis (AM) and pyogenic meningitis (PM). Mean ADA levels in CSF of TBM patients were higher (18.22 U/L) as compared to 6.28 U/L, 3.43 U/L and 7.98 U/L in PTM, AM and PM respectively. This difference of ADA values in CSF between TBM and other types of meningitis was statistically significant (p

  14. Meningitis simultnea por candida y tuberculosis como debut de sida / Simultaneous meningitis caused by candida and tuberculosis as AIDS manifestation

    M., Arias Gmez; I., Requena Caballero; C., Lema Devesa; J., Surez Dono; J., Llovo Martnez; V., Martino.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis por grmenes oportunistas ocupan un lugar importante dentro de la patologa neurolgica del sida. Treponema pallidum y Mycobacterium tuberculosis dentro de las baceterias, Crytptococcus neoformans dentro de los hongos, Toxoplasma gondii dentro de los protozoos y el Papovavirus [...] JC dentro de los virus, son los grmenes ms frecuentes dentro de cada grupo. Con cierta frecuencia las infecciones son mixtas, tal como ocurri en el caso que se presenta de meningitis simultnea por Candida albicans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis, que curs con pleocitosis neutrfila y normoglucorraquia, constituyendo la primera manifestacin de un sida. El estudio secuencial del LCR es clave para el diagnstico de estos casos, que, pese a su gravedad, pueden tener un tratamiento efectivo, tal como ocurri en el que se describe. Es el primer caso descrito de meningitis simultnea candidisica y tuberculosa en paciente portador de VIH. Abstract in english Opportunistic germs meningoencephalitis plays an important role within neurologic pathology in aids. Treponema pallidum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among bacteries, Cryptococcus neoformans in fungus group, Toxoplasma gondii in protozoos group and Papovavirus JC in virus one are the most frequentl [...] y implicated germs. Sometimes infections are mixed. We present a simultaneous meningitis case produced by Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that coursed with neutrophilic pleocytosis in CSF and normal glucose CSF levels, consisting the clinical debut of aids. Repeated CSF examinations are the diagnostic clue owing, as in our case, instauration of early treatment. Present case of simultaneous tuberculous and candidiasic meningitis is the first one described in a HIV positive patient.

  15. Central projections of the sensory innervation of the rat middle meningeal artery

    Liu, Y.; Broman, J.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    . Labeled nerve terminations were found ipsilaterally in the lateral part of the spinal dorsal horn of segments C1-C3 and in the caudal and interpolar parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. WGA-HRP labeled terminations were mainly located in laminae I and II, whereas CTb labeled terminations located in...... laminae III-V. These results indicate that sensory information from the MMA is transmitted through both trigeminal and cervical spinal nerve branches to a region in the central nervous system extending rostrally from the C3 dorsal horn to the interpolar part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Our data......Headaches, especially migraine, involve not only pain but also aspects such as vasodilation of cranial vessels and sensitization of nerve endings, processes dependent on and connected to the central nervous system. To understand pathogenic mechanisms of headache, it is important to elucidate the...

  16. Expression and Characterization of Purinergic Receptors in Rat Middle Meningeal ArteryPotential Role in Migraine

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    could be inhibited by SCH58261 (A2A receptor antagonist) and caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist). This gives one putative molecular mechanism for the effect of caffeine, often used as an adjuvant remedy of cranial pain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression data for the receptors correlate well with...

  17. Cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity in children with bacterial meningitis

    We examined total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by stable xenon computed tomography in 20 seriously ill children with acute bacterial meningitis to determine whether CBF was reduced and to examine the changes in CBF during hyperventilation. In 13 children, total CBF was normal (62 +/- 20 ml/min/100 gm) but marked local variability of flow was seen. In five other children, total CBF was significantly reduced (26 +/- 10 ml/min/100 gm; p less than 0.05), with flow reduced more in white matter (8 +/- 5 ml/min/100 gm) than in gray matter (30 +/- 15 ml/min/100 gm). Autoregulation of CBF appeared to be present in these 18 children within a range of mean arterial blood pressure from 56 to 102 mm Hg. In the remaining two infants, brain dead within the first 24 hours, total flow was uniformly absent, averaging 3 +/- 3 ml/min/100 gm. In seven children, CBF was determined at two carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) levels: 40 (+/- 3) mm Hg and 29 (+/- 3) mm Hg. In six children, total CBF decreased 33%, from 52 (+/- 25) to 35 (+/- 15) ml/min/100 gm; the mean percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was 3.0%. Regional variability of perfusion to changes in PCO2 was marked in all six children. The percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was similar in frontal gray matter (3.1%) but higher in white matter (4.5%). In the seventh patient a paradoxical response was observed; total and regional CBF increased 25% after hyperventilation. Our findings demonstrate that (1) CBF in children with bacterial meningitis may be substantially decreased globally, with even more variability noted regionally, (2) autoregulation of CBF is preserved, (3) CBF/CO2 responsitivity varies among patients and in different regions of the brain in the same patient, and (4) hyperventilation can reduce CBF below ischemic thresholds

  18. Cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity in children with bacterial meningitis

    Ashwal, S.; Stringer, W.; Tomasi, L.; Schneider, S.; Thompson, J.; Perkin, R. (Loma Linda Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    We examined total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by stable xenon computed tomography in 20 seriously ill children with acute bacterial meningitis to determine whether CBF was reduced and to examine the changes in CBF during hyperventilation. In 13 children, total CBF was normal (62 +/- 20 ml/min/100 gm) but marked local variability of flow was seen. In five other children, total CBF was significantly reduced (26 +/- 10 ml/min/100 gm; p less than 0.05), with flow reduced more in white matter (8 +/- 5 ml/min/100 gm) than in gray matter (30 +/- 15 ml/min/100 gm). Autoregulation of CBF appeared to be present in these 18 children within a range of mean arterial blood pressure from 56 to 102 mm Hg. In the remaining two infants, brain dead within the first 24 hours, total flow was uniformly absent, averaging 3 +/- 3 ml/min/100 gm. In seven children, CBF was determined at two carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) levels: 40 (+/- 3) mm Hg and 29 (+/- 3) mm Hg. In six children, total CBF decreased 33%, from 52 (+/- 25) to 35 (+/- 15) ml/min/100 gm; the mean percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was 3.0%. Regional variability of perfusion to changes in PCO2 was marked in all six children. The percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was similar in frontal gray matter (3.1%) but higher in white matter (4.5%). In the seventh patient a paradoxical response was observed; total and regional CBF increased 25% after hyperventilation. Our findings demonstrate that (1) CBF in children with bacterial meningitis may be substantially decreased globally, with even more variability noted regionally, (2) autoregulation of CBF is preserved, (3) CBF/CO2 responsitivity varies among patients and in different regions of the brain in the same patient, and (4) hyperventilation can reduce CBF below ischemic thresholds.

  19. Accidental intra-auricular artery injection of ceftiofur in two beef steers.

    Bolin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Two beef steers accidentally injected into a branch of the auricular artery with an oil-based formulation of ceftiofur died within 5 minutes of injection. Notable pathologic findings included distention and obstruction of cerebral and cerebellar arteries by a whitish tan material and hemorrhages within meningeal spaces, the choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Lipid material was identified within cerebral blood vessels in frozen sections stained with oil red O. This report describes an unusual case of brain ischemia in beef cattle. PMID:17459848

  20. Recurrent Bacterial Meningitis in a Child with Hearing Impairment, Mondini Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Narges Mazloomi Nobandegani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent bacterial meningitis is not a common disease and makes physicians seek underlying predisposing factors which can result from anatomic anomalies or immunodeficiency. In this paper we present a boy with recurrent bacterial meningitis with the history of trauma and sensorineural hearing loss. Mondini dysplasia was demonstrated with computed homographic scans (CT-Scan of temporal bones.

  1. Educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults after childhood bacterial meningitis

    Roed, Casper; Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Skinhoj, Peter; Rothman, Kenneth J; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood.......To our knowledge, no previous study has examined functioning in adult life among persons who had bacterial meningitis in childhood....

  2. The risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis following surgery in Denmark, 1996-2009

    Howitz, M F; Homøe, P

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper estimates the risk of bacterial meningitis following surgery between 1996 and 2009 in Denmark. We conducted two retrospective nationwide cohort studies; first by linking notified bacterial meningitis cases to the National Patient Registry to see how many had undergone a surgic...

  3. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis with negative cryptococcal antigen: Evaluation of a new immunochromatographic detection assay

    O. Opota; Desgraz, B.; Kenfak, A.; Jaton, K; Cavassini, M.; Greub, G.; Prod'hom, G; Giulieri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid allows cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis within few hours with >90% sensitivity. In an HIV-positive patient with Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis, initial antigen detection by immunoagglutination was negative. We thus evaluated a new immunochromatographic detection assay that exhibited a higher sensitivity.

  4. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the long-term mortality and the causes of death in patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis. The authors performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study including all Danish patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis from 1977 through ...

  5. Personlighedsforandring og hydrocefalus forårsaget af tuberkuløs meningitis

    von Huth, Sebastian; Pedersen, Court; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) denotes infection of the meninges with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In Denmark, TBM is rare, but requires correct handling and rapid treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a previously healthy 19-year-old man from Somalia, whose primary symptoms were fever...

  6. Successful treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy: a case report

    Rojas Pilar; Garcia Elisa; Calderón Gema M; Ferreira Fernando; Rosso Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important cause of hospital acquired infection particularly among severely debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Case presentation We report a case of S. maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy after a neurosurgical procedure, successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion This organism should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciproflox...

  7. Syringomyelia following tuberculous meningitis. Report of three cases diagnosed by MR imaging

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Takeshita, Koji; Makita, Kozo; Furui, Shigeru; Takenaka, Eiichi

    1988-11-01

    We present three cases with syringomyelia after tuberculous meningitis. The MR findings suggested the syrinx was formed by blockage of the CSF flow at the outlets of the fourth ventricle. We consider this complication is not a rare condition following tuberculous meningitis.

  8. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Stem Cell Factor Concentrations in the Children with Meningitis

    Farhad Mashayekhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of Cere Brospinal Fluid (CSF Stem Cell Factor (SCF concentrations in the children with acute bacterial and viral meningitis. The presence of SCF in the CSF was confirmed by western blot using anti-SCF antibody as a probe. Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, it was shown that the level of CSF SCF in the patients with acute bacterial meningitis is higher than in acute viral meningitis. We have also shown that the concentration of CSF SCF in the patients with acute viral and bacterial meningitis samples was higher than in normal CSF with the same age. It is concluded that CSF could be involved in the pathophysiology of meningitis. SCF may be important in neurogenesis and neural cell survival and provide a basis for future studies related to neuroprotective mechanisms exerted by SCF in meningitis. Moreover, CSF SCF levels can be used in the early diagnosis of meningitis. Similarly, they may be useful adjuncts in differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis.

  10. Bacterial Invasion of the Inner Ear in Association With Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathways of bacterial invasion and subsequent spreading in the inner ear during pneumococcal meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was used. METHODS: Thirty rats were inoculated intrathecally with S. pneumoniae...

  11. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new. (orig.)

  12. Place of Colistin-Rifampicin Association in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Meningitis: A Case Study

    Souhail, Dahraoui; Bouchra, Belefquih; Belarj, Badia; Laila, Rar; Mohammed, Frikh; Nassirou, Oumarou Mamane; Azeddine, Ibrahimi; Haimeur, Charki; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is an important challenge due to the accumulation of resistance of this bacteria and low meningeal diffusion of several antimicrobial requiring use of an antimicrobial effective combination to eradicate these species. We report a case of Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant nosocomial meningitis which was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal colistin associated with rifampicin.

  13. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  14. Coronary artery disease (image)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  15. Carotid Artery Disease

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  16. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  17. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an elderly, alcoholic male

    Meena Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection seen normally in herd animals. Humans can be infected by consumption of raw meat, fish, milk, vegetables or canned refrigerated foods. There are many reports of listeriosis in pregnant females, neonates and immune-compromised individuals. However, due to limited clinical suspicion in India, only a few cases has been reported, most of them in neonates. We report here a case of Listeria meningitis in an elderly alcoholic male who was treated successfully with ampicillin and vancomycin.

  18. Effect of contrast media and chymopapain on the spinal meninges

    Cases of paralysis following diskography and chemonucleolysis have been reported. The relationship between paralysis and the procedure has not been explained in previous experimental investigations. Therefore, we tested chymopapain and renografin in an experimental animal model used extensively for studying the toxic effect of drugs on the meninges. In four cynomolgus monkeys, renografin was injected into the epidural space, and in four other monkeys, chymopapain was used. The animals were killed 12 weeks later, and the dural sac was removed for histologic examination. The severity of arachnoid and dural fibrosis in the two groups was compared. Vascular thrombosis, foreign body reaction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were assessed

  19. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  20. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism....... The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the...... highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and...

  1. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    Worse, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.; Thomsen, J.; Andersen, Christian stergaard

    2010-01-01

    Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including the pneumoco...... common after pneumococcal meningitis, and audiometry should be performed on all those who survive pneumococcal meningitis. Important risk factors for hearing loss are advanced age, female sex, severity of meningitis, and bacterial serotype......Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including the...... pneumococcal serotype) for development of hearing loss. Methods. Results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry, bacterial serotyping, follow-up audiological examinations, and medical records were collected, and disease-related risk factors for hearing loss were identified. The mean pure...

  2. Culture- and antigen-negative meningitis in Guatemalan children Meningitis negativa a pruebas antigénicas y de cultivo en niños guatemaltecos

    Dueger, Erica L.; Edwin J. Asturias; Neal A Halsey

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare children with confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM) and those with culture- and latex-negative meningitis (CLN). METHODS: Children 1 to 59 months of age admitted to three major referral hospitals in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were evaluated prospectively between 1 October 1996 and 31 December 2005. Bacterial cultures and latex agglutination antigen testing were performed on samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). RESULTS: The cas...

  3. Action for child survival: elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Uganda

    Rosamund F Lewis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To guide immunization policy, we determined the public health benefit of introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine in Uganda and estimated the vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: Surveillance data for acute bacterial meningitis among children aged 0-59 months were reviewed from three hospital sentinel sites, for July 2001 to June 2007, to determine the incidence of Hib meningitis, the effectiveness of Hib vaccine with a case-control design, and the number of vaccine-preventable cases and deaths of Hib disease in Uganda. FINDINGS: Of the 13 978 children from 17 districts with suspected bacterial meningitis, 269 had confirmed Hib meningitis, declining from 69 patients in the prevaccine year (2001-2002 to three in 2006-2007. Hib meningitis incidence dropped from 88 cases per 100 000 children aged < 5 years in the year before vaccine introduction to 13 within 4 years, and to near zero in the fifth year. Vaccine effectiveness for 2 or more doses was 93% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69-99 against confirmed Hib meningitis and 53% (95% CI: 11-68 against purulent meningitis of unknown cause. In Uganda, Hib vaccine prevents an estimated 28 000 cases of pneumonia and meningitis, 5000 deaths and 1000 severe meningitis sequelae each year. CONCLUSION: Infant immunization with Hib vaccine has virtually eliminated Hib meningitis in Uganda within 5 years. Ensuring long-term benefits of Hib vaccine urgently requires sustainable vaccine financing, high-quality ongoing surveillance, and a health sector able to deliver a robust immunization programme.

  4. Factors associated with mumps meningitis and the possible impact of vaccination

    Rhie, Kyuyol; Park, Heung-Keun; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mumps meningitis is a common complication of mumps infection; however, information on mumps meningitis in the postvaccine era is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine factors associated with mumps meningitis and to discuss the effect of vaccination on this disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 19 years with mumps, diagnosed at a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups with and without meningitis, and the clinical features of the 2 groups were compared. Results The study enrolled 119 patients: 19 patients with meningitis and 100 patients without. Univariate analysis showed that older age (median: 15 years vs. 9.5 years, respectively), a longer interval from last vaccination (median: 10.2 years vs. 4.8 years, respectively), and febrile presentation (94.7% vs. 31.0%, respectively) were significantly associated with mumps meningitis. Sex, number of vaccination doses, bilateral parotitis, and the presence of complications other than meningitis did not differ between the 2 groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.011.89; P=0.04) and fever (odds ratio, 30.46; 95% confidence interval, 3.27283.61; P<0.01) remained independent factors for mumps meningitis. Conclusion Clinicians in the postvaccine era should be aware of the possibility of mumps meningitis in febrile cases of mumps in adolescents, regardless of the number of vaccination doses. To establish the role of vaccination in mumps meningitis, further studies will be necessary. PMID:26893600

  5. Arterial stenosis following radiotherapy

    Published reports of arterial stenosis following radiotherapy are reviewed. In oncological practice, this complication is rare but experimental studies have demonstrated the role of irradiation in producing arterial lesions. The histological specificity and the mechanisms of radiation and related arterial lesions are discussed. Atherosclerosis risk factors and chemotherapy could have a synergic role on artery stenosis. Cases reported of arterial stenosis after radiotherapy include subclavicular artery after breast cancer, carotid artery after head and neck cancer, coronary artery and abdominal aorta or its trunks after pelvic and abdominal irradiation. The radiotherapy parameters described are not unusual. Therapeutical modalities and their indications are presented

  6. A child case of meningitis tuberculosa showing interesting CT findings

    A 6-year-old boy is presented in whom plain CT failed to reveal specific findings suggesting inflammation, but enhanced CT revealed noticeably abnormal enhancement along the right middle cerebral artery and linear enhancement at the periphery of the artery. The cause of specific enhancement and its clinical value are discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Unusual Tonsillar Herniation in Meningeal Melanocytoma: A Case Report

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a primary melanocytic neoplasm with certain MR and immunohistochemical characteristics worthy to note. In a 38-year-old man with a complaint of headache for a couple of years and recently added nausea, vomiting, diplopia, progressive visual blurring and hearing loss, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was remarkable for T1 shortening of leptomeninges and certain nodules in precontrast study. Subsequent contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain and spine revealed enhancement in the basal cisterns extending throughout the spinal canal. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed diffuse enhancement in the basal cisterns extending throughout the spinal canal. Immunohistochemical analysis on one of the intraspinal nodules proposed leptomeningeal melanocytoma. The characteristic shortening of T1 and T2 relaxation times in MRI as a result of the paramagnetic stable free radicals that exist within melanin, often suggests a diagnosis of a melanocytic leptomeningeal process. Moreover, there are unique immunohistochemical characteristics for these varied lesions. In appropriate clinical settings, certain radiologic findings, especially both T1 and T2 shortening in nodular CNS lesions should propose meningeal melanocytoma

  8. Meningococcal Meningitis: Monitoring the Use of Appropriate Antibiotic Prophylaxis

    Baris B

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of recommended antibiotic prophylaxis in reported cases of meningococcal meningitis. Method: All cases of meningococcal meningitis reported to the public health authority of the Puy-de- Dôme (Direction départementale des affaires sanitaires et sociales during 1999 and 2000 were studied. Each report included the date of infection and the number of individuals exposed. This information was compared to data on rifampicin prescriptions during the same period obtained from the specific drug-codes contained in French national health insurance’s computer database. Results: We selected those treatments which were likely to represent prophylactic rifampicin use and, by using a correction coefficient, identified a theoretic number of prophylactic prescriptions. This number was considered to be the high threshold for prophylactic prescriptions. Using these two indicators, we quantified the disparity between recommendations and the actual implementation of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Finally, we propose an efficiency indicator by determining how soon after exposure prophylactic rifampicin was prescribed. Conclusion: The specific drug-codes can provide us with indicators for quantifying the implementation of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.

  9. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  10. Aseptic meningitis in Germany associated with echovirus type 13

    Schreier Eckart

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echoviruses are the commonest cause of aseptic meningitis. Echovirus type 13 which has not been isolated in Germany over a long period of time was the predominant enterovirus serotype associated with different local outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in Germany in 2000. Methods Virus isolation was performed from cerebrospinal fluid and stools. In order to study the genetic relationship of echovirus type 13 isolates, sequence analysis of a part of VP1 (~300 nt was carried out. Isolates from different geographic regions were compared to each other as well as to elder viruses (prototype strain from 1953, four isolates from 1965–1986. Results Overall, 55 isolates of echovirus type 13 were obtained from different parts of Germany. It was shown that the new isolated strains have a very high degree of homology on the nucleotide level (> 98% but differ significantly from the old strains (76–85%. Conclusions a Rare enterovirus serotypes can cause serious illness. b The molecular drift has also been shown for other enterovirus serotypes.

  11. Fatal Bacterial Meningitis Possibly Associated with Substandard Ceftriaxone - Uganda, 2013.

    Nickerson, Jason W; Attaran, Amir; Westerberg, Brian D; Curtis, Sharon; Overton, Sean; Mayer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The burden of disease from bacterial meningitis is highest in low-income countries (1). Early initiation of antibiotic therapy is important in reducing the risk for mortality. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) (2), but these therapies increasingly are limited by drug resistance, and are threatened by the proliferation of substandard and falsified medicines (3,4). In February 2013, a case of bacterial meningitis following a middle ear infection was diagnosed in an adolescent at the Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Once-daily treatment with 2 g of intravenous ceftriaxone administered according to guidelines failed, and the patient died. To determine whether the patient's treatment failure and subsequent death might be related to the ceftriaxone product administered, a sealed vial similar to the one administered to the patient was analyzed at the University of Ottawa, Canada, and was found to contain only 0.455 g of the drug, not 1 g as stated by the manufacturer. This would have resulted in subtherapeutic dosing. Substandard medicines are a global problem that disproportionately affects low-income countries, leading to fatal consequences and promoting the emergence of drug resistance (4). PMID:26720749

  12. Modified Kenneth Jones criteria for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis in children

    To evaluate accuracy of modified Kenneth Jones scoring criteria (MKJSC) as a screening tool to diagnose tuberculous meningitis in children. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Medicine, Unit-I, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, from May 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: A total of 100 children admitted through emergency in Paediatric Medicine, Unit-I, were included who were having fever and features suggestive of central nervous system (CNS) infection. Lumbar puncture was done in all patients after written consent. Findings of lumbar puncture were taken as gold standard for the diagnosis of TBM. MKJSC was applied on each patient and accuracy determined against the gold standard. Results: Out of 100 children, 47 were diagnosed as TBM on the basis of CSF results. All children had scored 0-7 or above according to MKJSC. A score 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7 or more was obtained in 23, 25, 30 and 22 children respectively. Children who had scored 5 or more received ATT. Accuracy of MKJSC was calculated to be 91%. Conclusion: MKJSC is a simple and accurate tool to improve tuberculous meningitis case detection rate in children. (author)

  13. Aetiological agents of cerebrospinal meningitis: a retrospective study from a teaching hospital in Ghana

    Owusu Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. In sub-Saharan Africa, the meningitis belt has been characterized by particularly high and seasonal incidences of bacterial meningitis extending throughout life. Despite the progress being made in treating the condition, the mortality rates continue to be high, ranging between 2% and 30% globally. In Ghana, the mortality rate of meningitis has been estimated to range from 36% to 50%. However little information is available on the pathogens contributing to meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Updated information is essential to adjust the recommendations for empirical treatment or prevention of meningitis which could have immense implications for local and global health. Methods We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of all patients suspected of bacterial meningitis who underwent a lumbar puncture from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Data were retrieved from laboratory record books and double entered into a Microsoft® excel spreadsheet. Results Records of 4,955 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed. Of these, 163 (3.3%, 95%CI: 2.8% to 3.8% were confirmed meningitis and 106 (2.1%, 95%CI: 1.7% to 2.6% were probable meningitis cases. Confirmed meningitis cases were made up of 117 (71.8% culture positive bacteria, 19 (11.7% culture positive Cryptococcus neoformans and 27(16.6% Gram positive bacteria with negative culture. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae 91 (77.7%, followed by E.coli 4 (3.4%, Salmonella species 4 (3.4%, Neisseria meningitidis 3 (2.5%, Pseudomonas species 3(2.5% and others. Pneumococcal isolates susceptibility to penicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone were 98.9% (95%CI: 94.0% to 100.0%, 83.0% (95%CI: 73.4% to 90.1% and 100.0% (95%CI: 95.8% to 100.0% respectively. Conclusion Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of meningitis among all age groups and its susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone still remains very high. Ghanaians of all ages and possibly other developing countries in the meningitis belt could benefit from the use of the pneumococcal vaccine. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens should also be considered in the management of patients presenting with meningitis.

  14. Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children

    Sofia Águeda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics, but only a few have bacterial meningitis. Although some clinical prediction rules, such as bacterial meningitis score, are of well-known value, the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells count can be the initial available information. Our aim was to establish a cutoff point of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count that could distinguish bacterial from viral and aseptic meningitis. A retrospective study of children aged 29 days to 17 years who were admitted between January 1st and December 31th, 2009, with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (white blood cell > 7 µL-1 was conducted. The cases of traumatic lumbar puncture and of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were excluded. There were 295 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, 60.3% females, medium age 5.0 ± 4.3 years distributed as: 12.2% 1-3 months; 10.5% 3-12 months; 29.8% 12 months to 5 years; 47.5% >5 years. Thirty one children (10.5% were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, 156 (52.9% viral meningitis and 108 (36.6% aseptic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was caused by Neisseria meningi tidis (48.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.3%, other Streptococcus species (9.7%, and other agents (9.7%. cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was significantly higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (mean, 4839 cells/µL compared to patients with aseptic meningitis (mean, 159 cells/µL, p < 0.001, with those with aseptic meningitis (mean, 577 cells/µL, p < 0.001 and with all non-bacterial meningitis cases together (p < 0.001. A cutoff value of 321 white blood cell/µL showed the best combination of sensitivity (80.6% and specificity (81.4% for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.837. Therefore, the value of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count was found to be a useful and rapid diagnostic test to distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial meningitis in children.

  15. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  16. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simes, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, Joo; Vilela, Mrcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, Jos A; Teixeira, Antnio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10?l of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-? level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel. PMID:23085269

  17. Maternal and perinatal factors associated with subsequent meningococcal, Haemophilus or enteroviral meningitis in children: database study.

    Goldacre, M J; Wotton, C J; Maisonneuve, J J

    2014-02-01

    We used a database of 248 659 births, with follow-up to subsequent disease, in the Oxford record linkage archive (1979-1999) to study the influence of family, maternal, and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for meningococcal, Haemophilus, and enteroviral meningitis in the children. In this summary, we report key findings that were significant in multivariate analysis. Meningococcal meningitis was significantly associated with maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-3·7]. Haemophilus meningitis was associated with having older siblings (e.g. second child compared to first-born, OR 3·3, 95% CI 2·0-5·6). Enteroviral meningitis was associated with low birth weight (OR 2·2, 95% CI 1·3-3·6) and male sex (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·3). The mothers of six of the 312 children with enteroviral meningitis had previously had enteroviral meningitis themselves. We concluded that several maternal characteristics influence the risk of these types of meningitis. PMID:23659618

  18. Bacterial meningitis in newborn and infant: correlation between organism, CT findings and clinical outcome

    Acute bacterial meningitis often results in significant neurologic complications regardless of the antibiotics treatment Computed tomographic (CT) finding of tuberculous meningitis is fairly well known but not the findings of bacterial meningitis. This study was performed to determine the incidence of causative organisms and to correlate between the organisms and computed tomographic (CT) findings with clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis in newborns and infants. We analyzed the brain CT and clinical records of 15 infants who had been diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by CSF culture. We found that the most common organisms were Group B streptococcus in neonates without no neurologic complications in all but one and Hemophilus influenza in infants whose clinical outcomes were poor in all except one. CT findings related with poor prognosis in this study were cerebral edema, basal cisternal obliteration and enhancement, and cerebral infarction on initial CT and ventriculomegaly on follow-up CT. We concluded that CT diagnosed intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis well and could contributed to better treatment of bacterial meningitis

  19. Bacterial meningitis in newborn and infant: correlation between organism, CT findings and clinical outcome

    Choi, Hye Young; Park, Young Seo; Yoo, Shi Joon; Suh, Dae Chul; Chung, Young Kyo [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Acute bacterial meningitis often results in significant neurologic complications regardless of the antibiotics treatment Computed tomographic (CT) finding of tuberculous meningitis is fairly well known but not the findings of bacterial meningitis. This study was performed to determine the incidence of causative organisms and to correlate between the organisms and computed tomographic (CT) findings with clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis in newborns and infants. We analyzed the brain CT and clinical records of 15 infants who had been diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by CSF culture. We found that the most common organisms were Group B streptococcus in neonates without no neurologic complications in all but one and Hemophilus influenza in infants whose clinical outcomes were poor in all except one. CT findings related with poor prognosis in this study were cerebral edema, basal cisternal obliteration and enhancement, and cerebral infarction on initial CT and ventriculomegaly on follow-up CT. We concluded that CT diagnosed intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis well and could contributed to better treatment of bacterial meningitis.

  20. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-02-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults.We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature.Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae.C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  1. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    To assess our experience with isolated iliac artery aneurysms and to assess the blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing surgery for iliac artery aneurysms.......To assess our experience with isolated iliac artery aneurysms and to assess the blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing surgery for iliac artery aneurysms....

  2. Hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Curran, F T; Taylor, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a 58 year old woman who had an aneurysm involving the common hepatic artery, the right and left hepatic arteries and the cystic artery which had ruptured into the liver. It was successfully treated by proximal ligation. The features and management of hepatic artery aneurysm are discussed.

  3. Epidemiological, Clinical and Prognostic Profile of Acute Bacterial Meningitis among Children in Alexandria, Egypt

    Farag HF

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To address the epidemiological characteristics and clinical indices that may predict the prognostic profile of meningitis among children. Methods: Children admitted to Alexandria fever hospital with clinical diagnosis of meningitis/meningoencephalitis during the period 2002-2003 were recruited for the study. They were subjected to clinical examination as well as CSF bacteriological and serological investigations Results: Three hundred and ten patients (195 males and 115 females were included. About 65.2% of them were infected with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and 34.8% were infected with aseptic meningitis. In this study, ABM was caused by Haemophilus influenzae (21%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.9%, Neisseria meningitidis (14.2% and other undetermined bacteria (16.1%. ABM showed significant association with age group 1-9 years (66.3%, low socio-economic class (96%, working mother (83.2%, more than two smokers in the family (62.9% and cold seasons(fall 35.1% and winter 48.5%. Aseptic meningitis showed significant association with age group 3-15 months (100% and previous immunization(81.5%. The overall case fatality rate was 10.3%; 13.9% for ABM and 3.4% for aseptic meningitis. 7.1% of all survivors developed epileptic attacks. Predictors for death or epilepsy events were high WHO meningitis score (> 9, decreased CSF glucose level (Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of several predictors of the outcome of meningitis in children. It is concluded that quick and simple scoring scales, such as the WHO scale, are not only applicable but valuable prognostic tools for meningitis in children.

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected: Experience from a North Indian tertiary center

    Kumar Susheel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is a common opportunistic infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected individuals. There is little information specifically addressing cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients from North India. Aims: To determine clinical presentation, hospital course, response to treatment, complications developed, in-hospital mortality, any recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis and reasons of recurrence during follow-up. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study undertaken in a large tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Patient′s demographic data, presenting clinical symptomatology, physical findings, laboratory parameters, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination findings, side-effects of treatment, development of any complications and hospital outcome were analyzed. During follow-up any recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis, possible reasons of recurrence, type of treatment received, complications developed and outcome was recorded as well. Results: Forty patients diagnosed to have cryptococcal meningitis were analyzed. Twenty-two (55% patients had acute/ subacute presentation. Thirty-six (90% patients presented with headache and 18 (45% had altered sensorium. Twenty (50% patients had no cells in the CSF. Hypoglycorrhchia was seen in 30 (75% patients. Cryptococcal meningitis was the first acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining illness in 30 (75% patients. Thirty-five patients developed some adverse effects to amphotericin-B. Thirty-three patients improved with treatment while three patients died. Four patients had recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis within six months of first episode. Non-compliance of fluconazole therapy was the reason for recurrence in all of these patients. Conclusions: Cryptococcal meningitis is a common initial AIDS-defining illness. Acute and/or subacute presentation of cryptococcal meningitis is not uncommon in HIV-infected individuals. An early diagnosis of HIV infection might reduce the incidence of this infection.

  5. Tuberculous Meningitis: A Comparison of Scoring Systems for Diagnosis

    Roshan Kurien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a major clinical and public health problem, both for diagnosis and management. We compare two established scoring systems, Thwaites and the Lancet consensus scoring system for the diagnosis of TB and compare the clinical outcome in a tertiary care setting.Methods: We analyzed 306 patients with central nervous system (CNS infection over a 5-year period and classified them based on the units diagnosis, the Thwaites classification as well as the newer Lancet consensus scoring system. Patients with discordant results-reasons for discordance as well as differences in outcome were also analyzed.Results: Among the 306 patients, the final diagnosis of the treating physician was TBM in 84.6% (260/306, acute CNS infections in 9.5% (29/306, pyogenic meningitis in 4.2% (13/306 and aseptic meningitis in 1.3% (4/306. Among these 306 patients, 284 (92.8% were classified as "TBM" by the Thwaites" score and the rest as "Pyogenic". The Lancet score on these patients classified 29 cases (9.5% as 'Definite-TBM', 43 cases (14.1% as "Probable-TBM", 186 cases (60.8% as "Possible-TBM" and the rest as "Non TBM". There was moderate agreement between the unit diagnosis and Thwaites classification (Kappa statistic = 0.53, as well as the Lancet scoring systems. There is only moderate agreement between the Thwaites classification as well as the Lancet scoring systems. It was noted that 32/ 284 (11% of patients who were classified as TBM by the Thwaites system were classified as "Non TBM" by the Lancet score and 6/258 (2% of those who were diagnosed as possible, probable or definite TB were classified as Non TB by the Thwaites score. However, patients who had discordant results between these scores were not different from those who had concordant results when treatment was initiated based on expert clinical evaluation in the tertiary care setting.Conclusion: There was only moderate agreement between the Thwaites' score and the Lancet consensus scoring systems. There is need to prospectively evaluate the cost effectiveness of simple but more effective rapid diagnostic alogrithm in the diagnosis of TB, particularly in a setting without CT and MRI facilities.

  6. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis after dental care: case report

    Maira Zoppelletto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcus salivarius is a common commensal of the oral mucosa, associated with infections in different sites. Meningitis due to this species are described in a few occasions . In this study refer to a case recently diagnosed in our hospital for treatment of a subsequent dental caries. Case report. A man of 35 years, presents to the emergency room with fever, headache, confusion, marked nuchal rigor.Anamnesis is the treatment of dental caries on the previous day.The blood count showed 24.7x109 / L with WBC 22.9x109 / L (92.9% neutrophils. The lumbar puncture CSF noted cloudy with 15.0 x 109 / L WBC, glicorrachia 5 g / L, protidorrachia 6.5 g / L. Microscopic examination showed numerous granulocytes and prevalence of Gram-positive cocci.The pneumococcal antigen was negative.The blood cultures before starting antibiotic therapy, were negative. CSF was isolated from the culture of a Streptococcus salivarius. To antibiotic therapy started in the ED, after lumbar puncture is associated with the Ampicillin Ceftriaxone and continued for 15 days to improve the patient’s general condition, then resigned in the 17 th day. Materials and methods. From CSF inoculated in blood agar plates and chocolate agar alpha hemolytic colonies were isolated, catalysis negative, optochin resistant. The biochemical identification performed with Phoenix (BD and confirmed by PCR Pan bacterial (16S rDNA bacterial strain identified as Streptococcus salivarius.The antibiogram performed with Phoenix (BD according to the CLSI guidelines indicated sensitivity to penicillin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, cefepime, and chloramphenicol. Conclusions. Meningitis by Streptococcus salivarius was found in a few cases, mainly related to the transmission of health personnel from the oral cavity during lumbar punctures performed without the use of surgical masks. The following bacterial meningitis in dental treatment having a low incidence and often fatal course be suspected by history.The patient should be further investigated because the infection may indicate a compromised immune unknown (Diabetes, HIV....

  7. Interleukin-17 mediated differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis

    Marais, Suzaan; Meintjes, Graeme; Lesosky, Maia; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are major causes of meningitis in HIV-1-infected patients. Identifying differences in the inflammatory profiles of HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis may inform differences in immunopathogenic mechanisms in these diseases. In this study we compared the clinical and inflammatory features of HIV-1-associated TBM, and cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: A prospective study of HIV-1-infected adults who presented with either TBM [antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive] or cryptococcal meningitis (regardless of ART prescription). Clinical and laboratory findings and concentrations of 40 inflammatory mediators measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 33 paired with blood) were compared between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients regardless of ART prescription and between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART. Results: Clinical and laboratory findings were similar in TBM (n=34) and cryptococcal meningitis (n?=?19; ART prescribed: n?=?10, no ART prescribed: n?=?9). Exceptions included a higher median CD4+ cell count [interquartile: 113 (69199) vs. 25 (849) cells/?l, P?=?0.0001] and higher HIV-1 median viral load [plasma: 5.46 (4.825.89) vs. 4.87 (4.365.17) log10copies/ml, P?=?0.037; CSF: 6.05 (5.436.56) vs. 5.56 (4.525.80) log10copies/ml, P?=?0.03] in TBM vs. cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART. CSF interleukin (IL)-17A was lower in TBM compared with cryptococcal meningitis [1.00 (0.252.35) vs. 9.31 (1.2423.36) pg/ml, P-adjusted?=?0.03]. Conclusion: Despite presenting with higher peripheral CD4+ cell counts, TBM patients also presented with higher HIV-1 viral loads compared with cryptococcal meningitis patients, suggesting a greater propensity of M. tuberculosis compared with C. neoformans to increase HIV-1 replication in vivo. CSF IL-17A was lower in TBM; its role in the immunopathogenesis of TBM and cryptococcal meningitis deserves further research. PMID:26765934

  8. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2012-01-01

    , and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for...... listeria meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50...

  9. Gliomatosis cerebri with spinal metastasis presenting with chronic meningitis in two boys.

    Lin, Yi-Heng; Chang, Yen-Wen; Yang, Shih-Hung; Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lu, Meng-Yao; Fan, Pi-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord involvement in gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is uncommon. We report two patients with GC, who initially presented with chronic meningitis and were treated with antituberculous drugs. Although tumor meningitis was suspected, due to the intractable clinical course, a correct diagnosis was established after performing a biopsy examination of the metastatic spinal lesion which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebrospinal fluid examination, including cytology, should be performed repetitively for patients with chronic meningitis refractory to antibiotic treatment. Spinal MRI is necessary for the complete neurological workup, even when the patients do not show spinal symptoms. PMID:26318497

  10. Abordaje de la meningitis tuberculosa en el adulto inmunocompetente

    Julio Csar Jasso Olivares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis tuberculosa es causada por la rotura de un tubrculo en el espacio subaracnoideo; su presentacin clnica suele ser subaguda o crnica y afecta fundamentalmente la base enceflica. Desde el punto de vista clnico, se acompaa de cefalea, fiebre intermitente, parlisis de pares craneales (especialmente de los oculomotores, confusin, hemiparesia, letargia, signos menngeos y convulsiones. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 23 aos de edad que ingres al servicio de medicina interna debido a irritacin menngea, fiebre y alteraciones del comportamiento. Con protocolo de estudio (examen del lquido cefalorraqudeo, clnica y falla a tratamiento convencional se integr el diagnstico de tuberculoma. Se destaca que el tratamiento antifmico temprano, prescrito de forma emprica, y el antiinflamatorio con esteroides evitan el surgimiento de cepas farmacorresistentes y pueden mejorar el pronstico del paciente.

  11. Intracranial epidermoid cyst causing recurrent chemically-induced meningitis

    We present a patient with a epidermoid cyst (EC) located in the prepontine and prebulbar region. The presenting sign was recurrent chemically-induced meningitis. We show the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings. The tumor presented two neuroradiological features of interest. On the one hand, it was impossible to diagnosis it on the basis of the CT study owing to the artifact introduced by the petrous structures at the cranial base. Some of the features of the EC presented here are unusual in this type of lesions. For example, at the same time in the same tumor there are two areas with different compositions which, in the MR study, were found to having clearly different signals. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from oesophageal cancer, presenting as meningitis.

    Ahmed, Mashrafi; Begum, Tahmina; Omer, Abdel Rahman; Khan, Ishtiaque Amin

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with headache, neck pain, dizziness, nausea and vomiting for 4-5 days. She also had a history of weight loss and difficulty in swallowing. On physical examination, she had nuchal rigidity with a positive Kernig's sign. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mild pleocytosis but some atypical cells were also noted. Cytopathological analysis of the atypical cells showed high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios and eccentric nuclei with prominent nucleoli, consistent with malignancy. A CT scan of the head and neck showed multiple lytic lesions involving the left calvarium, and diffuse thickening and enhancement of meninges over the left cerebral area. Extensive osteolytic lesions were also noted on the vertebral bodies, pedicles and lamina, at multiple levels of the cervical spine. An endoscopy revealed a mass at the gastro-oesophageal junction, and biopsy confirmed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The patient was started on chemotherapy along with radiation therapy. PMID:26740266

  13. Neonatal Meningitis: Clinical and Bacteriologic Findings in 120 Patients

    SH Behjati

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study, clinical signs and bacteriological findings in 120 neonates (82 males, 38 female with meningitis have been evaluated. 60 were premature and 60 full term infants. Clinical signs consisted of weak neonatal reflexes in 86 neonates (70%, poor feeding 62 (41%, jaundice 41 (34%, fever 29 (24%, apnea 19 (16%, restlessness 18 (15%, respiratory distress 14 (11%, vomiting 10 (8% and abdominal distension 8 (7%. The signs of central nervous system involvement were observed as follows: Convulsions in 45 patients (37%, bulged fontanel 17 (14%, opisthotonous 5 (4% and coma 17 (14%. Blood culture was in only 28 cases positive. CSF culture was positive in 56 cases and the isolated microorganisms consisted of salmonella spp in 22 cases (39%, klebsiella 15 (27%, e coli 10 (18%, pneumococcus 2 (3.5%, staph aureus 2 (3.5%. 64 (53% neonates survived, of whom 31 (48% showed sequelae, hydrocephalus being the most frequently encountered one.

  14. Antituberculosis drug resistance patterns in adults with tuberculous meningitis

    Senbayrak, Seniha; Ozkutuk, Nuri; Erdem, Hakan; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Civljak, Rok; Inal, Ayse Seza; Kayabas, Uner; Kursun, Ebru; Elaldi, Nazif; Savic, Branislava; Simeon, Soline; Yilmaz, Emel; Dulovic, Olga; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Ceran, Nurgul; Lakatos, Botond; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Sunbul, Mustafa; Yemisen, Mucahit; Alabay, Selma; Beovic, Bojana; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Cag, Yasemin; Catroux, Melanie; Inan, Asuman; Dragovac, Gorana; Deveci, Ozcan; Tekin, Recep; Gul, Hanefi Cem; Sengoz, Gonul; Andre, Katell; Harxhi, Arjan; Hansmann, Yves; Oncu, Serkan; Kose, Sukran; Oncul, Oral; Parlak, Emine; Sener, Alper; Yilmaz, Gulden; Savasci, Umit; Vahaboglu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to antituberculosis drugs is an increasingly common clinical problem. This study aimed to evaluate drug resistance profiles of TBM isolates in adult patients in nine European countries involving 32 centers to...... provide insight into the empiric treatment of TBM. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 142 patients and was tested for susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs, streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF) and ethambutol (EMB). RESULTS.......7 % for INH, SM and EMB respectively. There was no monoresistance to RIF. The mortality rate was 23.8 % in fully susceptible cases while it was 33.3 % for those exhibiting monoresistance to INH, and 40 % in cases with MDR-TBM. In compared to patients without resistance to any first-line drug, the relative...

  15. Tuberculous Meningitis in Adults: A Review of 160 Cases

    Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Kart Yasar, Kadriye; Sengoz, Gonul

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of 160 adult patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) according to Thwaites' diagnostic index. Methods. The subjects of this retrospective study are the patients with TBM who were followed up between years 1998 and 2009 in a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging signs and Thwaites' diagnostic index. Results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from CSF in 59 of 148 patients. Seventeen percent of the patients died, 71% recovered completely, and 13% recovered with neurological sequel at the end of the sixth month. Conclusions. Despite new developments in laboratory or neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis of TBM is still based on clinical features with the help of laboratory. Early diagnosis by suspecting TBM may prevent therapy delay and may result in decrease in the mortality and morbidity. PMID:22619611

  16. Carcinomatose menngea Carcinomatosis of the meninges: a case report

    Milberto Scaff

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Registro de um caso de carcinomatose menngea. O diagnstico foi estabelecido pela evoluo e pelo encontro de clulas neoplsicas no lquido cefalorraqueano. A necropsia mostrou existir carcinoma papilfero do estmago, com metstases nas supra-renais, no espao retroperitonial, no espao sub-aracnideo comprometendo razes nervosas, nas paredes e na luz de vasos linfticos, na espessura da dura-mater e no tecido nervoso medular.A case of carcinoma of the meninges, diagnosed through the clinical picture and the finding of neoplastic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid is reported. The post-mortem examination showed a papillary carcinoma of the stomach with metastases in the retroperitoneal space, in the subarachnoideal space infiltrating the spinal roots, in the lymphatic vessels of the nerve trunks, in the dura-mater and the spinal cord.

  17. CT of the base of the skull in bacterial meningitis

    CT examinations of 42 cases of bacterial meningitis revealed in 38.1% of the cases relevant inflammatory processes at the base of the skull which were of significant importance for a transmitted infection. Such infections were: Sinusitis frontalis, ethmoidalis, maxillaris and sphenoidalis, mastoiditis or petrositis, suppurating mucocele, impression fracture, and an intracranially penetrated foreign body. Excepting the identification of fine fractures, conventional X-ray films were diagnostically superior. Hence, especially in the acute stages, special projections can be omitted, if CT is effected in the region of the osseous base of the skull. CT performed in inflammatory diseases of the brain must include the base of the skull, since this will yield reliable pointers to original focus of the inflammation requiring appropriate treatment and elimination. (orig.)

  18. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  19. Modeling tuberculous meningitis in zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum

    van Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; van der Kuip, Martijn; Youssef, Sameh A.; de Bruin, Alain; Bitter, Wilbert; van Furth, A. Marceline; van der Sar, Astrid M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most severe extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis, with a high morbidity and mortality. Characteristic pathological features of TBM are Rich foci, i.e. brain- and spinal-cord-specific granulomas formed after hematogenous spread of pulmonary tuberculosis. Little is known about the early pathogenesis of TBM and the role of Rich foci. We have adapted the zebrafish model of Mycobacterium marinum infection (zebrafishM. marinum model) to study TBM. First, we analyzed whether TBM occurs in adult zebrafish and showed that intraperitoneal infection resulted in granuloma formation in the meninges in 20% of the cases, with occasional brain parenchyma involvement. In zebrafish embryos, bacterial infiltration and clustering of infected phagocytes was observed after infection at three different inoculation sites: parenchyma, hindbrain ventricle and caudal vein. Infection via the bloodstream resulted in the formation of early granulomas in brain tissue in 70% of the cases. In these zebrafish embryos, infiltrates were located in the proximity of blood vessels. Interestingly, no differences were observed when embryos were infected before or after early formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), indicating that bacteria are able to cross this barrier with relatively high efficiency. In agreement with this observation, infected zebrafish larvae also showed infiltration of the brain tissue. Upon infection of embryos with an M. marinum ESX-1 mutant, only small clusters and scattered isolated phagocytes with high bacterial loads were present in the brain tissue. In conclusion, our adapted zebrafishM. marinum infection model for studying granuloma formation in the brain will allow for the detailed analysis of both bacterial and host factors involved in TBM. It will help solve longstanding questions on the role of Rich foci and potentially contribute to the development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutics. PMID:24997190

  20. Meningitis y artritis por Haemophilus influenzae en un adulto

    Javier Molina

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente el Haemophilus influenzae ha sido considerado un germen causante de infecciones en niños; en adultos se lo ha relacionado con Infecciones respiratorias, pero en los últimos tiempos se han descrito en ellos infecciones severas cuando hay algunos factores predisponentes. Se describe un paciente drogadicto de 30 años con cuadro de meningitis y artritis y prueba de látex y cultivo de LCR positivos para HaemophiIus influenzae, quien recibió tratamiento con ampicilina, 2 gramos Intravenosos cada 4 horas y evolucionó a la mejoría sin secuelas. Se plantea la necesidad de tener en cuenta al Haemophilus influenzae como patógeno del adulto y más en aquellas personas con factores predisponentes.

    Haemophilus influenzae has traditionally been considered as an infectious agent that predominantly affects children; instead, in adults It has been Linked either to respiratory infections or to gevere infections occurring when predisposing factors are present. We describe a 30 year-old drug adict patient that presented with meningitis and arthritis; both latex test and cerebrospinal fluid culture were positive for Haemophilus influenzae. He was treated with ampicilin 2 gm, I. V. every four hours and improved without sequelae. This microorganism must be considered among those affecting adult patients specially when predisposing factors for infection are present.

  1. Prognostic factors in children with purulent meningitis in Turkey.

    Kirimi E

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the clinical and laboratory findings of 48 children with purulent meningitis were examined, prospectively, to determine the prognostic factors in childhood meningitis in a developing country. Patients were examined for the following variables: history of antibiotic use; period between onset of symptoms and hospital admission; age at presentation; sex; fever; convulsion; level of consciousness; malnutrition; anemia; leukocyte and thrombocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; serum C-reactive protein (CRP level; and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF including white blood cell count; glucose, protein, and CRP concentrations; antibiotic treatment; neurological sequelae; and fatality rate during the hospital stay. Most of these parameters were re-evaluated in all patients 36-48 h after admission. Patients were divided into 3 groups: surviving without sequelae, surviving with sequelae, and not surviving (deceased. A total of 48 children, 19 girls (39.5% and 29 boys (60.5%, aged 2 months to 13 years, were included in the study. Of the 48 patients, 29 (60.5 % survived without sequelae, 13 (27% survived with sequelae and 6 (12.5% died. In a comparison among groups, we found that absence of anemia, low (< 1,000 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, and high CRP level at admission were the indicative of poor prognosis. Thirty-six to 48 h after admission, the presence of fever, depressed level of consciousness, high (> 1,000 CSF WBC count, and low CRP level were also poor prognostic factors. In addition, we observed that mortality rate was lower in the penicillin G + chloramphenicol group than in the ampicillin-sulbactam + cefotaxime group (P < 0.05. The mean period between onset of symptoms and hospital admission was longer in the surviving with sequelae and in the not surviving groups than in the surviving without sequelae group (P < 0.05.

  2. Tumor fibroso solitário da meninge: relato de caso Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges: case report

    Ricardo Silva Centeno

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O tumor fibroso solitário (TFS é neoplasia mesenquimal rara, originalmente descrita na pleura e sendo mais recentemente também observada em vários outros sítios. Sua extensão para estruturas adjacentes não é incomum. O acometimento da meninge pelo TFS é raro, havendo relato de apenas vinte e seis casos na literatura. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 25 anos, sexo feminino, com crises convulsivas tônico-clônicas generalizadas desde há seis anos. Durante a investigação, foi diagnosticado tumor em região occipital esquerda. A paciente foi submetida à craniotomia occipital, com exérese completa do tumor. O diagnóstico histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico foi de tumor fibroso solitário da meninge. Após seguimento pós-operatório por três anos, a paciente mantém o exame neurológico sem alterações e não apresenta evidência de recidiva nos controles tomográficos. É apresentada também uma breve revisão da literatura.The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare mesenquimal neoplasm, found originally in association with the pleura. Recently, SFT was reported in others sites. The extension into adjacent structures is not uncommon. The meningeal involvement by SFT is rare and there has only twenty-six cases been reported previously in the literature. We report a case of a 25 years-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizures in the last six years. During the neurologic investigation, a tumor in the left occipital region of the brain was found. The patient underwent an occipital craniotomy with total resection of the tumor. The histopatological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was STF. After three years of follow-up, the patient remains stable, with a normal neurological exam. There is no sign of tumor recidive in the postoperative cranial tomography. We will briefly review the literature about STF.

  3. Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger

    Perez Garcia Pando, Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Trzaska, Sylwia; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Ceccato, Pietro; Yaka, Pascal; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season, a period when the region is affected by the Harmattan, a dry and dusty northeasterly trade wind blowing from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea.Objectives: We examined the potential of climate-based statistical forecasting models to predict seasonal incidence of meningitis in Niger at both the national and district levels.Data and methods: We used time series of meningitis incidence from 1986 through 2006 for 38 districts in Niger. We tested models based on data that would be readily available in an operational framework, such as climate and dust, population, and the incidence of early cases before the onset of the meningitis season in January-May. Incidence was used as a proxy for immunological state.

  4. Hamsi scoring in the prediction of unfavorable outcomes from tuberculous meningitis

    Erdem, Hakan; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Tireli, Hulya; Kilicoglu, Gamze; Defres, Sylviane; Gulsun, Serda; Sengoz, Gonul; Crisan, Alexandru; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Inan, Asuman; Nechifor, Mihai; Al-Mahdawi, Akram; Civljak, Rok; Ozguler, Muge; Savic, Branislava; Ceran, Nurgul; Cacopardo, Bruno; Inal, Ayse Seza; Namiduru, Mustafa; Dayan, Saim; Kayabas, Uner; Parlak, Emine; Khalifa, Ahmad; Kursun, Ebru; Sipahi, Oguz Resat; Yemisen, Mucahit; Akbulut, Ayhan; Bitirgen, Mehmet; Popovic, Natasa; Kandemir, Bahar; Luca, Catalina; Parlak, Mehmet; Stahl, Jean Paul; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Simeon, Soline; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Yasar, Kadriye; Yilmaz, Gulden; Yilmaz, Emel; Beovic, Bojana; Catroux, Melanie; Lakatos, Botond; Sunbul, Mustafa; Oncul, Oral; Alabay, Selma; Sahin-Horasan, Elif; Kose, Sukran; Shehata, Ghaydaa; Andre, Katell; Dragovac, Gorana; Gul, Hanefi Cem; Karakas, Ahmet; Chadapaud, Stéphane; Hansmann, Yves; Harxhi, Arjan; Kirova, Valerija; Masse-Chabredier, Isabelle; Oncu, Serkan; Sener, Alper; Tekin, Recep; Elaldi, Nazif; Deveci, Ozcan; Ozkaya, Hacer Deniz; Karabay, Oguz; Senbayrak, Seniha; Agalar, Canan; Vahaboglu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Predicting unfavorable outcome is of paramount importance in clinical decision making. Accordingly, we designed this multinational study, which provided the largest case series of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). 43 centers from 14 countries (Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, ...

  5. Detection of single bacteria - causative agents of meningitis using raman microscopy

    Baikova, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Alushin, M. V.; Gonchukov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium.

  6. Myeloid-Related Protein 14 Promotes Inflammation and Injury in Meningitis

    Wache, Christina; Klein, Matthias; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Angele, Barbara; Häcker, Hans; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Pruenster, Monika; Sperandio, Markus; Leanderson, Tomas; Roth, Johannes; Vogl, Thomas; Koedel, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Neutrophilic inflammation often persists for days despite effective antibiotic treatment and contributes to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. We propose here that myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14), an abundant cytosolic protein in myeloid cells, acts as an endogenous danger signal......, driving inflammation and aggravating tissue injury. METHODS:  The release pattern of MRP14 was analyzed in human and murine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as in isolated neutrophils. Its functional role was assessed in a mouse meningitis model, using MRP14-deficient mice. RESULTS:  We detected large...... quantities of MRP14 in CSF specimens from patients and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Immunohistochemical analyses and a cell-depletion approach indicated neutrophils as the major source of MRP14. In a meningitis model, MRP14-deficient mice showed a better resolution of inflammation during antibiotic...

  7. Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. A 10-year nationwide study of 96 consecutive cases

    Pedersen, Michael; Benfield, Thomas L; Skinhoej, Peter; Jensen, Allan G; Benfield, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical prognostic features of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis. METHODS: Nationwide...... surveillance in Denmark from 1991 to 2000 with clinical and bacteriological data. Risks of death were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 12480 cases of S. aureus bacteraemia/sepsis, we identified 96 cases of non-surgical bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis (0.8%). Incidence...... = 4) (HR, 2.14; CI, 1.09 to 4.19) remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence, but not mortality of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis decreased during the study period. Co morbidity and critical illness were independent predictors of a poor outcome....

  8. Spontaneous adult Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in Soweto, South Africa

    Gloria Teckie

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A disproportionate burden of GNB meningitis fell on the HIV-infected, among whom absent or low CSF white cells was common. Management was complicated by high rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  9. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  10. Serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines level in children with meningitis

    A. Denizmen Aygun

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in children with bacterial or viral meningitis and to document the use of these parameters in differential diagnosis.

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a longitudinal study in Cambodia.

    Espi, Emmanuelle; Pinoges, Loretxu; Balkan, Suna; Chanchhaya, Ngeth; Molfino, Lucas; Narom, Prak; Pujades-Rodrguez, Mar

    2010-01-01

    To describe the frequency of diagnosis of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, at programme entry, to investigate associated risk factors, and to determine the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis.

  12. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Thomsen, J.; Caye-Thomasen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...

  13. Enterovirus-D68 in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Two Children with Aseptic Meningitis.

    Esposito, Susanna; Lunghi, Giovanna; Zampiero, Alberto; Tagliabue, Claudia; Orlandi, Anna; Torresani, Erminio; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    This case report describes two previously healthy children with aseptic meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid was positive for enterovirus-D68, which indicates direct involvement of this infectious agent in the development of this neurologic disease. PMID:26859634

  14. Primary Meningeal Melanocytoma in the Left Temporal Lobe Associated with Nevus Ota

    Samadian, Mohammad; Nejad, Ali Mousavi; Bakhtevari, Mehrdad Hosseinzadeh; Sabeti, Shahram; Sharifi, Guive; Jabbari, Reza; Rezaei, Omidvar

    2015-01-01

    preoperative diagnosis was meningioma. RESULT: Gross complete resection was performed. Pathological studies led to the diagnosis of meningeal melanocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade I. The patient received oncologic consultation. Because total resection of the tumor was achieved and its...

  15. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine. The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management. The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine. The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or inflammatory diseases could also be distinguished according to several clinical and biological characteristics highlighted in this retrospective study. As recommendations are now available concerning the prescriptions of antiviral agents in viral meningitis, better therapeutic management is expected in the future. PMID:26765411

  16. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    Jarrin, Irne; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stphane; Bergmann, Jean-Franois; Lloret-Linares, Clia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine.The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisire Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management.The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n?=?56) or without (n?=?124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine.The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or inflammatory diseases could also be distinguished according to several clinical and biological characteristics highlighted in this retrospective study. As recommendations are now available concerning the prescriptions of antiviral agents in viral meningitis, better therapeutic management is expected in the future. PMID:26765411

  17. A Rare Coexistence: Drug Induced Hepatitis and Meningitis in Association With Ibuprofen

    Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Kavuturu, Shilpa; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta; Dev, Anil; Kumbum, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    Ibuprofen, a commonly used NSAID is reported to be associated with drug induced liver injury. Ibuprofen is also known to be associated with drug-induced meningitis especially in patients with connective tissue disorders. However presentation of hepatitis and meningitis in association with Ibuprofen use in the same individual has never been reported. We present a case of young woman who developed abnormal liver chemistries and neurological symptoms while on Ibuprofen. Her liver biopsy findings...

  18. Recurrent case of ibuprofen-induced aseptic meningitis in mixed connective tissue disease

    Karmacharya, Paras; Mainali, Naba Raj; Aryal, Madan Raj; Lloyd, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively uncommon, the incidence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced aseptic meningitis appears to be increasing among patients with connective tissue disease and also among the healthy population. Ibuprofen is the most common culprit identified. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease and recent intake of ibuprofen, presenting with a recurrent episode of ibuprofen-induced aseptic meningitis.

  19. Pneumococcal Meningitis during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Landrum, Lisa M.; Angela Hawkins; Jean Ricci Goodman

    2007-01-01

    Background. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency for which prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to reducing the rate of death and long-term neurologic compromise. Few cases of meningitis have been reported during pregnancy, many of which had devastating outcomes for mother, neonate, or both. Case. A 38-year-old multigravida at 35 weeks of gestation presented with mental status changes, fever, and preterm contractions. Lumbar puncture revealed gram positive cocci consistent ...

  20. Management of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: Experience from western India

    Patel Atul; Patel Ketan; Ranjan Rajiv; Shah Shalin; Patel Jagdish

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining infections with high mortality. Amphotericin B is the preferred drug for induction therapy. Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) roll-out programs and availability of amphotericin B, cryptococcal meningitis remains an important cause of mortality in the African and other developing countries. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospec...

  1. Mobile laboratory to improve response to meningitis epidemics, Burkina Faso epidemic season 2004

    R. T. Ouedraogo; B.-M. Njanpop-Lafourcade; P. Jaillard; Traoré, Y.; Mueller, J.E.; J.-F. Aguilera; Dabal, M.; S. R. Tiendrébéogo; W. Goehde; A. Da Silva; Gessner, B. D.; Stoecke, P.

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Laboratory was developed for use primarily during the epidemic meningitis season in Burkina Faso. This report describes the Mobile Laboratory characteristics, its use to date, problems encountered and their resolution, and future directions. During 2004, the mobile laboratory intervention in three remote Burkina Faso districts experiencing meningitis epidemics led to more specific case management and led directly to vaccination of one district. However, in a second district, the inter...

  2. Low CD4 count plus coma predicts cryptococcal meningitis in Tanzania

    Mueller Andreas; Swai Ndealilia S; Mchele John PD; Maro Venance P; Hawkins Alexander T; Kisenge Peter R; Houpt Eric R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Largely due to the lack of diagnostic reagents, the prevalence and clinical presentation of cryptococcal meningitis in Tanzania is poorly understood. This in turn is limiting the impact of increased fluconazole availability. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 149 consecutive HIV-infected adult inpatients presenting with headache or altered mental status for clinical features, CD4 count, cryptococcal infection, and outcome. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed via India ink ...

  3. Significance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen expression in cerebrospinal fluid monocytes in diagnosing tuberculous meningitis

    Fu-Xia Song; Xu-Wen Sun; Xiao-Tong Wang; Yu Nai; Zhu-Li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of positive expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (MTB) antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocytes in diagnosing tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 inpatients of TBM, 30 viral meningitis and 20 healthy controls were studied at the 1 st , 2 nd , and 4 th week during their treatment course. Immunohistochemical assay were used to detect early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) posi...

  4. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction using protein b primers for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Sharma Kusum; Sharma Aman; Singh Malkit; Ray Pallab; Dandora Ritika; Sharma Shiv; Modi Manish; Prabhakar Sudesh; Sharma Meera

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rapid and specific diagnosis of tubercular meningitis (TBM) is of utmost importance. Aim: To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using protein b primers directed against M. tuberculosis for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. Materials and Methods: PCR using protein b primers was performed in ten patients with confirmed TBM (culture positive), 60 patients with clinically suspected TBM and 40 patients with no TBM (control group). Results: Protein b PCR had a sensitivity o...

  5. Recurrent aseptic meningitis following non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - a reminder

    Seaton, R; France, A.

    1999-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are rarely associated with side-effects affecting the central nervous system. A case of NSAID-induced recurrent aseptic meningitis is presented. Seven episodes of aseptic meningitis were documented in the patient's life-time (up to the age of 30). General practitioners' records available for the latest four episodes showed that a NSAID (naproxen, piroxicam or diclofenac) was prescribed in the month prior to admission on each occasion. The patient...

  6. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Associated with Aseptic Meningitis: A Case Report

    Murat Sumer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease is usually a rare, self limiting, benign disease causing fever, neutropenia and cervical lymphadenopathy. It is especially seen in young Asian women, rarely in children. A case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease in a female Bangladeshian child with aseptic meningitis is presented from Turkey. She was admitted with fever but had no pathological lymphadenopathies. Her complicated aseptic meningitis was treated successfully with short term steroid therapy.

  7. HSV-1 as a novel therapy for breast cancer meningeal metastases.

    Kuruppu, D; Tanabe, K K

    2015-10-01

    Meningeal metastasis is a fatal complication of breast cancer that affects 5-8% of patients. When cancer cells seed in the meninges, their subsequent growth results in severe neurological complications involving the cranial nerves, cerebrum and spinal cord, limiting life expectancy to less than 4 months. The incidences of meningeal metastases increase with prolonged lifespan resulting from treatment advances for primary breast cancer and their metastases. Currently, there is no cure. Aggressive multimodal therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy (intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and systemic) are ineffective. Therapeutic agents are often quickly cleared from the CSF, while higher doses that can achieve a therapeutic response are highly toxic. The secure guarding of the subarachnoid space by the blood-brain barrier on one side and the blood-CSF barrier on the other prevents chemotherapy from reaching cancer cells in the meninges. These challenges with treating meningeal metastases highlight the urgent need for a new therapeutic modality. An ideal treatment would be an agent that avoids rapid clearance, remains within the CSF, reaches the meninges and selectively destroys tumor cells. Replication conditional oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be effective in this regard. Viral oncolysis, the destruction of cancer cells by replicating virus, is under clinical investigation for cancers that are unresponsive to current therapies. It is based on the model of multiple cycles of lytic virus replication in cancer cells that amplify the injected dose. The therapeutic potential of oncolytic HSV-1 for breast cancer meningeal metastases is discussed here. HSV-1 could be a potential novel treatment for meningeal metastases that can be translated to the clinic. PMID:26384139

  8. Related B cell clones populate the meninges and parenchyma of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Lovato, Laura; Willis, Simon N.; Rodig, Scott J.; Caron, Tyler; Almendinger, Stefany E.; Howell, Owain W; Reynolds, Richard; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Hafler, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, B cell aggregates populate the meninges, raising the central question as to whether these structures relate to the B cell infiltrates found in parenchymal lesions or instead, represent a separate central nervous system immune compartment. We characterized the repertoires derived from meningeal B cell aggregates and the corresponding parenchymal infiltrates from brain tissue derived primarily from patients with progressive mult...

  9. Ambulant neuropsykologisk opfølgning af patienter indlagt med aseptisk meningitis

    Damsgaard Gunst, Jesper; Klostergaard, Kirsten Rose; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with mild symptoms, and the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that these patients may experience cognitive sequelae. A neuropsychologist was affiliated to the Department of Infectious Diseases, and...... neuropsychological findings in patients with aseptic meningitis were assessed. In conclusion, at twelve months of follow-up cognitive dysfunction persist among the majority of patients; 75% had mental fatigue and 45% had changed their work status....

  10. Cystic solitary fibrous tumor arising from the left occipital meninges: a case report

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of a spindle-cell origin, and it usually involves the pleura. It's occurrence in various organs of the body has recently been described. Meningeal SFT is very rare. Radiologically, it is a strongly enhancing solid mass and is undistinguishable from fibrous meningioma and hemangiopericytoma. Yet we report here on a case of SFT with massive cystic degeneration that arose from the meninges of the left occipital region

  11. Olfactory Nerve—A Novel Invasion Route of Neisseria meningitidis to Reach the Meninges

    Sjölinder, Hong; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2010-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific pathogen with capacity to cause septic shock and meningitis. It has been hypothesized that invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a complication of a bacteremic condition. In this study, we aimed to characterize the invasion route of N. meningitidis to the CNS. Using an intranasally challenged mouse disease model, we found that twenty percent of the mice developed lethal meningitis even though no bacteria could be detected in blood. Upon bac...

  12. Label-free in vivo optical imaging of functional microcirculations within meninges and cortex in mice

    Jia, Yali; Wang, Ruikang K

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of monitoring dynamic meningeal microcirculations, preferably decoupled from cortical blood flow. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed label-free imaging method capable of producing 3D images of dynamic blood perfusion within micro-circulatory tissue beds at an imaging depth up to ~2 mm, with an unprecedented imaging sensitivity to blood f...

  13. Successful treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy: a case report

    Rojas Pilar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important cause of hospital acquired infection particularly among severely debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Case presentation We report a case of S. maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy after a neurosurgical procedure, successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion This organism should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin are a combination that is successful and safe for treating preterm infants.

  14. Tuberculous meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection.

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Yagi, Hideki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Early-stage TB meningitis has no specific symptoms in patients, potentially leading to delayed diagnosis and consequently worsening prognosis. The authors present the fatal case with a delayed diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. The medical records, operative reports, and radiographical imaging studies of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed. A 77-year-old man who underwent thoracic intramedullary hemangioblastoma resection for 2 times. The postoperative course was uneventful, but 1.5 months after surgery, the patient suffered from dementia with memory loss and diminished motivation and speech in the absence of a fever. No abnormalities were detected on blood test, brain computed tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. A sputum sample was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) In-Tube Test and the tuberculin skin test was also negative. The patient was diagnosed with senile dementia by a psychiatrist. However, the patient's symptoms progressively worsened. Despite the absence of TB meningitis findings, we suspected TB meningitis from the patient's history, and administered a four-drug regimen. However the patient died 29 days after admission, subsequently M. tuberculosis was detected in the CSF sample. This case is a rare case of TB meningitis initially mistaken for dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. Symptoms of dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection should first be suspected as one of TB meningitis, even if the tests for meningitis are negative. We propose that anti-tuberculosis therapy should be immediately initiated in cases of suspected TB meningitis prior to positive identification on culture. PMID:26663944

  15. Evaluation of PCR Using TRC4 and IS6110 Primers in Detection of Tuberculous Meningitis

    Narayanan, Sujatha; Parandaman, Vijayalakshmi; Narayanan, P R; Venkatesan, P.; C Girish; Mahadevan, S; Rajajee, Sarala

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated a new set of primers (TRC4) in comparison with the IS6110 primers commonly used in PCR to detect tuberculous meningitis among children. The levels of concordance between the results of IS6110 PCR and TRC4 PCR with cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients with clinically confirmed tuberculous meningitis were 80 and 86%, respectively. Results with the two primer sets were concordant for 55 positive and 22 negative specimens (n = 98). We conclude that the sensitivity of PCR ...

  16. Evaluation of fusidic acid in therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    stergaard, Christian; Yieng-Kow, Runa Vavia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Frimodt-Mller, Niels; Espersen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti-inflammatory pr......Combination therapy that includes fusidic acid, an antimicrobial agent highly active against staphylococci, has been recommended in the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, CSF bactericidal and anti...

  17. Cochlear ossification in patients with profound hearing loss following bacterial meningitis

    Caye-Thomasen, Per; Dam, Mikkel Seidelin; Omland, Silje Haukali; Mantoni, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification.......Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification....

  18. Capnocytophaga canimorsus-meningitis diagnosticeret ved hjlp af 16S rRNA-analyse

    Risum, Malene; Ellekvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacterial species hosted in the oral cavity of dogs. C. canimorsus can cause sepsis, meningitis and endocarditis. Penicillin is the drug of choice. However, the species is a slow-grower and sometimes missed in blood cultures. Patients with a history of...... alcoholism, splenectomy or immunodeficiency are at an increased risk of contracting serious infections with C. canimorsus following dog bites. We report a case story of C. canimorsus meningitis contracted after a dog bite....

  19. Identification of the serotypes of bacterial meningitis agents; implication for vaccine usage.

    Mohammad Mehdi Attarpour-Yazdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections and should be treated as emergency. As it has significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, every country should have precise information regarding the etiological agents of disease and populations at risk to design public health prevention strategy. In the present study in addition of evaluation of common etiological agents (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in bacterial meningitis cases, we sero-grouped or serotyped the obtained agents in order to predict the usefulness of existing vaccines against bacterial meningitis.Cerebrospinal fluid of 182 suspected meningitis patients were collected, from which 114 cases were approved by biochemical, microbiological and molecular tests as bacterial meningitis. The isolated bacteria were serogrouped or serotyped to determine the dominant serotypes.Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 36%, Haemophilus influenza for 26% and Neisseria meningitidis for 14% of cases. From 13 serogroups of N. meningitides the most frequent serogroups, were meningococcus group B (51%, C(24% A (18%, Z(2%, W135 (1% and 3% was not identified. In H. influenzae group only serotype b (100% have been identified and in pneumococcal meningitis the most common serotype among our cases were 18C (44% followed by14 (17%, 19A (13%, 6A (9%, 7F (4%, 4(3%, 3 (3%, 9V (2%, 8 (2%, 23f (2%, 5 (1%.Since there is no nationwide mass immunization program for common agents of bacterial meningitis in Iran, the result of this study can be used to improve the existing vaccines to cover the detected serotypes and consequently reduce the incidence of bacterial meningitis.

  20. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Thomsen, J.; Caye-Thomasen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis....